Premium Essay

Cyrus the Great

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Mamad1
Words 221284
Pages 886
critical theory today

critical theory today
A Us e r - F r i e n d l y G u i d e



New York London

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

Routledge Taylor & Francis Group 270 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016

Routledge Taylor & Francis Group 2 Park Square Milton Park, Abingdon Oxon OX14 4RN

© 2006 by Lois Tyson Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business Printed in the United States of America on acid‑free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number‑10: 0‑415‑97410‑0 (Softcover) 0‑415‑97409‑7 (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number‑13: 978‑0‑415‑97410‑3 (Softcover) 978‑0‑415‑97409‑7 (Hardcover) No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging‑in‑Publication Data Tyson, Lois, 1950‑ Critical theory today : a user‑friendly guide / Lois Tyson.‑‑ 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0‑415‑97409‑7 (hb) ‑‑ ISBN 0‑415‑97410‑0 (pb) 1. Criticism. I. Title. PN81.T97 2006 801’.95‑‑dc22 Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at and the Routledge Web site at http://www.routledge‑ 2006001722

I gratefully dedicate this book to my students and to my teachers. I hope I will always have difficulty telling you apart.

Preface to the second edition Preface for instructors...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Cyrus the Great

...When Cyrus the Great Was a Boy: What do these stories about Cyrus the Great indicate about his approach to leadership later in life? What qualities do the Persians value in a ruler? In the middle of the sixth century B.C.E., several tribes inhabited what is now modern day Iran. They were ruled by the Medes tribe, they were an ancient Iranian people, and their king was Astyages. He had a daughter named Mandane, and she was married to Cambyses who was a leader of one of the many Persian tribes. One night Astyages had a dream, this dream was of his daughter Mandane and her unborn child. He consulted one of his Magi, who were a kind of Oracle of the time. They interpreted that dream to mean that this unborn son would take Astyages crown away. To prevent this, once Cyrus was born, he would be given to his prime-minister Harpagus so that he could be put to death. Instead of carrying out the deed himself, the prime-minister gave Cyrus to a shepherd named Mithridates. Mithridates was given instruction to kill Cyrus. Instead of killing Cyrus, he took him home and gave him to his wife, who had just had a miscarriage. They raised him as their own. One day, Cyrus was playing with some other children and one of them chose him to play the king. Cyrus began hitting one of the boys that declined to play along. In turn, that boy’s father complained to King Astyages about this, and Cyrus was brought before him. The King immediately recognized him, he then called upon......

Words: 553 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Cyrus the Great Essay

...* Cyrus the Great, without a doubt, had huge impacts to not only world history but impacts that can still be seen today. Cyrus ruled over the first world empire while exercising leadership skills such as military strategy, politics and human rights. He showed respect for the customs and religions of the nations he conquered which was one of the key successes of his rule. Cyrus also had huge impacts to the religious society for his contributions to the Jews after the capture of Babylon. Where and when was Cyrus the Great born? Were there any persons or events in his early life which you believe helped shape this individual’s legacy? Cyrus the Great was born around 600-599BC in Media. In “Cyrus the Great” by Jacob Abbott it speaks about how Cyrus was ordered to be killed by the king for fear that he would take away his throne. This fear was caused by dreams that Cyrus’ grandfather, Astyages, had prior to the birth of Cyrus. Instead of Cyrus being murdered at birth, his death was concealed by slaves of Harpagus whom was the man ordered by the king to kill Cyrus. Harpagus’ herdsman Mitridates was sent for to take the baby out into the woods and left there to die. It happened to be that Mitridates had a wife named Spaco. Spaco had recently given birth to her own son, however their child died soon after birth. Spaco saw this as a chance to fill the void left by her dead son. While Mitridates disagreed at first for fear of what might happen he soon came to agree with his wife.......

Words: 1954 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Xenophon's Cyrus the Great

...9 Timeless Leadership Lessons from Cyrus the Great Comment Now Cyrus The Great Cyrus The Great (Photo credit: Wikipedia) Forget 1-800-CEO Read. The greatest book on business and leadership was written in the 4th century BC by a Greek about a Persian King. Yeah, that’s right. Behold: Cyrus the Great, the man that historians call “the most amiable of conquerors,” and the first king to found “his empire on generosity” instead of violence and tyranny. Consider Cyrus the antithesis to Machiavelli’s ideal Prince. The author, himself the opposite of Machiavelli, was Xenophon, a student of Socrates. The book is a veritable classic in the art of leadership, execution, and responsibility. Adapted from Larry Hendrick’s excellent translation, here are nine lessons in leadership from Xenophon’s Cyrus the Great: Be Self-Reliant “Never be slow in replenishing your supplies. You’ll always bee on better terms with your allies if you can secure your own provisions…Give them all they need and your troops will follow you to the end of the earth.” Be Generous “Success always calls for greater generosity–though most people, lost in the darkness of their own egos, treat it as an occasion for greater greed. Collecting boot [is] not an end itself, but only a means for building [an] empire. Riches would be of little use to us now–except as a means of winning new friends.” Be Brief “Brevity is the soul of command. Too much talking suggests desperation on the part of the leader.......

