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Data Cryptography

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Scams of the day!!!

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Fundamentals of Information Systems Security

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Fundamentals of Information Systems Security

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On to today’s lesson

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FIRST OF ALL… § Let me clear up a misconception § RSA public/private key encryption is THE leader, in terms of security. For all practical purposes, it is impossible to crack a RSA algorithm. § PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is probably the best implementation of RSA. It is now owned by Symantec. § Other free products (which do not tightly integrate into email, for example) are available § Understand that PKI is NOT the same thing as public key encryption
Fundamentals of Information Systems Security
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Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a set of hardware, software, people, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates. In cryptography, a PKI is an arrangement that binds public keys with respective user identities by means of a certificate authority (CA). The user identity must be unique within each CA domain. The binding is established through the registration and issuance process, which, depending on the level of assurance the binding has, may be carried out by software at a CA, or under human supervision. The VA (Verification Authority) checks authentication. The PKI role that assures this binding is called the Registration Authority (RA). For each user, the user identity, the public key, their binding, validity conditions and other attributes are made un-forgeable in public key certificates issued by the CA. The term trusted third party (TTP) may also be used for certificate authority (CA). The term PKI is sometimes erroneously used to denote public key algorithms, which do not require the use of a CA.

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RSA is NOT a panacea for all your ills…. § It’s SLOW!!! § So slow, in fact, the AES (the successor of DES) is actually used for most encryption. § AES is reasonably secure, uses smaller 256-bit keys § AES is even built into hardware

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Fundamentals of Information Systems Security

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SO – what is RSA good for??
Some may ask why use RSA keys when it’s many orders of magnitude slower and requires so many more bits to be secure. The reason is that RSA encryption has the special property of being able to do secure key exchanges in plain sight of an adversary who is trying to break in but still remain safe. For this reason, RSA keys are strictly used for the initial phases of a secure communication session for the purpose of Authentication (where one entity proves who they are) and for secure key exchanges (used for bulk symmetric encryption). Once the initial transaction is complete, the key that was exchanged during the initial RSA phase can now be used for SSL or VPN bulk encryption with algorithms like RC5, 3DES, or AES.

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Fundamentals of Information Systems Security
Unit 7 Role of Cryptography in Maintaining Confidentiality and Privacy of Data
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Learning Objective
Explain how businesses apply cryptography in maintaining information security.

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Key Concepts
§ History of cryptography § Secret key and public key cryptography § Encryption mechanisms and techniques § Business applications of cryptography § Impact of compliance laws on maintaining confidentiality of privacy data

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DISCOVER: CONCEPTS

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Cryptography History
§ People have used cryptography to protect information for at least 4,000 years. § Early information security was as simple as hiding it. This is known as steganography. § Steganography is not the same as cryptography.

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Cryptography History Examples
§ Histiaeus sent a message tattooed on the scalp of his slave. § Cryptography altered the course of English history. • World War I • World War II

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Current-Day Cryptography
Security Goal Confidentiality Integrity Authentication Non-repudiation Description Keeps information secret from all but authorized people Can enforce integrity with hashes Provides a way to authenticate entities Prevents a party from denying a previous statement or action

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Cryptography in Business
§ Increasing concern about the security of data § More sophisticated attacks § Tremendous growth of computer-related fraud and data theft § Data protection as a business priority

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Cryptography in Business (Continued)
Type Intrabusiness Security Interbusiness Security Provision Privacy, integrity, authorization, and access control Message authentication, signature, receipt and confirmation, and nonrepudiation Anonymity, time stamping, revocation, and ownership

Extrabusiness Security

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Applications and Uses
§ Cryptography uses can be found in categories, such as: • Anti-malware • Compliance or auditing • Forensics • Transaction security • Wireless security

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DISCOVER: PROCESSES

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Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
§ Ad-hoc secure communications are basis of Internet e-commerce. § One of the most frequently used forms of cryptography today. § With an asymmetric key, ad-hoc communications are straightforward. § SSL is one of the most commonly used cryptographic protocols for managing secure communication between a client and server over the Web.

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SSL Encryption
§ It is also known as Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) encryption. § It is shown in the address bar of Web browsers as https://. § A lock icon is also displayed. § SSL handshake creates first secure session between a client and server.

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SSL Handshake Process
§ Server authentication • Server sends its certificate. • Encrypted master key is then sent to the server. § Optional client authentication • Server sends a challenge to the client.

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SSL Handshake Process (Continued)

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DISCOVER: ROLES

Fundamentals of Information Systems Security

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Symmetric Key Standards
Standard Triple DES (Data Encryption Standard) IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) Blowfish Description Consists of three passes of DES using multiple keys Uses a 128-bit key and runs faster than DES Faster than DES or IDEA

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Symmetric Key Standards (Continued)
Standard AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) RC2 RC4 Description Strong and fast Designed by Ronald Rivest Used in Internet browsers

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Symmetric Key Principles
§ The same key encrypts and decrypts.

§ Symmetric algorithms can be fast and are well suited to encrypting lots of data. § They are often used once and then discarded.
Fundamentals of Information Systems Security
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Asymmetric Key Standards
Standard
Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman (RSA) encryption algorithm Diffie-Hellman key exchange El Gamal encryption algorithm Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC)

Description
Considered by many as the standard for encryption An early key exchange design An extension of Diffie-Hellman Used for a compact design

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Asymmetric Key Principles

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Why not use asymmetric for everything?
§ AES is about 10 - 100 times faster than RSA, and with hardware speedups, up to 10,000 faster. § Most SSLs use AES or some derivative. § Occasionally, RC4 is used. RC4 was designed by Ron Rivest of RSA Security in 1987. While it is officially termed "Rivest Cipher 4", the RC acronym is alternatively understood to stand for "Ron's Code”. § RC4 – while “probably” secure for internet, is the weakness of WEP. (In WEP – the key is too small, parts of it are sent as plaintext, and it is reused).

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Business Implementations
§ Classifications of products and services: • Authentication/access control/authorization • Security management products • Perimeter/network security/availability • Encryption • Administration/education/outsource services/ consultants

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Business Implications: Q&A
1. Considering the information security objectives, which business tools and services satisfy which security objectives? Which of these can be addressed with cryptography?

2.

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DISCOVER: RATIONALE

Fundamentals of Information Systems Security

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Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Terms
§ Digital signatures § Public key encryption § Confidentiality § Integrity

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Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Terms (Continued)
§ Authentication § Access control § Non-repudiation

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PKI Components
§ Certification authority (CA) § Registration authority (RA) § Certificates and policies

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PKI Components (Continued)
§ Certificate practice statement (CPS) § Revocation § Trust mode

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Summary
§ People have used cryptography to protect information for at least 4,000 years. § Businesses apply cryptography in maintaining information security. § SSL is one of the most frequently used forms of cryptography today.

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