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印度的发展现状和成就

自20世纪80年代以来,印度的发展逐步进入快车道,成为迅速崛起的经济、政治、军事、外交大国。
印度在80年代经济增长率为5.4%,在1980~2002年间经济年均增长速度达到6%,2002~2006年间达到7.5%,印度成为仅次于中国的经济增长最快的大国之一。2005年,印度国内生产总值达7750亿美元,居世界第12位。如按购买力平价计算,印度人均收入已从1980年的1178美元增长到2005年的3051美元,成为继美国、中国和日本之后的世界第四大经济体O。印度有号称世界第二的铁路网,总长达6.3万多公里,有居世界第三的公路网,达330多万公里,有10多个大海港和庞大船队,民用机场超过100个。印度已建立起比较完整的工业体系,包括电子工业、机器制造业、能源工业、冶金工业、化学工业、纺织工业、食品加工业等各个门类。印度服务业在发展中国家表现特别突出,对GDP增长的贡献达到62%。

印度的科技不断进步,高新技术产业发展较快。从科技人员的数量、科研质量、论文发表等方面统计看,印度都相当突出。印度在基础科学研究方面具有较强优势。在技术方面,除了信息技术外,印度在核技术、生物制药、空间技术、海洋工程等领域也有较强实力。印度的高新技术产业比较发达,信息产业、生物技术产业、制药业及精密机械制造业四个产业约占印度出口额的30%。印度信息产业已成为国际名牌,印度生产的疫苗公认处于全球领先地位,印度还是转基因种子的全球供应商。此外,印度还十分重视核能和风能等新能源的开发利用,是目前世界第四风电开发大国。

印度的民主政治水平也在逐步提高。自独立以来,印度实行的议会选举制度经过半个世纪的实践已逐步趋于成熟,文官选拔任用制度也逐渐趋于完善。印度政党很多,近二三十年政权更迭频仍,但政府运转基本正常,社会基本稳定,保障了经济的正常顺利发展。所以,印度在西方被称为“世界上最大的民主国家”,印度也为此而自豪。

印度大力提高军事实力。印度著名防务专家拉格朗说过:印度将会成为亚洲各部分的中心,不论是中东、中亚、还是东南亚或中国,他们都将在经济上、政治上或为了防务目的而依靠印度。至今,印度仍置身于《防止核不扩散条约》、《导弹及其技术控制制度》之外,利用其不受任何国际条约的限制而大力推进其军事力量。印度军事力量发展的方向主要有三个:第一,全力打造新航母战斗群,不断提高远洋作战能力,印度现在是二战后唯一同时拥有两艘航空母舰的亚洲国家,随着国力的增强,印度开始积极实施《海洋新战略构想》;第二,全面构建战略导弹力量,发展地空立体作战体系;第三,扩大战略外延,在中亚、蒙古、非洲东海岸建立军事基地或监听站,拓展在海外的军事存在。印度在其“核学说草案”中提出,要建立海基、陆基、空基“三位一体”的战略核力量。目前,印度已建立起以军方为主、军民结合、比较完整的国防科研和军事工业体系。导弹制造技术逐步完善,具备制造核弹和核潜艇的能力,接近具备发射洲际导弹的能力,已成为拥有核武器的国家。超大规模的军购是印度军备扩张的一大特色。2004年印度军事采购达57亿美元,在所有发展中国家中名列第一。军费占GDP的比例,印度官方数字为近3%,而据外国专家估计其军费开支占GDP的比例为5%到6%。印度国防开支的增长率高于GDP的增长率,国防建设超前于经济建设,实现军事大国的目标也超前于实现经济大国的目标。这是值得我们重视的。