Words: 592 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Alexander the Great vs Cyrus the Great

...Alexander or Cyrus? In our past, we have had many leaders. Some were better than others, but what must a leader do to acquire the label “great”? Of course, one could simply go by the definition of the word and deem the leader “above average”. Did the great ones of ancient times exceed these standards or were they just above average like a standard dictionary would have us believe. Let us focus on two “great” leaders of our past by the names of Alexander and Cyrus. Both of these kings were famous for the way they ran their empires but were they both, so called, great? Cyrus the Great was the first king of the Achaemenid Empire. While he was king, he freed 4,000 Jews from Babylon. He also founded a new capital, invented the first postal system, and was mentioned 22 times in the old testament. Not only did he build one of the most powerful empires in ancient times, but he made its glory last by organizing it and expressing his tolerance of different races and religions. Alexander the Great lost his father and became a king at the age of 20. While he was king, he expanded Macedonian territory. He did this through conquest and was never defeated in battle. In fact, he conquered half of what was known in the world at the time. He also founded a city in Egypt and named it “Alexandria” (after himself, of course) and Wheatley2 discovered trade routes in Asia. But, because of the excellent battle strategies he was known for, he is often called the greatest military leader of......

Words: 513 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Bible Dictionary

...about God’s desire for human love and the union of a husband and wife. Love, as an earthly illustration in comparison to the beautiful relationship between Christ and His church (Ephesians) is the nurturing relationship between a man and a woman encompassing holiness and safety of the marriage covenant. Setting the foundation for the relationship between God and His love for his people, The Song depicts how God designed sexual union to be a mutually fulfilling, unselfish and nonsecular. Mighty within Gods plan of marriage, it is spiritual; emotionally and physically constructive. Exercised outside of His will proves to be destructive and sinful creating countless problems. Darius Of Persian descent, Darius I (also known as Darius the great) lived in 8th century Persia from 550–486 BC. A descendant of the Achaemenid Dynasty, the first family that ruled in the area of Mesopotamia and Babylonia. At the age of 62, his ascension to the throne of Babylon was paved with manipulation, cunningness, and murder. Regarded as his intellect and architectural...

Words: 647 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Bible Dictionary Project Ot

...Bible Dictionary Project Name: Breanna Student ID: Course: BIBL 104 Date: 4/20/2015 Old Testament Bible Dictionary Project: Proverbs The book of Proverbs written in 950-700 BC by King Solomon and a few others, primarily focuses on the wisdom, justice, and righteousness of humanity. The author uses the literary device parallelism, which instructs the readers to read and interpret two line units instead of each single line. After Job and Psalms, Proverbs is the third Old Testament book written in Hebrew Poetry. The poetry contained in Proverbs takes many different forms, but the two major types are, discourse and pithy sayings. Discourse is mainly present in the first nine chapters of Proverbs, where they poetically argue the advantages of wisdom. Showing similarity, contrast, and, consequence, in the form of two-liners, are pithy sayings. Contrary to what some may believe, not all of the text in Proverbs is absolute truth, and readers should interpret it as principle. This particular biblical book recognizes the various circumstances of our life and gives us wise insight and instruction to live better in the eyes of God. The ideas of marriage and sexuality, the power of tongue, principles of child-rearing, personal discipline, and friendship are all concepts touched on in Proverbs (Hindson and Towns). Proverbs emphasize that listening to our elders will help us to gain wisdom and knowledge; those who choose to speak and not listen will come into trouble......

Words: 716 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Gods Word Always Comes True Essay

... It’s just that well I didn’t really believe the things it was saying. Charlize: Like what? Elise: It talked mostly about god’s word and his promises. I just didn’t get how such promises could ever come true. I mean it doesn’t seem real. The thought that God will destroy wickedness and everything bad in the world sounds impossible. Charlize: I can definitely see where you are coming from Elise. Have you ever heard of Cyrus? Elise: No I don’t think so. Charlize: Well, he was a ruler in the Persian Empire and lived over 2000 years ago. You might be thinking what’s interesting about this man? He was someone who was mentioned in the bible and was used by god to fulfil a prophecy. Do you know what a prophecy is????? Elise: Isn’t a prophecy something that will happen in the future? Charlize: Yes exactly. So if someone said something about the future and his words always came true, what would you think of that person? Elise: I suppose I would believe everything he said. Charlize: Well the bible is FULL of prophecies that have come true. For example Cyrus. Why don’t we learn a little bit more about him? Let’s have a look at Isaiah 44:26-28. Do you mind reading that? Elise: (READ) Charlize: Notice in verse 26 it talks about the one making the word of his servant come true. So this is talking about Jehovah God, he is saying that what he says about the future will come true. Now in verse 27 it says that the waters will dry up and we learn in history that the king of Persia......

