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Development Through the Life Stages Unit 4, P5 and M3

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development through the life stages p5 physical and psychological changes associated with ageing. menopause. The menopause is caused by a change in the balance of the body's sex hormones.
In the lead-up to the menopause, oestrogen levels decrease, causing the ovaries to stop producing an egg each month. Oestrogen is the female sex hormone that regulates a woman's periods on average woman reach the menopause at the age of 52, some woman experience the menopause in their 30s or 40s . when woman have the menopause under the at of 45 it is called a premature menopause. as the woman is starting the menopause she might get really heavy or could be light periods. also The frequency of a woman periods may also be affected. woman may have one every two or three weeks, or you may not have one for months at a time. when a woman is going through a menopause they have mostly emotionally and physical symptoms. for example when woman are going through the menopause a woman would experience hot flushes night sweats which may cause lack of sleep palpitations headaches tiredness mood changes such as depression and anxiety. lose interest in having sex with their partners self conscious
If you experience the menopause suddenly, rather than gradually, your symptoms may be worse. Symptoms will usually last between two and five years before disappearing, although they can last longer. m3 the menopause can cause an affect on the woman's self confidence and self esteem is a positive and negative way. self esteem the positive way that the menopause effects woman is that the woman is going to be more mature and wiser because she is old and she might no how to deal with the menopause because she have seen many woman in her life go through it. also when a woman have started the menopause she would have to get used to it and adapt it is her everyday life, when she have done that she would be more comfortable in her self and it would improve her health and wellbeing. However there is always a negative effect on a woman's self esteem when she is going through the menopause. the woman could be feeling sad and depressed due to her hormone changes in her body. she could also be feeling old and think she cant do the things she used to do due to her age and what she is going through at this particular time in her life. her self appearance might be low by thinking she is ugly and thinking that people is judging her all the time due to this she would feel anxious all the time. when going through the menopause a woman might be upset because she wont be able to have children anymore , I think this would affect the woman that goes through the menopause at a young like when she in her 30s. self confidence one of the main positive outcome on a woman who is having her menopause is that she wont have her periods no more, for example is a woman have had terrible trouble with her periods over the years with back aches , restless legs heavy periods and really bad belly cramps they might be looking forward until it all stops and she can live without worrying about sleepless nights . however there are many more negatives about this subject then there is positives .one negative is that the woman may be jealous of other woman because she might think that they are beautiful and wants to be them, this is because of the menopause and the hard time that the woman is going through at the moment. another negative is that when you are going through a menopause you get hot flushes and someone woman can cool down , this would lead for the woman to be embarrassed and it would take a big knock on her confidence and may lead her not to go out as often emphysema p5 emphysema is for chronic long term lung disease. people who are severing with emphysema have difficulty breathing air out. there are multiple causes of emphysema, but smoking it the most common cause of emphysema. unfortunaliy there is no cure for emphysemas but quitting smoking could reduce the rate of the emphysema disease from progressing more. emphysemas can also be caused through natural ageing. as the lung ages the elasticity decreases leading to the development of tensions that can result in small areas of emphysema.
What Happens in Emphysema? Emphysema results when the delicate linings of the air sacs in the lungs become irreversibly damaged. Most commonly, the toxins in cigarette smoke create the damage. Over years, the lung changes of emphysema slowly evolve:
As the fragile tissues between air sacs are destroyed, air pockets in the lungs develop.
Air becomes trapped in these spaces of damaged lung tissue.
The lungs slowly enlarge, and breathing requires more effort.
This problem of emphysema is called airflow limitation. During lung function testing, it takes someone with emphysema far longer to empty their lungs than it does a person without emphysema.
