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Culture

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Culture:
Culture is the characteristics of a particular group of people, defined by everything from language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts.
Culture of Pakistan:
The society of Pakistan (Urdu: ثقافت پاکستان) has many different cultures. The east of country is mainly Punjabi, the south is mainly Sindhi in the east are the tribal cultures. In many areas the tribes and cultures are mixed, most Pakistanis are Punjabi and most of the nation are Sunni Muslim. pakistani culture consist of different culture includes:-
Punjabi Culture:
Punjab (the land of five rivers) is the biggest land area of Pakistan and is popularly known for its culture. It shares most of its cultural and carnival values with Indian culture. According to population, 56% of the total population of the country is situated in Punjab Province. It has a total of 36 districts and contributes approximately 50-60 % of the economy.
Punjabi Culture is one of the oldest in world history, dating from ancient antiquity to the modern era. The scope, history, complexity and density of the culture are vast. Some of the main areas of the Punjabi culture include: Punjabi cuisine, philosophy, poetry, artistry, music, architecture, traditions and values and history. Some cities of Punjab have more importance for Sikh community from India. The founder of Sikh religion was born in Nankana Sahib, a district of Punjab so Sikh from different parts of world come and visits Punjab. Jahngir tomb and Badshahi Masjid in Lahore are the important places of Pakistan. Data Sahib is very scared place in Punjab and most of the people come and visit Data sahib every year.
People:
Punjabi people are very warm hearted and fun loving. Punjabis are heterogeneous group comprising of different tribes, clans, communities and are known to celebrate each and every tradition of their culture. People of Punjab have strong beliefs on pir-faqeers, jogi, taweez, manat-ka-dhaga, saint of repute, black magic, and other superstitions, however recently due to increase of literacy, people have become somewhat rational . Punjabis also believe in cast system but as now people are getting educated, the differences are getting blurred. Some popular casts of Punjabi’s are; Jats, Maliks, Mughals, Arains, Gujjars, Awans, Rajputs, Gakhars, Khokhars, Sheikhs, Aheers, Kambohs, Niazis, Legharis, Khosas, Dogars, Thaheem, Mirani, Qureshis, and Syeds.
In villages’ people usually live in small communities (biradaris), however they live in peace and harmony with each other. They take active part in the happiness/grieve of each other and give a great deal of respect to their culture, norms and run their lives according to their set traditions. Punjabi people are famous for their hospitable and loving nature. Languages:
Punjabi is the provincial language of Punjab. It is spoken as the first language by majority people in Punjab, even spoken and understood in areas beyond the confines of Punjab. Facts and figures show that Punjabi language is spoken as first language by 44% of Pakistanis. Urdu language is also commonly spoken in this region. Key Punjabi languages/dialects are:
• Pothowari
• Hindko
• Shahpuri
• Pahari
• Majhi
• Saraiki Dresses:
Costumes of Punjab are an indication of the bright and vibrant culture and lifestyle of the people.
The costumes are a mix of colours, comfort and beauty and Punjab is well known for the use of phulkari(embroidery) in its costumes. In most of the villages of Punjab men wear Pagri(turban), dhoti/lacha, kurta, khusa. Women wear gharara, or choridar pajama or colorful shalwar kameez, paranda, choli/duppata, khusa, kola puri chappal or tillay wali jutti. Whereas in urban areas of Punjab men and women follow latest trends and fashion, generally they wear different styles of shalwar kameez. Cuisine:
The extensive cuisine of Punjab can be vegetarian and non-vegetarian. One commonality between all Punjabi dishes is the liberal usage of ghee or clarified butter spices and Punjabis are fond of sweet-meats also. Most Punjabi food is eaten with either rice or roti. There are some dishes that are exclusive to Punjab such as Mah Di Dal, Paratha, Makai ki rotti, Saron Da Saag, and in cities Choley, Haleem, Baryani and other spicy dishes are popular. In beverages, tea is consumed in all seasons and as a custom most of Punjabis serve tea to their guests. Punjabis are also fond of Zarda, Gulab-Jamuns, Kheer, Jalaibi,Samosy, Pakorey etc. During summers people drink lassi, doodh-soda, aloo bokharey ka sharbat, lemonade etc. These cuisines have become world-wide delicacies with large scale representation. Sports:
Punjabi people have fanatical interest in sports. Punjabi’s are fond of kabaddi, and wrestling, which is also popular in other parts of Pakistan and it’s also played on national level. Other games being played in Punjab region include Gilli-Danda, Khoo-Khoo, Yassu-Panju, Pitho-Garam, Ludo, Chuppan-Chupai, Baraf-Panni, Kanchy and some major sports include cricket, boxing, horse-racing, hockey and football. National Horse and Cattle Show at Lahore is the biggest festival where sports, exhibitions, and livestock competitions are held. Cultural Festivals:
There are numerous festivals which are celebrated by Punjabi people including some religious festivals such as Eid-Milad-Un-Nabi, Jumu’ah, Laylat-ul-Qadr etc. Urcs (devotional fairs),which are held at the shirnes of sufi saints, Melas and Nomaish (exhibitions).The Provincial capital Lahore is widely popular for its entertaining events and activities. Lahori’s are famous all over the country for their celebrations particularly for Basant festival (kite flying) in the spring season. Other festivals celebrated in Punjab region include Baisakhi, Teej, Kanak Katai etc. Dance and Music:
Bhangra is most commonly known Punjabi music genre and dance style. Punjabis passionately love folk songs/music, Qawali and Punjabi music is recognized throughout the world. The Tabla, Dhol, Dholki, Chimta, Flute and Sitar are all common instruments of this delightful culture. Punjabi dance is based around happiness, energy and enthusiasm.Different forms of dance in Punjab are: Loddi, Dhamal, Sammi, Kikli, Gatka, Bhangra, Giddha and Dandiya. Punjabi dances have been embraced by the American culture and others alike and now they are one of the most appreciated art forms.

