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Determinants of Cross Border Mergers

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Determinants of cross border mergers and acquisitions
A cross-border merger is where the assets and operation of two firms belonging to or registered in two different countries are combined to establish a new legal entity. Cross border merger are important as it is considered as the mode of entry in the foreign market, provides a dynamic learning culture and is an important value creation strategy. Several factors are responsible for fuelling the growth of cross border mergers. Few among them are industry consolidation phenomenon, privatization and liberalization of the economies. The volume of cross border mergers has increased over the period from 23% of total merger volume in 1998 to 45% in 2007. Cross border mergers provide another dimension to domestic mergers because of cultural or geographic differences, government related differences, imperfect integration of the capital markets, changes in exchange rate and stock market valuations in local currency. A parallel literature to that on cross-border mergers concerns FDI. In this paper, we focus our empirical work on mergers and acquisitions rather than all FDI due to data quality. FDI contains components other than investment such as inter-company loans and retained earnings.
As per the journal, the merger sample includes deals announced between the period 1998 and 2007. The total sample was of 187,841 mergers covering 48 countries. Out of this, 56,978 were cross border mergers with a total transaction value of $2.21 trillion and majority involved private firms outside of the United States. The results showed that univariate comparisons of pre-mergers performance outperform targets by all measures.
Mergers generally occur when the managers of an acquiring firm perceive that the value of the combined firm is greater than the sum of the values of the separate firms. This can occur because of reasons like...

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