Free Essay

Data Information

In: Business and Management

Submitted By 2Ermine2
Words 1627
Pages 7
EVALUATING HISTORICAL SOURCES

Historians most often use written sources, but audio and visual materials as well as artifacts have become important objects that supply information to modern historians. Numerical data are explained in written form or used in support of a written statement. Historians must be aware of the climate of opinion or shared set of values, assumptions, ideas, and emotions that influence the way their sources are constructed and the way they perceive those sources. In addition, an individual's own frame of reference-- the product of one's own individual experiences lived--must be acknowledged by the perceptive historian in order to determine the reliability and credibility of a source in relation to others. Good historical writing includes: a clear argument that has both logical and persuasive elements interpretations that strive to be as objective as possible but openly acknowledging the underlying concerns and assumptions something new rather than simply re-hashing the work of other authors--sometimes asking old questions and finding new answers or asking questions which never have been asked a response to debates in the field of history, either by challenging or reinforcing the interpretations of other historians evidenced in the footnotes and biography
Historical sources are typically divided into two categories: primary and secondary sources. Depending on the historian's intent, some sources change their designation. Determining what sort of sources to use, and the level of credibility and reliability of those sources, is an important step in critical thinking for the historian.
Primary Sources

Primary sources are produced usually by a participant or observer at the time an event or development took place (or even at a later date). Primary sources include manuscripts such as letters, diaries, journals, memos. Newspapers, memoirs, and autobiographies also might function as primary sources. Nonwritten primary sources might be taped interviews, films and videotapes, photographs, furniture, cards, tools, weapons, houses and other artifacts.

How to Read a Primary Source

To read primary sources effectively requires you to use your historical imagination along with your research skills. You must be willing and able to ask questions, imagine possible answers, find factual background data, and craft an analytical response. To evaluate primary sources, explore the following parts of the text or artifact by following these steps:

1. Author and Audience:

· Who wrote the text (or created the artifact) and what is the author/creator's place in society? If the person is not well known, try to get clues from the text/artifact itself.

· Why do you think the author wrote it? How "neutral" is the text; how much does the author have a stake in you reading it, i.e., does the author have an "ax to grind" which might render the text unreliable? What evidence (in the text or artifact) tells you this? People generally do not go to the trouble to record their thoughts unless they have a purpose or design; and the credible author acknowledges and expresses those values or biases so that they may be accounted for in the text.

· What is the intended audience of the text or artifact? How does the text reveal the targetted audience?

2. Logic:

· What is the author's thesis? How does the creator construct the artifact? What is the strategy for accomplishing a particular goal? Do you think the strategy is effective for the intended audience? Cite specific examples.

· What arguments or concerns does the author imply that are not clearly stated? Explain what you think this position may be and why you think it.

3. Frame of Reference:

· How do the ideas and values in the source differ from the ideas and values of our age? Give specific examples of differences between your frame of reference and that of the author or creator -- either as an individual or as a member of a cultural group.

· What assumptions do we as readers bring to bear on this text? See if you can find portions of the text which we might find objectionable, but which contemporaries might have found acceptable.

4. Evaluating Truth Content:

· How might this text support one of the arguments found in a historical secondary source? Choose a paragraph anywhere in a secondary source you've read, state where this text might be an appropriate footnote (give a full citation), and explain why.

· Offer one example of a historical "fact" (something that is indisputable or generally acknowledged as true) that we can learn from this text (this need not be the author's exact words).

5. Relation to Other Sources:

· Compare and contrast the source with another primary source from the same time period. What major similarities? What major differences appear in them?

· Which do you find more reliable and credible? Reliability refers to the consistency of the author's account of the truth. A reliable text displays a pattern of verifiable truth-telling that tends to make the reader trust that the rest of the text is true also. Your task as a historian is to make and justify decisions about the relative veracity of historical texts and portions of them.