Custums and Rituals:
Some of the customs followed in Punjab have no foundation in Islam. However, the Punjabi culture has adopted those ceremonies and traditions from Hindu culture. Birth Rituals:
Punjabis celebrate birth of their child with great enthusiasm. Grandfather or grandmother or some respected elder member from the family puts honey with their index finger in child’s mouth called Ghutii. Sweets are distributed among friends and relatives and people bring gifts for the child and mother. Generally on 7thday child’s head is shaven and Aqiqa ceremony is held, also sheep/goat is slaughtered. Punjabi Weddings:
Punjabi weddings are based on traditions and are conducted with strong reflection of the Punjabi culture followed by several pre-wedding customs and rituals (dholki,mayun,ubtan etc.)Punjabi weddings are very loud, energetic, full of music,colors, fancy-dresses, food and dancing. Punjabi weddings have many customs and ceremonies that have evolved since traditional times. In cities the wedding are celebrated following a blend of modern and traditional customs and the ceremony generally lasts for 3days, Mehndi, Barat (Nikkah+Ruksati) and Walima, followed by Chauti (bringing the bride back to her parents’ home the next day).

Funeral Rituals:
At funerals after namaz-e-janaza it is customary to offer lunch to people who came for condolence. On 3rdday of the funeral, Qul is held and every following thursday the Quran is recited (jumah-e-raat) followed by prayers for deceased and after 40days the chaliswaan is held. After which the funeral is over. Some families observe anniversaries yearly (barsi).There is no formal dress code for Punjabi funerals however people mostly wear shalwar kameez and casual clothing is observed. Funerals of Shia families are more intense. Both men and women wear black shalwar-kameez and rigorous crying and screaming is a common occurrence at such funerals. Literature:
Punjab is very rich with literature and Sufis adds more in its literature. Punjabi poetry is renowned for its extremely deep meaning, beautiful and hopeful use of words. The large number of Punjabi poetry is being translated throughout the world into many languages. Some famous poets of Punjabi are Sultan Bahu, Mia Mohammad Baksh, Baba Farid, Shah Hussain, Anwar Masood etc. Waris Shah, whose contribution to Punjabi literature is best-known for his seminal work in Heer Ranjha, known as Shakespeare of Punjabi language. Bulleh Shah was a Punjabi Sufi poet, a humanist and a philosopher. The verse from Bulleh Shah primarily employed is called the Kafi, a style of Punjabi. Some other popular folk tales of Punjab include Sassi-Punnu, Sohni Mahiwal etc. that are passing through generations. Arts and Crafts:
Punjab is the major manufacturing industry in Pakistan’s economy and here each art enjoys a place of its own. The main crafts created in the highlands and other rural areas of Punjab are basketry, pottery, which are famous for their modern and traditional designs all over the world and are included in the best formations of Punjabis. bone work, textile, cloth woven on handlooms with stunning prints is embroidered in the rural-areas and the weavers produce colorful cloths like cotton,silk etc. embroidery, weaving, carpets, stone craft, jewelry, metal work along with truck art and other wood works. The craft of Punjab is its fundamental soul and its craft create its entity.