Words: 712 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Babylonian Captivity

...The Babylonian Captivity (the key points) The Babylonian exile was the period in Jewish history during which the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon. According to the Hebrew Bible, there were three deportations of Jews to Babylon. The first, in 597 BCE, involving king Jeconiah and his court and many others, a second in 587 BCE of the next king, Zedekiah, and the rest of the people, and a possible deportation after the assassination of Gedaliah, the Babylonian-appointed governor of Yehud Province, possibly in 582 BCE. The forced exile ended in 538 BCE after the fall of Babylon to the Persian king Cyrus the Great, who gave the Jews permission to return to Yehud province and to rebuild the Temple; but most Jews chose to remain in Babylon.[citation needed] The captivity and subsequent return to the Land of Israel and the rebuilding of the Second Temple in the Jerusalem are considered significant events in Jewish history and culture, which had a far-reaching impact on the development of Judaism. The term "Babylonian captivity" is sometimes used when referring to the Avignon Papacy, a period of Medieval Catholic history, because of perceived parallels between the two.[1] In the late 7th century BCE, the kingdom of Judah was a client state of the powerful Assyrian empire. In the last decades of the century Assyria was overthrown by Babylon, an Assyrian province with a history of former glory in its own right. Egypt, fearing the sudden rise of the......

Words: 949 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Fate in the Movie 300 experiences or the culture in which one was raised in. Instead, personality traits and the ultimate success of life were thought to be set in stone and predetermined. Often known as the first historian, Herodotus, author of The History, displays the importance of genetics and inborn qualities through his in depth narratives of 5th century B.C. empires: the Persians, Egyptians, and Scythians. As the majority of members in this time era believed, one's entire identity was already established at birth. Identity was formed at the hands of fate which served as a self-fulfilling prophecy, foreshadowing people's traits, interests, and actions, causing this predicted identity to in fact, become true in the future. The famous story of “Cyrus the Great” provides a clear example of how and why certain characteristics of one's identity were believed to be genetic and formed from nature instead of nurture. In this particular story, Astyages, newfound Median king, had two strange dreams about his daughter Mandane which the Magi (dream interpreters) prophesied as an end to his rule. In Astyages' first dream, he saw Mandane “making water so greatly that she filled all his city and flooded, besides, all of Asia” (Herodotus 1:107). Assuming that traits were inborn and acquired through genetics, Astyages prevented Mandane from marrying a “worthy” Mede but instead, wed her to a Persian who “was much below a Mede of even middle class” (Herodotus 1:107). Although Astyages' carefully......

Words: 1883 - Pages: 8

Free Essay


...Amos – despised religious festivals, prophet to Israel, God holds every nation to standard of general morality Hosea – married to Gomer, marriage symbolized God’s relationship with Israel Gomer – wife of whoredom either cultic or idolater Isaiah – 8th century prophet, split up into 3 parts, Emmanuel prophecy syro-ephraimitic war, 1 Isaiah announcing salvation, 2nd Isaiah exile, 3rd Isaiah post exile Ahaz – father of Hezekiah Hezekiah – good king, brought reforms, destroyed idolaters Manasseh – evil king, brought back idolaters Josiah – good king, repeated Hezekiah reforms centralized worship in God’s temple in Jerusalem Ezekial – mentions abominations in temple, people were bowing to sun god (bum to God relieving themselves), laid on side for over a year, ate food from cow dung, symbolized the way Israelites had to eat in exile, announces new covenant Habakkuk – complains to God, God sends Babylonians/ Hasmoneans Jeremiah – weeping prophet, The Book of Jeremiah records the final prophecies to Judah, warning of oncoming destruction if the nation does not repent. Jeremiah calls out for the nation to turn back to God. At the same time, Jeremiah recognizes the inevitability of Judah’s destruction due to its unrepentant idolatry and immorality Tiglath-Pileser III – Assyrian King, dispersed people in given nation, caused intermarriage and loss of identity Sennacherib – general Assyrian leader, attacked southern Israel kingdom, unsuccessful, 180...