印度为了争当世界大国,不仅重视经济、国防建设,还十分重视国际关系尤其是大国关系,积极开展外交活动、发挥国际作用。目前,印度和世界主要大国都建立了很好的战略关系——战略伙伴关系。印度大国外交的重点是美国。2000年克林顿访印时签署了《印美关系:21世纪展望》,同意建立“持久的、政治上有建设性的、经济上富有成果的”新型伙伴关系。布什政府进一步和印度建立了“战略伙伴关系”,并应允“帮助印度成为21世纪的世界主要大国”。印度与日本关系良好,在2000年8月森喜朗首相访问印度时,就宣布日印两国建立“全球伙伴关系”。印度和欧盟也积极发展关系,除了和英、法、德等国建立了双边战略伙伴关系外,2004年11月第五次印度一欧盟峰会上还宣布印度成为欧盟第六个战略伙伴国。印度和俄罗斯拥有传统友好的战略关系,1971年印苏就签订了具有军事同盟性质的《和平友好合作条约》,实际上建立了盟友关系。2000年10月普京总统访印时,印俄双方又发表了《印俄战略伙伴关系宣言》。中印关系近些年也有很好的推进。2005年4月温家宝总理访问印度时,双方宣布建立“面向和平与繁荣的战略伙伴关系”。2006年11月胡锦涛主席访印期间,中印两国又发表了《联合宣言》,进一步充实和加强了“两国战略合作伙伴关系”。可以说,印度是和世界主要大国同时拥有战略伙伴关系的唯一大国,这足以显示出印度在大国关系中所处的地位。
印度发展中的问题
第一,人口与资源问题。印度是人口大国,2005年已达11亿,目前仍以较快的速度(年增长率1.7%)增长。人口迅速增加,加大了就业的压力,印度劳动力失业问题已经比较严重,这又增加了贫困人口脱贫的难度,成为经济社会发展的重大障碍。印度国土面积约298万平方公里,但相对于印度的巨量人口来讲土地并不宽裕,人均只有0.2公顷。随着人口的增多,人均耕地将进一步减少,并加剧水土流失和荒漠化,生态环境不断恶化。印度的淡水和工业资源尤其是能源比较短缺,电力紧张一直困扰着印度的经济建设和人民生活,石油对外依存度达70%,年进口量已接近1亿吨,今后还会不断增大。所以,资源短缺将成为制约印度工业化发展的严重瓶颈。

第二,基础设施落后,资金短缺。世界银行最新报告显示,印度近1/3的企业表示,道路、港口、机场、水电供应等基础设施落后是影响企业发展的主要障碍。基础设施落后甚至表现在印度最为突出的信息技术产业上,据英国《经济学家》排名,在电子化准备程度方面印度在全球排名仅列第54位,这表明印度在信息和通信技术基础设施方面的准备程度较低。基础设施落后还影响了外国投资的进入。印度国内储蓄率偏低,外资引入不足,一些重大项目因无资金而搁浅,中央和地方的财政赤字也居高不下,这都形成了资金短缺影响经济社会发展的局面。

第三,经济社会发展中的不平衡问题。首先,印度以农业、服务业、高新技术产业为经济发展重点很有创新意义,也具有巨大的发展潜力,但是,由于在发展中没有把握住平衡,在经济发展和国民生活水平的提高进程中造成一定困难。例如;不配套的工业体系使许多事关国计民生的工业品都供应不足,这将造成印度经济的自立性降低和极大的脆弱性,会进一步影响农业比重的下降和高新技术产业的持续发展。其次,贫富差距严重。在印度的11亿人口中,只有5000万人可以说是对高附加值产品和服务有着需求的高等阶层,中产阶级最多只有3亿人,还有几亿人的生活水平处于贫困或绝对贫困。全国人口中有近50%是文盲,有90%的人从未接触过计算机。
印度发展未来趋势
首先,印度拥有成为世界强国的巨大潜力。这主要包括:第一,资源相对丰富,资源总量居世界第七位,国土面积居世界第七位,可耕地面税占50%,物产丰富,矿产品种齐全,森林资源丰富,具有进行经济建设较好的资源基础;第二,人力资源丰富,预计2025年印度人口可达13.6亿,2050年人口可达16.3亿,届时将超过中国(预计15亿人口)而成为世界第一人口大国③,随着教育水平的提高,印度巨量的人口将转化为巨量的人力资源,成为建立世界强国的强大支撑;第三,科技实力雄厚,具有经济社会发展的强大支持作用;第四,民主体制健全,能够保持社会稳定,有利于经济社会持续发展;第五,国际环境良好,拥有和平发展的友好关系。所以,尽管发展道路会有曲折,但印度发展成为世界强国没有根本障碍。

