Free Essay

Desing Argument

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By moll
Words 467
Pages 2
Design argument essay -
The design argument is know as the teleological argument which means the end result is important. This is a posterior argument which is based on our experience, also known as empirical evidence. The D.A is the oldest argument for ther existence of God and there are different versions of the D.A. There are four main contributors to the D.A who all aim to prove the exsitence of God, these are Aquinas, Paley, Tennant and Swinburne. The D.A makes it clear that there is an intelligent designer which is the God of classical theism.
A classical contrbutor to the D.A is Aquinas. Aquinas was a saint and Catholic priest he was best know for his book summa theologica. Aquinas believed that there is order in the universe and that we work towards a purpose. Aquinas pointed out that non-rational beings eg, animals work towards an end or purpose and for this to happen there must be something intellident to guide them to the end which is beneficial for them. This intelligence must be God.
Another classical contributer to the design argument for the existence of God is Paley (1747-1805) Like Aquinas he believed that there is order in the universe and we work towards something which would have the biggest benefit for us. He also believed taht like a watch the world has many indivudual parts which all have their own purpose. As there is many parts and they work together so well, there must be an intelligent designer, for Paley this is God.
A modern day scholar of the D.A is Tennant. He believes 'nature is meaningless and valueless without God behind it and man infront'. Tennant is saying that without God there would be be no value for nature and there must be a designer. He also believes it is highly unlikely that the world came about by chance, and a much more rational explanation would be God.
Another mordern day contributior is Swinburne. He believes that scientific discoveries provide grounds for belief in God. Swinburne believes that science alone cannot be the cause of the world and that it didn't just come about by chance, God must be the first cause. God is the answer to the universe and its a much simpler explanation than any other.
The D.A is one of the oldest arguements for the exsistence of God it has been added to over the years by many contributors making it stronger. The design arugument sets out to prove the existence of God, with all the contributors it makes it very probable that God exists. As there is no concrete proof the D.A couldn't change the mind of an athesist. However, it will strengthen a theiest belief in God.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Argument and Logic

...Argument and Logic Axia Campus of University of Phoenix Parmenide’s most famous disciple, Zeno has devised a series of ingenious arguments to support Parmenide’s theory. The theory is reality is one. Zeno took a basic approach to demonstrate motion is impossible. His example was a rabbit moving from one hole to another, and must first reach the quarter point before reaching the next hole. The point needing to be reached is one-eighth the distance. Whether it is a rabbit or another creature it must reach a point of infinite number of points to get anywhere they wish to go. By the requirement of needing to move an infinite number of times anywhere would rule out motion. Second theory states for a rabbit to move from one hole to another, at each moment of its travel will occupy space meaning it is at rest. Since the rabbit occupies space each moment it is at rest each moment so it cannot move. Zeno’s argument is that motion is not possible. Basically stating when a rabbit moves from one place to another the rabbit moves infinite times ruling out motion. When anything is attempting to reach a certain spot or location whether it is an animal or human we at any point can all stop. Zeno is saying motion does not exist at all because we all stop at some point. I believe him stating motion does not exist is Ludacris, because as we are moving we are in motion and then we stop and then we are back in motion once we began to move again. I believe for the most part his logics......

Words: 355 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Soul as 3-Part Partition

...In an attempt to illustrate that the soul, much like the city Socrates describes earlier in the book, is partitioned into three parts, Socrates presents his arguments in three logical steps. He firstly establishes the assumption that the same thing cannot undergo opposite things. Then, he demonstrates that the soul must contain at least two parts, namely the appetitive and the rationally calculating. Lastly, he demonstrates that the spirited part must be different from both of those, thereby proving the tri-constituent structure of the soul. First, Socrates tackles the question of whether we do everything with the whole of our soul or distinct parts by stating a fundamental premise upon which all subsequent arguments are built. This states that the same thing cannot undergo opposite forces or be in opposite states at the same time in the same respect. More concretely, Socrates gives an example of a person not being able to be standing still and moving with respect to the same frame of reference simultaneously. Recognizing the generality of this argument, he then hypothesizes the correctness of the premise by further listing a string of opposites, including dissent versus assent and wishing versus not-wishing. Building off of the aforementioned premise, Socrates advances his argument by elucidating the distinction between a natural object by itself and an object of a particular sort. For instance, he argues that thirst, in its independent form, causes people to crave......