Words: 1446 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Rise and Fall

...ancient Persians. They build the greatest empire of the ancient Near East, but they also absorbed the ancient civilizations they ruled, in particular that of Mesopotamia. The Persians were first encountered around 2000 B.C.E, emerging from the grassy steppes of Central Asia, in the north.  At that point, they were closely associated with two other peoples: the Medes and Aryans. Although Cyrus had found the Persian Empire Darius 1 gave it an internal organization and structure that allowed it to last for 200 years. His accomplishment, are more impressive when we consider the empire's enormous size, the scale of which no one had ever dealt with before. The Persians, like most ancient peoples, started out with a polytheistic religion to account for the forces of nature. This was a dualistic religion, which meant it saw life as a constant struggle between the forces of good and evil. Rise of the Persian Empire Most of the credit of the rise of the Persian Empire was due to the first Achaemenid Emperor, Cyrus the Great. He founded Persia after he united the Medes and the Persians to build a great Empire. He came to power in 559 BC and thanks to his military and political genius ruled the largest empire in the ancient world. All of his people called him the father, and even people he has defeated call him a worthy ruler, and law giver. He brought different architectural possibilities and built the Capitol City of Pasargadae. Also another rise of the Persian Empire is that He......

Words: 1270 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Hannah Montana

...Hannah Montana / Miley Cyrus Hannah Montana and Miley Cyrus are one of the same, but everyone sees them different, let’s take a long look. Hannah Montana is an American musical comedy series created by Michael Poryes, Rich Correll, and Barry O’Brien which focus on Miley Stewart, who is a teenager living a double life as an average schoolgirl by day and a famous recording artist Hannah Montana by night. The show follows the day-to-day life of Miley, her brother and friends while also starrying Cyrus’ country singer father Billy Ray as her dad. The theme song for the show is “Best of Both Worlds” written by Matthew Gerrad and Robbie Nevil, and performed by Miley Cyrus, Hannah Montana was created or born on March 24, 2006. In 2006, Hannah Montana was nominated for three awards: Teen Choice Awards, Golden Icon Awards, and Casting Society of America, even though she was nominated she did not win an award. In 2007, however, she did come back to win those awards with a few more added on. Destiny Hope Cyrus was born November 23, 1992 in Nashville, Tennessee, to Letitia Jean “Tish” and country singer Billy Ray Cyrus. Her name was derived from her parents’ belief that she would accomplish great things with her life. Do you think they still feel that way? Destiny was given the nickname “Smiley” which was later shortened to Miley. Against the advice of her fathers’ record company, Cyrus’s parents secretly married a month after Cyrus’s birth in November. Her mom had...

Words: 1031 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The Ultimate Excuse Note

...into a whore. Think about all the children that liked her”, and another person this: “Miley is trying to be a slut – not an adult!”. I would like to answer on those comments in this excuse note. As I said earlier, I want to be known as a grown up musician and actress, and I am sorry that it went so wrong. It was never in my intention to act like a prostitute, I just wanted to seem adult. But instead of “twerking” Robin Thicke, I should have just performed like a grown up serious musician. Children should never believe that showing skin, dancing dirty and smoking marijuana is the way of acting grown up. Doing those things are immature and irresponsible, and that is no way to be a grown up. I know that I can never escape being Billy Ray Cyrus' daughter, and it is okay. The problem is that I do not want to be...

Words: 795 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Parody or Prejudice

...Lily Allen’s “Hard Out Here For a Bitch”: Parody or Prejudice Recently, there has been a huge trend going in the pop culture community; this trend is white artists, (especially white female artist, from ladies like Miley Cyrus and Lorde), biting off of the hip hop music genre, making money off of certain aspects of black culture, and at the same time showing disrespect and trying to invalidate it by mocking stereotypical things within the genre and culture. Writer for Jezebel, Kate Dries, defended Allen’s video comparing Jewel’s 2003 hit single “Intuition” by saying, “’Follow your heart, your intuition/It will lead you in the right direction’ is a great sentiment and all, but not particularly interesting or funny, two things that Allen has managed to combine in this release,” and ending the article with a personal quote from Allen, “If you can't detect the sarcasm, you've misunderstood.” Now listen, most people who can take a joke can appreciate satire as much as the next person but, guess what? Satire works best when flipping the script on the oppressor, on the system. When you are calling attention to the ways that the system is skewed by amplifying the absurdity of that system; not disrespecting the people who are oppressed by that system. According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, satire has been defined as “a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the......

Words: 1199 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Miley Cyrus Quotes

...Miley Cyrus: My guardian angel To be able to solidify a single form of media that has changed me, inspired me, or related to me was quite a challenge in itself. Then I thought about the journey I have been on to get to where I am and to where I want to be. The song The Climb by Miley Cyrus connected with me in a way I didn’t expect. It actually brought tears to my eyes. When you think about all the hard times you have gone through to just be one step closer to your dream it’s a surreal feeling. Every struggle I faced it felt like Miley was sitting on my shoulder as my guardian angel singing this song convincing me that the end goal with make the climb feel worth it. "The Climb" is a song performed by American singer Miley Cyrus, for the...

Words: 1143 - Pages: 5