Free Essay

Data Communication

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By Bigboy2014
Words 1231
Pages 5
TCP/ IP is the basic communication language for the internet. It can be used in private networks such as the intranet and extranet. Any computer that you send a message to gets a copy of the TCP/IP. TCP/IP is a two layer protocol consisting of transmission control protocol(TCP) and the lower layer Which is Internet protocol which handles addressing so that each packet gets to its destination. TCP will be in control of managing the assembling of a message that Is being sent. IP is responsible for moving packet of data from node to node. IP forwards each packet based on a four byte destination address (the IP number). The Internet authorities assign ranges of numbers to different organizations. The organizations assign groups of their numbers to departments. IP operates on gateway machines that move data from department to organization to region and then around the world. The way that TCP/IP communicate is by using a client/server action in which the client who request and is provided a service. The communication of TCP/IP is really from one point to another meaning that it uses a point to point type of communication. Each user request is considered to be a new request, therefore TCP/IP and its higher-level applications are considered stateless. Being stateless also means that if frees network paths so that everyone can use them continuously. HTTP, Telnet, and SMTP are all associated with TCP/IP as a suite. Protocols related to TCP/IP include the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which is used instead of TCP for special purposes. Other protocols are used by network host computers for exchanging router information. The internet is a primary reason why TCP/IP is the way It is today. The TCP/IP protocol were first developed as part of the research network ARPA. The fledgling network named ARPANET, was designed to use a number of protocols that had been adapted from existing technologies. Developers of the new network recognized that trying to use these existing protocls might eventually lead to problems as the ARPAnet scaled to a larger size and was adapted for newuses and applications. In early versions of this technology, there was only one core protocol and that was the TCP. TCP checks packets for errors and submits requests for re-transmissions if errors are found. TCP and IP were developed by a Department of Defense (DOD) research project to connect a number different networks designed by different vendors into a network of networks (the "Internet"). It was initially successful because it delivered a few basic services that everyone needs (file transfer, electronic mail, remote logon) across a very large number of client and server systems. Several computers in a small department can use TCP/IP (along with other protocols) on a single LAN. The IP component provides routing from the department to the enterprise network, then to regional networks, and finally to the global Internet. On the battlefield a communications network will sustain damage, so the DOD designed TCP/IP to be robust and automatically recover from any node or phone line failure. This design allows the construction of very large networks with less central management. However, because of the automatic recovery, network problems can go undiagnosed and uncorrected for long periods of time. There are five layers of the TCP/IP protocol suite and they are Application, Transport, Network, Network Access, and Physical. The physical network layer specifies the characteristics of the hardware applications to be used for the network. The TCP/IP transport layer ensures that packets arrive in sequence and without error, by swapping acknowledgments of the data reception. The application layer defines standard Internet services and network applications that anyone can use. The layer works with the transport layer to send and receive data. The ARPANET started with four nodes in 1969 and grew to just under 600 nodes before it was split up in 1983. The NSFNET also started with a modest number of sites in 1986. After that, the network experienced literally exponential growth. Internet growth between 1981 and 1991. TCP/IP is most commonly associated with the Unix operating system. While developed separately, they have been historically tied, as mentioned above, since 4.2BSD Unix started bundling TCP/IP protocols with the operating system. Nevertheless, TCP/IP protocols are available for all widely-used operating systems today and native TCP/IP support is provided in OS/2, OS/400, all Windows versions since Windows 9x, and all Linux and Unix variants. The TCP/IP protocols have been designed to operate over nearly any underlying local or wide area network technology. Although certain accommodations may need to be made, IP messages can be transported over all of the technologies shown in the figure, as well as numerous others. IP addresses are here to accommodate different size networks, IPv4 defines several address classes. Classes A, B, and C are used for host addressing and the only difference between the classes is the length of the NET_ID subfieldarchical for routing purposes and are subdivided into two subfields. While IP addresses are 32 bits in length, most users do not memorize the numeric addresses of the hosts to which they attach; instead, people are more comfortable with host names. Most IP hosts, then, have both a numeric IP address and a name. While this is convenient for people, however, the name must be translated back to a numeric address for routing purposes.
. In the early ARPANET, every host maintained a file called hosts that contained a list of all hosts, which included the IP address and host name). This was an adequate measure while the ARPANET was small and had a slow rate of growth, but was not a scalable solution as the network grew. UDP, described in RFC 768, provides an end-to-end datagram (connectionless) service. Some applications, such as those that involve a simple query and response, are better suited to the datagram service of UDP because there is no time lost to virtual circuit establishment and termination. UDP's primary function is to add a port number to the IP address to provide a socket for the application. The connection establishment phase comprises a three-way handshake during which time the client and server exchange their initial sequence number (ISN) and acknowledge the other host's ISN. In this example, the client starts by sending the server a TCP segment with the syn-bit set. he second part of the TCP connection is data exchange. The information here is more or less made up for example purposes only; it shows a POP server sending a banner message to the client system. The final phase is connection termination. Although TCP connections are full-duplex (even if a given application does not allow two-way simultaneous communication), the TCP protocol views the logical connection as a pair of simplex links. TCP/IP is not really a pair of communication protocols but is a suite of protocols, applications, and utilities. Increasingly, these protocols are referred to as the Internet Protocol Suite, but older name for this protocol want disappear anytime soon.

