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In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By herostar345
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Population growth * Demography: is the study of population, including factors affecting its size and growth * Whether a population is growing, declining or stable is affected by four factors: * Births and Immigration increases the population * Deaths and Emigration decreases the population
• Natural change: is the number of births minus the number of deaths
• Net migration: is the number immigrating into country minus the number emigrating from it
• The UK’s population grew from 37mil in 1901 to 61mil today and should reach 71mil by 2031
• Growth has been mostly due to natural change rather than net migration

There are two measures of births

1. Birth rate
2. Total fertility rate

The birth rate
• The birth rate: is the number of live births per 1,000 of the population per year
• There has been a long-term decline in the birth rate
• In 1900, it was almost 29
• By 2007, it had fallen by more than 60%, to under 11
• But there have been fluctuations
• There were 3 ‘baby booms’: 1 after each war and another in the 1960’s
• The rate fell sharply in the 1970’s, rose during the 1980’s and early 1990’s, and then fell until the recent increase since 2001

The total fertility rate
• The total fertility rate: is the average number of children a woman will have during her fertile years (aged 15-44)
• In the 1960’s baby boom, it reached an average of 2.95 children per woman, declining to an all-time low of 1.63 in 2001, before rising slightly to 1.84 in 2006
• The total fertility rate obviously affects family and household size – the more children a woman has, the bigger the family:

1. More women are remaining childless nowadays
2. Women are having children later: the average age is now almost 30

Reasons for the fall in birth rate
Many social, economic, legal and technological factors are...

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