Secondary Sources

Secondary sources are produced when a historian uses primary sources to write about a topic or to support a thesis. Monographs, professionally researched and clearly written, about events and developments in the past might also use other secondary sources. Arranged artifacts might also be considered secondary sources, e.g., a specially designed wall of nineteenth century portraiture. Most books in the history section of a library and the articles in history journals are secondary sources. However, a secondary source, such as George Bancroft's nineteenth century history of the United States, might be a primary source for someone who is writing an article on "Techniques of Writing History in the Nineteenth Century."

How to Read a Secondary Source

Reading secondary historical sources is a skill which may be acquired and must be practiced. The key is to think about the material being presented and to connect it to other material you have covered. To evaluate secondary sources, explore the following parts of the text or artifact by following these steps:

1. Structure: First read and think about the title -- what does it promise for the book or article? Then, if you have a book in hand, look at the table of contents: this is the "menu" that reveals the structure of the work. You can use this as your outline for your notes or create your own brief outline.

2. Thesis: Always read a secondary source from the outside in: read a book's foreword and introduction (or the article's first paragraph or two); then read the conclusion or epilogue. Ask yourself what the author's thesis might be and check it against your outline to see how the argument has been structured.

3. Argument: Continue to read the source from the outside in. For a book, quickly read the first and last paragraph of each chapter to get a good idea of the themes and arguments. Then skim through the chapters, taking cues as to which paragraphs are most important from their topic sentences. It is up to you to judge which passages are more important based on what you know so far about the book's themes and arguments. Highlight passages that seem to be especially relevant by placing them on notecards or making margin notes. Your notations should include your reactions to those passages: is it a good piece of evidence for the author's argument or is a particular statement valid or credible? The idea here is to evaluate the logic of the argument and the base of resources on which the author relies.

4. Resources: Read the footnotes! They are the nuts and bolts of history writing. When you come across a particularly interesting or controversial passage, watch to see what is cited. What primary sources has the historian used? Have they been used effectively? Are her sources credible or reliable? How does the use of the sources influence the kinds of arguments made? What other sources might have been used?

5. Motives: Why did the author write the book? Find out who the author is/was and the context in which she or he wrote the book. What political and cultural institutions or events might have had an impact on the author's reason for writing this source? What ongoing historiographical discussion (e.g., a hot topic at a history conference, in a journal or listserv) do you think this source is contributing to?

Understanding the ways historians construct their arguments is essential to writing good history papers. Secondary sources, including your own research paper, are constructed for various reasons, including the following:

· No one has begun to analyze a particular issue, and so the author is developing a first interpretation of it.

· Gaps or deficiences in the scholarship in a particular topic created a need for a monograph to help close them.

· A popular or commonplace interpretation of an issue begs for a more accurate interpretation with which to debunk it.

· Existing scholarship of a topic is too simplistic, and an author might add complexity by examining and evaluating particular details.

· Debate on a particular topic might foster yet another perspective which will demonstrate that one side is more persuasive than another.

· Debate on a topic must be recast because the participants are asking the wrong questions or viewing the issue in an inappropriate way.

· A case study of a general historical argument or principle about a topic could provide reinforcements for that principle, require modifications of it, or negate it entirely.

· A test case of a broad interpretation of a large or complex topic would entail a study of one portion of that larger argument. The results of that test case may reinforce the broad interpretation, require its modification, or negate it entirely.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Data & Information

...century is an information era; it is very rare that one can absolutely be untouched by information and knowledge in their daily living. Many important human activities are not able to function without data, information and knowledge. Data, information and knowledge are different from one another, yet there are interrelated to each other. Data Data are unprocessed raw facts which can be either qualified and or quantified. It explains phenomenal refer to statistical observations and other recordings or collections of evidence (Chaim Zins, 2007, p.480). Data can be in numbers or text. For example, temperature currency, gender, age, body weight. Figure 1, is example of data recorded in Microsoft Excel data sheet. Figure 1 Information The outcome of data processing is information. Figure 2 expresses the process of how data is being transformed to information. Data which is the input when being processed such as organized, examined, analyzed, summarized it gives the output as information. Information is processed data which gives explicit meaning to its readers. Based on Figure 1 data, after processed them, gives you the information of the percentage of a group of 24 youth, the number of times they eat fast food in a week as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3 show that youth in their twenties eats fast food at least once a week there are even a small number of them (4.1%) takes fast food almost every day (6 times/ week). It gives the information......