Sources: http://ccm.net/contents/292-tcp-ip https://nmap.org/book/tcpip-ref.html http://www.networkworld.com/article/2459286/why-tcp/ip-is-on-the-way-out/why-tcp/why-tcp/ip-is-on-the-way-out.html

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Data Communications

...Data Communications The 4th Annual Technology Trade Show is slowly approaching. We are preparing to get things in order for the company’s booth. Marketing managers are in the process of determining what displays we will be presenting. The specified equipment will be all of the 2015 models of the T-21. As a marketing manager, I have developed an Excel spreadsheet that will track booth components, equipment, shippers and shipments. The Excel file is named “2015 Trade Booth” located on the company SharePoint site. The excel spreadsheet has five sheets that are labeled with the approximate label. The tab labeled “Events” has all of the information for the Trade Show. This tab has an info form imported from Word that needs to be filled out by all vendors, suppliers, and buyers for the event. Once the form is completed, it should be entered into the 2015 Trade Booth Access program. Entering the vendors, suppliers, and buyers information in the Access program will link information to the equipment, supplies, and shippers and shipment information. Using Access for the database allows the company to store vast amounts of information while importing and exporting files to or from Word, Excel and PowerPoint. One disadvantage with using Access last, was connection problems with Word and Excel, which made it impossible to track data. This year, only one person will enter data and export/import files. Access is a great example of a personal database. A personal database is a DBMS......

Words: 519 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Data Communications

...Course Outline Course Title: CS065 – Data Communications Course Description This course provides a broad introduction to the fundamentals of data communications and network technology. Emphasis is on more complex aspects of data communications from the perspective of the computer science and information technology in the communication of data, and the interaction of remote systems. Course Objectives ← The objectives of the course are to enable students to: ← Understand and describe time, space, and frequency domains and their applications ← Understand and apply the abstract ISO 7 layer OSI reference model ← Understand and describe other networking models such as TCP/IP, N-ISDN, and ATM. ← Understand and describe circuit, packet switching, frame/cell relay, ATM, WDM, optical networking and newer networking technologies ← Apply mathematical/ analytical skills in basic performance evaluation such as utilization throughput and delay. Course Structure and Contents Module 1: Introduction to Data Communication • Understand and describe time, space, frequency domains application. Module 2: ISO 7 layer OSI reference model • Understand and apply the abstract ISO 7 layer OSI reference model Module3: Other Networking models • Understand and describe other networking models such as TCP/IP, N-ISDN, and ATM. Module4: Network Technologies • Understand and describe circuit, packet switching, frame/cell......