Words: 786 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Enviromentalism

...How to Take Environmentalism Back from a Religion Crichton wrote about a concern for the environment with Environmentalism becoming a religion as opposed to a scientific field. He uses all of the classical principles of argumentation to support his argument about the religion of environmentalism. By using ethos, pathos, and logos, he makes a strong argument. Through his descriptions, he uses some fact and some emotion to give reason why this religion should be disbanded. He shows emotion, or pathos, through his comparison of the Judeo-Christian religion to the Environmentalism Religion, stating: The reason that I have no wish to debate these convictions is that I know that I cannot. These are not facts that can be argued; these are issues of faith. So it is, sadly, with environmentalism. Increasingly, it seems, facts are not necessary because the tenets of environmentalism are all about belief" (P. 595 para 5-6). Crichton has an emotional connection to his argument. He feels deeply about the amount of environmentalism becoming fantasy instead of being strictly composed of fact. As a student of anthropology, he learned about what makes up religion, leading to his belief of environmentalism becoming more a religion than a science. (p. 594, para 3) He finds many connections between Christianity and Environmentalism. Crichton relates The Garden of Eden to an Environmentalists idea of a Paradise. When discussing the idea behind the resources for our planet, the writer......

Words: 725 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Yingling Academic Argument

...authorities on the application of force to achieve the aims of policy. The argument he presented in this article is weak, and I will argue this under two premises. First, LTC(R) Yingling utilized fallacies throughout his argument to support claims of generalship failures. Second, he excludes the other points of possible failure to focus on one set of rank within the officer corps. LTC(R) Yingling’s utilization of fallacies throughout his argument serves to create confusion, bias, and diversions for the reader of this article. He distracts the audience by the introduction of a red herring in his argument. The summation of his first two paragraphs discuss war as “a social activity that involves entire nations,” and “passion of the people is necessary to endure the sacrifices inherent in war.” These ideas raise a side issue separate from the focus of the first element of discussion, responsibilities of generalship. LTC(R) Yingling exhibits circular reasoning when he states, “the general must visualize the conditions of future combat,” and goes on to state, “not even the most skilled general can visualize precisely how future wars will be fought.” If a general’s responsibility is to visualize what he is unable to visualize, this begs the question of how much culpability a general is truly responsible for, assuming the general provided an estimation of strategic probabilities. Weak analogies riddle the argument through comparisons of World War I, World War II, the......

Words: 659 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Rhetorical Analysis

...discourse community is a unique communication tool which people use to communicate with their readers within their fields (30). Since the paper was written for a required upper division major core course, the discourse community is all business majors. The genre was a general business paper with three sections: case summary, ethical analysis, and recommendations. We are college students are trained to become more professional in our careers. As a result, my group paper’s intended audiences were only Professor Thomas Shirley and classmates. My purpose of the paper was to convince my readers that Starbucks company was unethical when it fired employees for supporting unions and applied four-component model of ethical decision making to support my argument. Through the paper, I wanted people within this community to have broader perspectives after reading my point of view in response to the case. People may even...

Words: 1410 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Critical Thinkin

...The first argument I found was: Americans unwittingly cooperated with the terrorists in achieving a major goal: spreading fear and thus disrupting lives. In other words, we could have reacted more rationally and as a result produced less disruption in the lives of our citizens. In this argument the premise does support the conclusion. The premise is how we reacted to the situation when our world was attacked. If you think about the flip side of this coin. When people do bad things they want attention. The terrorists were wanting attention and doing horrible things to get the attention they wanted. So when you look at the whole picture the conclusion is explaining why this person feels us as Americans could’ve acted differently when it came to the terrorist attacks of 9/11. We will never know now and hopefully this tradgedy will never happen again to prove the theory. However, saying in the conclusion in support of his argument if we would’ve acted without such a uproar and handled this tragedy like we do every other one. Then possibly it wouldn’t of gotten so out of control. This argument is a good example of inductive logic. It supports the strong argument and the conclusion. The premises in the argument are plausibly true. The argument is supportive however, shows why they believe the terrosist achieved what they were looking for., • o Do the premises sufficiently support the conclusions? o Are the arguments either deductively valid or inductively......

Words: 467 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Communication Class Notes

...02/03/14 Marriage Divorce $28,800 19,500 65,000 95,000 175,000 200,000 02/12/14 Lack of Communications Personal quality employees ( Job Lookout ) 1. Ability to verbily communicate with persons inside and outside organization. 2. Ability to work in team structure. 3. Ability to make decisions and solve problems 4. Ability to plan, organize, prioritize 5. Ability to obtain and process & informative statisics - 20% 7% men 12%women Because interpersonal relationships. Negative emotions 80% of mens succeeds in suicide 02/05/14 Types of Communication Intrapersonal communication =Public Communication Intrapersonal communication= Mass communication Aka Dyadic communication Small Group Communication=Each Level of communication has its own characterics Intrapersonal-self Intrapersonal dyadic-two people Group- 3 to 8ish Ex. Movies with large group –Unmanagable Public speaking -10ish to 40ish Mass- 50+ Lack of Communication Relation termination is because of not listening to one another. Engage in a conflict. Argumentation solves conflicts not focused on the issues/expressions. How to handle the relationship. Cant argue a win- win try to compromise 02/24/2014 Not Listening means no empathy Typology of verbally aggressive messages and the effects of those messages 1. Character attacks Damaged selft-concepts 2. competence attacks Hurt feelings 3. Insults Anger 4. Teasing irritation 5.......