Sindhi Culture:-

Sindh is one of the four provinces in Pakistan located at the Southern border. The province of Sindh has been named after the famous River Indus. In Sanskrit, the province was dubbed Sindhu meaning an ocean. Around 3000 B.C, Dravidian cultures urbanized and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization. According to the Historians, Indus Valley Civilization declined due to the natural disasters such as floods but the invasions of Indo- Arians caused the sudden collapse of it. In the recent history, Sindh was conquered by the British in 1843. Sindh province remained the part of British India until 1947 when it was made one of the provinces of Pakistan. Language:-
Sindhi language evolved over a period of 2400 years. The language of the people of Sindh, after coming in contact with the Aryan, became Indo-Aryan (Prakrit). Sindhi language, therefore, has a solid base of Prakrit as well as Sanskrit, the language of India, with vocabulary from Arabic, Persian, and some Dravidian – descendants from Mediterranean sub-continent. Initially, Sindhi had close contacts with Arabic- speaking Muslims. Therefore the language adopted many of the Arabic words.
Sindhi language is an ancient language spoken in Pakistan and many other parts of the world. It is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by approximately 41 million people in Pakistan, and 12 million people in India; it is the second most spoken language of Pakistan, mostly spoken in the Sindh province. It is a recognized official language in Pakistan, and also an official language in India. Government of Pakistan issues National Identity Cards to its citizens only in two languages; Sindhi and Urdu.
Sindhi language is also greatly influenced by Sanskrit and about 70% of the words in Sindhi are of Sanskrit origin. Sindhi is a very rich language with a vast vocabulary; this has made it a favorite of many writers and so a lot of literature and poetry has been written in Sindhi. It has been the inspiration for Sindhi art, music, literature, culture and the way of life. The language can be written using the Devanagri or Arabic script Festivals:-
The people of Sind love their religion and the two festivals of Eid-ul-Adha and Eid-ul-Fitr are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm. Different domestic festivals are arranged by the local people to provide people with new things they buy on Eid’s occasion. On different occasions, the Folk dance of Bhagat is also performed by professionals to entertain the visiting people. Hence, a Sindhi Cultural Festival is a compound of folk dances, music and cheap entertainment for local people.

Lifestyle:-
People of Sindh are more inclined towards an agricultural based lifestyle. The fertile Indus Plains provide a valuable source of income for the local people who practice farming on these lands. Inland fishing is also practiced along the Indus River in Upper Sind providing further opportunities for local people. Itinerant way of lifestyle is commonly seen in the desertic regions of Thar where people move from place to place in search for drinking water sources along with their animals.

Arts and Music:-
Sindhi society is dominated by great Sufis, the mystics and the martyrs. It has always been the land of peace, love, romance, and great cultural and artistic values. There were the great theologians of the Naqsh bandi order in Thatta who translated the fundamentals of the religion of Islam into their mother tongue. There were the great Sufi (mystic) poets like Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai who was the cherisher of truth and spent all his life in its propagation, pursuit and quest. Bhitai was also an excellent musician. He invented a new type of musical instrument, Tambura (drone instrument), which till today, is a primary source of music in rural Sindh. The beauty of Shah’s verses is enhanced by his blending of traditional Indian rag with the Sindhi folk songs and music.

