Describe and Evaluate Carl Jung’s Theory Concerning Personality Types and Show How They Might Usefully Help a Therapist to Determine Therapeutic Goals

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By pjwtherapy
Words 2784
Pages 12
Describe and evaluate Carl Jung’s theory concerning personality types and show how they might usefully help a therapist to determine therapeutic goals
Carl Jung was close friends with Freud having met in 1907 and for some time worked alongside him in collaboration developing the psychoanalytical movement. However approximately seven years later Jung ended the collaboration, as he had started to move away from Feud’s theories and disagreed with some vital areas, including the nature of libidinal energy, which Freud saw as mostly sexual and Jung saw as mostly spiritual and infantile sexuality as a cause of neurosis.
There was also disagreement as to the importance of the libidinal energy, as Freud saw it as pivotal and the primary motivating force, while Jung saw it as one of several forces with equal importance.
This led to Jung discarding Freud’s importance of the development of the child, as Jung was concerned with the development of the person across the life-span. From this point on he worked at developing his theory based on personality types.
Here in is the beginning of Carl Jung’s theory of Personality Types, which I will now attempt to explain in my own words, but before I do I would like to use one of the infamous quotes from Carl Yung himself…
"We need more understanding of human nature, because the only real danger that exists is man himself . . . We know nothing of man, far too little. His psyche should be studied because we are the origin of all coming evil."
—BBC interview, 1959
(http://www.alternativereel.com/soc/display_article.php?id=0000000022)
Contrary to previous observations based on temperamental or emotional behaviour patterns, Jung was amongst the first to look at the psychic energy and ‘the way in which one habitually or preferentially orients oneself in the world.’ (Personality Types, page 12, para 2)
Jung broke down his model into…...

Similar Documents

Exploring How the Example of Jesus Might Help Christians Facing Persecution Today

...In modern times persecution of Christians in Britain is not common however, the pain cannot be saved for Christians living in other parts of the world that often have to endure the “Nero type” experience in order to live out their faith in such circumstances the words and actions of Jesus remain an invaluable source of support. An example of a Christian who has recently suffered because of his faith is Oscar Romero a Archbishop from El Salvador had his life ended prematurely and brutally because he spoke out about great injustice carried out on the on the citizens of Latin America. The murder of father, Rutilio Grande who’s only crime was living in poverty alongside helpless peasants. An Example of this persecution is “Jesus prays in Gethsemane” Ch14v36-42, this example shows even when Jesus is in despair he will do what God wants him to. The message given from this is that in the time of great suffering you must stick to your faith at all costs. This is what Rutilio Grande did and his faith brought him death. In a way, modern Christians do have to submit to punishment, people could be made social outcast and be called names and take physical and verbal abuse off non-Christians just for their religion. Like when Jesus was summoned to the high priest he had to submit to questioning and suffering. When Jesus healed Jairus’ daughter in Ch5v21-43 the crowd laughed him and ridiculed Jesus for believing that the girl was just sleeping......

Words: 347 - Pages: 2

Marxist Theory of State, and How It Might Be Criticised

...ESSAY – ‘What is the Marxist theory of the state and how might it be criticised?’ Introduction Marxism first arose in 1987 when Marx and Engels were commissioned to write the manifesto for the political party of radical workers, The Communist League; this political party was formed in order to create a unity of the ‘working men’, in favour of the creation of a classless society. The purpose of The Communist Manifesto, and much of Marx’s early writings on the state, was to promote social change, in refutation to Hegel’s theory of the dialetic. This is achieved through the construction of a materialist interpretation of the state as ‘the active, conscious and official expression (of) the present structure of society' (Collected Works, 3, p. 199). Marx’s ultimate aim was to “lay bare the economic law of motion of modern society.” (Marx, Capital [1867] 1965, p10), which is to… This essay will explain and analyse Marx’s theory of state, a nd assess the legitimacy of the theory through criticisms. Marx’s theory of history/state: History is a study of past events in human affairs; Marx believes that historical events are driven forward by changing economic factors within the ‘base’ of society. According to Marx, human society is made up of two measures: a base and a superstructure. The superstructure is the set of 'non-economic institutions whose character is explained by the nature of the economic structure (the base).' (G. A. Cohen Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence pp...