Words: 313 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Data Communication

... Question 1: Computer network: A computer network is a group of computer systems and other computing hardware apparatus that are connected together through communication channels to facilitate connection and resource-sharing among a broad range of users. Systems are routinely categorized founded on their characteristics. One example for a computer network was a network of communicating computers that functioned as part of the U.S. military's Semi-Automatic Ground natural environment (SAGE) radar system. In 1969, the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research organisation, the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah were attached as part of the advanced study tasks bureau Network (ARPANET) task. It is this network that developed to become what we now call the Internet. Systems are used for the following key causes: To facilitate connection via internet message, video conferencing, instant messaging, etc. To enable multiple users to share a lone hardware device like a copier or scanner To endow document sharing across the network To permit for the distributing of software or functioning programs on remote systems To make data easier to get access to and sustain amidst network users .( R. Morris (10-2001)) Personal area networks (PANs); A Personal area network - PAN - is a computer network coordinated round a one-by-one individual. Personal area systems typically involve a mobile computer, a teli phone and/or a handheld......

Words: 2049 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Data Communication

...Archie B. Bairoy 1-B ACT Summary of Independence day Movie On July 2nd the communications systems worldwide are sent into chaos by a strange atmospheric interference. It is soon learned by the military that a number of enormous objects are on a collision course with Earth. At first thought to be meteors, they are later revealed to be gigantic spacecraft, piloted by a mysterious alien species. After attempts to communicate with the aliens go nowhere, David Levinson, an ex-scientist turned cable technician, discovers that the aliens are going to attack major points around the globe in less than a day. Aliens arrive in a gigantic mother ship and prepare to invade earth. Huge daughter ships get sent to hover above major cities all over earth. They use earth's satellites to communicate and time their attack which messes up TV signals. On July 3rd, the aliens all but obliterate New York, Los Angeles, and Washington. The survivors set out in convoys towards Area 51, a strange government testing ground where it is rumored the military has a captured alien spacecraft of their own. The survivors devise a plan to fight back against the enslaving aliens, and July 4th becomes the day humanity will fight for its freedom. July 4th is their Independence Day... Cite/mention/describe explain two scenes in the movie in which data communication is involved 1. RADAR Is an object-detection system which uses radio waves......

Words: 391 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Data Communications

...COMP2330 Data Communications and Networking Written Assignment 1 Sample Solutions 1. Which of the OSI layers handles each of the following: (a) Dividing the transmitted bit stream into frames. (b) Determining which route through the subnet to use. (10 marks) Ans: (a) Data Link Layer (b) Network Layer 2. An image is 1024x768 pixels with 3 bytes/pixel. Assume the image is uncompressed. How long does it take to transmit it over a 56-kbps modem channel? Over a 1-Mbps cable modem? Over a 10-Mbps Ethernet? Over 100-Mbps Ethernet? (10 marks) Ans: The size of the image is 1024 x 768 x 3 x 8 = 18874368 bits. For a 56-kbps modem, it takes 18874368/56000 337 seconds. For a 1-Mbps cable modem, it takes 18864368/106 18.9 seconds. For a 10-Mbps Ethernet, it takes around 1.89 seconds. For a 100-Mbps Ethernet, it takes around 0.19 seconds. 3. A digital signaling system is required to operate at 9600bps. (10 marks) (a) If a signal element encodes a 4-bit word, what is the minimum required bandwidth of the channel if we assume a noise free system? (b) Repeat part (a) for the case of 8-bit words. Ans: Because we assume noise free, we can use Nyquist’s equation: C = 2B log2M. We have C = 9600 bps (a) log2M = 4, because a signal element encodes a 4-bit word. (So, actually M=16). ...

