Free Essay

Depression How It Affect You

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By kibran2172
Words 2441
Pages 10
sychologyHow depression affects people

Kim Branim
Psychology 326 Sonja Bethune
October 16, 2012

Introduction
This study was design to find loci major depression via linkage analysis of a large sibling pair sample. Depressions in twins and families have been shown moderate high.
“However the gene that caused depression had not been detected says” Lewis Cathryn but Gerome Breen “says that Chromosome3 it a link to severe depression. Breen study took 417 families with 479 concordant sibling pairs to perform genome-wide linkage analysis. Breen used the first wave of families, suggestive and modest suggestive and modest evidence for linkage was found on chromosomes 1p36, 12q, 13q, and 15q. The peaks on chromosomes 12q and 15q also showed evidence for linkage in other samples (8-10). In the present study, we report linkage analysis results using an expanded sample that includes 325 additional families contributing 474 sibling pairs, resulting in a total of 971 concordant sibling pairs with recurrent depression. The total sample also consisted of 118 discordant sibling pairs and 12 unaffected sibling pairs. Linkage can be detected when heterogeneity and error in phenotype are decreased. Also for depression, reliability is improved by focusing on severe cause ad indexed by symptom count or impairment. (Breen,2011)

. Literature review The article name is Genome-Wide Association Study of Major Recurrent Depression in the U.K. Population. The Studies of major depression in twins and families have shown moderate to high heritability, but extensive molecular studies have failed to identify susceptibility genes convincingly. To detect genetic variants contributing to major depression, the authors performed a genome-wide association study using 1,636 cases of depression ascertained in the U.K. and 1,594 comparison subjects screened negative for psychiatric disorders .depression is a common and disabling condition and is a leading cause of disability it also impairs the quality of life, poor quality of life, and death by suicide. Kindler also says” Stressful life events are associated with the onset of episodes of major depression. However, exposure to stressful life events is influenced by genetic factors, and these factors are correlated with those that predispose to major depression.”(kindler,1999) de Graaf also said “Minor depression is common in the general population and seriously affects quality of life, daily functioning, and health care use”(de Graaf010). And according to Mejia “family is one of the main factors, not only in the development of adolescent depression, but also in the treatment, being a double-edge sword that can affect in both good and bad ways”(Mejia,2011) so family has the greatest impact on our lives and our emotions. Anyone under the age of 18 was eliminated. Also Pairs were excluded if either sibling had ever fulfilled criteria for mania, hypomania, or schizophrenia or if either experienced psychotic symptoms that were mood incongruent or present when there was no evidence of a mood disturbance. Other exclusion criteria were intravenous drug dependency and depression occurring solely in relation to alcohol use. Individuals were excluded if their genotypic data showed a missing rate >1%, abnormal heterozygosity, or a sex assignment that conflicted with phenotypic data or that they were related (up to second-degree relatives) to other study participants or were of non-European ancestry. This had no effect on the rest of the study
Method
Cases were collected form a controlled case study of recurrent depression. They were drawn from two studies of recurrent depression and a pharmacogenetic study of antidepressant response using similar methods of case and collected by the same clinical team. Single paired affected with recurrent unipolar depression were recruited from eight clinical sites those sites were (Aarhus, Denmark; Bonn, Germany; Dublin; Lausanne, Switzerland; St. Louis; London; Cardiff, United Kingdom; and Birmingham, United Kingdom). All the participants gave their consent for this study. The participants were all interview using the Schedules for Clinical Assessments in Neuropsychiatry. The items of psychopathology in the interview were rated for presence and severity according from worst to second worst. They were asked about a four –six week period when their symptoms were the worst. They were coded as 0= absence, 1= present but mild, 2= moderately severe and present for 50% of peal intensity,3= severe for 50% of the time. All the participants were also in a four day training course and took part in a joint interrater reliability exercise. There were blood samples taken in the amount of 25 ml of whole blood they were also drops of blood placed on Guthrie blood spot card. Genotyping was performed using standard methods by deCODE Genetics (Reykjavik, Iceland). Briefly, 1,130 microsatellite markers were typed in two waves of genotyping. A total of 350 individuals from wave 1 were regenotyped to ensure marker allele calling consistency. Seventy-five markers with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium p values <0.001 were excluded. After exclusions, marker density was 3.3 cM, with a maximum gap of 10.2 cM. The average heterozygosity was 72.4%. Their relationship was examined using graphical representation of relationship application which detected half-sibling and coded them as full siblings. Duplicate samples or monozygotic twins and unexpected relatedness were used to detect mendelization errors. In which 201 families across 303 markers which all were genotypes for the specific markers within the families showing the error recoded as fails this was used to remove unlikely recombinants. The simulate procedure was used to empirically estimate the false positive rate. The study consisted of sibling paired without parents was 58% the average informative family size was 2.45 persons with the majority 82.1% having affected offspring. There three different phenotypes performed and analyzed in addition to affected status based on recurrent depression. Two more categories were added sever recurrent depression and very severe recurrent depression. Case patients and comparison subjects were drawn from two studies of recurrent depression. (The Depression Case Control study and the Depression Network Study) they used identical methods of case definition and the aforementioned phenotyping. This method was approved by the local ethnical committees. The means of age at onset was 22.9 years. Markers were selected for analysis if they were within the one-LOD interval of a genome-wide significant linkage. The main test was association between SNP’s and depression was logistic regression. It also included ancestry principal components, assuming a log-additive genetic model. It also had fitting dominance –deviance model to allow for recessive or dominant effects. .
Results
TABLE 1. Demographic Characteristics and Genetic Phenotypes Among Affected Sibling Pairs With Recurrent Depression | Phenotype | Clinical Site | Number of Probands Ascertained | Age of Onset (Years) | Male (%) | Recurrent Depression | Severe Recurrent Depression | Very Severe Recurrent Depression | St. Louis | 732 | 19.1 | 24.9 | 575 | 262 | 95 | London | 233 | 21.1 | 24.5 | 222 | 170 | 84 | Dublin | 274 | 22.3 | 32.8 | 262 | 195 | 113 | Cardiff, United Kingdom | 248 | 24.9 | 25.8 | 232 | 162 | 96 | Birmingham, United Kingdom | 303 | 24.0 | 31.4 | 295 | 232 | 143 | Bonn, Germany | 276 | 29.8 | 25.4 | 260 | 249 | 238 | Lausanne, Switzerland | 208 | 24.6 | 27.9 | 194 | 126 | 46 | Aarhus, Denmark | 138 | 25.9 | 34.8 | 124 | 51 | 12 | Total | 2,412 | 2,164 | 1,447 | 827 | | |