Words: 1749 - Pages: 7

Describe and Evaluate Two Definitions of Abnormality. in Your Answer You Must Refer to How Dr Padawl Might Explain Definitions of Abnormality to the Volunteers

...Dr Padawl wishes to explain to a group of hospital volunteers how psychologists try to make decisions about abnormality. Dr Padawl decides to start by explaining how abnormality is defined. Describe and evaluate two definitions of abnormality. In your answer you must refer to how Dr Padawl might explain definitions of abnormality to the volunteers. (12) Dr Padawl may start explaining that abnormality is defined as ‘deviation from a norm or a standard’, and that by labeling a person or behaviour as ‘abnormal’ implies something undesirable and requires change. One definition of abnormality that Dr Padawl could use is social norms. He could ask the volunteers to come up with some examples of what they think social norms are. Then provide them with the correct definition that every society sets up rules for behaviours based on moral standards. They can be explicit (i.e. breaking the law), or implicit (unwritten rules i.e. table manners), and breaking these laws would be considered as abnormal as they are seen as rare in the population. After doing so, Dr Padawl could consolidate by asking the volunteers to label their examples whether they are explicit or implicit. Dr Padawl may also wish to evaluate social norms as a definition of abnormality. One weakness is that cross-cultural misunderstandings are common, as a behaviour that is considered as normal in one society may be seen as abnormal in another, due to cultures and time. i.e. homosexuality was considered...

Words: 531 - Pages: 3

Jungian Type Personality

...Abstract This paper is based on my construction and support of my decision to pursue my MBA degree and its importance to me. I will also include the results from the Jungian 16 type Personality self-assessment that was done to assess my personality type and to determine how others perceive me. Importance of Earning an MBA Degree The question been asked is why do I need an MBA to excel? This is just a question in the minds of thousands of individuals who wish to excel in their professional career and who seek to achieve some form of independence. ‘Why does achieving an MBA important to my development’, an MBA is seen as a steppingstone to further enrich my way of life. Earning an MBA can be seen as a very important accomplishment in one’s life, as it allows the individual the opportunity to accomplish his or her goals in life and have a standing in society and the business world. Achieving an MBA is not just acquiring a piece of paper with one’s name written on it but rather a milestone in one’s accomplishment. The milestone that will allow me to be better equipped for managerial level positions in the professional world and also will allow me greater marketability as it paves a path for my professional growth. This will allow me to go out into the world with a better chance of obtaining a job and to be in a specific socio class. In other word’s an educational investment paying off. According to Tomar (2010), “Major companies are presently requiring for their...

Words: 1125 - Pages: 5

Jungian 16 Personality Type

... make decisions based on their feeling. This strategy can also help me with my inability to put my and other people’s emotions above the facts, which in certain cases can hurt me. If I keep an open mind and use my “Perceiver” personality to change how I view the facts. Third strategy for my student life would be to study with people who have a different personality type than I do. I think that this would be work out best for everyone in the group, having to work with other personality types, that is. That way we can all on our own strengths and help others in the areas they may be weak. Strategy number four is letting others know my thoughts. This can also help in in all areas of my life for example, if I think that there’s an easier way to do a job and tell my boss we can open a discussion. Then with that discussion we could see if that was true or not, but I need to work on keeping what I say to the topic on hand. Last strategy is to partner up with people in projects that can look bigger picture. Because I like to look at the smaller details I need someone to stop me from getting lost in the fine details rather than seeing the “Big Picture”. If I keep looking at the “small picture” I can waist a lot of time, but if I look at both the “Big Picture” and the “small picture” I think that I would be able to get the job, project, or even manage my time quicker and more efficiently....