其次,印度具有走在新工业化前列的较大可能,这更是印度成为世界强国的保障。新产业革命是落后国家后来居上的历史契机,英国等西方国家就是在工业革命中崛起的。印度重视文化产业等服务产业、高新技术产业以及以高新科技变革农业,这是一个新工业化的经济发展模式,有利于避免过度依赖自然资源追逐发达工业化而陷人工业危机。今后,印度如能不断提高对新科技革命、新产业革命的自觉性,积极开拓和建设新工业化,成为世界强国就很有可能成为现实。当然,印度还没有实现工业化,工业化的物质基础还比较薄弱,但工业化建设的自然资源还相对丰富,所以,在开拓和建设新工业化的过程中,印度还可以建设适度工业化。这一方面可以继续发挥工业化的发展潜力,另一方面也可以为新工业化进程创造必要的条件。
再次,印度的发展具有坚定不移的民族意志和国家战略。在民族的崛起中,坚定的发展意志和决心无疑是最为重要的。独立以来,印度始终不渝地追逐着大国梦想。尤其是20世纪末中国进入快速发展之后,印度更加坚定了追赶中国而同时崛起的决心。印度计划委员会撰写的《印度:2020年展望》的报告中处处紧盯中国的发展,且提出了全面现代化的发展战略。目前,在科技、教育、经济、军事等各个方面,印度都显示出不甘落后的勃勃雄心。
印度的独特发展模式
第一,印度的发展重视国内需求的拉动。亚洲国家的发展模式是普遍依赖劳动密集型的低价工业产品的出口,而印度更依靠国内市场,重消费而非投资,重服务业而非制造业。这种方式意味着印度的经济在很大程度上可以避免受到全球经济疲软的冲击,从而表现出很强的韧劲。以消费为主导的发展模式也有利于人民生活的普遍提高,所以,印度的贫富差距比其他发展中国家都要小。

第二,印度的发展重视效率。英国《金融时报》曾发表文章评论说,印度经济的高速发展是在国家对新工厂和设备的投资额仅有中国一半、外国直接投资只有中国10%的情况下取得的,并断言中国的增长是大量资金堆砌出来的,而印度的增长则源于不断提高的效率。这个结论有些武断,但不无道理。据测算,中国投资回报率是17%,印度则是25%,中国每万元GDP的要素投入量是印度的3倍,印度30%至40%的国民生产总值来自于生产力的增长,而不是资本或劳动力的增长。这些数据表明中国单位增长的物质消耗显著大于印度。

第三,印度的产业结构具有独特优势。与传统工业化道路不同,印度经济起飞的引擎不是传统制造业,而是信息产业、生物技术产业、制药业和精密机械制造业等高新技术产业。印度服务业产值已超过GDP的50%,服务业对GDP增长的贡献达到62%,印度的文化产业特别是电影业更是长期居世界领先地位。国外许多人士认为,印度将成为“世界办公室”而非像中国那样成为“世界工厂”,支撑印度经济快速发展的是信息技术、通信、金融等产业,是以较高教育水平为支持的脑力劳动,因而印度的经济发展更具后劲。