Words: 285 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Data Information

...Data and Information Summary HCI/520 11/18/2013 Data and Information Summary Today we live in a world where data is a critical resource. Information is also a critical resource and consists of data that is processed into meaningful information for the purpose of organizations and users. Collected data is stored into what is known as databases where it is organized into potentially valuable information. Data also known as Raw data is a stream of facts that are not organized or arranged into a form that people can understand or use (Gillenson, Ponniah, Kriegel, Trukhnov, Taylor, Powell, & Miller, 2008) . Raw Data are facts that have not yet been processed to reveal their meaning (Gillenson, Ponniah, Kriegel, Trukhnov, Taylor, Powell, & Miller, 2008). For example when AT&T wireless ask their clients to participate in a survey about the products they have purchased or how was their customer service experience the data collected is useful but not until the raw data is organized by combining it with other similar data and analyzed into meaningful information. Information is the result of processing raw data to reveal its meaning (Coronel, Morris, & Rob, 2010). Data processing can be as simple as organizing data to reveal patterns or as complex as making forecasts or drawing inferences using statistical modeling (Gillenson, Ponniah, Kriegel, Trukhnov, Taylor, Powell, & Miller, 2008). Both data and information are types of knowledge which share......

Words: 538 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Transforming Data Into Information

...Transforming Data into Information What is Data? What is information? Data is facts; numbers; statistics; readings from a device or machine. It depends on what the context is. Data is what is used to make up information. Information could be considered to be the same characteristics I just described as data. In the context of transforming data into information, you could assume data is needed to produce information. So information there for is the meaningful translation of a set of or clusters of data that’s produces an output of meaningful information. So data is a bunch of meaningless pieces of information that needs to be composed; analyzed; formed; and so forth to form a meaningful piece of information. Transforming Data Let’s pick a context such as computer programming. You need pieces of data to be structured and formed into something that will result in an output of something; a message, a graph, or a process, in which a machine can perform some sort of action. Well now we could say that information is used to make a product, make a computer produce something, or present statistical information. That would be the output of that data. The data would be numbers, words, or symbols. The information would be a message, a graph, or a process, in which a machine can perform some sort of action. Information Information could be looked at as data as well. Let’s say we need a chart showing the cost of a business expenses in relation to employee salaries. The data for......

Words: 315 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Data Information and Information System

...Data: Raw material Data collection costs money Collect only necessary and sufficient data Data is generally used by machines Data is useless unless it is process to create information Information: Processed data Data process by machines giving information Information is used to run an organization efficiently Information used by managers to initiate actions TYPES OF INFORMATION Operational Information - used to day to day operations Example information needed by a shopkeeper: Daily sales account List of low stock items to be re-ordered List of overstock items Long overdue payments Profit loss account Tactical information - used to improve profitability Example information needed by a shopkeeper: Slow or fast moving items Reliable supplier of items Sales trends Strategic Information - information to expand business and explore new opportunities Example information needed by a shopkeeper: Whether to stock different varieties of items Whether to diversify Whether to start a new branch in a different locality Whether to start an e-shop Statutory Information - used to provide information to the government Example information needed by a shopkeeper: Income tax account Sales tax account MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY AND INFORMATION NEEDS QUALITIES OF INFORMATION Accurate Complete Timely Trustworthy Relevant Brief Up-to-date SignificanceEnsure correct input and processing rules Include all data Give at the right time Do not hide unpleasant information ......

