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# Database

Submitted By nagasusmitha
Words 2737
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8.4) given series
7,0,1,2,0,3,0,4,2,3,0,3,2
a) FIFO: First in first out

7 | | |
Step: 1 first we are entering the digit 7

Step: 2 2nd digits (0) in the 2nd value 7 | 0 | |

Step: 3 7 | 0 | 1 |

Step: 4
Since all the blocks are filled.
As we know that FIFO is first in first out .According to our problem the “in “is “7” so we are replacing “7” with “2” 2 | 0 | 1 |
Replacing 7 with 2

Step: 5
According to our series the next number is “0”as frame (Blocks) in the step4 already consists of “0”so it remains the same that is step4 repeats

2 | 0 | 1 |

Step: 6
Since in step5 there was no change now second block in the frame will be effected (i.e: replaced with 3) as the first block was already replaced 2 | 3 | 1 | Replaced

Step: 7
Block “3”that is “1” will be replaced with the next number in the series” 0” 2 | 3 | 0 |

Replaced

Step: 8
Now we are replacing “2”with “4” 4 | 3 | 0 |

Step: 9 4 | 2 | 0 |

Step: 10 4 | 2 | 3 |

Replaced

Step: 11
“4” is replaced with “0” 0 | 2 | 3 | Step: 12
Next number in the series is 3 since 3 already exist in the frame in 3 blocks so there will be no change 0 | 2 | 3 | Step 13:
Next number in the series is “2” since “2” already exists in the frame in 2ndblock so there will be no change 0 | 2 | 3 |

Series completed

8.4(b): LRU
Given series: 7 0 1 2 0 3 0 4 2 3 0 3 2

Step1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | [7] | 7 | 7 | [2] | 2 | 2 | 2 | [4] | 4 | 4 | [0] | 0 | 0 | | [0] | 0 | 0 | [0] | 0 | [0] | 0 | 0 | [3] | 3 | [3] | 3 | | | [1] | 1 | 1 | [3] | 3 | 3 | [2] | 2 | 2 | 2 | [2] |

Step1: As '7' is the first digit in the series, we firstly entered '7'.
Step2: '0' is occupied in the 2nd position since it is second digit in the series.
Step3: '1' is occupied in the 3rd position since it is third digit in the series.
Step4: '7' is replaced with '2', since the digit '7' is used for longer time( it is not used recently).
Step5: Next digit in the series is '0'. As the digit '0' already exists in the frame, step5 remains the same as step4 and '0' is highlighted or circled as recently used.
Step6: '3' is the next digit in the series. So it has to be replaced with either [2] or [0] or [1]. Since '1' is used for Longer time, it is replaced with '3' (as we can see in the above table).

Step7: '0' is the next digit in the series which already exists in the frame in the 2nd position. So there is no change and it remains same as that of step6.
Step8: '4' is the next digit in the series. So it has to be replaced either with [2] or [0] or [3]. Since '2' is used for Longer time it is replaced with '4'.
Step9: '2' is the next digit in the series. So it is replaced with '3'. Since '3' is used for longer time.
Step10: '3' is the next digit . So it is replaced with '0'.
Step11: '0' is the next digit, So it is replaced with '4'.
Step12: '3' is the next digit. As it already exists, the frame remains same as that of step11.
Step13: '2' is the next digit in the series. Since it already exists, the frame remains the same as of step12.

8.4(C):
CLOCK: For given series,
7,0,1,2,0,3,0,4,2,3,0,3,2

1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Step1 | 7* | | | Step2 | 7* | 0* | | Step3 | 7* | 0* | 1* | Step4 | 2* | 0 | 1 | Step5 | 2* | 0* | 1 | Step6 | 2* | 0 | 3* | Step7 | 2* | 0* | 3* | Step8 | 4* | 0 | 3 | Step9 | 4* | 2* | 3 |
0
(H)
(H)
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1

Step10 | 4* | 2* | 3* | Step11 | 4 | 2 | 0* | Step12 | 3* | 2 | 0* | Step13 | 3* | 2* | 0* |
0
1
1

1 1
1
0
0
1

1
1
1

(H)
(H)
0 1

Step1: In this step, according to our given series, first we are entering digit '7' into the frame one and setting its reference bit to '1' and the pointer points to second frame.