Cultural character:-
The ancient Sindhi civilization was the place, where the aesthetic utilization of leisure was freely indulged. There has been evidence, that the excavations of sites dating back to 3000 B.C. (all over Sindh) is also true, around 1200 years ago when Jaina Dakshiniya Chihna (778 A.D.) described the distinguished features of Sindhi’s in this way: “Elegant, with a lovely, soft and slow gait, they are fond of the art of harvas (that is, songs, music and dancing) and full affection towards their country.” Sindhi’s celebrate Sindh Cultural day worldwide on 6th December by wearing Ajrak & Sindhi Topi on that time. sindhi foods:-
Sindhi food refers to the food of the Sindhi people. The daily food in most Sindhi households consists of wheat-based flat-bread (phulka) and rice accompanied by two dishes, one gravy and one dry. Balochi culture:
Baloch culture is opposite to the general perception about it. Though Balochistan is an area of barren lands, deserts and mountains, the Baloch culture is full of traditions, arts and crafts. Balochi embroidery is one of the most popular arts and crafts which are done by the females. Baluchistan is also known for its tribes and festivals. Another distinct feature of Baloch culture is the storytelling tradition. Poets and story tellers are highly respected in Baloch culture. Tribes:-
The people belonging to Baloch tribe speak balochi language. Balochi language is an ancient language. Its roots are traced back to Iranian branch of Indo-European family. It has resemblance with languages such as Sansikrat, Avesta, Old Persian and Phalavi, which now a days are said to be as dead languages. This tribe is further divided in to Rind Lashar Marri Jamot
Ahmedzai
Bugti domki Magsi
Khosa
Rakhashani Dashti Umrani Nosherwani
Gichki
Buledi Sanjarani Khidai The tribe has a head known as “sardar”, the sub divided tribes also have heads known as “Malik” or “Takari” or “Mir”. These tribe heads are members of districts and local Jirgas. Marriages:-
In Baloch culture marriages are different and unique than in the other provinces of the country. The marriages are according to Islamic principles in presence of a Mullana along with the presence of witnesses. Every member of the family takes part in the marriage; they express their joy and happiness by following the traditions of their culture. Usually the marriages are done in young ages (teenage) but are arranged in early childhood or at birth. There is a very low or negligible ratio of love marriages as this is not appreciated across the culture in all tribes. Usually the marriages take place within tribes but at times intra tribal marriages are also conducted. Divorce rate is very low in the Baluchistan as compared to the other provinces of Pakistan because they consider is a matter of disrespect for the family and honor of the tribe. Different rituals are celebrated in different tribes. In some tribes there is a tradition of takings “Valver”, it is a sum of money paid by the groom to the family of the bride. Dressing:-
Like all the other provinces of Pakistan the national dress shalwar kameez with distinct additions and modifications are worn in Baloch culture. The people dress up very pleasingly and in the same way in all the tribes. Turban is the common headwear of Bloch men along with wide loose shalwar along with knee-long shirts. Females dress consists of a shirt having a big pocket and embroidery and embedded round mirror work in front. A big Dupatta/ Chaddar is taken to cover the head and shoulders.

Festivals:-
Both religious and social festivals are celebrated by Baloch people. The religious festivals are same as across the country like Eid-ul-Azha and Eid-ul-Fiter. These religious festivals are celebrated by decorating houses wearing new dresses cooking special dishes. Baloch culture is full of many social festivals like Sibi festival which has folk music performance, cultural dances, handicrafts stalls, cattle shows and a number of other entertaining activities showing the colorful side of Baloch people. Buzkashi is another festival showing rather enhancing the bravery tactfulness and bravery of Baloch people. It is celebrated on horse-back by two teams that use their skills to snatch a goat from the each other. .
Music:-
Baloch culture is rich in folk music dances and songs. Famous wedding songs of Baloch culture are Nazenk and Salonk. The instruments used are mainly a flute, locally called Nal, Tamboora and Soroz. A common Baloch folk dance is known as Dochaap. Women also move in a circle clapping their hands on certain occasions. Other dances include the Lewa, Latti and Hambo.

Food:-
Usually Baloch people have meals in morning and evening. Men and women eat separately. Wheat, millet and rice are part of the Baloch meal. Meat is also an important part; “Sajji” is the favorite dish of most people. Sajji is the food eaten with knife other than that Baloch people usually eat with hands. Milk, butter and vegetables are also part of Baloch cuisine.

