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Development and Validation of Instructional Material Using Mathematics Software

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
This study presents the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the significance of the study, and the scope and delimitation of the study.
Background of the Study In a globalized economy with a high degree of competition among countries, the success of a nation depends on the educational level of its workforce. Governments should work to ensure that all citizens receive the technological training and experience necessary to participate in the global economy. Education reform is essential to provide learners with what are commonly called 21st century skills — those competencies and values needed to become responsible citizens in a learning society and sustain employability throughout life in a knowledge economy. Thus, the researcher decided to formulate this research to provide our educational system one of the devices that will make a difference in the manner of teaching. In classrooms, technology can be a powerful catalyst for pedagogical change, as students use technology to take a more active role in personalizing their own education, and teachers take on new roles as facilitators of knowledge rather than knowledge transmitters. Our educational system as well as the curriculum has gone through many different changes and development. As defined, development is the systematic use of scientific and technical knowledge to meet specific objectives or requirements. It is the process of adding improvements to a theoretical or practical aspects of a concept, design, discovery, or invention. Curriculum development needs to pass into a proper examination and validation. On the other, validation is the process of checking data against a standard or criteria. It provides an independent means of assuring quality and acceptable results.
State universities and colleges were now employing softwares and other computer-assisted instructional devices in their teaching. Some of the elementary schools also were now using their E-classroom for their everyday lesson. The researcher find out that Microsoft Mathematics Software may be used in teaching Mathematics. This software provides a graphing calculator that plots in 2D and 3D, step-by-step equation solving, and useful tools to help students with math and science studies. The researcher chose this study to develop and validate an instructional material utilizing Microsoft Mathematics Software in teaching selected topics on geometry. The researcher get into this subject because she believes that this endeavour will provide a set of mathematical tools that will help students get school work done quickly and easily. With this instructional material, pupils can learn to solve word problems while gaining a better understanding of fundamental concepts in pre-algebra, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, physics, chemistry, and calculus. But the researcher focuses only on lessons about geometry for Grade Six pupils. Microsoft Mathematics includes a full-featured graphing calculator that’s designed to work just like a handheld calculator. The teacher as well as the pupils will make use of their computers to solve word problems in Mathematics. The result of the 2014 National Achievement Test showed that school performance in Mathematics got a Low Mastery Level or an average of 34.81% MPL. Based on the result, the following are the least learned competencies which are geometry related topic. First, solving word problems involving measurement of surface area of triangles which gathered 32.67% MPL. Second, solving word problems involving measurement of surface area of trapezoid which gathered 29.31% MPL. Lastly, solving word problems involving measurement of solids such as prism that got 32.65% MPL. Because of this, the researcher carried out this study. Another reason why the researcher chooses this subject because their school, Kasiglahan Village Elementary School was able to put up and organized an E-classroom with an E-Library in their Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Center. The researcher wanted to use these facilities to be able to make change in the art of teaching of course employing the developed instructional material, the Microsoft Mathematics Softwares.
Statement of the Problem This study attempted to develop and validate instructional material utilizing Microsoft Mathematics Software in teaching selected topic on geometry for Grade Six pupils at Kasiglahan Village Elementary School during the school year 2014-2015. Specifically, it seeks answers to the following questions:
1. What are the desired learning competencies and skills of Grade Six Elementary Mathematics which are considered difficult by pupils that need to be included in the development and validation of instructional material?
2. What instructional material can be developed based on the desired learning competencies and skills and which are considered difficult by Grade Six pupils? 3. What is the evaluation of Grade Six pupils and Grade Six Mathematics teachers on the developed instructional materials base on the following: 3.1 Format and Design 3.2 Objectives 3.3 Content 3.4 Manner of Presentation 3.5 Learning Activities 3.6 Adaptability 4. Is there a significant difference between the evaluations of the two groups of respondents on the developed instructional material in teaching geometry?
5. What is the performance of the pupils in the control and experimental groups in terms of their pretest and posttest means scores? 6. Is there a significant difference between the performance of the pupils in the control group and experimental group in terms of their pretest mean scores? 7. Is there a significant difference between the performance of the students in the control group and experimental group in terms of their posttest mean scores?
Significance of the Study This study gives utmost importance to the educational systems because of the benefits that it could offer to the different stakeholders who are presented as follows: To the pupils, the result of this study will help Grade Six pupils in solving word problems easily and correctly. Solving word problems involving measurement of area, surface area and volumes of different geometric figures utilizing Microsoft Mathematics Software will help them to see and explore mathematical problems and concepts easily instead of using manual calculation. To the teachers, the result of the study will help them to facilitate learning in a more in-depth, strategic and modern way of teaching. This will help them realize their roles as guides and facilitators in the learning of Mathematics. To the school administrators, the findings of the study will serve as guide and basis of formulating school policy and designing training programs for teachers. School administrators and other stakeholders should plan to put up E-classrooms, E-library and functional Information and Communication Technology (ICT) classrooms to facilitate lessons in Mathematics utilizing Microsoft Mathematics Software. Further, this study will serve as springboard for the future researchers who will conduct similar study on the development and validation of instructional material utilizing software which can be used in teaching Elementary Mathematics. To the Community, the community is the ultimate beneficiary of this research because through this, the school will provide quality Mathematics education and will produce better members of the community.
Scope and Delimitations of the Study The study focuses on the development and validation of instructional material utilizing Microsoft Mathematics Software in teaching selected topic on geometry for Grade Six pupils at Kasiglahan Village Elementary School during the school year 2014-2015. The study dealt on the evaluation of the two groups of respondents based on the following: a) Format and Design b) Objective c) Content d) Manner of Presentation e) Learning Activities and f) Adaptability. The topics covered in this study were solving word problems involving measurement of surface areas of triangles, trapezoid and prism. The respondents were composed of 100 Grade Six pupils and 6 Grade Six Mathematics teachers. The pupil-respondent were divided into two groups, the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group will be taught using the Microsoft Mathematics Software downloaded on computers at the E-Classroom while the control group will be taught using the traditional lecture method. Each group is composed of 50 pupils. The study was conducted during the fourth grading period of the school year 2014-2015.