Step2: According to our given series, the next digit is '0'. Enter it in the second frame making its reference bit to '1' and pointer points to 3rd frame.
Step3: According to the given series, the next digit is '1'. Enter it in the 3rd frame and making its reference bit to '1' and the pointer points to frame1.
Step4: As per "step3", pointer points to frame1 i.e., '7'(with reference bit 1) making its reference bit to '0' and next points to frame2 by making its reference bit also to '0' and similarly for frame3 aswell.
Finally making the total frame to 0,0,0 and now replace '7' with '2' and making its reference bit to '1'.
Step5: According to the given series the next digit is '0'. The '0' already exists in the frame-2. The frame remains the same but making '0' reference bit to '1'.
Step6: According to the given series the next digit is '3'. The digit '1' will be replaced with '3' and set its reference bit to '1'.
Step7: The next digit in the series going to be used is '0'. It already exists in the frame-2 with reference bit '0' and makes it to '1'. The pointer points to frame-1. The total frame with reference bit is 1,1,1.
Step8: The next digit in the series going to be used is '4'. Make reference bit '2' to '0' and replace with '4' by making its reference bit to '1'. The pointer points to frame-2.
Step9: The next digit in the series is '2'. Replace '0' with '2' and make the reference bit to '1'. The pointer points to frame-3.
Step10: The next digit in the series is '3'. As the digit '3' already exists in the frame it remains same but it makes reference bit '3' to '1'. Now the total frame contains the reference bit 1,1,1.
Step11: In the above step the pointer points to frame-3. So, replace the digit '3' with '0'(next digit) and making its reference bit to 1. The pointer points to frame-1.
Step12: Now the pointer is on frame-1 i.e., pointing to '4'. Replace '4' with '3' and making its reference bit to '1' and the pointer points to frame-2.
Step13: The next digit in the series is '2'. As '2' already exists in the frame-2 with reference bit '0', now the frame remains the same but it makes the reference bit '2' to '1'.

8.4(d): OPTIMAL (Assume the page reference string continues with 1,2,0,1,7,0,1)
So the entire string will be as follows:
7,0,1,2,0,3,0,4,2,3,0,3,2,1,2,0,1,7,0,1.
Step1: As '7' is the first digit, the first number in the frame will be '7'. we need to proceed same for next digits '0' and '1' as well.
'0' will be entered in the second frame and in 2nd Block, '1' will be entered in the third frame and in the 3rd Block. 7 | 7 | 7 | | 0 | 0 | | | 1 |

Step2: As the first three digits 7,0,1 are already finished in the frame, they will not be used for Longest period. 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | 1 | 1 |
In this step, among 7,0,1 in frame "3", number '7' is not needed for longest period of time. So replace '7' with next digit in the series that is '2'.
Step3: In this step, the next digit in the series is '0'. As '0' already exists in the frame, page head occurs(H). Therefore, the step-3 remains the same as of step-2. 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | 2 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | 1 | 1 | 1 | [H]

Step4: In this step, the next digit in the series is going to be '3'. Among 2,0,1 digits in frame-5, the digit '1' is not needed for the longest period. So replacing '3' with '1'. 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | 2 | 2 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | [H]
Step5: In this step, '0' the next digit in the series. As it already exists in the frame in the 2nd block, the page head occurs[H]. Therefore, step-5 remains same as that of step-4. 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 3 | [H] [H]
Step6: In this step '4' is the next digit in the series (7,0,1,2,0,3,0 are already used from the series). Among 2,0,3 digits in the frame-7, '0' is not needed for the longest period. So, the digit '0' will be replaced by '4'. 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 | | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 3 | 3 | [H] [H]

Step7: In this step, the next digit '2' is going to be used from the series. Among the digits 2,4,3 of frame-8, the digit '2' already exists, so the page header [H] occurs and it remains as that of step-6. 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 | 4 | | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | [H] [H] [H]

Step8: The next digit '3' is going to be used from the series. As '3' already exists in frame-9, the page header occurs[H]. So, it remains the same as that of frame-9. 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 | 4 | 4 | | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | [H] [H] [H] [H]