Sports:-
Popular games include chauk, and Ji. Also games like wrestling, horse racing, shooting and hunting pastimes among the wealthier people of tribes. Card games and gambling are also popular among groups of some tribes.
Balochi language:-
The Balochi language is spoken in Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, the Persian Gulf Arab states, Turkmenistan, and as far as East Africa and some Western countries. It is classified as a member of the Iranian group of the Indo-European language family, which includes Kurdish, Persian, Pashto, Dari, Tajik and Ossetian. The Balochi language has the closest similarities to Kurdish, Avestan, old Persian and other Iranian languages.
Two main dialects are spoken in Sistan va Balochestan and Balochestan: Eastern and Western. The exact number of Baloch speakers is difficult to know, but the estimated number could be around 15 million. The majority speak Western Balochi, which is also the dialect that has been most widely used in Balochi literature. Within the Western dialect are two further dialects, Rakhshani and Nousherwani (spoken mainly in the northern areas) and Makurani (in the south).[20]
The Baloch have several tribes and sub-tribes. Some of these tribes speak Brahui, while most speak Balochi. Multilingualism is common, with many Baloch speaking both Brahui and Balochi. The Rind Marri, Magsi, Domki, Umrani and Bugti tribe speak Balochi. The Mengal tribe, who live in the Chagai, Khuzdar, Kharan districts of Balochistan. the sarpara tribe, who live in kardigap, Meskan Qalat/Kharan, Larkana, and they speak both Brahui and balochi, The Meskanzai (sarpara) tribe who live in the Meskan Qalat kharna, and Quetta, and they speak Balochi and Brahui. and in southern parts of Afghanistan, speak Brahui. The Muhammad Hasni tribe speak Brahui, Balochi and some other languages according to the area they are living. The Lango tribe, who live in central Balochistan in the Mangochar area, speak Brahui as their first language and Balochi as their second. The Bizenjo tribe speak both languages. The Bangulzai tribe mostly speaks Brahui, but has a Balochi-speaking minority known as Garani.
The Mazari tribe, Talpur, Mastoi, Jatoi, Wahocha, Gabol, Chandio, Mirani, Nutkani, Ahmedani, Jagirani, Marri, Khushk, Magsi, Domki, Khosa, Bozdar, Jiskani, Bijarani, Hesbani, Leghari, Lashari, Muhammad Hasni, Kalpar, Korai, Zardari, Rind, Mandwani or Bhurgari, MirJat, Jakhrani, and other Baloch tribes that are settled in Sindh speak Sindhi, Balochi and Seraiki. The Gadi and Qaisrani Baloch living near Taunsa Sharif in the Punjab province of Pakistan speak Seraiki and Balochi, while their clansmen living in Dera Ghazi Khan tribal areas speak Balochi. The Lund Baloch living in Shadan Lund speak Sindhi, Seraiki and Balochi.

Pashtun culture:-
Pashtun culture (Pashto: پښتني هڅوب‎) is based on Islam and Pashtunwali, which is an ancient way of life, as well as speaking of the Pashto language and wearing Pashtun dress. The culture of the Pashtun people is highlighted since at least the time of Herodotus (484-425 BC) or Alexander the Great, when he explored the Afghanistan and Pakistan region in 330 BC.

Pashtun dress of Pakistan :-.
Pashtun men usually wear a Partoog-Korteh in Pashto(salwar kameez is Urdu)with a pakul (Pashtun hat). In the Kandahar region young men usually wear different type of hat similar to a topi and in the Peshawar region they wear white kufis instead. Leaders or tribal chiefs sometimes wear a karakul hat, like Hamid Karzai and others. The Pashtun Lungee (or Paktay) is the most worn headpiece in Afghanistan with different tribes having different styles and colours to indicate what tribe or region they come from.Women and girls wear traditional long dresses with a light piece of cloth used to cover their hair.

Sport:- Sport in Afghanistan and Sport in Pakistan
Cricket:-
Further information: Afghanistan national cricket team and Pakistan national cricket team
Football:-
Further information: Afghanistan national football team and Pakistan national football team
Buzkashi and polo:-
Some Pashtuns in Central Asia participate in buzkashi, which is a sport introduced in the region during the Mongol period from the 13th century and onward. The word "buz" means "goat" and "kashi" means "dragging" or "pulling" in the Persian language. The basic objective is to carry the headless carcass of a calf or goat around a flag and back to the starting point while on horseback with other riders trying to do the same thing by taking the carcass away from you. Not a team sport, it is every man for himself and that becomes apparent as soon as the game starts. It is played on a large open dusty field which does not appear to have many boundaries. The game is a microcosm of power politics in Afghanistan. Although buskashi is primarily an individual sport, alliances are built up between various players. Between the alliances, the strongest players finally take control (or in this case the remnants of a headless calf) and ride off to victory Pashtun cuisine:- Some of the popular Pashtun dishes, from left to right: 1. Lamb grilled kebab (seekh kabab); 2. Palao and salad; 3. Tandoori chicken; and 4. Mantu (dumplings). The Pashtun cuisine includes a blend of Central Asian, Eastern Asian, South Asian and the Middle Eastern cuisines. Most Pashtun dishes are traditionally non-spicy.
Pashtun cuisine (Pashto: پښتني خواړه ‎) refers to the cuisine of the Pashtuns, who are predominant in Afghanistan and western Pakistan. The cuisine of the Pashtun people is covered under Afghan cuisine and Pakistani cuisine, and is largely based on cereals like wheat, maize, barley and rice as well as a plethora of meat dishes that includes lamb, beef, chicken, and fresh fish. Accompanying these staples are also dairy products (yogurt, whey, cheeses), including various nuts, locally grown vegetables, as well as fresh and dried fruits. Cities such as Peshawar, Jalalabad, Kabul, Quetta and Kandahar are known for being the centers of Pashtun cuisin
Dishes:-
The following is a short and incomplete list of some food items that Pashtuns often eat.