Words: 1180 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Data Communications

...Chapter 1 – Introduction to Data Communications Th is is th e b egin n in g of a cu m u la tive ca s e s tu d y a b ou t a fictit iou s fir m we ca ll Next-Da y Air S er vice (NDAS ). Th e ca s e s t u d y b egin s h er e in Ch a p ter 1 a n d con tin u es th r ou gh ou t th e r es t of th e b ook . It r equ ir es you to com p lete ta s k s th a t a r e r ela ted to top ics cover ed in ea ch cor r es p on d in g ch a p ter of th e text. Th e en d of ea ch ch a p ter con ta in s th e ca s e n a r r a tive, r ela ted figu r es , a n d a s et of qu es tion s a n d p r ob lem s . Th es e d o n ot h a ve on e u n iqu e s olu t ion . Th er e a r e too m a n y a lter n a tives wh en d ea lin g with LANs , WANs , MANs , BNs , a n d th e In ter n et, s o a r ea lis t ic n etwor k d es ign a n d d evelop m en t p rob lem ca n h a ve s evera l wor k a b le a n s wer s . As with a n y r ea l-life p r ob lem with a m b igu ities or u n r es olved con s id er a tion s , you m u s t m a k e you r own a s s u m p tion s . Feel fr ee to r ea d a h ea d or u s e th e in d ex to fin d r ela ted s u b jects th a t s u p p or t you r r ecom m en d a tion s . You r in s tr u ctor m a y p r ovid e a d d ition a l gu id elin es r ega r d in g r ep or t for m a ts , Web a n d lib r a ry r es ou r ces , k ey a s s u m p tion s , a n d th e lik e for th e va r iou s qu es tion s a n d p r ob lem s p r es en ted in th is ca s e s tu d y. Be s u r e to p r ovid e a d equ a te ju s tifica t ion for a n y...

Words: 5174 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Introduction to Data Communication

...Introduction to Data Communication As the world of data communication and networking is changing a transformation of the marketing world is a challenge to stay connected with real world through devices in real time such as mobile phone, tablets, computers and laptops. The modern day marketing have to combine the creative side of discipline and this could be a huge challenge. Three areas of the changing transformation within the market of data communication are by speed, relevance and the reaches within campaigns which has increased greatly through different ways in which people may access the media, like through Facebook, YouTube, cell phones and computers. The changing system bring about a particular tool or system and for any brand of systems to work together in the networking world and brand teams of technologizes be placed to implement new systems. One such resource is “Organizational Challenges to the Adoption of the Internet” gives important update of the changes within the networking community. (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). Current trends that affect the data communication are market trends in which these they show opportunities on how to grow business successfully and take advantages of the many positive changes and guard against the negative ones. While the market trend does effectively also inform it also save organizations from reacting to late when it comes to surprises that may occur while keeping ahead of the many competitors when developing business growth...

Words: 661 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Data Communication at Walmart

... Case Study: Data Communications at Wal-Mart Erin Barraclough Case Study: Data Communications At Wal-Mart • Case Study - Data Communications At WalMart Page 116 1. How has Wal-Mart improved its data communication systems for suppliers? 2. What are some typical data communication applications in Walmart? 3. What are some of the applications of wireless technology in WalMart? 4. What are some of the features and capabilities of VMS? • Due Date Saturday, September 21, 2013 11:59:00 PM CDT (Bidgoli, 2013, p.. Question 1) Wal-Mart has improved its data communication system for its suppliers through various approaches. The main reason for doing so is to, remain the lowest cost retail merchandiser. The first improvement Wal-Mart has done to improve its communication system was adding a customized web site for its suppliers. This customized network has enable suppliers to retrieved, all sales, inventory, and forecasting data through faster connections. To make sure that the confidentiality of data is maintained, Wal-Mart has implemented a security system to ensure that no suppliers can access each other’s data. The second improvement to the data communication system was allowing the suppliers, Web-Based access to Wal-Mart’s Retail Link system to access information in the database. Question 2) Wal-Mart utilizes various data communication system to remain at the top of the retail business. Some typical data communication systems that are......