Words: 926 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Iooyo

...four phases: watching/reading the media, small group discussion, large group discussion board and your individual work through the four page paper. The Focus for the business-related debate The focus for the second debate assignment is to continue to pay attention to any definite arguments – the V and T argument structures (identify at least two), but this time pay more attention to the conditional types of arguments that may arise within the documentary. These are statements are include things like, “If this, then this.” Or “Either this or this” – or any of the valid forms we looked at in class. Once you have identified at least 4 throughout the movie, diagram them either through a sentential structure or a symbolic one and briefly describe how they are used in the documentary. For a bonus, see if you can find an invalid argument – one that either denies the antecedent or affirms the consequent. Please be sure to also spend some time in the online small group discussion board set up for you to talk through the various arguments you have identified within the documentary. Finally, give comment to your views on a comparison between the more definite argument structures and the conditional argument structures as you have found them in the documentary. As part of this discussion,...

Words: 680 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Rhubarb Pie Is a Dessert. Therefore, Whoever Eats Rhubarb Pie Eats a Dessert.

...Fallacy Exercises, part 3 I. Identify the fallacies committed by the following arguments, giving a brief explanation for your answer. If no fallacy is committed, write "no fallacy."[1] NOTE: If an argument is followed by “IGNORE” it is an eample that we didn’t cover and you are not responsible for it. 1. Either we require forced sterilization of Third World peoples or world population will explode and all of us will die. We certainly don't want to die, so we must require forced sterilization. False Dichotomy. These aren’t the only two possibilities. People could control the population by other means. 2. James said that he saw a picture of a beautiful girl stashed in Stephen's locker. We can only conclude that Stephen has broken the rules, because girls are not allowed in the locker room. Accident – the rule applies to real girls, not pictures of girls. 3. Why is it so difficult for you to reach a decision? Complex Question. The thing being assumed is that it is difficult for the person to reach a decision. 4. People who lack humility have no sense of beauty because everyone who has a sense of beauty also has humility. Circular argument. The conclusion says nothing different than the premise. 5. Butane is combustible. Therefore, it burns. Circular argument. “Combustible” means “burns”. 6. Honey, this postcard just arrived, and it says we have won a free airline trip. All we have to do is call the toll-free......

Words: 3033 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Business

...Blaine Ketchum English Comp. 1 Dr. Rogers “Was-His” Mr. and Mrs. Banks are a married couple who seem to just not know what it means to be just that. Years of marriage and nothing seemed to ever change arguments days in and nights out. They have plenty fights and scary arguments yet they are still married as if nothing was wrong at all. The last argument that I clearly heard was over why there was no jelly left. Seriously, come on; of all things to argue about you choose jelly. It is like they can find anything to argue about, no matter how small or how large. I hear and see these altercations all the time because I have been their neighbors for a little over five years now. One day I had just got finished with cutting my grass in the front, and they were arguing the whole time in the car. As soon as I got done they got out arguing still as if all that time did not resolve anything at all. How these two are still married I have no idea. I still like them; they are good people, just not with each other. I cannot complain though because I was in a similar situation as them and I ended up in a happy mutual divorce and everything worked out for us. So hopefully they will end up the same happy or become happy together. We live in Mobile, Alabama, but I am not sure where their residence was before they moved here in the bama. There have been such beautiful days and nights here, but I never see them take advantage of that and enjoy some quality time. They have pretty......

Words: 833 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Expository 2

...1. The first premise of the argument is given in the second sentence of the paragraph. What is this premise? (1 mark) Some things can be measured in degrees. For example, "good, better, best". 2. The second premise of the argument is given in the third sentence of the paragraph. What is this premise? (1 mark) All degrees of measurement are calculated by distance from the "best" of the the set as the benchmark. 3. An interim conclusion is drawn from these two premises in the first part of the fourth sentence. What is this interim conclusion? (1 mark) Therefore, something must exist that is the best and most true of all things. 4. A further interim conclusion is drawn in the next part of the fourth sentence. What is this further interim conclusion? (1 mark) Additionally, this something must also be the most fully in being. 5. A third premise, used in the derivation of the second interim conclusion is given at the end of the fourth sentence. What is this third premise? (1 mark) The best thing of all things will be the most true and fully in being. 6. A fourth premise is given in the fifth sentence of the paragraph. What is this premise? (1 mark) The highest example of something is the cause of it in others. 7. A third interim conclusion is drawn in the sixth sentence of the paragraph. What is this conclusion? (1 mark) Therefore, the positive qualities of things don't arise out of isolation but must be caused by something. 8....