CHAPTER II
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies, the conceptual model of the study, the research hypotheses, and the definition of terms used in the study.
Review of Related Literature and Studies To find ideas and thoughts that may be essential and worth taking for the triumph of the study, seeking for related studies and literature was done. After reading some books, journals, web articles, and past researchers, the researcher considered the following are related to the study. Related Literature. Related Studies.
Conceptual Model This study focused on the development and validation of instructional material utilizing Microsoft Mathematics Software in teaching selected topic on geometry for grade six pupils and how this instructional material affects the pupil’s mastery level in solving word problems involving measurement of areas, surface areas and volumes of different geometric figures.

Control Group

Experimental Group

Mathematics Teachers Group

Pretest
Lecture Method-Discussion on Solving Word Problems Involving Measurement of Surface Areas of Solid Figures
Facilitating learning utilizing the developed and validated Instructional Material
Post test
Evaluation of the two respondents
Statistical Treatment
Analysis and interpretation of data

Pretest result of the two groups
Post test result of the two groups
Result of the evaluation
Significant difference between the performance of the pupils in the control group and experimental group in terms of their pretest mean scores

Significant difference between the performance of the students in the control group and experimental group in terms of their post test mean scores?

Input Process Output

Figure 1. Conceptual Model for Development and Validation of Utilizing Microsoft Mathematics Software in teaching Geometry The input is composed of the control group and the experimental group. The control group are the pupils who will be taught without using the Microsoft Mathematics Software. They will be taught in a regular classroom without using the E-classroom facility of the school. The experimental group are the pupils who will be taught utilizing the Microsoft Mathematics Software. They will be taught using computers in the E-classroom where the software is downloaded. The processes include the pre-test, lecture method through discussion on solving word problems involving measurement of surface areas of solid figures, facilitating learning utilizing the developed instructional material, post test, evaluation of the two respondents, statistical treatment of data, and the analytical and interpretation of data.
The output consists of the pre-test and post test results of the control and experimental groups, the result of the evaluation, the significant difference between the pre-test mean scores of the two groups, the significant difference between the pre-test and post test mean scores of the control group, the significant difference between the pre-test and post test mean scores of the experimental group and the significant difference between the post test mean scores of the two groups
Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were tested in this study:
1. There is no significant difference between the performance of the pupils in the control group and experimental group in terms of their pretest mean scores? 2. There is no significant difference between the performance of the students in the control group and experimental group in terms of their post test mean scores?
Definition of terms To facilitate the better understanding of the study, the following terms are defined: Adaptability. This refers to the ability of the instructional material whether it takes into consideration to the different and varying attitudes and capabilities of learners. The instructional material is suitable as advance learning material. Content. This refers to the subject or topic to be included in the lesson using the Microsoft Mathematics Software. Control Group. This refers to the group of pupils who will be taught the same lesson as that of Experimental Group but with the use of lecture method. Development. This refers to the process of adding improvements instructional material in teaching selected topics on geometry. Experimental Group. This refers to the group of grade six pupils who will be taught by utilizing the Microsoft Mathematics Software. Format and Design. This refers to the lay-out or pattern of presenting the lesson.
Geometry. This refers to the topic or area in Grade Six Elementary Mathematics that will be used to develop and validate Microsoft Mathematics Software.
Learning Activities. This refers to the set of word problems involving measurement of surface areas of triangles, trapezoid and prism.
Manner of Presentation. This refers to the way of presenting the lesson using the developed instructional material. Microsoft Mathematics Software. This refers to the software to be used in the study. The software used to calculate numeric, symbolic or geometric data. Microsoft Mathematics provides a graphing calculator that plots in 2D and 3D, step-by-step equation solving, and useful tools to help students with math and science studies. Objective. This refers to the learning competencies that need to be improved by using the developed instructional material.