The results are for all three nested phenotypes are shown above and were generated using all available informative families. The most significant results were observed on chromosome 3 for the impairment restricted diagnostic categories. The maximum LOD was 4.01 for severe recurrent the highest LOD was for severe recurrent was on chromosome 11. For very severe recurrent depression the highest LOD was on chromosome 7. One peak was genome-wide significant after correction for multiple testing at both the phenotype and marker level, with two adjacent markers achieving an empirical p value <0.05 after simulations. From the simulations, the 5% significance threshold was a LOD score of 3.53, and the suggestive threshold was a LOD score of 2.23, after accounting for the three phenotypes and 1,065 markers examined. Most significant results were observed on chromosome 3(Breen,2011) with the use of combined analysis which had a LOD of 4.0. In this analysis was affected and defined as depression with a minimum total impairment severity. A LOD score of 4.0 corresponded with an empirical genome-wide p value of 0.015 after accounting for multiple testing at both markers and phenotypes via simulation of linkage (the proportion of times the observed LOD was exceeded by the maximum LOD scores from 1,000 simulations using MERLIN). Overall, the strongest marker was D3S1515 at 19.9 cM, with a LOD score of 4.0 and an empirical p value of 0.015, while its proximal flanking marker (D3S3591) at 23.9 cM had a LOD score of 3.567 and an empirical p value of 0.038. The distal flanking marker of D3S1515 was D3S2397, with a LOD score of 3.093 and an empirical p value of 0.254, which was the third most significant result (Breen, 2011). Another peak that was associated with depression was chromosome 7 it was the next significant results for very severe recurrent depression with a LOD score of 1.91 at 23.2 cM at marker D7S513 (11.6 Mb on hg18). This was the narrowest criteria used and the affected status was restricted to individual with a maximum severity score both their worst and second worst episode. There however was little support for linkage in the same region for other diagnostic definitions with an empirical p value of 1.0 for both phenotypes at this marker.
Discussion