Words: 831 - Pages: 4

Describe and Evaluate the Gender Schema Theory of Gender Development

...Describe and evaluate the gender schema theory of gender development. Martin and Halverson believe that gender identity is gained around the age two-three. They also stated that when children realise that they are either a boy or girl they split themselves into two groups, their gender group being the ‘in-group’ and the opposite sex group is the ‘out-group’. The children then actively seek out how members of their group should behave (toys, games, activities) and ignore those that do not relate to their group, for example a young boy would completely ignore a girl’s toy and may avoid anything perceived to be ‘girly’. This leads them to form schemas and their environment, peers and parents helps them to develop these which become more complex over time. Gender schemas help us to understand why children’s beliefs and attitudes about sex roles are so rigid, for example children may ignore behaviours which go against gender schemas e.g. female fire fighters or male nurses. Studies that support this have shown that when young children watch films which depict contradicting gender role behaviours, they tune them out. A study that goes against Martin and Halverson’s theory of gender development is Campbell’s study (2000). Although Martin and Halverson believe that gender identity is gained earlier than what Kohlberg thought, Campbell has proof that children develop gender schemas even earlier than ages 2-3. His study was with children of three months, nine months and...

Words: 1040 - Pages: 5

Using the Model for Goal Setting, Evaluate Allstate’s Goal Setting Process to Determine Whether or Not Allstate Has an Effective Goal-Setting Program?

... up as well. Allstate uses a wide variety of training options to provide employees with the opportunity to successfully achieve their goals. These training options include, classroom training, coaching and mentoring. These training options help leaders determine future developmental programs because feedback is provided from every employee they train (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2011, p. 216) Question: Recommend the types of high-performance reward system Allstate should use to motivate its employees to reach its diversity goals? Answer: High performance work system entails greater level of involvement. They are simple work practice that can be deliberately introduced in order to motivate employees and in turn, improve organizational performance in Allstate. One of the most important motivational factor is training. It allows employees to develop technique know-how and brings employee to have deep insight of organizational products and services and how it’s running. Though Allstate introduces a mandatory diversity training courses to employees with service of more than one year but in my own opinion, the training ought to have “gone round the clock” by allowing all employees to participate in the training. By doing this, it will not only serves the purpose of technique know-how and the insight the employees may gain about the company and its product but also serves as a good tool to motivate all employees that is involved. Aside the diversity training courses, Allstate...

Words: 1046 - Pages: 5

Personality Type Research Paper

... impatient person wouldn’t procrastinate. Being enthusiastic is one of the main reasons I have so many friends and even more acquaintances. I like to become close with everyone I meet, unless of course I don’t like them. Some of my core strengths are curiosity, communication, friendliness, observation, energy, and knowing how to relax. Communication and friendliness seem to go hand in hand with me. Being friendly is always good but keeping friends and learning from others is a product of communicating. Having high energy attracts positivity. Through some of the toughest times I remain energetic and positive, if it weren’t for my resilience I would have broken down and given up years ago. Being aware of one’s surroundings at all times by observing those around me have taught me many things about the world. In a sense I can read people, I’m almost never wrong. I can tell within a few minutes of watching someone if they will be someone I click with or someone who irritates me. When I’m going through a lot of stress and feeling pressured I have a way of turning my thoughts off and tuning out the rest of the world. I typically go in my room, shut the door, snuggle with my dog Scotty and watch Seinfeld. I’m in my own little world and all the stress in my life fall to the back of my mind. Weaknesses are inherent in everyone’s personality. Mine include finding it difficult to focus, tendency to overthink things, stressing out easily, being highly emotional, and independent to a......