Step9: The next digit '0' is going to be used from the given series. Among 2,4,3 digits in frame-10, '4' is not required at any point of time. So, replacing '4' with '0'. 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 0 | | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | [H] [H] [H] [H]
Step10: The next digit '3' is going to be used from the series. As the digit '3' already exists in the frame-11, the page header[H] occurs. so that it will remain same as that of frame-11. 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 0 | 0 | | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | [H] [H] [H] [H] [H]
Step11: The next digit is '2'. As '2' already exists in the frame-12, page header occurs[H]. It will remain same as that of frame-12. 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | [H] [H] [H] [H] [H] [H] step12: For this step, the next digit in the series '1' is going to be used. Among 2,0,3 digits in frame-13. the digit '3' is not required at any point of time. So, replace '3' with '1'. 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 1 | [H] [H] [H] [H] [H] [H]
Step13: The next digit going to be used is '2'. The digit '2' already exists in the frame-14. So, the new frame will remain as that of frame-14.
The next digit going to be used is '0'. The digit '0' already exists in the frame-14. So, the page header [H] occurs. And the new frame will remain same as that of frame-14.
It is same for next digit '1' in the series, as it already exists the frame remains the same. 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | [H] [H] [H] [H] [H] [H]
Step14: The next digit in the series is '7'. Among 2,0,1 digits in frame-17, the digits '0' and '1' is used in other hand and '2' is not required at any point of time. So, replace '2' with '7'. FRAME-17 | FRAME-18 | 2 | 7 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | Step15: The next digit is '0'. As '0' already exists in the frame-18, page header [H] exists. The new frame will be same as that of frame-18.
The same process will repeat for next digit in the series i.e., '1'. So the new frame will remain same as frame-18. 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 7 | 7 | 7 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | [H] [H] [H] [H] [H] [H] [H] [H] [H] [H] [H]
Optimal Algorithm: Optimal page replacement algorithm is keeps on checking the whole queue for the page which we don't want to use for the Longest period of time.

8.4(e): FIFO:
We got the table(frame) for 8.4(a) is as follows: 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | F H F F F F F F H H

where, F= Page Fault H= Page Header.
So, the total number of page faults for FIFO is F=7.

LRU: We got the table frame for 8.4(b) is as follows: 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | F H F H F F F F H H
So, the total number of page faults for LRU is F=6.

CLOCK: We got the table for 8.4(c) is as follows: 7* | 7* | 7* | 2* | 2* | 2* | 2* | 4* | 4* | 4* | 4 | 3* | 3* | | 0* | 0* | 0 | 0* | 0 | 0* | 0 | 2* | 2* | 2 | 2 | 2* | | | 1* | 1 | 1 | 3* | 3* | 3 | 3 | 3* | 0* | 0* | 0* | F H F H F F H F F where, F= page fault H= page Header.
So, the total number of page faults for clock is F=6.

OPTIMAL: We go for the table 8.4(d) is as follows: 7 | 7 | 7 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 7 | 7 | 7 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | F H F H F H H F H H F H H H F H H where, F= page fault H= page header.
So, the total number of page faults for Optimal is F= 6.

Reference: http://superioressaywriter.com/2014/11/06/computer-sciences-and-information-technology-211/ http://www.uobabylon.edu.iq/eprints/publication_5_2921_44.pdf

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...IST 792 paper 2 Database security is a growing concern evidenced by an increase in the number of reported incidencets of loss of unauthorized exposure to sensitive data. As the amount of data collected, retained, and shared electronically expands, so does the need to understand database security. (Murray, 2010) Database security concerns the use of a broad range of information security controls to protect databases (potentially including the data, the database applications or stored functions, the database systems, the database servers and the associated network links) against compromises of their confidentiality, integrity and availability. It involves various types or categories of controls, such as technical, procedural/administrative and physical. Database security is a specialist topic within the broader realms of computer security,information security and risk management. Security risks to database systems include, for example: * Unauthorized or unintended activity or misuse by authorized database users, database administrators, or network/systems managers, or by unauthorized users or hackers (e.g. inappropriate access to sensitive data, metadata or functions within databases, or inappropriate changes to the database programs, structures or security configurations); * Malware infections causing incidents such as unauthorized access, leakage or disclosure of personal or proprietary data, deletion of or damage to the data or programs, interruption or denial......