The finding was a genome-wide significant linkage of chromosome 3p25-26 and verified by simulations with a Lod score of 4.0 and an empirical p value of 0.015 at D35S1515 for severe recurrent depression. There is also some strong supporting evidence that D3S1515’s proximal flanking marker (D3S3591) also achieved genome-wide significance there was also another flanking marker on (D3S2397) which also had an empirical p value of 0.254and was the third most significant results in the genome across the phenotypes tested. There was multiple genes within the LOD region, including GRM7, which also encodes metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR7. It is similar to it paralogues (mGluR4 and mGluR6) it inhibits forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in response to agonist interaction but is widely expressed in many neuronal cells on the Central Nervous System . it also plays an important role in modulation of glutatmate transmission in the central nervous system, However GRM7 is one of many strong candidate genes in this region. To determine what gene of gene was important the attempted to mapping of the region in a large case-control cohort with identical phenotyping including the Depression Network Study probands. The extraction of genotypes within the one-LOD interval from illumine 610-quad genotyping there was nearly 1,600 case patients with the same severe depression phenotype and just fewer than 1,600 screened comparison subjects with lifetime and family absence of depression and other mental illness. According to vanderhasselt” suggest that individuals in remission from depression have difficulty disengaging from sad information to generate the oppositely valenced response. (Vanderhasselt,2012)
There were not robust associations with either recurrent depression or the severity – restricted diagnoses were found in the region. These findings suggest that the linkage may be a result of multiple rare variants or th at there was not sufficient power to detect multiple common variants of mild effect. There is a current study under way that will have considerably greater power to detect effect in regions. Overall the association of linkage was not encouraging. In the review the finding was that there was little replication of depression linkage found. The was a similar problem with the candidate depression genes and GWASs there was large suggest hits but no finding that had reached replicated genome-wide significances. According to Cervilla “Our results show a somewhat better model fit after adjustment for potential confounders, such as gender and family history. Age had little impact. The relationship between gender and this particular gene–environment interaction is puzzling as some studies have reported it as valid for both sexes, whereas others suggest an effect only in women.”(Cervilla,2007) there were some false positive results found which could mean that the finding on genetic in depression represents a false positive and requires replication or identification of the causal variant in the region. However the findings was observed by Pergadia et al (13) who reported a genome-wide significant multipoint LOD score of 4.14 on chromosome 3 at 2.49cM. This study appears to be one of the strongest replicated genetic finding in the studies for depression. The study was conducted at the Medical Research Council Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College, London.

References

Breen, G., Webb, B. T., Butler, A. W., van den Oord, E.,J.C.G., Tozzi, F., Craddock, N., . . . McGuffin, P. (2011). A genome-wide significant linkage for severe depression on chromosome 3: The depression network study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(8), 840-7. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/885282763?ac countid=32521
Cervilla, J. A., Molina, E., Rivera, M., Torres-González, F., Bellón, ,J.A., Moreno, B., . . . Nazareth, I. (2007). The risk for depression conferred by stressful life events is modified by variation at the serotonin transporter 5HTTLPR genotype: Evidence from the spanish PREDICT-gene cohort. Molecular Psychiatry, 12(8), 748-55. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001981 de Graaf, L. E., Huibers, M. J. H., Cuijpers, P., & Arntz, A. (2010). Minor and major depression in the general population: Does dysfunctional thinking play a role? Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51(3), 266-274. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2009.08.006
Lewis, C. M., Ng, M. Y., Butler, A. W., Cohen-Woods, S., Uher, R., Pirlo, K., . . . McGuffin, P. (2010). Genome-wide association study of major recurrent depression in the U.K. population. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(8), 949-57. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/734489125?accountid=32521
Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Raedt, R. D., Daniel, G. D., Sunny, J. D., Brooks, N., & Diego, A. P. (2012). Decreased cognitive control in response to negative information in patients with remitted depression: An event-related potential study.Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience : JPN, 37(4), 250-8. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1022985798?accountid=32521
OD Mejia, M. (2011). What drives a teenager to depression? an insider's sociological look into its causes. Human Architecture, 9(2), 19-25. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/920098386?accountid=32521