• Kabuli pulao
• Pekhteh/Peshteh (beef/mutton ribs)
• De beza ghwakha (mutton dish)
• Chopan Kabob (lamb chops, skewered and grilled on charcoal)
• Seekh Kebab (beef/mutton/chicken)
• Shami kebab
• Chapli Kabab
• Shinwari Kabab, roasted lamb
• Kichrei, sticky medium grain rice cooked with mung beans and onions, topped with melted qurot sauce. This is mostly eaten during winter.
• Londei, (spiced lamb jerky cooked with rice)
• Shorwa (soupe)
• Aush (hand made noodles)
• Aushak (vegetable and chive-filled dumplings topped with tomato and yogurt sauces)
• Mantu (meat dumplings), usually served under a yogurt-based white sauce
• Bolani also called Piraki in Afghanistan
• Burrani, is a style of presentation, usually eggplant (Badenjan|Bonjon) sometimes potatoes (kachaloo|aloo) or pumpkin (kadoo), where the vegetable is sauteed in a tomato based sauce and garnished with yogurt. Not to be confused with Bolani.
• Bonjan, eggplant cooked in oil with potatoes and tomatoes
• Bendei, okra cooked in oil with onions and tomatoes
• Masteh (freshly made yogurt)
• Ghatay Rujay, literally big rice, is a rice dish, resembling risotto, prepared only in Charsadda where the small grain rice needed to make it is grown.
• Naan or Doday. Naan or, Doday, as it is called in Pashto, is a flat bread usually made in vertical clay ovens called Tanoor (tandoor)
Shomleh/Shlombeh (sometimes called "triwai" in Kabul), a drink made from mixing yogurt with water and shaking it extensively. Then adding dried mint leaves and small amount of salt.

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...There are many cultures that differ from one another, each characterized by their language, values, ideas, material objects, and behaviors. Two types of cultures are subcultures and countercultures. A subculture is a smaller group based off the same culture with different religions and beliefs. Culture is one of the most basic concepts of life. Beliefs and behaviors are passed from one generation to the next. You’re raised to believe what your culture does is the “right” way of doing things. To distinguish other groups you look at the type of clothing they wear, jewelry and their art, known as material culture. Non-material culture is the way a group thinks; for example their beliefs and assumptions about the world. Culture shapes the society you live in, it gives you a language to speak, religions to believe in, and the things we value in life. We evaluate every thought process according to the criteria we were born in. when cultures clash together, you experience something called culture shock. You’re no longer able to depend on what you think is “normal”, instead you adjust yourself and follow what the other culture believes to be “normal”. We believe the way we do things is the proper way and when we see other groups with opposing viewpoints, we judge them, this is known as ethnocentrism. Subculture is a smaller group from a larger group, made up of people who went thru experiences that changed their outlook on life. People in these groups have distinctive styles of......

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Culture

...Journal of Business Research 60 (2007) 277 – 284 Hofstede's dimensions of culture in international marketing studies Ana Maria Soares a,⁎, Minoo Farhangmehr a,1 , Aviv Shoham b,2 a School of Economics and Management, University of Minho, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal b Graduate School of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa, 31905, Israel Received 1 March 2006; received in revised form 1 August 2006; accepted 1 October 2006 Abstract Growth of research addressing the relationship between culture and consumption is exponential [Ogden D., Ogden J. and Schau HJ. Exploring the impact of culture and acculturation on consumer purchase decisions: toward a microcultural perspective. Academy Marketing Science Review 2004;3.]. However culture is an elusive concept posing considerable difficulties for cross-cultural research [Clark T. International Marketing and national character: A review and proposal for an integrative theory. Journal of Marketing 1990; Oct.: 66–79.; Dawar N., Parker P. and Price L. A cross-cultural study of interpersonal information exchange. Journal of International Business Studies 1996; 27(3): 497–516.; Manrai L. and Manrai A. Current issues in the cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research. Journal of International Consumer Marketing 1996; 8 (3/4): 9–22.; McCort D. and Malhotra NK. Culture and consumer behavior: Toward an understanding of cross-cultural consumer behavior in International Marketing. Journal of International Consumer Marketing......