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#### Database

...Introduction \$  \$  • Purpose of Database Systems • Data Deﬁnition Language • Data Manipulation Language • Transaction Management & ' & • Storage Management • Database Administrator • Database Users • Overall System Structure 1.1 Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan c 1997 Database Systems Concepts Database Management System (DBMS) • Collection of interrelated data • Set of programs to access the data • DBMS contains information about a particular enterprise • DBMS provides an environment that it both convenient and efﬁcient to use Database Systems Concepts 1.2 Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan c 1997 ' & ' & Purpose of Database Systems \$  \$  Database management systems were developed to handle the following difﬁculties of typical ﬁle-processing systems supported by conventional operating systems. • Data redundancy and inconsistency • Difﬁculty in accessing data • Data isolation – multiple ﬁles and formats • Integrity problems • Atomicity of updates • Concurrent access by multiple users • Security problems Database Systems Concepts 1.3 Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan c 1997 View of Data An architecture for a database system view level view 1 view 2 … view n logical level physical level Database Systems Concepts 1.4 Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan c 1997 ' & ' & Levels of Abstraction \$  \$  • Physical level: describes how a record (e.g., customer) is stored. • Logical level: describes data stored in database, and the relationships among......

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#### Database Environment

...The Getty Provenance Institute’s database (The Gettys research institute, 2012) contains 1.1 million records. All of these records can be used for a wide variety of research. According to the institute the database can be used for assistance in finding information for Projects, and for the Study of Collecting. According to the Database, “The J. Paul Getty Museum acquired The Entombment (ca. 1612) by Peter Paul Rubens in a Christie's sale in 1992. At that time, the provenance of the painting could only be traced as far back as the mid-19th century. The number 146, located on the face of the painting, appeared to be an inventory number (the Getty Research Institute, 2012). A search in the Provenance Index's Archival Inventories database retrieved a single record in which the artist name (Rubens) and item number (146) matched. The search lead to a 1651 inventory preserved in the Archivo de la Casa de Alba, Palacio de Liria in Madrid, which lists this Rubens painting. Possibly its first owner was Gaspar de Haro y Guzmán Carpio (1629–1687)”. Other Institutions are not as lucky some. Some Museums are not so fortunate to find the item number associated with the picture. When it is time to introduce the collections into a database, curators of small museums find themselves in a little bit of trouble. The features and capabilities offered by the newer commercial and professional collection systems are more than they will ever need, more than they can support and more than......

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#### Database Program

...New Database Program for ACCC Michele Ritchie SCI110 – Introduction to Physical Science Instructor Casey Bethel February 17, 2016 The Scientific Method The scientific method is a way to ask and answer scientific questions by making observations and doing experiments. The steps of the scientific method are to ask a question, do background research, construct a hypothesis, test your hypothesis by doing an experiment, analyze your data and draw a conclusion, and communicate your results. Problem Statement At American Classic Carpet Care, a nationwide commercial and retail carpet cleaner, we have several different databases that we use for our client base. Each database contains a certain type of business contact. For example, one database is for hotels only, another is for restaurants only. Then, we also have separate databases for local work and out of state work. As you can see, one restaurant or hotel could potentially be put in more than one database. Currently, we use the Pro 2011 version of ACT!. This version is not set up to transfer information from one database to the other automatically. Manually transferring information one client at a time is very time consuming. Overview of Alternatives Alternative #1- Upgrade to ACT! Premium: This application allows you to transfer data from one database to the other, along with many other updated features of the ACT! Program. For example, optimized template storage makes it easy to quickly navigate and locate......

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Free Essay

#### Database

...1.1 Define the following terms: data, database, DBMS, database system, database catalog, program-data independence, user view, DBA, end user, canned transaction, deductive database system, persistent object, meta-data, and transaction-processing application. • Data merupakan satu satuan informasi yang akan diolah dimana sebelum diolah dikumpulkan di dalam suatu file database. Pengumpulan data dilakukan secara sistematis menurut struktur file database. • Database merupakan kumpulan data yang terkait satu sama lain. Atau sekumpulan data yang terintegrasi yang diorganisasi untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pemakai untuk keperluan organisasi. • Dalam database pastinya mengenal istilah DBMS (Databse Management System) yang mana merupakan suatu koleksi dari program yang mana pengguna bisa mengcreate dan memaintain suatu database. Dalam DBMS terdiri atas proses-proses yang harus dilakuka nyaitu defining, constructing, manipulating dan sharing. Komponen-komponen DBMS yaitu terdiri atas hardware, software, data, prosedur, people. Fungsi dari defining yaitu DBMS harus dapat mengolah pendefinisian data. Fungsi dari manipulating DBMS harus dapat menangani permintaan-permintaan dari pemakai untuk mengakses data. Fungsi dari constructing yaitu DBMS harus mengontrol proses pengiriman data ke penyimpanan medium. Fungsi dari sharing yaitu database memperbolehkan banyak orang dan program untuk mengakses database. • Meta data: informasi terstruktur yang bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan,......

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