Premium Essay

Culture of Early Civilization

In: English and Literature

Submitted By kikialal
Words 3346
Pages 14
Early greek illustrative features
The final years of the 18th century brought an increasing interest in classical buildings to both the United States and Europe. This was first based on Roman models (Federal style), but archaeological investigation in the early 19th century emphasized Greece as the Mother of Rome which, in turn, shifted interest to Grecian models.
The style is an adaptation of the classic Greek temple front employing details of Doric, Ionic or Corinthian order
To the popular mind the Greek temple was associated with the origins of American democracy in ancient Greece.
Greece's involvement in a war for independence (1821-30) aroused much sympathy in the newly independent United States.
Further, the War of 1812 fought against England diminished American affection for British influence, including the still dominant Adam ("Federal" in U.S.) style in domestic architecture.
The popularity of Greek Revival led it to be called the National Style. Newly established towns throughout the country even took names such as Athens, Sparta, and Ithaca.
Identifying features: * Most have porticos (either entry or full-width) supported by prominent square or rounded columns, typically of Doric style, but also Ionic and Corinthian * Gabled or hipped roof of low pitch * Cornice line of main roof and porch roofs emphasized with wide band of trim (this represents the classical entablature and is usually divided into two parts: the frieze above and architrave below) * Enormous windows and doors * Front door surrounded by narrow sidelights and a rectangular line of transom lights above, door and lights usually incorporated into more elaborate door surround (ancient Greek structures did not use arches) * Window sashes most commonly with six-pane glazing * Small frieze-band windows, set into the wide trim beneath the cornice (attic), are…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Culture of Early Civilization

...are all about early civilizations and their cultures. The answers will give a better insight into these civilizations and their cultural makeup. Question 1. What forces contributed to the cultural makeup of early civilizations? The first culture started in the days of the caveman. Their culture revolved around family, hunting, and the dangers that were present during that time. Their stories were passed down through the generations. As they moved around to different lands, their culture changed to include new experiences. In each early civilization, that main forces were simple, survival and creating new tools to facilitate this survival. As humans evolved, so did their culture. Humans became more intelligent and created tools, homes, and simple machines to help them develop the land and survive. Forms of religion and worship were also forces that helped to shape many early civilizations. In the beginning, religion was a way for early humans to explain any unknown factor in their lives. Question 2. What social issues arose because of this cultural makeup? Because different groupings of humans developed different cultures, misunderstandings and disagreements over land became more common. If two groups could not understand each other, it is easy to get offended without cause. Wars lead to the development of armies and more food production. The development of tools lead to the development of weapons. Religious wars also became common as different cultures worshiped......

Words: 463 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Culture Makeup of Early Civilizations

...Submitting Assignments Individual Project (IP) Discussion Board (DB) Group Project (GP) o At AIU there are 3 types of assignments: Individual Projects, Discussion Boards, and Group Projects. o Each assignment has a designated place within the classroom to be submitted. o To enter the classroom, click on the log into the Virtual Campus, click on the Classroom tab, and enter the class by clicking on the blue door. ACE Coach UNIV103 - 01232012 1 Where do I Submit my Individual Project (IP)? o To submit your Individual Project, click on the “Submit Assignments” link within your classroom. o Next, click “Add File.” To check your similarity score before submitting the Individual Project, click on Originality Verification. ACE Coach UNIV103 - 01232012 This is where you will see your similarity score. 2 How do I Submit my Individual Project (IP)? o Once you click “Add Files” a new window will o open, like the one shown below. Click on the drop down arrow next to the “Assignment” field and select which assignment you will be submitting from the drop down menu. o Choose your saved file o from your own computer by clicking “Browse” next to the “Upload File” field. Locate where you saved the file on your computer and click on that file and click “Open.” o Type comments for o ACE Coach UNIV103 - 01232012 the Instructor (if needed). When ready to submit the Individual Project, click......

Words: 625 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Unit 1 Humanities in Compare and Contrast to Roman Empire

...Early Civilizations Brittney Franzen There are many different reasons or forces that contributed to the make-up of cultural early civilizations. The first force would be the forces of nature and it is natural environment. The factors of this would be climates and seasonal changes. This is important force factor for early civilization because this force affected the people of the early civilization for clothing and food such as game and wild plants. These people were nomadic which means that they would follow the herds of game for their survival. The geographical features also were a major part of the early civilizations because they need to be able to protect themselves from others that may challenge them and their civilization. For example the people of Ancient Greece were in different city states and would challenge each other for territories for farming and other needed resources from the land. The mountains and seas were a major physical land features that would protect them from one and other. But this also in turn created different cultures and civilizations throughout Ancient Greece. So there were many different views that varied from group to group. An example of this would be social societies, religious views, structures, and civilizations altogether are different. The social society would be the government or rulers, merchants, slaves, and priests. The different social classes such as higher classes being the dictator, priests, or other people of......