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Culture

...Methodological Issues Subunit 1 Conceptual Issues in Psychology and Culture 12-1-2011 Article 8 Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context Geert Hofstede Universities of Maastricht and Tilburg, The Netherlands, hofstede@bart.nl Recommended Citation Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, Unit 2. Retrieved from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/orpc/vol2/iss1/8 This Online Readings in Psychology and Culture Article is brought to you for free and open access (provided uses are educational in nature)by IACCP and ScholarWorks@GVSU. Copyright © 2011 International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology. All Rights Reserved. ISBN 978-0-9845627-0-1 Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context Abstract This article describes briefly the Hofstede model of six dimensions of national cultures: Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism/Collectivism, Masculinity/Femininity, Long/ Short Term Orientation, and Indulgence/Restraint. It shows the conceptual and research efforts that preceded it and led up to it, and once it had become a paradigm for comparing cultures, research efforts that followed and built on it. The article stresses that dimensions depend on the level of aggregation; it describes the six entirely different dimensions found in the Hofstede et al. (2010) research into organizational cultures. It warns against confusion with value differences......

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Culture

...omission. In other words, this elitist definition of culture has enormous social, economic, and political implications. It is because cultural artifacts, practices, or traditions that are not legitimized by museums, the media, or cultural elites tend not to have much exposure and can then be forgotten easily. In addition, this traditional notion of culture has tended to be static, that is, it assumes that "culture" can be put into distinct categories or within set boundaries. A good illustration of this notion is the fact that there are still many people in society insisting on preserving certain traditional "cultures" passed down through the generations as if such "cultures" do not change over or "with" time. Now we come to our second important conception of culture which is quite different from what has been discussed above. The second and what can be regarded as the "sociological perspective on culture" came into being in such fields of study as sociology and cultural anthropology. For example, Raymond Williams defined culture in his 1965 book, The Long Revolution, as "a particular way of life which expresses certain meanings and values not only in art and learning, but also in institutions and ordinary behavior. The analysis of culture, from such a definition, is the clarification of the meanings and values implicit and explicit in a particular way of life, a particular culture." According to this conception, culture refers to people's everyday sense-making or......

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Culture

...Culture Culture is the common denominator that makes the actions of the individuals understandable to a particular group. That is, the system of shared values, beliefs, behaviours, and artefacts making up a society’s way of life. Culture can either be represented fin form of material or non material culture. The definitions and specific traits of each of them are discussed below. Material culture is a term representative of the physical creations made, used, or shared by the members of a certain society; it is the society’s buffer against the environment. The components of material culture are all the creations (objects) of the human kind and mind, for example, cars, faucets, computers, trees, minerals just to mention but a few. The transformation of raw material into useable forms through the employment of knowledge is paramount in the achievement of material culture. For example, we make living abodes to shelter ourselves from the adversities of weather and for our own privacy at the basic level, beyond this we make, use, and share sophisticated, interesting and essential items relaying our cultural orientation. For instance, the types of clothes one wears reflect so much into the culture we subscribe to like school, religion, or where the last vacation was spent. Non-material culture on the other hand is the abstract or un-seen human creations by the society fashioned towards the behavioural influence of the said society. The components for the non-material......

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...An Investigation of How Culture Shapes Curriculum in Early Care and Education Programs on a Native American Indian Reservation ‘‘The drum is considered the heartbeat of the community’’ Jennifer L. Gilliard1,3 and Rita A. Moore2 This article investigates how culture shapes instruction in three early care and education programs on the Flathead Indian Reservation. Interviews with eight early childhood teachers as well as classroom observations were conducted. The investigation is framed by the following research question: How does the culture of the family and community shape curriculum? Data analysis suggested that ongoing communication with parents and community about teaching within a culturally relevant context, building a sense of belongingness and community through ritual, and respecting children, families, and community were essential to defining the Native American Indian culture within these early learning programs. KEY WORDS: culture; in; tribal; early; education; programs. INTRODUCTION Instruction informed by children’s home and community culture is critical to supporting a sense of belongingness that ultimately impacts academic achievement (Banks, 2002; Osterman, 2000). American school populations are increasingly diversified with immigrants and English language learners; but American teachers are over 90% European American (Nieto, 2000). Educators who are from different cultural perspectives than those present in the families and communities of the children......