Words: 2370 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Discriminate Between Data and Information

...Meaning and definition of data and information Data is the raw material for data processing. The data relate to facts, event and transactions. Data refers to unprocessed information. Information is data that has been processed in such a way as to be meaningful to the person who receives it. It is anything that is communicated. For example, researchers who conduct market research survey might ask a member of the public to complete questionnaires about a product or a service. These completed questionnaires are data; they are processed and analyze in order to prepare a report on the survey. This resulting report is informative. Data | Information | Originated at mid 17th century | Originated in late middle time | Data are raw facts. | Information is processed data | May not always be meaningful. | Information is always meaningful. | Input to any system may be treated as Data | Output after processing the system is Information | Data must be processed to understand. | The information is already in understandable form, it may be processed further to make it more understandable. | Difficult to Understanding | Easy to Understanding | Data may not be in the order. | Information should be in the order | Example: Statistics, numbers, characters, images. | Example Reports, Knowledge | Data is used as input to the computer system. | Information is the output of data. | Data is unprocessed facts figures. | Information is processed data. | Data is not......

Words: 993 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Trends in Information Analysis & Data Management

...Trends in Information Analysis and Data Management Trends in Information Analysis and Data Management Over the last decade, advancements in digital technology have enabled companies to collect huge amounts of new information. This data is so large in scope, it has traditionally been difficult to process and analyze this information using standard database management systems such as SQL. The commoditization of computer technology has created a new paradigm in which data can be analyzed more efficiently and effectively than ever before. This report analyzes the some of the most important changes that are currently taking place within this new paradigm. The first part of this report covers trends in database analysis by analyzing the field of data mining. The report covers the topic of data mining by providing an explanation of it, and then by providing examples of real-world examples of data mining technology. Benefits and challenges of data mining are then provided. The second part of the report outlines an even more recent trend in data science, which is the increasing usage of noSQL databases to analyze “big data,” also referred to web-scale datasets. The most recent and major technological developments in the industry are then provided and described. Data Mining Background & Definition Data mining involves the process of discovering and extracting new knowledge from the analysis of large data sets. This is most often done through the use of data mining......

Words: 2546 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Harnessing Information Management, the Data and Infrastructure

...Washing machines, Refrigerators and many more devices. Information management: The planning, budgeting, control and exploitation of the information resources in an organization. It comprises of information relating to personal, finance, marketing, organization and technology. It helps in the coordination and integration of a wide range of information about the activities inside the organization. The information include the formulation of corporate information policy, design, evaluation and integration ofeffective information systems and services, the exploitation of IT for competitiveadvantage and the integration of internal and external information and data.  Data management: Data management is an organization's management of information and data for secure and structured access and storage. It includes creating policies for the government, analysis and architecture, database management, integration systems, data security and data source. Is comprises of a variety of different techniques that facilitate and ensure data control and flow from creation to processing, utilization and deletion. It is a main part in an IT industry as data and information builds up the organization. Infrastructure: It is the basic facilities, services and installations needed for the functioning of an organization. It is the underlying base or foundation needed especially by industries or companies to function with ease. Information management consists of computers, instructions, stored......

Words: 1002 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Harnessing Information Management, the Data, and Infrastructure

...Harnessing Information Management, the Data, and Infrastructure Writing Assignment #2 Antwaun Taylor Strayer University CIS 500 Prof. Richard Brown Friday, May 1, 2015 The importance of information management is to gain the maximum benefits from your company's information system, which you would have to exploit all its capacities. Information systems gain their importance by processing the data from company inputs to generate information that is useful for managing your operations. Other duties of management is gathering and distributing information, and information systems can make this process more efficient by allowing managers to communicate rapidly. (Markgraf, 2015) The use of information technology has been an essential part of Wal-Mart's growth. A decade ago Wal-Mart trailed K-Mart, which could negotiate lower wholesale prices due to its size. They created a computerized system that identifies each item sold, that would finds its price in a computerized database, creates an accurate sales receipt for the customer, and stores this item-by-item sales information for use in analyzing sales and reordering inventory. Aside from handling information efficiently, effective use of this information helps Wal-Mart avoid overstocking by learning what merchandise is selling slowly. Aside from handling information efficiently, effective use of this information helps Wal-Mart avoid overstocking by learning what merchandise is selling slowly. Wal-Mart's inventory and......