Words: 882 - Pages: 4

Describe and Evaluate Bowlby's Theory as an Explanation of Attachment

...Describe and Evaluate Bowlby’s theory of attachment. Bowlby presented the evolutionary theory of attachment, which suggested that children come into the world biologically programmed to form attachments with others (it’s innate) because it will help them survive. It suggested that there was a sensitive period for developing attachments (o-4 years) and to form these attachments the infant produces innate ‘social releaser’ behaviours such as crying which causes caregiving to happen and so the attachments are formed though care and responsiveness (not food as the learning theory suggests). These attachments allow the baby to form a secure base so it can explore the world and develop independence and they are often formed with the infant’s primary caregiver (monotropy) and is of special significance in emotional development. This primary caregiver (often the infant’s mother) can then help the infant to build more attachments with others. These early emotional attachments are consistent with the attachments they are able to form when they are an adult (continuity hypothesis). It acts as a prototype for all future social relationships so disrupting it can have severe consequences as the child will suffer from irreversible developmental consequences. For example if the infant never had an attachment then they are less likely to be able to form one with their own baby in the future. Monotropy has two very similar studies done which both provide evidence for it. It was...

Words: 572 - Pages: 3

Describe and Evaluate Bowlby's Theory as an Explanation of Attachment

...Describe and Evaluate Bowlby’s theory of attachment. Bowlby presented the evolutionary theory of attachment, which suggested that children come into the world biologically programmed to form attachments with others (it’s innate) because it will help them survive. It suggested that there was a sensitive period for developing attachments (o-4 years) and to form these attachments the infant produces innate ‘social releaser’ behaviours such as crying which causes caregiving to happen and so the attachments are formed though care and responsiveness (not food as the learning theory suggests). These attachments allow the baby to form a secure base so it can explore the world and develop independence and they are often formed with the infant’s primary caregiver (monotropy) and is of special significance in emotional development. This primary caregiver (often the infant’s mother) can then help the infant to build more attachments with others. These early emotional attachments are consistent with the attachments they are able to form when they are an adult (continuity hypothesis). It acts as a prototype for all future social relationships so disrupting it can have severe consequences as the child will suffer from irreversible developmental consequences. For example if the infant never had an attachment then they are less likely to be able to form one with their own baby in the future. Monotropy has two very similar studies done which both provide evidence for it. It was...

Words: 572 - Pages: 3

Carl Jung: Key Concepts of Personality Theory and Application

...Carl Jung: Key Concepts of Personality Theory and Application The degree to which one attains their own level of psychological development and understanding is often the product of an enduring and precarious pilgrimage bound by one of the most mystifying phenomenon’s known to mankind: the human mind. The ability to render complete understanding of the intricate workings of the mind has not only been cradled at the pentacle of research and academia for centuries, but is at the heart of each individual’s personal journey through life. The concept of understanding one's self can be as complex and overwhelming as trying to understand humanity as a whole; however, there have been many profound movements in thought and theory that conjure strong insight to how we may be able to achieve the ultimate meaning behind it all. Carl Gustav Jung, the founder of Analytical Psychology, went beyond rational thinking to discover the truth of one’s existence; by redirecting the purpose towards the concept of self knowledge, and by reshaping the concept of one’s Self. The nature of Jungian psychology is derived from mythological, mystical, and spiritual concepts which provided the framework for Carl Jung’s quest to develop a “science of the soul” (In lecture June 28, 2011, PSY 225 class, Professor C. Johnston). Jung created his own novel approach to understanding the human mind by cutting through the obscurity of reality and enthralling into a much deeper venture of transcendent...

Words: 2693 - Pages: 11

Describe and Evaluate at Least One Theory of Forgetting

...One explanation of forgetting is interference theory. This theory states that forgetting is caused by two sets of information – which were stored at different times – becoming confused. There are two types of interference. Firstly, proactive interference is when old information interferes with new information and prevents it being stored properly. For example, getting a new phone number but telling people the old one by mistake. Secondly, retroactive interference is when new information interferes with old information and prevents it being stored properly. For example, learning a new computer password then being unable to remember your old one. Interference is more likely to happen when two sets of information are very similar. A strength of interference theory is that it has supporting evidence from experiments. For example, McGeoch and MacDonald, who found that when participants were given a second list of adjectives after learning a first list of adjectives had poorer recall of the original list than groups who were given unrelated stimuli, or nothing, to learn. This supports interference theory because it shows proactive interference, as the second list of adjectives interfered with the adjectives that they had previously learned. A strength of this study is that it has high internal validity, since it was a lab experiment. This is means it was able to establish true cause and effect between the IV and the DV. However, a weakness of interference theory is that it...