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Culture

...Cultural Assignment Shawna Johnson January 25, 2013 When talking about culture and how it can affect business practices brings up many topics. Culture is a system of values and norms that are shared amount a group of people and that when taken together constitute a design for living. (“Components of culture”, 2011, p.2) Values and norms have a huge impact on culture within the work place. Values are abstract ideas about what a society believes to be right or wrong, good or bad. Norms also shape culture; they are the social rules and guidelines that lay down the proper behavior in certain situations. There are several components that define culture; religion, political and economic philosophies, education, language, and social structure. Different countries have different religions views and values. Different religious have different views of work and material goods. Cultural views influence the competitiveness of companies, the way cultures change due to religious and the need to adapt to those changes. For example Mc Donald’s change the main ingredient in their product to lamb instead of beef because of the religious views of Hinduism. (“Components of culture”, 2011, p. 11) The way businesses adapt to different religion in different countries in a major component of how they prosper among many different cultures. The way different countries are taught education has a great impact on cultures and the way companies conduct business deals. Education is not only......

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...been argued that barriers between different cultures have diminished (Nordström, 199 1, p. 28ff). Cultural integration has thus been in focus and several researchers have argued that the world, especially within the business community, has become more and more homogeneous (see e.g. Vernon, 1979, Porter, 1980, 1986; Levin, 1983, Ohmae, 1985). A recent trend, however, is to stress heterogeneity rather than homogene@. Not least the animated discussions during the last few years about the future of the European Union shows that cultural differentes still exist. Such differentes are of special interest in MNCs, whose most characteristic feature is that they tonsist of units located in many countries. A number of researchers (see e.g. Bartlett, 1986, Ghoshal and Bartlett, 1990, Hedlund, 1986, Ghoshal and Nohria, 1989, Gupta and Govindarajan, 199 1, Nohria and Ghoshal, 1994, Prahalad and Doz, 1987, Rosenzweig and Nohria, 1994) have pointed to the fatt that units within multinational firms are not identical. According to Ghoshal and Nohria (1989, p. 323) the MNC is the quintessential case of the dispersed firm with different national subsidiaries often embedded in very heterogeneous environmental conditions (Robock, Simmons and Zwick, 1977). Thus, MNC urrits are located in different cultural milieus (Hofstede, 1980) and people with different nationalities, belonging to the same tirm. have to cape with each other. When people from different cultures work together, misunderstandings......

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Culture

...Be aware of the ways your own culture influences your expectations of children. Consider the cultural backgrounds of the children in your setting and their community. Learn about the cultures from which the children in your program or school may come. Use your basic knowledge of the culture to talk with each family about its values and practices. Build on what you have learned from each family. Infuse the curriculum and classroom environment with a rich variety of materials from the cultures of your children as well as other cultures. Culture is illustrated daily when the doors of the school are opened. The youth enter into the environment with all the happenings going on at home to a safe environment of school excepted to detach and focus on school. The culture of the school varies from year to year depending on the population. For example, a teacher could have a classroom of 25 students. 15 of them can be females and 10 can be males. 5 could be White, 6 Hispanic, 3 Black, and 11 White. But the next year her entire cultured could be altered because her population has changed. As a teacher I have to be flexible and get to know my students. By doing this I will be able to become aware of the students needs and be able to service them better through the curriculum. Learning the culture of the school and the neighborhood in which I work helps the school to develop better programs and issue better support to their students. When you know the culture your students feel the......

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Culture

...which is a Swedish based company, gave me an opportunity to humble myself to many of their different cultures. IKEA prides their self on focusing on nine points of business that shapes our culture as coworkers. The nine points are as follows: 1. The product range: our identity "We shall offer a wide range of well-designed, functional home furnishing products at prices so low that as many people as possible will be able to afford them." 2. The IKEA spirit – a strong and living reality "... the art of managing on small means, of making the best of what we had; cost-consciousness to the point of being stingy; humbleness, undying enthusiasm and the wonderful sense of community through thick and thin." 3. Profit gives us resources "…The aim of our effort to build up financial resources is to reach a good result in the long term (IKEA Culture, 2011).” 4. Reaching good results with small means “Before you choose a solution, set it in relation to the cost. Only then can you fully determine its worth (IKEA Culture, 2011).” 5. Simplicity is a virtue "Simplicity and humbleness characterize us in our relations with each other, with our suppliers and with our customers (IKEA Culture, 2011).” 6. Doing it a different way ...

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