Emphysema is the main form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is so named because people with emphysema exhale as if something were obstructing the flow of air. The other form of COPD is chronic bronchitis, which can also be caused by smoking. m3 self esteem during the time you have the disease there is some positive out comes out of it, for example people with emphysema would appreciate all the small things is life and love their family because they know that there is know cure for the disease. another positive outcome is that you wont smoke and you could warn people about the disease you have got and explain if you smoke it could happen to you there for it would boost your confidence and have more courage to warn people about the condition you have got. however emphysema have got loads of negative effects to it for example you cant walk very far because you would get out of breath really quickly therefor this would effect you social life because you wouldn’t be able to go and socialise with your friend and family act, you would also miss out on leisure activity's. another negative point about have emphysema is that you would have to stay in the same environment all the time therefore you would become depressed and feel useless. finally the last negative point is that you would have to depend on other people for example your family or close friends, if you do go out you would have to have someone there with you do support you just in case anything goes wrong. when depending on people it makes your self esteem go down and it will make you feel like you cant do anything yourself and make you feel like a baby again. self confidence the positive effect would be warning people about you disease , and how you can prevent it bye not smoking. this will make you feel like you are saving someone's life therefore would boost your confidence loads. the negative side to having emphysema is that you are depending on a tonic to breath, this is like a mask were you put it on and it help oxygen to get to your lungs quicker. this would make you feel scared because you have got to depend on a oxygen tank to save your life therefore this would know your confidence because you wouldn’t want your loved ones to see you like this and then you would be lonely . when having emphysema you appearance would change because you can look after yourself properly therefore you will feel unclean and unattractive, this would knock your self appearance loads and you wouldn’t wont to leave the house and this would lead to depression. when you got emphysema you wont be aloud to go out the house much because of your condition and you might miss important events like a family wedding act , therefore you would feel like your letting everyone down and unworthy. p5 osteoarthritis's
Osteoarthritis is a condition that affects your joints. The surfaces within your joints become damaged so the joint doesn’t move as smoothly as it should (see Figures 1 and 2). The condition is sometimes called arthritis or osteoarthritis. Older terms are degenerative joint disease or wear and tear. When a joint develops osteoarthritis, some of the cartilage covering the ends of the bones gradually roughens and becomes thin, and the bone underneath thickens. All the tissues within the joint become more active than normal – as if your body is trying to repair the damage:
The bone at the edge of your joint grows outwards, forming bony spurs called osteophytes.
The synovium (the inner layer of the joint capsule which produces synovial fluid) may thicken and make extra fluid. This causes your joint to swell.
The capsule and ligaments (tough bands that hold the joint together) slowly thicken and contract as if they were trying to make your joint more stable.
Sometimes your body’s repairs are quite good and the changes inside your joint won’t cause pain or problems. But in severe osteoarthritis, the cartilage can become so thin that it doesn't cover the ends of your bones. Your bones rub against each other and start to wear away. The loss of cartilage, the wearing of bone and the bony spurs can change the shape of your joint, forcing your bones out of their normal position
: dementia dementia is a group of illnesses that affect the brain. the most come dementia is Alzheimer's disease. there are many signs of early dementia theses are getting confused and forgetful , forgetting peoples names or forgetting how to get home. later into having dementia people find it very hard to cope with everyday task such as shopping or cooking. people with dementia also find it hard to socialise with people. dementia is a gradual disease which means it grown worse over time and everyone who have got dementia experiences the changes at different speeds. there is no cure for dementia but there is treatment to slow the dementia down or help people cope with certain symptoms for example people with dementia should carry a diary around with them therefore it would help them remember things if they have a funny turn. there are many ways of helping people live a full and happy life with dementia. These range from simple adaptations in the home to support from health and social care professionals, to financial help.
Around 750,000 people in the UK are suffering from dementia. So if you or someone you know is diagnosed with it, you are not alone and there is ways to adapt to living with dementia and living a happy life. dementia mainly affects older people, both men and women. But it can be found in younger people; around about 16,000 people in the UK aged under 65 have dementia. Around two–thirds of people with dementia are women which is generally due to the fact that women live longer than men.