Words: 1155 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Personally Identifiable Information (Pii) and Data Breaches

...Personally Identifiable Information (PII) and Data Breaches By Stevie D. Diggs University Maryland University College IFSM201 Section 7974 Semester 1309 Personally Identifiable Information (PII) and Data Breaches Knowing and training on personally identifiable information (PII) is important in today’s society. There has been research on data breaches and identity theft that links them both together. This is to help personnel have a clear understanding on the impact of what is at steak and an explanation of PII. Many businesses and organizations have different definition for PII because of the classification of data for each, and that is why understanding PII is important. Examples of PII include, but are not limited to the following: full name, maiden name, mother‘s maiden name, or alias; personal identification number, social security number (SSN), passport number, driver‘s license number, taxpayer identification number, or financial account or credit card number; address information, street address or email address; personal characteristics, including photographic image, fingerprints, handwriting, or other biometric data. How do you protect PII? Who has access to PII? Who are affected by data breaches and identity theft? How to prevent data breaches and identity theft? The research introduced in this essay is from Verizon along with multiple articles involving military and organizations. PII is defined definitely by military and organizations. Training along with......

Words: 1541 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Implications of Big Data for the Design, Implementation and Use of Enterprise-Level Information Systems in Defense

...Implications of Big Data for the design, implementation and use of enterprise-level information systems in Defense While technology rapidly advances and information becomes a strategic asset, Big Data arouses the demand of politicians and military leaders to make use of possible information advantages to allegedly better support the military mission (DOD, 2010). However, the defense sector is still struggling with the implementation of adequate enterprise-level information systems. Therefore, militaries have to assess the necessity of using Big Data within the different business processes, and they have to ensure that the current implementation of enterprise-level information systems remains adaptable and scalable for future business needs. The amount of data is continuously on the rise due to the rapid growth of mobile devices and applications, smart sensors and devices, cloud computing solutions, and […] portals (“Impact,” 2013). Also, the capability to analyze and to correlate structured with unstructured data will enhance. But militaries must avoid getting distracted from implementing a good information management system that serves current business needs, rather than trying to rapidly dominate Big Data. Instead, the success of todays mission has to gain center stage. Thus, one has to focus on three principles. First: One has to act now but also has to keep in mind that there has to be a transition from information management to Big Date in the future, as Big Data will......

Words: 647 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Why Are Data Analysis Skills and Thinking so Important to Spend Analysis? Can’t Software Applications Be Used to Generate the Information Needed Automatically?

...Why are data analysis skills and thinking so important to spend analysis? Can’t software applications be used to generate the information needed automatically? Not all data presented to you may be important to make strategic decisions. One can make sense out of a large data when data analysis skills and thinking are employed. These skills help one identify the more meaningful information and understand patterns, consistencies or irregularities, to make sound decisions. Flanagan of Pepco Holdings, in the article provided, shared that one will be better able to assist internal clients in planning spend strategies and also better understand supplier’s cost proposals. Analysis is important because most automatically generated results do not provide the information needed. It is important to know what data is meaningful and understand what the output of the data means and how to employ it in a real world application How might structured process such as Six Sigma methodology be useful here? Data analysis is important for a company’s continuous improvement efforts. Six Sigma is a business process improvement tool to significantly minimize mistakes at a stringently high level. The methodology of Six Sigma itself, when followed correctly (i.e. DMAIC), will allow a person to identify process inefficiencies and address them to generate cost savings, deliver quality of service and achieve more consistent good results. Why is it important to get other functional areas,...