Words: 390 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Plato Republic

...Written by Plato, The Republic strives to answer the question ‘What is Justice?’ Unlike other dialogues starring Socrates, The Republic provides an answer for the question being posed, instead of leaving readers puzzled. Using Socrates as a mouth piece, Plato creates a formula to define justice using an ideal society, the soul of an individual in an ideal society, and the greek social virtues. By using a mathematical argument to link the tasks in society, with the parts of the soul, and matching them to social virtues, Plato is able to provide an acceptable definition of justice that embodies both the ideals of a society and of an individual. In order to locate justice, Plato performs a though experiment where he creates an ideal society. In the ideal society everyone has a merit-based assignment. Plato states that in the perfect society there are three categories of people. There are the rulers, the auxiliaries, and the craftsmen. The rulers are in charge of ruling the ideal society, the auxiliaries are in charge of policing the ideal society, and the craftsmen are in charge of creating the basic tools to fulfill society’s needs. In Greece many accept that in an ideal society there are four standard virtues: wisdom, courage, moderation, and justice. Plato argues that since his society is ideal the standard virtues must be within the society. He also argues that if we are able to locate the standard values in society we will be able to locate justice. Plato uses an......

Words: 1441 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Proposition and Opposition Arguements

...Proposition and Opposition Arguments Worksheet Cari M. Stephens, Greer Cimbalik, Tawni Brown, and Yolanda Martinez HUM/114 June 5, 2012 Mac Wrigley Proposition and Opposition Arguments Worksheet Proposition and Opposition Arguments Worksheet Detailed Initial Argument Preparation: For each of the 10 general arguments that you defined as supporting your stance on the problem or issue being debated in your Week Two Debate Plan Worksheet, research and list at least two facts that support each of the supporting arguments. Be sure to cite your source. Finally, determine how and what you are going to focus on for your debate by ranking the strength or importance of your arguments with 1 being the best or most important argument, and 10 being the weakest or least important argument. General arguments that support your stance on the problem or issue being debated“Proposition” | Two facts that support the argument | Rank of Argument Importance / Strength | Footprints have not been able to be disproven as credible evidence that Bigfoot does exist. | * Size of foot and distance between strides justifies that the footprint cannot be human. Footprints cannot be faked of staged due to size, (Big Foot And Yeti, ). * These footprints are bigger and are different shapes than any other animal on record, (Big Foot And Yeti, ). | 6 | Eyewitness sightings of the North American Bigfoot date back to the 1830’s. | * The fact that there are still eyewitness sightings...

Words: 3547 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Minorities Are Not Looking for Payback

...Minorities are not looking for 'payback' The northern US has always been dominated by Caucasians, but it has changed over time. Now it is Asians, African Americans and Latinos who form the bulk of the US population. Even the President is a foreigner. But will this affect the white peoples' lives, or will everything remain as it is? On May 24th 2012, Ruben Navarrette Jr., a CNN contributor and nationally syndicated columnist, published the commentary "Minorities are not looking for 'payback'" on CNN.com. In the commentary, Navarrette argues against that the increasing percentage of coloured people in the US will have any consequences for the white population, but is he right or is his argumentation unsound? The commentary is composed like an article with a headline, picture, by-line, body text and so forth. It is, however, a commentary, as it shows a certain persons points of view. It is therefore very subjective and expresses his opinions about an actual topic. As soon as you read the headline, "Minorities are not looking for 'payback'", Navarrette's opinion is revealed. By saying that, he defends the minorities and makes them innocent. The picture of a coloured woman, who has just given birth, helps him emphasize his statement, because she smiles, the flowers in the window are beautiful and it all looks harmonious. It appeals highly to pathos. He wants the receiver, mainly women, to empathize with the newborn and its mother. Navarrette uses the body text to argue......

Words: 905 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Term Paper Warehouse

...rather than a team. If a team member makes a mistake, then the team goes into attack mode on that individual and takes over that job. Blue team has a much more positive environment. They trust one another to do the job at hand and make sure that they are keeping up on information by giving updates regularly. If a member throws out a time to do something, they either agree or suggest a new one and the team jumps on board. There are mistakes on blue team, but they put their best effort into helping that individual do better. Which team, would you argue is more cohesive at this point in the game? What are the indications of the group’s cohesiveness? Provide examples of confirming and disconfirming responses as one way to support your argument. The blue team is much more cohesive by this point in the game. You can tell they are cohesive just by the volume of their interactions. There is never yelling or shouting to another team member. They speak to one another as equals and don’t show signs of superiority. The confirming response I remember is when blue team was trying to push ahead of red team and Natalie says “We got this, we got this.” When they agree on cook times it also shows confirmation that if they don’t agree initially they find a cook time that works for all. There was a disconfirming response when Will put Tommy down after he cooked the chicken too long. Tommy knew he messed up, but afterwards was appreciative of Will helping him out....

Words: 447 - Pages: 2