Words: 458 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Unit 1 Db

...features of early Greek and Roman cultures, including illustrative or significant examples of the various features. Be sure to include elements of culture such as government and geographical terrain, economics and trade practices, art and architecture, and philosophical and religious beliefs. Your submission should be 1-2 pages in length and may be oriented in either portrait or landscape format. Please submit your assignment. •What forces contributed to the cultural make-up of early civilizations? •What social issues arose because of this cultural make-up •What were the main influences on early civilizations? •From your perspective what are the pros and cons of revisionist history? Explain your response. Brandon Nelson Unit 1 Discussion Board A culture was developed when Homo -sapiens and Neanderthals, were the first earliest humans to live on earth. They were known to be carpenters and camping scouts to their families. They were excellent toolmaker, cooking with firewood, and wore animal skin for protection of weather conditions that they have faced. The forces that help develop early civilaization are communication and writing. The human culture developed over 30,000 years ago. Which most information about the civilization may be incorrect or not even true. .The Cave of Lascaux. (n.d.). The Neolithic Age had started around 10,000 BC, were new families became more to the survival of agriculture and hunting crews from different......

Words: 826 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

How Did Migration, Trade and Nomadic Invasion Threaten and or Aid Classic Empires and Civilizations?

...How did migration, trade and nomadic invasion threaten and or aid classic empires and civilizations? Mason Pirio 10/12/14 Period 4 Migration, trade, and nomads effected early civilizations in many ways, some positive and some negative. Nomads made trade difficult at times and occasionally invaded sedentary civilizations. Trade helped boost early economies by providing civilization with useful resources which could not be found in their own region. Migration was key in terms of disseminating culture and ideas throughout the classical world. Migration and trade also spread religion; an example of this is when Buddhism spread from India to china. There were also many drawbacks to migration as it spread new diseases that some cultures were unequipped to deal with. Trade greatly aided the economies of early civilizations. Silk was a common item of trade in china, as china had the highest quality of silk at the time. The Silk Road was passage in which many travelers used to acquire silk from china. Trade was also important because some places had things that other places didn’t. Trade also encouraged the spread of new ideas and technology such as hunting methods, weaponry, arts, and most of all, religion. Nomads threatened the trade of early civilizations, and the civilizations themselves. A prime example of nomadic invasion is in china. China feared being attacked by the Mongols, so they built the Great Wall of China to defend from any attacks from the north. This can be......

Words: 440 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

What Was Better, Ancient Egypt of Mesopotamia

...with Ancient Cultures. It is very interesting to me to study and learn new things about the style of life peoples of ancient times lead, the type of housing and furniture ancient peoples possessed, the foods and resources they had at hand, as well as the religious and other daily values which ancient peoples believed in. To compare the Ancient Egyptian civilization to the civilization of Ancient Mesopotamia is surely going to be a task which will not be easy, especially since it is my personal believe that both of these grandiose civilizations cannot be compared to one another. Comparing the Ancient Mesopotamian Civilization to the Civilization of Ancient Egypt is not really possible once you think about the difference of years between the beginnings of each of these Civilizations. Mesopotamia is considered to be at the least 5000 years older than Ancient Egypt. The earliest civilized form of Human development in Mesopotamia is known to Historians to have occurred between 10500-3500 BC (Mayan Archeology), whilst Historians believe the Ancient Egyptian Civilization to have started between the years of approx. 5500- 3100 BC, which is what is considered the Pre-dynastic Period. (Experience ancient) While Ancient Egypt started to develop Mesopotamia already made big progress in forms of Farming, building the first settlements and later cities across Mesopotamia, starting cultures, different civilizations such as the Sumerian civilization,......

Words: 1735 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Early Civilization

...Topics in Cultural Studies What forces contributed to the cultural makeup of early civilizations? There are several things that contributed to the cultural makeup of early civilizations. Some of the forces were geographical location, religion, the diet of the culture, and the availability of natural resources. Geography contributed because it was a determining factor in what the culture would do such as farming or hunting. Religion contributed to how the culture lived and the location helped to determine the religion, they would have a sun goddess or a rain goddess depending on the location. The diet of the culture was affected be whether they were hunters or farmers and the available animals and resources. What social issues arose because of this cultural makeup? As cultures developed at different paces their level of intelligence evolved as well. The separation would then lead to cultures that had different beliefs and values and the fact that they had different opinions could cause problems between the different cultures. What were the main cultural influences on early civilizations? The need for food, clothing and housing were some of the main cultural influences on early civilization. The housing, food and clothes that they had depended on geography and their access to natural resources. Depending on where they were located they would grow crops or they might hunt. The food they could hunt or grow depended on the climate. From your perspective what are the......