Post Test. This refers to the test that will be administered right after the instruction phase in order to determine what the pupils have learned from the lesson.
Pretest. This refers to the test that will be given to the experimental and control groups before the instruction phase of the experimentation period. Validation. This refers to the act of testing the format and design, objective, content, learning activities, manner of presentation and adaptability of using Microsoft Mathematics software in teaching geometry in Grade Six pupils.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH DESIGN
This chapter presents the methods of research used, sources of data, data gathering instrument, data gathering procedure, and the statistical treatment of data.
Method of Research Used The method of research to be used in the study is the descriptive-experimental method. The experimental method of research as defined by Good is a method or procedure involving the control or manipulation of conditions for the purpose of studying the relative effects of various treatments applied to members of a sample. (Good, p.216). On the other hand, descriptive method according to Manuel and Medel describes what is. It involves the description, recording, analysis, and interpretations of the nature, composition or processes of phenomena. The focus is on prevailing conditions, or how a person, group, or thing behaves or functions in the present. It often involves some type of comparison or contrast. (Manuel and Medel, p.25)
In this study, the experimental method of research will be used in comparing the performance of the two groups of respondents, the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group of respondents were subjected to the teaching solving word problems involving measurement of surface areas of solid figures utilizing the advent of modern technology, the use of computers and downloaded software at the E-classroom. Teacher will facilitate learning using the Microsoft Mathematics Software. This will be compared to the control groups of respondents who were subjected to the traditional lecture method or the chalk and board method of teaching.
The descriptive method of research will be used in the evaluation of two groups of respondents, the Grade Six pupils and the Grade Six Mathematics teachers.
The researcher decided to use the descriptive-experimental method of research to determine whether utilizing Microsoft Mathematics Software is effective, reliable and valid in teaching solving word problems involving measurement of surface area of different geometric figures.
Sources of Data
The sources of data of this study were 100 grade six pupils and 6 Grade Six Mathematics Teachers at Kasiglahan Village Elementary School, Rodriguez II. The researcher use Slovin’s formula to determine the number of respondents. Two pairs of comparable sets of class handled by the researcher will serve as the respondents. The first section will serve as the experimental group and the other section will serve as the control group. Grade Six Mathematics teachers were also involved in the study. Teacher respondents and pupil respondents will gave their evaluation on the developed instructional material based on the following criteria: a) format and design b) objective c) content d) manner of presentation e) learning activities and f) adaptability.
Data Gathering Instruments The data gathering instruments that will be utilized by the study were the pretest and the post test of the experimental and control groups. The result of these tests will be used to compare which of the two methods; the lecture method and developed instructional material using Microsoft Mathematics Software is more effective, reliable and valid An evaluation form to be given to the respondents is another instrument to be used. This is to be conducted after the experiment has been done. It is a checklist that uses scale and description. This is a qualitative evaluation using two separate assessment checklist, one for the pupil-respondents and another for teacher-respondents. Another instrument is the lesson plans which was developed by the researcher and contained the step-by-step procedure in using Microsoft Mathematics software for a particular lesson. The same lesson plan was implemented to both groups for a particular topic. However, in the control group the use of Microsoft Mathematics Software was disregarded.
Data Gathering Procedure The researcher will ask permission to the principal of Kasiglahan Village Elementary School. After the permission was granted the researcher will do the following procedure. The study is composed of three phases. These are the following: Phase I - Pre-Experimental Phase, Phase II – Experimental Phase and Phase III - Post Experimental. Phase I: Pre-Experimental Phase. During this phase, the participants of the study were identified. After assigning them to the control and experimental groups, they were given a pretest.

