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Culture of Muslim

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i. PENDAHULUAN

Segala puji dan syukur kita haturkan kehadirat ALLAH SWT. yang telah melimpahkan segala rahmat dan Hidayah-Nya kepada kita Salawat dan taslim kita tujukan kepada junjungan kita Nabiullah Muhammad SAW yang dengan segala kesabaran serta kesungguhan Baginda yang telah membimbing dan menganngkat derajat kita semua dari lembah yang penuh dengan kezaliman menuju kejalan yang penuh kebenaran dan nescaya mendapatkannya.

Tujuan laporan ini ditulis adalah untuk membincangkan dan mengulas tulisan karya Dr. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips dalam buku tulisan Beliau The Moral Foundation Of Islamic Culture. Laporan ini hasil kerja bekumpulan mahasiswi UiTM Ijazah Pengajian Pengurusan Perniagaan Antarabangsa kelas BM246 4M. Ahli-ahli kumpulan terdiri daripada 4 orang iaitu _______________,_______________, Fatin Atiqah Binti Razali, ______________.

Antara topik yang akan dibincangkan di dalam laporan ini adalah, Budaya Islam dari segi definisi, kepentingan dan moraliti dalam kebudayaan Islam. Kedua adalah penerangan tentang asas rukun-rukun Islam iaitu mengucap dua kalimah syahadah, solat 5 waktu, menunaikan zakat, berpuasan pada bulan Ramadhan dan menunaikan haji.

2.0 RUKUN-RUKUN ISLAM
Memahami 5 rukun Islam adalah penting untuk membawa kepada kehidupan yang benar dan bermoralistik. Rukun-rukun Islam dapat membangunkan nilai-nilai moral, memperkukuhkan watak seseorang dan hubungan seseorang dengan Allah S.W.T.

2.1 MENGUCAP DUA KALIMAH SYAHADAH

Ungkapan dua kalimah syahadah, atau mengucap dua kalimah syahadah merupakan dua susunan perkataan yang nilainya di sisi Allah dan orang-orang yang beriman adalah melebihi daripada nilai dunia dan segala isinya. Diriwayatkan daripada Nabi SAW bahawa; “Sekiranya hendak ditimbang nilai dua kalimah syahadah dengan segala isi dunia, nescaya timbangan yang membawa dua kalimah itulah yang terlebih berat”.
Dua kalimah syahadah adalah dua ungkapan yang mesti diucapkan dengan lidah dan diakui dengan hati yang ikhlas oleh setiap orang yang ingin memeluk agama Islam. Yakni, dua kalimah inilah yang menjadi perantara di antara seorang Muslim dan bukan Muslim. Apabila seseorang yang sebelumnya menganut agama lain kemudian ingin memeluk agama Islam, maka dia perlu mengucap dua kalimah syahadah inilah.
Dua kalimah syahadah adalah rukun yang pertama daripada lima rukun Islam. Maksud rukun itu sendiri ialah; dasar, tiang, asas dan sendi (Kamus Dewan, ed.4, 2007). Jadi lima rukun Islam itu akan membentuk jatidiri seseorang muslim (orang yang beragama Islam) itu sendiri, sama ada ia benar-benar Islam atau sebaliknya. Sekiranya pincang salah satu daripada rukun itu, maka Islam seseorang tidaklah seperti sepatutnya. Dua kalimah syahadah ini merupakan rukunnya yang pertama maka ia perlu dihayati sesungguh-sungguhnya oleh setiap orang Islam.
Dua kalimah syahadah ini juga satu ungkapan yang menjadi syiar umat Islam apabila mereka melaungkan azan bagi menyeru manusia untuk mengerjakan solat. Tidak diterima azan atau tidak dinamakan azan tanpa ucapan dua kalimah syahadah ini.
Syahadah maksudnya penyaksian. Dua kalimah syahadah ini adalah lafaz penyaksian. Bermaksud aku sanggup menjadi saksi bahawa tidak ada Tuhan yang disembah, yang ditaati, yang benar, yang mentadbir, dan yang segala-galanya melainkan Allah. Dan aku juga sanngup menjadi saksi bahawa Nabi Muhammad itu pesuruh Allah yang tidak akan menyampaikan sesuatu melainkan apa-apa yang disuruh oleh Allah; sama ada daripada segi perkataan, perbuatan dan semua tingkahlaku baginda.
Mafhumnya, tidak sahlah penyaksian seseorang yang tidak menuruti kehendak-kehendaki lafaz dua kalimah syahadah ini. Iaitu yang tidak tunduk dan tidak patuh kepada suruhan Allah, atau mana-mana suruhan Allah. Tidak percaya kepada semua yang disampaikan oleh Rasulullah SAW, atau mana-mana di antara sunnah Rasul itu. Seseorang saksi, ia sanggup menyaksikan setiap apa yang disaksikannya atau yang dipercayainya dengan sepenuh-penuh penyaksian. Tidak ragu-ragu lagi.
Penyaksian kepada dua kalimah syahadah ini pula letaknya di hati. Bukan pada lidah semata-mata. Mereka tidak pernah melihat Allah tetapi merasakan dengan hati akan kebesaran dan perlunya mereka patuh kepada segala perintah Allah. Mereka sekarang ini juga tidak pernah berjumpa dengan Rasulullah SAW tetapi kemurnian risalah yang dibawa oleh Baginda dan ketinggian akhlak baginda yang dipelajari daripada hadis-hadis menjadikan manusia itu yakin akan setiap perkara yang dibawa baginda itu benar daripada Allah SWT.
Contoh ini memberi gambaran bahawa, penyaksian si penderhaka kepada Allah tidak akan diterima hatta mungkin mulutnya sendiri tidak akan mampu melafazkan dua kalimah syahadah di saat ia memerlukannya.