Words: 351 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mesopotamia vs. Harappa

...Comparison of the Civilizations of Mesopotamia and Harappa Mesopotamia and Harappa were both early river valley civilizations that boasted power and progress in their peaks. Beginning around 3000 BCE, Mesopotamia flourished between the Tigris and and Euphrates Rivers and the Harappa developed along the Indus River in South Asia. While Mesopotamia and Harappa were similarly geographically positioned on water sources, there are significant differences and similarities in the respective societies’ cultural developments in terms of architecture and technology. Mesopotamia and Harappa were both able to make advancements in architecture as evidenced by the construction of the architectural forms. Similarly, most of the buildings and homes of Mesopotamia and Harappa were comprised of mud bricks. Due to the civilizations’ locations near rivers, mud, which could be dried into uniform bricks, was an abundant resource. Architecture between the civilizations have differentiations as evidenced by their cities and their construction. In Mesopotamia, cities were built around temples, or ziggurats, dedicated to a god/goddess in order for the city to receive the protection from that deity. Ziggurats were multi-staged pyramids dominated and represented Mesopotamian architecture, indicating the emphasis and importance of the polytheistic religion in Mesopotamian culture. In Harappa, similar religious structures to the ziggurats were not present. Rather, the noteworthy dominating...

Words: 542 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Hispanic Art

...upon his death he donated it to National Institute of Fine Art instead of the National Institute of Anthropology. The result is the Rufino Tamayo Museum, the only place in Mexico where you can see pre-Hispanic works on display as art for art’s sake. Some of the most significant humanistic pieces come not from celebrated city states like Teotihuacán or Chichen Itza, but from the civilizations of the west coast, from what is today Guerrero, Colima, Jalisco, Nayarit and Sinaloa. For the most part, these cultures remain an enigma. “To some extent this is due to geographic isolations,” Pesqueira explains, “but mostly it is because they left no great ceremonial centers like Teotihuacán and Monte Albán.” The art of occidental Mexico mostly differs from that of other regions in its secular nature (Barto, 2006). Rather than depicting idealized images of priests and warriors, their sculpture shows real human beings engaged in everyday activities: washing clothes, playing ball, and informal gatherings. “The Aztecs were very influenced by the question of religion and warfare,” says Pesqueira. “But in the cultures of the west coast the form of life is much more human, less rigid.” But neither were the Aztec and Maya wholly concerned with warfare and human sacrifice. The Maya, for example, had a highly developed tradition of music, which is depicted in statuettes of musicians and fine crafted flutes of clay and conch shell. Aztec sculptors also achieved realistic detail in their human......

Words: 2225 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Indus Civilization

...INDUS CIVILIZATION Indus civilization, also called Indus valley civilization or Harappa civilization, the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. It was first identified in 1921 at Harappa in the Punjab region and then in 1922 at Mohenjo-Daro (Mohenjo-Daro), near the Indus River in the Sindh (Sind) region, now both in Pakistan. Subsequently, vestiges of the civilization were found as far apart as Sutkagen Dor, near the shore of the Arabian Sea 300 miles (480 km) west of Karachi, also in Pakistan, and Rupnagar, in India, at the foot of the Shimla Hills 1,000 miles (1,600 km) to the northeast. Later exploration established its existence southward down the west coast of India as far as the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay), 500 miles (800 km) southeast of Karachi, and as far east as the Yamuna (Jumna) River basin, 30 miles (50 km) north of Delhi. It is thus decidedly the most extensive of the world’s three earliest civilizations; the other two are those of Mesopotamia and Egypt, both of which began somewhat before it. The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) located in the western region of South Asia, and spread over what is now Pakistan, northwest India, and eastern Afghanistan. Flourishing in the Indus River basin, the civilization extended east into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the upper reaches Ganges-Yamuna Doab, it extended west to the Makran coast of Baluchistan and north to......

Words: 1401 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Harrapan Civilization

...Harappan Civilization (also known as Indus Valley Civilization) Submitted By: Sharad Thakran 1919 Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Discovery and history of excavation 3. Chronology 4. Geography 5. Early Harappan 6. Mature Harappan a. Cities b. Authority and governance c. Technology d. Arts and crafts e. Trade and transportation f. Subsistence g. Writing system h. Religion 7. Collapse and Late Harappan 8. Legacy 9. Historical context and linguistic affiliation Introduction The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India (see map). Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the Ghaggar-Hakra River, which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of......