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Depression And Depression Lead To Suicide

...Did you know that 300 million people worldwide are affected by depression and depression could lead to suicide? Currently, about 800,000 people die every year to suicide and there is not enough help for all of these people who are suffering from depression and taking their lives. Many people think that depression isn’t as big of a problem compared to some other diseases. However, depression can lead to many other types of problems that can affect your body and your mental health. It also can lead to suicide, the second leading cause of death. This research paper will inform people about the causes of depression, how people are affected by it, and how people can be helped through depression. How is depression genetic? Well it could be because...

Words: 1700 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Influence on Behaviors and Psychological Disorders Outline

...prevalence of depression at about 11.1% of the American population, or nearly 35 million individuals (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). A predictive models suggest that up to 50% of the population will experience at least one episode of depression during their lives” (Life Extension, 2014). Depression has negatively affected the lives of many individuals throughout the world. Look around you there may even be someone close to you that is demonstrating signs of its stifling affects. Depression does not discriminate with its suffocating relentless appetite. It is known to affect children as well as adults of all ethnicities. Depression has an insidious way of taking one from feeling at a level of ten to a level of zero. And if left untreated depression can lead to losing everything that means the world to you. One is debilitated by its unwavering feeling of loneliness, and sometime paralyzing affects. It’s often said that depression results from a chemical imbalance, Scientist have believed for more than 30 years that mood related chemicals such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine also known as monoamines are low in the brain during major depressive episodes (Nauert, 2006). Clearly, there is an impact on the patient’s life and his/her family life. Therefore, depression is often considered as a disorder that affects the whole family. In this presentation we will attempt to describe the general behaviors associated with depression, explain how......

Words: 2464 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Program Plan

...The cause and extent of the identified health issue Depression can affect 1-5 Australians which means that it can dramatically effect productivity in the workplace. Depression can affect a person in many ways and can affect the whole workplace. Depression can affect people when they are unhappy with their job, bullying from other staff, made to feel like they are not contributing to the workplace job insecurity or it could be stresses from home. “People with depression usually experience symptoms for more than two weeks across at least three of the following categories: * behaviour – such as not going out anymore, not getting things done at work, withdrawing from close family and friends, relying on alcohol and sedatives, avoiding usual enjoyable activities and having difficulty concentrating * feelings – such as feeling guilty, overwhelmed, irritable, frustrated, unconfident, unhappy, indecisive, disappointed, miserable or sad * thoughts – such as ‘I’m a failure’, It’s my fault’, ‘Nothing good ever happens to me’, ‘I’m worthless’, ‘Life’s not worth living’, or ‘People would be better off without me’ * physical symptoms – such as being constantly tired, feeling sick and run-down, having headaches and muscle pains, a churning gut, sleep problems, loss or change of appetite, experiencing significant weight loss or gain” (extract from www.beyondblue.com.au) The scope of employee assisted program needed The EAP needed would be for a whole workplace......

Words: 983 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Informative Depression Speech

...How many of you are going through depression? Or do you have friends or family members who are going through depression? Today I will talk about depression. I will talk about the background, the causes of this disease, the symptoms and finally, the treatment and prevention of depression. Many people around the world become depressed at some point in their lives. Whether it is financial or marital problems, we all encounter depression to some degree. In many circumstances these feelings affect one’s ability to live a normal productive life. When the condition worsens professional help is needed. What is depression? Depression is a mood disorder that makes you feel sad or hopeless for a period of time. Depression can have a impact on the enjoyment of your life, your work, your health and to the people who care about you the most. Depression affects people differently. Some people fee down for a period of time and others feelings come and go. If you have short term depression you are still able to work and take care of your daily activities. But if you have a long period of depression and don’t seek any kind of treatment, you are more at risk of becoming even more depressed or become physically ill.   Studies have shown that depression negatively impacts one’s ability to perform tasks of all nature, no matter how large or miniscule they may be.   A number of doctors have suggested that depression is an “evolutionary adaptation” (Mental Health Association.) Mainly defined as......