Ungkapan dua kalimah syahadah ini sepatutnya dihayati oleh umat Islam pada setiap masa dan ketika. Tidak berlalu sesuatu waktu kecuali diperbaharui ingatan dan penghayatan kepada kedua-dua lafaz ini. Seseorang muslim hendaklah senantiasa membasahi bibirnya dengan ucapan dua kalimah syahadah. Lalu hatinya juga akan turut dibasahi dengan nilai iman, taqwa dan rasa penyerahan serta penghambaan kepada Allah dan ketaatan kepada apa-apa yang dibawa oleh Rasulullah SAW.
Kelalaian umat Islam untuk terus memperbaharui rasa penghambaan dan ketaatannya melalui ucapan dua kalimah keramat ini akan menjadikan mereka alpa dan leka. Seterusnya sesat dan menyimpang daripada jalan yang lurus itu. Na’uzubillah min zalik. Lantas mereka mudah terpedaya dengan hasutan syaitan yang menjadi musuh tradisinya sepanjang kehidupan. Lantas mereka lalai dengan tipu daya dunia yang bersifat sementara lalu lupa kepada kehidupan akhirat yang kekal abadi. Semuanya bermula daripada kealpaan kepada ungkapan dua kalimah syahadah. seseorang Islam itu perlu sentiasa melafazkan dua kalimah syahadah ini pada setiap masa dan ketika. Ia merupakan tuntutan agama yang mana waktu masuknya adalah pada setiap masa. Tidak ada waktu khusus seperti solat, puasa, zakat ataupun haji. Ia adalah ibadah sepanjang masa. Dan ia adalah asas yang utama.
Oleh itu, orang yang mati dalam keadaan ingat kepada kedua lafaz utama ini akan diterima di sisi Allah. Sabda Rasulullah SAW (hadis sahih) “Barangsiapa yang mati dengan mengucapkan dua kalimah syahadah maka ia layak memasuki syurga Allah” atau sebagaimana maksud lafaz daripada Rasulullah SAW.

Lafaz dua kalimah syahadah ini bukan hanya untuk diucapkan oleh mereka yang baru memeluk Islam sahaja. Malah sebagai umat Islam, kita perlu sentiasa mengucap dua kalimah syahadah dengan niat memperbaharui nilai iman dan Islam (penyerahan diri kita kepada Allah dengan mengikuti segala syariat-syariatnya yang dibawa oleh Rasulullah SAW).
Rasulullah SAW mengingatkan kita bahawa “Pada akhir zaman, manusia berpagi-pagi dengan Islam kemudian berpetang-petang dalam keadaan kafir. Ataupun mereka berpetang-petang dalam keadaan Islam kemudian berpagi-pagi dengan kekufuran”. Maksudnya kadang-kadang manusia muslim itu terdedah dengan kekufuran pada setiap masa. Walaupun zahirnya mereka tidak menyembah selain Allah seperti berhala dan sebagainya, tetapi mereka mungkin mengambil sesuatu ajaran selain syariat Allah sebagai amalan itupun sudah cukup untuk menjadikan berpaling daripada Islam.
Sekurang-kurangnya mereka juga melakukan perbuatan syirik (menyekutukan Allah) yang tersembunyi di dalam hati. Seperti merasai kesempurnaan diri, takabur (besar diri), ujub (bangga diri) dan lain-lain sifat hati yang mazmumah maka itu telah menjadikannya melalukan perbuatan yang menyekutukan Allah kerana meletakkan diri mereka pada tempat Allah yang maha sempurna, berkuasa, perkasa dan seumpamanya itu.
Apabila perkara ini telah dilakukan, maka mereka perlu segera kembali kepada Allah dengan mengucap dua kalimah syahadah semula. Mereka perlu kembali beriman dan berpegang teguh dengan ajaran Allah bahkan memperjuangkannya. Semuanya itu perlu dimulai dengan penyerahan diri melalui ungkapan dua kalimah syahadah itulah. Kerana segala amalan umat manusia tidak ada nilai di sisi Allah melainkan mereka terlebih dahulu menyatakan iman dan penyerahan diri kepadaNya.
Ucapan syahadah dapat diamalkan apabila bangun sahaja dari tidur, kita mengucap dua kalimah syahadah. Memulakan ibadah seperti solat, puasa dan sebagainya itu dengan ucapan dua kalimah syahadah. Memulakan kerja mencari rezeki dengan kalimah dua syahadah. Apabila pulang dari kerja kita mengucap dua kalimah syahadah, ini dapat megelakkan kita dari melakukan atau memperkatakan sesuatu mengeluarkan kita daripada landasan patuh kepada Islam yang membatalkan iman.
Ucapan syahadah dapat juga diamalkan apabila hendak tidur, kita mengucap dua kalimah syahadah. Kerana sabda Rasulullah SAW “Barang siapa yang kalimah akhirnya adalah ‘La Ilaha Illallah’ nescaya akan masuk syurga”.

