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CHAPTER 2a
ENERGY TRANSFER BY HEAT, WORK & MASS

CONTENTS
Forms of Energy Energy Transfer by Heat Energy Transfer by Work Mechanical Forms of Work The First Law of Thermodynamics Energy Balance for close system Energy Conversion Efficiencies

FORMS OF ENERGY
• Energy can exist in numerous forms such as thermal, mechanical, kinetic, potential, electric, magnetic, chemical, and nuclear, and their sum constitutes the total energy, E of a system. Thermodynamics deals only with the change of the total energy. Macroscopic forms of energy: Those a system possesses as a whole with respect to some outside reference frame, such as kinetic and potential energies. Microscopic forms of energy: Those related to the molecular structure of a system and the degree of the molecular activity. Internal energy, U: The sum of all the microscopic forms of energy. Kinetic energy, KE: The energy that a system possesses as a result of its motion relative to some reference frame. Potential energy, PE: The energy that a system possesses as a result of its elevation in a gravitational field.
The macroscopic energy of an object changes with velocity and elevation.

• •

• • •



ENERGY EQUESIONS
Kinetic energy

Kinetic energy per unit mass
Potential energy Most of the closed system remains stationary, so for that system; KE = PE = 0

Potential energy per unit mass
Total energy of a system Energy of a system per unit mass Total energy per unit mass

PROBLEM
Determined the mass and weight of air contained in a room whose dimensions are 6mx6mx8m assume density of air is 1.16 kg/m3

PROBLEM
Determine the power refined for a 1150 Kg car to climb a 100m long uphill road with a slope of 30° (from horizontal) in a 12 sec ⅰ) at constant velocity ⅱ) from rest to a final velocity of 30 m/s and ⅲ) from 35 m/s to final velocity of 5 m/sec. Disregarding friction, air drag and...

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...●电学部分一:静电场: 静电场:概念、规律特别多,注意理解及各规律的适用条件;电荷守恒定律,库仑定律 1.电荷守恒定律:元电荷[pic] 2.库仑定律:[pic] 条件:真空中、点电荷;静电力常量k=9×109Nm2/C2 三个自由点电荷的平衡问题:“三点共线,两同夹异,两大夹小” 中间电荷量较小且靠近两边中电量较小的;[pic] 常见电场的电场线分布熟记,特别是孤立正、负电荷,等量同种、异种电荷连线上及中垂线上的场强分布,电场线的特点及作用. 3.力的特性(E):只要有电荷存在周围就存在电场 ,电场中某位置场强: [pic](定义式)[pic](真空点电荷)[pic](匀强电场E、d共线)叠加式E=E1+ E2+……(矢量合成) 4.两点间的电势差:U、UAB:(有无下标的区别) 静电力做功U是(电能[pic]其它形式的能) 电动势E是(其它形式的能[pic]电能) [pic]=-UBA=-(UB-UA) 与零势点选取无关) 电场力功W=qu=qEd=F电SE (与路径无关) 5.某点电势[pic]描述电场能的特性:[pic](相对零势点而言) 理解电场线概念、特点;常见电场的电场线分布要求熟记, 特别是等量同种、异种电荷连线上及中垂线上的场强特点和规律 6.等势面(线)的特点,处于静电平衡导体是个等势体,其表面是个等势面,导体外表面附近的电场线垂直于导体表面(距导体远近不同的等势面的特点?),导体内部合场强为零,导体内部没有净电荷,净电荷只分布于导体外表面;表面曲率大的地方等势面越密,E越大,称为尖端放电。应用:静电感应,静电屏蔽 7.电场概念题思路:电场力的方向[pic]电场力做功[pic]电势能的变化(这些问题是电学基础) 8.电容器的两种情况分析 ①始终与电源相连U不变; 当d↑[pic]C↓[pic]Q=CU↓[pic]E=U/d↓ ; 仅变s时,E不变。 ②充电后断电源q不变: 当d↑[pic]c↓[pic]u=q/c↑[pic]E=u/d=[pic]不变;仅变d时,E不变; 9带电粒子在电场中的运动qU=[pic]mv2;侧移y=[pic],偏角tgф=[pic] |⑴ 加速 [pic] ① [pic] | |⑵偏转(类平抛)平行E方向: | |加速度:[pic] ② 再加磁场不偏转时:[pic] | |水平:L1=vot ③ | |竖直:[pic] ④...

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