Giving of pretest before each lesson to both groups
Grouping of pupils
Identifying pupils handled by the researcher

Figure 2 shows the process in the Pre-Experimental Phase of the study Phase II. Experimental Phase. During this phase, the teacher met the students belonging to experimental group from 8:00 – 8:50 in the morning at the E-classroom during the duration of the study. A pretest was given before each lesson and students were taught using Microsoft Mathematics Software. The pupils were divided into 5 groups. Each group was provided one computer unit for their use. A post test was given after every lesson. The control group was met by the teacher during their regular schedule at 9:40 – 10:20 in the morning. They were also given pretest before each lesson but taught using traditional method. A posttest was also given after every lesson.

Post test
Traditional
Method
Pretest
Control Group
Below is the process used in this phase.

Post test
Using Microsoft Mathematics Software
Post test
Experimental Group

Figure 3 shows the Experimental Phase of the study.
Phase III. Post Experimental Phase. During this phase, students of experimental group were given evaluation form to determine their evaluation and experience in using Microsoft Mathematics Software. The teacher-respondent also were given evaluation form after the lessons were conducted.
Conducting of Evaluation to both respondents
Result of the Evaluation
Using Microsoft Mathematics Software
Below is the process used in this phase.

Figure 4 shows the Post Experimental Phase of the study.

Statistical Treatment of Data The quantitative data were then analyzed and treated statistically using the following tools: Mean. This will be used to describe the pupils’ performance in each lesson. Standard Deviation. This will be used to describe the degree of depression among the scores of the pupils. T-test for dependent variable. This will be used to determine if there is a significant difference between the performance of the pupils in terms of their pretest and post test mean scores. T-test for independent variables. This will be used to determine if there is a significant difference between the performance of the pupils in the control group and experimental group in terms of their pretest mean score and their post test mean score.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. www.thoughtleader.co.za/.../the-importance-of-technology-for-educatio...

(1)http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/development.html#ixzz3AAxy4p1s august 12, 2014
(2)encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Instructional+Materials Cached august 12 2014
(3) www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=15702 august 12, 2014

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Teacher Morale

...CHAPTER I Introduction to the Study This chapter has eight parts: (1) Background of the Study, (2) Statement of the Problem, (3) Hypotheses, (4) Theoretical Framework, (5) Conceptual Framework, (6) Significance of the Study, (7) Scope and Limitations of the Study, and (8) Definitions of Terms. Background of the Study A laudable goal of elementary education is one that embraces pupils learning and helps prepare those pupils for a very competitive global society. In light of this one can argue that pupils’ achievement should be the main focus of every individual associated with school systems across our great nation. Teachers are a vital part of the educational system for they provide the motivation and support that pupils need in order to succeed. Yet, teachers also need to be motivated and supported in order to be productive. Teacher morale could suffer due to constant stress of trying to meet the educational goals. Improving teacher morale has many benefits in that it can help teachers to maintain a positive attitude and be happier at work (Govindarajan, 2012). Ellanberg as cited by Govindarajan (2012) found that where morale was high, schools showed an increase in pupils’ academic achievement. Conversely, low levels of morale can lead to decreased teacher productivity and burnout. Recent studies found out that the academic achievement of pupils in the Division of Antique did not meet the standard set by the Department of Education (Arguelles, 2012; Ople,2012;......

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