Words: 388 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Data Communication and Networking

...What is Data Communications? The distance over which data moves within a computer may vary from a few thousandths of an inch, as is the case within a single IC chip, to as much as several feet along the backplane of the main circuit board. Over such small distances, digital data may be transmitted as direct, two-level electrical signals over simple copper conductors. Except for the fastest computers, circuit designers are not very concerned about the shape of the conductor or the analog characteristics of signal transmission. Frequently, however, data must be sent beyond the local circuitry that constitutes a computer. In many cases, the distances involved may be enormous. Unfortunately, as the distance between the source of a message and its destination increases, accurate transmission becomes increasingly difficult. This results from the electrical distortion of signals traveling through long conductors, and from noise added to the signal as it propagates through a transmission medium. Although some precautions must be taken for data exchange within a computer, the biggest problems occur when data is transferred to devices outside the computer's circuitry. In this case, distortion and noise can become so severe that information is lost. Data Communications concerns the transmission of digital messages to devices external to the message source. "External" devices are generally thought of as being independently powered circuitry that exists beyond the chassis of a......

Words: 4487 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Business Data Communications and Networking

...Business Data Communications and Networking 9th Edition Jerry Fitzgerald and Alan Dennis 1-1 Introduction to Data Communications 1-2 Outline • Brief history of Data Communications – Communications, Information Systems and the Internet • Data Communications Networks – Network components, network types • Network Models – OSI model, Internet model, transmission via “layers” • Network Standards – Standards making, common standards • Future Trends – Pervasive networking, integration of voice, video, and data, new information services 1-3 Information Age • First Industrial Revolution – Introduction of machinery – New organizational methods – Changed the way people worked • Second Industrial Revolution – Information Age – Introduction of computers – Introduction of networking and data communication – Changed the way people worked again • Faster communication  Collapsing Information lag • Brought people together  Globalization 1-4 The Collapsing Information Lag Historical developments in electronic communications telegraph sped up the rate and volume of transmission of information 1850 Information took days or weeks to be transmitted 1900 Information transmitted in minutes or hours 1950 2007 large quantities of information transmitted in a fraction of a second growth of telecommunications and especially computer networks Globalization of networks 1-5 Advances in Phone Technology Phone......

Words: 1962 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Networks / Data Communications

...(Ms Word Version attached for better viewing and printing) Networks / Data Communications NTC 360 Lecture Week Three INTRODUCTION Now that we have covered most of the media types available for our networks Protocols that run over the top of the media and the standards they follow, the final topic here is choosing a design of a network by choosing media types and infrastructure that will best suit the needs of the business. INFRASTRUCTURE When to use hubs verses routers and switches is not always a clear-cut decision. In many cases the decision is made due to cost not necessarily best choice. For most office environments a hierarchical design with 10/100/1000 Mbps Ethernet hub/repeaters are adequate. However, there are times when high-speed transfer is worth the cost of installing switches. A good example may be in the motion picture industry where large full motion video clips are developed and edited on computer screens. Due to the size of these kinds of files and the critical nature of time in the industry full duplex switching in the LAN environment may be called for along with Gigabit Ethernet or higher = ). There is an old saying out there that was “route when you can, bridge if you must” This saying still holds true through time. However, switching has for the most part replaced most bridges today. Routing is the best means of isolating and reducing network traffic, which in the end equates to better network performance, however the speeds......

Words: 3575 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Determining Databases and Data Communication

...Determining Databases and Data Communications BIS 320 August 11, 2014 Determining Databases and Data Communications In the first illustration, a marketing assistant for a consumer electronics company is responsible for the task of maintaining booths for trade shows from beginning to end and must resolve any related issues that may arise. There are many things that need to be kept track of including data related to the equipment received for trade shows. Situations such as these required detailed lists of all things involved. For example, the equipment related to the trade show booth would be kept in its own category where they would be listed individually in relation to their utilization purposes for the trade show. Other data would need to be recorded such as detailed information in relation to the condition of the items during the shipping process. The marketing assistant must ensure the booth and its display contents, are brought to their desired location in a timely fashion and taken back securely in order to assure their future use to the company. By having information such as postal tracking numbers, tabs can be kept on the dispatch and retrieval dates, hence being aware of the items locale at all times. Trade shows typically need certain tools for tracking and maintaining the information needed with relation to the equipment being used. A great initial option would be a program such as Excel, to track the necessary data. However, Excel may not be the most......