Words: 1031 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Psychology Ms

...known as MS, or Demyelinating disease; a disease that not many are aware of. It is “an autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).” (A.D.A.M. Inc, 2011) The symptoms vary depending on the individual affected by the disease, and it also differs in duration for each symptom. In this paper, we will discuss the definition of Multiple Sclerosis, review the main symptoms affecting Multiple Sclerosis patients and their loved ones, its risk factors, how to recognize potential symptoms, the tests available, and support groups that can provide more information on this disease as well as how to cope with it. Depression is one of the main side effects Multiple Sclerosis patients have; it is unfortunately very common for someone with Multiple Sclerosis to experience depression. To learn more about the disease, we have to understand what MS is. Multiple Sclerosis, or MS, is an auto-immune disease that affects your brain’s nervous system; the “T-Cells” attack your neurons which function is to send signals to your brain. Each nerve cell control different parts of your body and emotions; having the T-cells attacking your emotional nerves can impact your way of living. If these T-cells damage the nerves of the brain that are involved in emotional expression and control; it can create a variety of behavioral changes resulting in depression. “People living with MS can experience a wide range of emotions including anxiety, fear, anger,......

Words: 3529 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Process of Depression

...Depression is a mental health disorder that affects your body, mind, and mood. Individuals with depression cannot get better on their own; they must have some help with treatments and medications. If they do not seek help, their depression will worsen and ruin their life. With treatment their depression can be controlled and reduce their depression. Experiencing depression can potentially ruin your self-esteem and lead hopelessness, creating a heavy financial, emotional, and social burden to oneself and family. Depression disorder comes in various types of forms. The three major depressions are dysthmic disorder, bipolar disorder, and major disorder. Dysthmic disorder is characterized by chronic depression, but with less severity than a major depression (Donald J Franklin) and when one experiences depressed mood for most of the day, more days than not, for at least two years without a break free of depressive symptoms of more than two months (Laura Epstein). Individual with dysthmia disorder often can live a normal life but from time to time, they can feel depressed. Bipolar disorder is psychiatric diagnosis that describes a category of mood disorders, or mood swings, defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormal elevated mood (27). People with bipolar can be normal in a minute and then have a manic episode. The most serious type of depression is major depressive disorder (MDD) also known as unipolar depression or clinical depression is a mental disorder......

Words: 1051 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Postpartum Depression

...Postpartum Depression I always thought that Postpartum Depression was not a real condition, until I had my second son, and it hit me like a ton of bricks. It was so overwhelming to suddenly realize that this was a very real condition and that it was happening to me. Postpartum Depression is a depressive disorder that can occur any time after your baby is born, up until one year after the birth. It can vary from mild symptoms, to severe symptoms, to suicidal thoughts and actions. It can affect women and men from all walks of life. Postpartum Depression is a very serious condition and should be treated as such. Postpartum Depression can be defined as; postpartum: occurring in or being the period following parturition. Parturition: the action of or process of giving birth to offspring. Depression: a psychoneurotic or psychotic disorder marked esp. by sadness, inactivity, difficulty with thinking and concentration, a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping, feelings of dejection and hopelessness, and sometimes suicidal thoughts or an attempt to commit suicide (Merriam-Webster’s, Merriam-Webster’s Medical Desk Dictionary, Springfield, Massachusetts, Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, 2005). There are other terms associated with Postpartum Depression. Some people think that Postpartum is the same thing as having the “Baby Blues”, which it is not. The baby blues commonly only last a few days to a few weeks, at most, and are very mild symptoms of crying,...