2.4 PUASA
Puasa adalah menahan diri dari segala hal yang membatalkan puasa, sejak terbit fajar hingga terbenam matahari. Allah S.W.T berfirman;

“...Maka sekarang campurilah mereka dan carilah apa yang telah ditetapkan Allah bagimu, makan dan minumlah yang jelas bagimu (pebedaan) antara benang putih dan benang hitam, yaitu fajar. Kemudian sempurnakanlah puasa sampai datang malam....” (QS. al-Baqarah [2} : 187
Yang dimaksud dari ayat adalah terangnya siang dan gelapnya malam, bukan yang dimaksud benang secara hakiki.
Allah S.W.T turut berfirman; “ Hai orang-orang yang beriman, diwajibkan atas kamu berpuasa sebagaimana diwajibkan atas orang-orang sebelum kamu agar kamu bertakwa”. (QS: Al Baqarah: 183)
Kerana puasa didalamnya dapat mensucikan badan dan menghalang syaitan masuk ketubuh manusia.
Puasa mempunyai dua rukun asasi iaitu; niat puasa dan menahan diri daripada perkara yang membatalkannya bermula dari terbit fajar hingga tenggelam matahari.

1.Niat
Niat iaitu kehendak (qasad) melakukan puasa. Tempatnya di hati, tidak cukup dengan hanya melafazkannya dengan lidah dan tidak disyaratkan melafazkannya. Dalil wajib niat ialah sabda Nabi SAW :
“Sesungguhnya setiap amalan itu dengan niat“.
Dalilnya sabda Nabi SAW : “Barangsiapa tidak berniat puasa sebelum fajar maka tidak ada puasa baginya“. (Ad-Daruqutni (2/172), kata beliau ; Para perawinya adalah tsiqah; Al-Baihaqi (4/202)).

2. Menahan diri daripada Perkara yang membatalkan Puasa
Perkara-perkara yang membatalkan puasa ialah : makan dan minum, muntah dengan sengaja, masukkan sesuatu ke dalam rongga mulut, bersetubuh dengan sengaja, haid dan nifas dan gila dan murtad.

Kesimpulan

Kefahaman dua kalimah syahadah perlu dipertingkatkan, ini sama ada secara langsung (lafaznya) atau tidak langsung (pengajarannya yang berbentuk penyerahan diri sepenuhnya kepada ajaran agama Allah). Lazimilah ucapan dua kalimah syahadah ini pada setiap masa dan ketika walau di manapun kita berada selagi hayat dikandung badan. Nescaya kembalinya kita kepada Allah nanti adalah dalam keadaan menyerah diri kepadaNya secara keseluruhan dan sempurna.
Firman Allah (Ali Imaran:102) “Wahai orang-orang beriman, bertaqwalah kamu kepada Allah dengan sebenar-benarnya dan janganlah kamu mati melainkan sebagai orang Islam (yang menyerah diri kepada Allah secara sepenuhnya).

Secara kesimpulannya, berpuasa bererti telah mengajak diri bersabar terhadap keinginan kerana Allah bukan kerana hal lain. Sekiranya hal ini dilatih selama sebulan berpuasa, ertinya telah membuat latihan jiwa untuk bersabar dan untuk patuh menanggung kesusahan kerana Allah.
Seseorang yang merasakan puasanya selama ini tidak membuatkan jiwanya mahu bersabar dengan keinginan yang tidak tercapai, kesusahan dan kegagalan samalah dengan orang yang tidak berpuasa. Maka jika puasa tidak membuahkan akhlak yang mulia dengan Allah & sesama manusia, maka jadilah puasa itu sepertimana sabda Rasulullah SAW: "Tidaklah diperolehi apa-apa dari puasa itu melainkan hanya lapar & dahaga".

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