Words: 443 - Pages: 2

Scribe and Evaluate Carl Jung’s Theory

...“Describe and evaluate Carl Jung’s theory concerning personality types and show how they might usefully help a therapist to determine therapeutic goals” Introduction Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961) a Swiss born psychologist and psychiatrist was the founding father of the theory and methodology known as ‘Analytical Psychology’. In his early years Jung studied with and was heavily influenced by Freud. But would later have fundamental concerns with regard to Freud’s theories going on to develop his theories and practice of ‘Analytical Psychology’. Jung’s legacy and its impact on modern day psychology and the ‘psychologisation of religion’ in particular spirituality and the New Age movement are immense. Many of Jung’s original theories and methodology still influences the way psychologists and psychoanalysts practice today. Psychological concepts such as ‘archetype’, ‘collective unconscious’, ‘the complex’ and ‘synchronicity’ are Jungian precepts. The ‘Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) which is used today to measure an individuals perception of their surroundings and how their decisions are formed, is based on Jung’s ‘Typological theory’. Jung’s father being a pastor and his mother an atheist (in modern day terms) from an early age gave Jung the opportunity to consider and reflect on both “sides” of the religious vs non-believer question, along with the subsequent impact and conflicts within his own psyche. Throughout Jung’s life he expressed a keen interest in nature...

Words: 2628 - Pages: 11

Describe and Evaluate Bowlby’s Monotropic Theory

...Describe and evaluate Bowlby’s monotropic theory [12 marks] Bowlby’s monotropic theory of attachment after extensive research suggests that emotional bonds had evolutionary functions as he thought it helped a child’s survival. Attachment behaviours in both babies and their caregivers have evolved through natural selection, so the way they behave causes the infants to be biologically programmed with innate behaviours that ensures that attachment does occur. These innate species-specific attachment behaviours are social releasers i.e crying, vocalising and smiling. Bowlby brought in the concept of monotropy through this that there is one relationship which is more important than all the rest. He, however did not rule out the possibility of other attachment figure for a child but did believe there should a primary bond (usually the mother) that was most important than any other in the child’s life. His theory also suggested that there is a critical period for the formation of attachments, whereby attachment behaviours between infant and carer must occur within a certain time period if children are to form attachments. If, however, it does not occur, then it may not happen at all later on. Due to the child’s relationship with the primary caregiver, an internal working model develops which influences relationships in the future. The model is a cognitive framework used to understand the world, self and others, that acts as a template. A person’s interaction with...

Words: 1103 - Pages: 5

21. Describe How or Why Integer Programming or Goal Programming or Nonlinear Programming (Choose One) Might Be Used in a Real-World Business Situation. Be as Specific as You Can and Use Examples as Appropriate.

...21. Describe how or why integer programming OR goal programming OR nonlinear programming (choose ONE) might be used in a real-world business situation. Be as specific as you can and use examples as appropriate. Goal programming is an aid for decision-making problems with multiple, possibly conflicting goals. Typically, linear goal programming attempts to minimize a weighted sum of deviations from goals. This program is used in real-world business in an attempt to eliminate or, at the least, mitigate this disquieting disconnect. Goal programming is the most widely applied tool of multiple-objective optimization/multicriteria decision making. However, today’s goal programming models, methods, and algorithms differ significantly from those employed even in the early 1990s. Goal programming, may be combined with various tools from the artificial intelligence sector (most notably genetic algorithms and neural networks) so as to provide an exceptionally robust and powerful means to model, solve, and analyze a host of real-world problems. In other words, today’s goal programming while maintaining its role as the “workhorse” of multiple-objective decision analysis—is a much different tool than that described in most textbooks. Goal programming’s label as the “workhorse” of multiple-objective optimization has been achieved by its successful solutions of important real-world problems over a period of more than 50 years. Some examples among these applications are: • The analysis...

Words: 1137 - Pages: 5