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Deer

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Gout- a disorder characterized by high levels of uric acid- end product of purine catabolism- in blood (hyperuricemia), as a result of either the overproduction or underexcretion of uric acid. The hyperuricemia can lead to deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joints causing an inflammatory response.
Underexcretion of uric acid: Underexcretion can be primary, due to as-yet unidentified inherent excretory defects, or secondary to known disease processes that affect how the kidney handles urate, for example lactic acidosis (lactate and urate compete for same renal transporter) and to environmental factors such as the use of drugs, thiazide diuretics or exposure to lead.
b. Overproduction of Uric acid: Primary hyperuricemia- idiopathic (having no known cause) However, increased PRPP availability increases purine production, resulting in elevated levels of plasma uric acid. Secondary hyperuricemia is typically the consequence of increased availability of purines, for example, in patients with myeloproliferative disorders who are undergoing therapy and so have a high rate of cell turn over.
Major Functions of Nucleotides
1. Components of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
2. Carriers of chemical energy in the cell (eg., ATP, GTP)
3. Components of cofactors which are necessary to produce the ion gradient which will eventually produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation (eg., NAD, FAD) FAD and NAD are electron carriers that donate electrons to the electron transport chain to produce the ion gradient which will eventually produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

4. Intermediates in cellular communication and signal transduction
(eg., cAMP, cGMP) Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messengerimportant in many biological processes. cAMP is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and used for intracellular signal transduction in many different organisms. cAMP is a second messenger, used for intracellular signal transduction, such as transferring into cells the effects of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline, which cannot pass through the cell membrane. It is involved in the activation of protein kinases and regulates the effects of adrenaline and glucagon. cAMP also binds to and regulates the function of ion channels such as the HCN channels and a few other cyclic nucleotide-binding proteins such as Epac1.
5. They are the structural units of RNA and DNA, sources of chemical energy, have roles in cellular signaling, and are incorporated into important cofactors in enzymatic reactions.

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