Words: 1167 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Bipolar Unipolar

...types of diseases that a person can have that could cause depression, but the main two tend to be Unipolar and bipolar. Unipolar is a condition that is caused when a person just has depression, while bipolar is when a person has highs such as mania and lows such as depression. When you hear people talk about being diagnosed with or treated for depression, they are often referring to unipolar depression. There are important differences between unipolar depression and bipolar depression. These differences are how the illness makes people feel and behave, and differences in how they are supported through treatment. In addition to going through low moods or depression, individuals with bipolar disorder also have high moods known as mania during which they may experience increased energy, feelings of euphoria, insomnia (inability to sleep) or impulsive behaviors like shopping sprees or promiscuous sex. Someone with unipolar depression doesn’t go through the “highs” of bipolar depression. A closer look at the symptoms of depression are: sleep disturbances, eating disturbances, depressed mood, lack of interest in usually pleasurable activities, fatigue, isolation, anxiety and loss of self esteem. Some depressed people have suicidal ideation. You don't need to have all these symptoms, but if you have at least 5 of them for a period of two weeks, your diagnosis is major depression. In a nutshell, when you are depressed, you feel terrible, don't want to be social, and usually stick......

Words: 926 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Severe Depression

...a certain way. The case study I chose is severe depression from the Clinical Psychology perspective and is about Joe, his family history and his circumstances. As a Psychologist you need to know how to define clinical depression, identify potential sources or causes of severe depression, know the symptoms, be familiar with Psychological theories, and know relevant trends, pros and cons of medication, steps to take to build a good rapport with your client, know what you are responsible for ethically. We all probably know someone who is severely depressed because, Clinical depression affects millions of people each year (University of Pittsburgh, N.D.). If clinical depression is left untreated it can have serious consequences (it could be life threatening). So it is very important that not only Psychologists are well informed on this topic but we all should be. Clinical depression is a mood disorder making someone sad, angry, feeling of loss or frustration that affects their everyday life (Davey, 2011). This kind of depression affects every aspect of your life and does not just go away. You can’t just be happy or cheered up because things that used to bring you joy you have no interest in. They may find it difficult to get up in the mornings to go to work resulting in the loss of their job. In some cases they may also complain about physical pain that has no medical explanation. People who suffer from severe depression may have relationship problems. They may not be...

Words: 1375 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Depression and Mood Disorders

...At different times in your life, you may have ‘been in a funk’, or extremely unhappy for a short period in time. People may have noticed or commented on how you are acting, but it doesn’t put any stress on your ability to function in life. At other times in your life, you may have felt elated, or extremely energized. When someone has a unipolar disorder, their sadness or elation are catapulted into extreme highs or lows, and this mania or depression has a significant effect on their abilities to function in their normal lives. When someone experiences both the extreme highs and lows of mania and depression alternately, they are diagnosed as bipolar. Depression is a continual disorder that affects between 5 and 10% of adults in the United States per year, and up to 17% of adults will have suffered from a severe case of depression at least once in their life. Depression is a low or sad state, where a person will experience significant levels of sadness, lack of energy, low self worth, guilt, or other symptoms like these. These symptoms span across fives areas of functioning. The first area we will look at is the emotional symptoms (Comer, 2005). The emotional symptoms of depression include feeling sad, miserable, empty, and just plain unhappy. Another function that is affected is motivation. The motivational symptoms cause people to lose their drive and desire to do anything, and often have to force themselves to go through their regularly scheduled life. The behavioral......

Words: 1005 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Depression Paper

...The Cause of Depression: Cognitive Perspective Kristin D Simpson-Oloso Psyc3002 Section 05 Cause of Depression Paper Capella University May 2016 Abstract Depression comes in many different forms such as major depression, dysthymia, postpartum depression, seasonal affective disorder, bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression. Along with the many different forms, there are also many symptoms, which include feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, loss of interest in daily activities, sleep changes, anger, and irritability, loss of energy, self-loathing, and reckless behavior. Although the exact cause of depression has eluded doctors, psychiatrists, nurses, and researchers since its inception, one of the key roles affecting depression is an individual’s environment. The Cause of Depression: Cognitive Perspective Environmental causes of depression are concerned with factors that are outside of us. They are not directly related to brain function, inherited traits from parents, medical illnesses, or anything else that may take place within us. Instead, environmental events are those things that happen in the course of our everyday lives that we can’t control. Age, community, society, and a person’s neighborhood do play apart in environmental depression. But, the three arguments’ that I will discuss are prolonged stress, childhood difficulties, or traumatic events. Stress and Depression Depression is a problem that is affecting 9% of U.S. Citizens...