Having dementia does not automatically mean you have to go into a care home or hospital. Two–thirds of people with dementia live in the community. Being old doesn’t automatically mean you will get dementia. It is just more common in the elderly. Around 80 percent of people aged over 80 are bright and alert, if occasionally forgetful. skin/ hair/ height and hearing as people age they notice there appearance changing for example when men get older there hair tends to fall out around the sides and at the front of your head it would also start to go grey. going grey means that all you hair pigments are dieing therefore you hair would start going gray. woman also go grey and their hair thins out , people often go grey in there early 30s but many people die there hair to cover up all the grey hair . it have been said that people with darker skin have grey hair about 10 year after people with light skin. another example is noticing your skin changing as you age , you may notice that it isn't as smooth or tight as it used to be. with age your skin would be more fragile and drier , this would cause bruising more easily . the bruising would happen because the loss of support around the blood vessel walls. also you lose fat in your cheeks, temples, chin and nose . around your eyes the skin will loosen up with age and it will give you dace a leaner look. you might lose bone around you month and chin and the skin around you mouth may pucker. the nose may even change is you lose the cartilage there. lines on you face may appear ask early are your 30 and 40s, this is the result of the expressions you make for example if you are in the sun look you would squint your eyes therefore it would result to wrinkle at a early at. this also include horizontal lines on your forehead and smalls curved lines on your temples, upper cheeks and around your mouth. gravity also play a major role because as the skin becomes les elastic , gravity would make your eyebrow and eyelids droop. as we get older we tend to shrink this is because Osteoporosis is the result of the spongy tissue inside the bones breaking down and not being replaced by new bone tissue. This condition usually plagues women and those with smaller, lighter bones. to avoid osteoporosis people should Eat a balanced diet, exercise regularly, and don't drink, smoke, or take steroids. Certain conditions, such as hyperthyroidism and anorexia nervosa, can also increase bone loss. Not only do you shrink as you age, you also shrink during the course of a day. The water in your spine is compressed by gravity so you finish the day a bit smaller in stature than you started it. However, your body recovers overnight as you sleep, so you are standing tall again in the morning. finally as we get old we lose our hearing, this is because the sensitive hair cells inside the cochlea gradually become damaged or they die. this type if hearing lose is called sensorineural hearing loos As your hearing starts to deteriorate, high-frequency sounds, such as female or children’s voices, may become difficult to hear. It may also be harder to hear consonants. This can make understanding speech in background noise very difficult. p5
ageism is when people discriminate against people because of there age. this would have a great impact on someone's self confidence, job prospects , financial situations and their quality of life. for example if someone is turned down in a job offer because of their age this would effect the individuals self confidence by making the person feel old and unwanted therefore they would lose confidence and might give up on looking for a job. some elderly people have issues with there financial situation, when people are retired and they get their pension their income might not be enough to live off and have a happy life therefore elderly people stay on at work or try and find a job, but with the ageism discrimination going on it is hard for them do find a job in this day in age. if the elderly people can find a job it would effect their finical problem in a bad way and they wouldn’t be able to life a happy and peaceful life, it would also cause stress because they would be worried about finical problems. ageism is also how the media represents elderly people. the media would change peoples attitudes towards elderly people. for example the media represents elderly people by them being trustworthy ,wealthy and judgmental, also they represent elderly people by saying they are wise because they have lived there life and they have seen and been through a lot of things in their life. I think they shouldn’t represent elderly people like this because were stereotyping them to be something that the media have represented them to be. every elderly people have got different personality and different needs, the media should explore the elderly people more. when elderly people see how the media represent them they might think they are lying and people would treat them in a different way therefore it would effect their self confidence because the elderly people would be nervous about how people would react around them. it would also effect their self esteem because they might think people are expecting them do act in a certain way. Increased leisure time when a elderly person have retired they tend to explore more option such as increasing leisure time for example to spend more time socialising with there friends they would have fun, experience knew activity's, meet new people and make more memories. the average stereotype on elderly people when they retire is that they don’t do anything and they just stays in or they move abroad to relax but elderly people to go out when they have retired to keep their brain working because if they would get bored, when people stay in all the time they would become depressed and maybe become seriously ill. Financial concerns there are many financial concerns when being an elderly person for example when you have retired you would rely on your pension and the average is £113.10 per week this would have to pay for your rent , they might have to pay for health coast or even pay for loved ones funerals. if someone have got to pay for adaptions to their home because of loss of mobility for example they cant walk because are really bad arthritis this would have a massive impacted on you finical situation because it would be really expensive to provide your home with theses adaptions. therefore your self esteem would be really low because you would be stressed over financial problems and your would become depressed.

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