Words: 1026 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Voice and Data Communication

...Voice and Data Communication Elisha Myles NTC/360 February 21, 2011   In many households can have various setups of a network from basic Internet connections to electronic devices. Here we will explain how one home network system can be achieved with the proper hardware and devices to make it work. In this home network consist of one desktop computer hard wired with Arris Telephone Telephony cable modem and CATV coaxial cable wiring provided by the cable company. The computer is connected to the cable modem through Ethernet connection and also has a telephone line connection. This is also connected using Ethernet wiring to a NETGEAR Wireless N Router (WNR2000) with a Push ‘N’ Connect feature for using WiFi protection that comes in handy because the house also has a laptop that uses a Wireless-N 300 USB adapter and Playstation 3 in a separate room, both are protected by a password, this is important because the wireless will pick up other signals in the neighborhood and it provides security from other people gaining access to the computer. The differences between Rotary and Dual Tone Multi-frequency phones are with rotary phones or the rotary dial was improvements to the old form of sending telegraph signals in the 1900s. The rotary dial phones was a mounted device on a telephone or switchboard designed to send electrical pulses that corresponded with the number dialed. The design had a finger plate with holes in the top to allow people to put their fingers in......

Words: 1521 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Determining Databases and Data Communication

...Determining Databases and Data Communications Scott Powers BIS/320 April 29, 2013 Dr. Julie Johnston Determining Databases and Data Communications A tracking system can be a complicated process, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet or a Database system is the focus of this study, and the finding are in the following report. The first research conducted analyses a marketing assistance and the tracking systems used. The second part of the research conducted is to analysis the best options for computer access at a small office and how to determine the best system to use. A spreadsheet is attached to view the cost and abilities of each access for the office assistant. Each study took into account the particulate and the needed of the person and the desired outcomes. The first research looked at is the use of spreadsheets with particulars to include equipment, components, and shippers needed at the trade show. The research includes how to track what shippers were used or how many different shippers to use for multiple pieces of inventory and the ease of use of a spreadsheet. This Research also looked into when a database would be better to track the multiple components, equipment, and the shipper data history used. The research conducted will shows what tracking system is a better fit for the marketing assistant to track their inventory during the planning, setup, duration, and shipping of inventory and ultimately the post analysis of a tradeshow? Booth and trade show......

Words: 1120 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Determining Databases and Data Communications

...Determining Databases and Data Communications Lucinda Degarmo BIS/320 November 02, 2015 Karl Jaufmann | Scenario 1 As the marketing assistant, I would definitely have to use a program that would track ordering, delivery and losses of any equipment used. The typical fields that would be needed for such database would be the following: Event Name, Event Date, Name of equipment/display, Serial Number, Date ordered, Date shipped, Date delivered, Date packed, Date shipped, Date received, Loss remarks. The first tracking relationships would be of course the Event Name, Event date and Name of equipment, Date ordered. By tracking these fields, I would be able to figure out what types of equipment or displays to order for the event and ensure timely delivery for the event. The second tracking relationships would be the return of the equipment which would include packing date, shipping date and date received and any losses incurred. By tracking the return of the equipment, I would be sure that the equipment has been accounted for and safely returned back to the warehouse. By using a tracking program for each event, the accountability for the equipment is monitored from the day it leaves the warehouse and is returned safely back to the warehouse. A database would definitely be needed to track the inventory. Excel could handle the tracking input and output; however, since the shipping and receipt of the equipment would not be readily available another......

Words: 628 - Pages: 3