Words: 464 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Transforming Data Into Information

...Transforming Data into Information PRG/211 July 29, 2013 Jennifer Sethman Transforming Data into Information Transforming data into information is an important part in the decision making process in business and in life. In order to create sound decisions, one must process data received from various places and convert it into information. In this paper, we will discuss how this is done, along with the input, processing and output of data. We will also discuss the role of various computer components, the definition of data and information, the application program along with the operating system, higher language and machine code and lastly, graphical versus mathematical or statistical output. Input, process and output is the basic beginnings of turning data into information. When creating programs for any information, we first have to input data we received. This data could be for any situation such as how many customers have purchased a product or are they satisfied with the product due to customer feed back data. Once you input that data into a program writing software, It must be processed in computer language to give you the information you require. The input and process portion is very important in the program writing evolution as it is where a bulk of your work will be completed. Once the data has been processed, it will become output. This is where your information will come from. The computers inner components will allow one to complete the tasks of...

Words: 803 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Transforming Data Into Information

...Transforming Data into Information Tara Deranek PRG/211 December 9th, 2013 Claude Rushing Transforming Data into Information ​Transforming data into information is an important part in the decision making process in a business as well as life. In order to make a good decision, one must process data received from various places and convert the data into information. Throughout this paper, it will contain information on how this is done, along with the input, processing and output of data. Also additional information will be covered about, the various computer components, the definition of data and information, the application program along with the operating system, higher language, machine code, and lastly graphical versus mathematical or statistical output. Input, processing, and output are the basic beginnings of turning data into information. When creating any program for any type of information, the first step is to input the data we have received and needed for the program. The data could be for any type of situation, such as how many customers have purchased a certain product or have they been satisfied with the product. This type of information is received due to the customer feedback data. Once this data is input into program writing software, it then must be processed into computer language to give you the information you require. The input and processing portion is very important in the program writing evolution, as it is where the bulk of your......

Words: 997 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Transforming Data Into Information

...Transforming Data Into Information Quentin Harper April 2, 2010 Transforming Data Into Information The health data table used by economists represents data used by researchers to investigate specific variable influences on health. The table illustrates two altering factors; an individual’s education level toward school grade completed and Average longevity considered to access age at death. The data within this table explains the numerical results for shifting variables toward an individual’s health will need an understanding in informational form to identify a more theoretical approach to desired findings. Understanding an individual’s education level can help identify significant determinants experienced threw out a person’s social, and environmental life cycle. “This would include an individual’s social status, stress levels, economic and physical environment, and genetic makeup” (1st Health Impact Assessment, 2013, figure 10). The backgrounds of people lives establish their conditioning, character, and developmental qualities. Monitoring a person’s grade level will help group the input regarding individual activities experience throughout age progressions. Informational input helps within this classification under a person’s involvement with actions that may include an individual's social status around fellow peers and the size of the school population enters toward social moods. Throughout a person’s educational lifecycle the factors within this stage can...

Words: 629 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Transforming Data Into Information

...Transforming Data into Information PRM/211 Transforming Data into Information This paper will be covering the process and topic of transforming data into information as it relates to Economist chart. We will cover the following elements in this process. The logistics of the program; input, processing and output. The hardware components responsible for this process; Central Processing Unit (CPU), memory, and storage. Definitions of both information and data will be examined to assist developer in discerning the differences in goals and a complete project. Nearing the end of the programming process we will explain more on the application program, operating system, higher language program, and simple machine code. To conclude with the final product, there will be a discussion about the differences in statistical, graphical, and mathematical outputs. Input, Processing, and Output In every application requires the three elements; input, processing, and output. Applications are designed to involve responses from prompts and/or questions. Variable based on the responses are plugged into an equation. The variable into the equation is the input. The input for the Economist’s chart is the “Education level.” The processing step is the equation in which the variables are inputted into. Of the three, processing is the most complex. The equation must be planned and analyzed to always produce the desired output based on the input. The process in which entering the “Education......

Words: 768 - Pages: 4