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Development Theories

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Development Theories
Sara Nackowicz
Psy : 104
Child and Adolescent Development
Karen Williams
9/17/12

Page One
Development Theories

In this paper I will talk about three of the development theories which are personality structure, psychosexual development and psychosocial development. All three of these developments are very important in a child’s life and helps them become who they are and I will explain how and why in this paper.

According to Sigmund Freud in our text, there are three essential components: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id stage is more of a selfish state where everything is about you and only you. For an example when you are an infant everything is about you and only you. According to Simply Psychology, “The id consists of all the inherited (i.e. biological) components of personality, including the sex (life) instinct – Eros (which contains the libido), and aggressive (death) instinct – Thanatos.” In an infant, their personality is nothing but Id and then when they become older is when the other two stages fall into place. You cry for a reason and most of the time it is either because you are hungry, dirty, sleepy or even just need to be comforted. So there for you cry because you want your caregiver to feed you, clean you, or even snuggle with you so you can fall asleep.

The ego state comes around the age of two or three when as Freud states, “the job of the ego to satisfy the demands of the id and to have realistic plans for obtaining what the id wants. Also according to simply psychology, “Initially the ego is “that part of the id which has been modified by the direct influence of the external world” (Freud 1923).” The ego is rational as it
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Development Theories

tries to rein in the instincts of the id.” The ego state comes in when like a child sees another child eating something that they would like to have, rather than taking it from that the other child they ask their caregiver if there is more and that they would like to have some too. I feel as though with ego come respect for the other person. I feel this because rather than them taking the food from the other child they have to respect for them that they want them to have it, so they let them enjoy it and the just see if there is more so they can enjoy it too.

The Superego comes in two different parts. Per our text, “The first part is the conscience, which makes distinctions between right and wrong according to parental and societal standards.” According to Phycology 101, “By the age of five, or the end of the phallic stage of development, the Superego develops.” When they are talking about the Superego, they are talking about when the child is learning right from wrong. They know they should not touch that hot stove because it could hurt them. So the right choice would not be touching the stove. Before the superego development really begins they would have touch that hot stove and burnt their little fingers and

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Development Theories

hurt themself, but the superego kicks in and they know that they should not touch it because it is hot. And the second part per our text, “The second part of the superego is the ego ideal. It is the part of the personality that strives for perfection—the ideal to which the ego should aspire. It is concerned with things that make us feel accomplished and proud.” The conscience for an example would be, a baby takes their first steps and their caregiver see this and praises the baby, so the baby gets excited and wants to try to take more steps or a child knowing that they should have a healthy snack like a veggie pack that consists of celery, broccoli, and carrots rather than having candy or chips. The ego ideal for an example, a child wants to be good at sports and they want to play softball. They know that they are not good in the sport when they first start but they practice and when they finally catch that fly ball or hit their first ball, they feel really good about themselves and they strive to keep doing as good as they can to keep that good feeling that they just got when they achieved their goal.

According to Sigmund Freud, in psychosexual development the child is discovering their own body in different ways. The first stage is the oral stage where they infant is putting everything in their mouths. According to WIKI, “In Freudian psychoanalysis, the term oral stage denotes the first psychosexual development stage where in the mouth of the infant is his or her primary erogenous zone.” The mouth is very important for eating and drinking and the babies
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Development Theories

start to figure this out and learn that it is gratifying when eating and sucking. For an example, babies put a bottle or nipple for feeding or even toys for teething. Babies are so fascinated over their mouths and with them teething it feels good for them to chew on something firm and sometimes when it is cold like a frozen teething ring.

The second stage is the anal stage where the child is about two or three years of age and it is time for them to start toilet training. Also according to WIKI, “The anal stage is the second stage in Sigmund Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, lasting from age 18 months to three years. According to Sigmund Freud, the anus is the primary erogenous zone and pleasure is derived from controlling bladder and bowel movement.” With babies learning how to use the toilet they become fascinated over their body parts too. Now according to Victorian Web Home, “At one and one-half years, the child enters the anal stage. With the advent of toilet training comes the child's obsession with the erogenous zone of the anus and with the retention or expulsion of the feces. This represents a classic conflict between the id, which derives pleasure from expulsion of bodily wastes, and the ego and superego, which represent the practical and societal pressures to control the bodily functions.”

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Development Theories

The Psychosocial development stage is very important as is the other stages, but this stage teaches the child about their culture and how to interact with others. When it comes to psychosocial development, “Erik Erikson explored three aspects of identity: the ego identity (self), personal identity (the personal idiosyncrasies that distinguish a person from another, social/cultural identity (the collection of social roles a person might play), according to Learning – theories.com. It also states, “Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development considers the impact of external factors, parents and society on personality development from childhood to adulthood. According to Erikson’s theory, every person must pass through a series of eight interrelated stages over the entire life cycle.” These eight interrelated stages are, “Infant (Hope) – Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (During the first or second year of life, the major emphasis is on the mother and father’s nurturing ability and care for a child, especially in terms of visual contact and touch), Toddler (Will) – Autonomy vs. Shame(At this point, the child has an opportunity to build self-esteem and autonomy as he or she learns new skills and right from wrong.), Preschooler (Purpose) – Initiative vs. Guilt (During this period we experience a desire to copy the adults around us and take initiative in creating play situations), School-Age Child (Competence) – Industry vs. Inferiority(During this stage, often called the Latency, we are capable of learning, creating and accomplishing numerous new skills and knowledge, thus developing a sense of industry.) Adolescent (Fidelity) – Identity vs. Identity Diffusion (Up until this fifth stage,

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Development Theories

development depends on what is done to a person. At this point, development now depends primarily upon what a person does.), Young Adult (Love) – Intimacy vs. Isolation (At the young adult stage, people tend to seek companions hip and love.), Middle-aged Adult (Care) – Generativity vs. Self-absorption (Career and work are the most important things at this stage, along with family.), and Older Adult (Wisdom) – Integrity vs. Despair (Erikson believed that much of life is preparing for the middle adulthood stage and the last stage involves much reflection.). These eight stages, spanning from birth to death, are split in general age ranges.” According to WIKI, “Erikson's stages of psychosocial development as articulated by Erik Erikson explain eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges.” And according to businessball.com, “Like other seminal concepts, Erikson's model is simple and elegant, yet very sophisticated. The theory is a basis for broad or complex discussion and analysis of personality and behavior, and also for understanding and for facilitating personal development - of self and others.” Not only how to interact with others, but with their responsibilities in and out of school. What is and what is not expected of them in and out of school.

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Development Theories

All of these stages are all very important in everyone’s lives because they help create who we are and what we become. With understanding these stages in life it helps everyone understand why we do what we do and become who we are.

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