Words: 2258 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Depression

...Depression There are many people all over the world who suffer with serious symptoms and issues that are caused from depression. One of the most surprising elements of depression is that it is not only a condition that affects a person mentally; however, it also affects a person physically. There are a significant amount of symptoms for people who are experiencing depression. Some of the most common symptoms for depression include feeling sad about something in particular, becoming tired and fatigued all of the time, finding it to be a challenge to get out of bed in the morning, procrastinating on important events, and finding it hard to get joy out of traditionally joyful events in life. These are just a few of the most common symptoms of depression. There are a number of reasons that people get depression. Sometimes people begin to feel depressed after a significant negatively charged event in his or her life. For instance, someone could begin to exhibit signs of depression after a death in the family. The signs of depression might not even be apparent right away. The sadness might start out as tears for the loss of a loved one; however, over time this sadness can begin to be translated in to a long-term depression for the person who lost a loved one. Other depressions might be started from having difficulty finding a career, or paying bills. Some people become depressed after a traumatic event, and others after having an argument with someone. There are tons of forms of......

Words: 2274 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Depression

...Depression Tanajia Jones Pd2 What is depression? Depression is a state of being depressed (sad, gloomy, dejected, downcast) a state of general emotion dejection and withdrawal, sadness greater and more prolonged than that warranted by any objective reason. (dictionary.com) What causes depression? There is no specific cause for depression, major roles that play in depression includes genetics, environment, life events, medical conditions, and the way people react to events that happen in their life. Many researchers discovered that depression runs in families and many can inherit genes that make it more likely for them to get depressed. Tragic life events can trigger depression; it can be as simple as moving, changing schools and can become as big as a death in the family a friend, family member, or a pet. Sometimes this can cause you to go beyond normal grief and cause depression. Depression is also found in young adults starting around the time they hit age thirteen, for most teens, a negative, stressful, or unhappy family atmosphere can affect their self-esteem and lead to depression. This can also include poverty, homelessness, violence in the family, relationships && community. Medical conditions are also a factor in causing depression; some medications can affect hormone balance which can cause an effect on the mood. For some teens undiagnosed learning disabilities can block success, hormonal changes might affect the mood. What......

Words: 804 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Research Paper

...Anxiety Torrie Jauregui Com/172 August 20th, 2014 Brendan Praniewicz Anxiety Anxiety is a disorder where people live in fear. The people who suffer with this disorder worry all the time about if something will go wrong. This disorder destroys how people suffering with it live on a daily basis. People suffering with this disorder fear from being judged by others. They fear going out and being a part of society, they fear that they will have a massive panic attack out of know where. This disorder creates social anxiety, affects personal life, and creates panic attacks in the person suffering. Social anxiety is the extreme fear of being scrutinized and judged by others in social or performance situations “Anxiety and depression association of America, 2014.” People dealing with social anxiety have a hard time being in situations that make them have to deal with or be around other people. Here is an example about social anxiety effecting a man named Greg. One day Greg got talked into going to a party with his roommate. However, Greg’s roommate suddenly had to work that day and could no longer attend. Greg now was going alone and had not been able to come up with a good reason to no longer go. When he arrived his anxiety was starting to hit him; he was sweating vigorously. Once he entered the party, he no longer wanted to be there. His new objective for the night was to hide in plain sight and get out as soon as he could (Jantz, 2014). The fear of letting down his......

Words: 1584 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Depression Vs Depression

...It is not a choice to have depression. We are not control of our own happiness because our moods can change by our surroundings and the thoughts in our heads. Some people are more easily affected by the actions of others and by their surroundings, but it does not mean that we are in total control of our own happiness and emotions. One of the most important sings of knowing that people are not in control of their own happiness is depression. Depression it is not a choice but a mental illness. People who have depression can feel sad without any reason. It’s an illness where people can feel sad for many days, and even when they are surrounded by people who they love or do activities they enjoy their mood does not change. This happens because...

Words: 776 - Pages: 4