Words: 4336 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

All About My Travels Through the Egyptian Civilization, Early Japanese Civilization, and the Early 20th Century

...All about My Travels through the Egyptian Civilization, Early Japanese Civilization, and the Early 20th Century Deana Mole January, 24, 2014 Hum/205 Mr. Longstreth If you could learn about any three cultures, what would they be? This question was asked of me at one point in my career as an art historian and author. I have written a new textbook about the three periods I most enjoyed investigating and learning about. In this book, I hope to give you information on them and encourage you to dig even deeper to learn more about them. The three periods I have chosen for this book are; Egyptian Civilization, Early Japanese Civilization, and Early 20th Century. These are all very different but as you will see as you read the book that even though they are different they have similarities. All about My Travels through the Egyptian Civilization, Early Japanese Civilization, and the Early 20th Century Chapter 1 Egyptian civilization developed around 5000 B.C.E. During this time, Egypt was divided into two sections, Lower and Upper. Lower Egypt was actually a narrow strip of land located on either side of the Nile River. It ran for 700 miles from the first waterfall in the south to the Nile Delta. (Benton, J. R. & DiYanni, R., 2012, p. 17) Lower Egypt was in the northern part and was on the fertile land of......

Words: 2781 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Definition of Civilization

... Definition of Civilization When people in the community live peacefully, the level of development increases tremendously thereby civilization sets in. Before civilization came into existence, the early people lived off the land and were nomadic hunter-gatherers. With time, these hunters and groups of foragers started to settle down. There were strains on the nomadic people in that they had to find reliable sources of food for the animals that were large to feed. The exact meaning of “civilization” sometimes becomes hard to define since it can be ambiguous. It is easier for civilization to be described than it can be defined. According to Mazlish (5), civilization can be defined in many ways, but many scholars agree that when a society forms cities the result is that it becomes a civilization. Scholars define civilization as a set of attributes that certain societies possess, for example, agriculture, writing, monumental construction, government, mathematics among others. Emphasis is employed in the definition of civilization in terms of describing societies as being urbanized and hierarchical. Civilization is traced back to the Latin word “civilis” that has the meaning of “citizen” that means a member in a state that has a government or any sort of ruling in place. Civilization takes many forms that may include division of labor, surplus of food, and organization of governments and religion. Many people should be cognizant, and understand that civilization is regarded......

Words: 1269 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Importance of the Culture of Science

...Importance of the culture of science Scientific development, prosperity and welfare are dedicated to all men of all nations. The culture of science is inevitable as one of the tools of gradual development of civilization in fields, like food, cloth home, medical treatment, education, industrial mills, conveyance and transport, communication and exchange of information, information – management, the extraction of natural wealth and preservation space – research etc. During the middle of the 18th century new industrial mills were established in England with the help of newly discovered machines, steam engine and various kinds of machines. As a result production increasing manifold. This new era of industry is called a industry revolution It has been possible to goods and their sale increased. The following that below: 1. a. The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. b. These patterns, traits, and products considered as the expression of a particular period, class, community, or population: Edwardian culture; Japanese culture; the culture of poverty. c. These patterns, traits, and products considered with respect to a particular category, such as a field, subject, or mode of expression: religious culture in the Middle Ages; musical culture; oral culture. d. The predominating attitudes and behavior that characterize the......

Words: 2704 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Humanities

...Civilization is difficult to define in one word or phrase because a complex society or “civilization” depends on many different aspects. There are characteristics of a civilization that are more essential than others, some of which may be more important to one group than to another group. However, a definition for civilization can be narrowed down to a few fundamental aspects that are necessary for one to exist. For a complex society to exist, it must have means to provide for a growing population. Acquiring resources is vital for a civilization to flourish. The earliest civilizations all seemed to have a need for an organized administration system. In a society with a growing population and expanding territories, we can see the need for a hierarchical government to keep them operating.    Civilization is the way of life that began by those who live in cities. Civilization comes from the word civis, which is a Latin word meaning citizen of a city. Civilization is characterized by everything that makes up the way of life in a city. This includes form of government, arts, customs, and technology. Civilization is similar to a culture except that civilization is more advanced and complex. Everyone has a culture but not everyone is in a civilization. The increase in agriculture and domestication of animals were major steps in civilization. This supported everyone in a small town. Trade was involved in which they exchanged grain, pottery, and various raw materials. Everything in......

Words: 666 - Pages: 3