第四,印度的发展重视自主创新。印度前驻华大使苏里宁称印度模式的核心是“激发人们的创造力,尤其是经营企业的能力和创新意识。”许多专家认为,虽然世界上“中国制造”的商品比“印度制造”的多,但中国商品大多是组装外来零件,而印度商品大多拥有自己的知识产权,例如印度出口的塔塔汽车就拥有90%的自主知识产权。中国经济起飞了,但本土公司发展壮大的却很少,而印度经济总量虽不及中国的一半,却已拥有许多具有全球竞争力的本土大公司。在软件产业,Infosys、Wipro和Tata咨询服务公司在全球范围提供低成本高质量的产品和服务。在医药和生物技术产业,诸如Cipla和Biocon等公司在和跨国公司的竞争中相当成功,其中一些公司还通过了美国联邦药物管理局的认证。

第五,印度的发展重视软件基础建设,尤其重视制度层面的建设。美国卡内基国际和平基金会的专家曾对印度发展的制度层面的优势做过专门研究,认为:其一,印度国营企业的成分比较少,政府对市场正常运转的干扰也比较少;其二,印度具有健康的资本市场,企业融资多元化,资本市场对外开放,资本可以自由进出,有利于企业的成长和壮大;其三,印度的银行体系比较健康,坏账程度很低——不到5%;其四,印度拥有具有世界竞争力的企业,特别是在医药和汽车零件制造等方面已经达到了世界一流水平;其五,印度的高等教育特别是技术教育很强,所培养的人才一般能直接胜任国际公司的工作;其六,印度作为一个宪政民主国家,民主的多元和选举机制基本能够及时化解社会矛盾。事实表明,印度在这些软件基础建设上的优势,大大促进了其经济的快速持续增长。

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...Development Dorian Durham Human Resources in Health Care/HCS/341 December 9, 2013 Kelly Price Noble, DHA University of Phoenix Development With any type of organization, it requires individuals with specific skills sets to run the organization. Not only does the company need experienced employees, they need to maintain their training and competencies. Along with this, management will need to have an effective tracking process to evaluate the employees training effectiveness. Training and Education According to Health Care Britain “The importance of an ongoing education cannot be overestimated. Education is necessary, as the health care industry grows so does the specialization of the different parts of the industry. A person’s need for education does not stop at the diploma. Healthcare workers must have a career development plan for the future. To understand the effectiveness of training the organization must be able to measure the knowledge of the employee and the training process.” Lethard, A., para 2 (2000). Because the healthcare industry is constantly evolving the training and development of the healthcare workers must be ongoing. The assessment process can be done by testing, interviewing employees, and rating. Each employee must be trained, signed off on the on all policies and procedures to prevent the company and employee from law suits against them. Healthcare organizations must provide the proper training and education for their employees...

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...Step 1) job title: Banking Manager is someone who conducts the business of banking; one who, individually, or as a member of a company, keeps an establishment for the deposit or loan of money, or for traffic in money, bills of exchange, etc. he is responsible for the day-to-day duties of managing a banking branch, oversees the sales, operations, and business development within the branch, including profits and productivity. Step 2) Major Abilities Skills: * Effective communication skills; to be able to communicate with others actively. * Good Leadership skills; to be able to guide or direct others. * Diverse departmental skills in accounting and finance; to have various mathematical skills in order to manage banking work. * Negotiating and problem solving skills; to have the ability to handle situations and discuss things in your workplace. * Team management skills; to have a group of individuals working towards a common goal using different tools and processes. Step 3) Development Technique: * Effective communication skills: For developing communication skills, one needs to interact with others. Small group discussions technique will be very helpful. It allows participants to discuss and solve different situations by interacting with each other’s and exchanging knowledge. It is beneficial because it makes trainees more receptive to new information; on the other hand, group discussions consume time and can leave necessary information uncovered...

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...order of ideas, the current plan seeks to support the development of the human resource at Wal-Mart with emphasis on management learning and development. 2. Considerations Before actually coming to create the plan for managerial development, it is important to take into account several issues which would sit at the basis of the plan created. The first of these considerations is pegged to the need to develop the managers, which in turn is revealed by the important role played by the middle managers. In essence, the middle managers represent the link between the executives that set a company direction, mission and vision, and the staff members who ensure that the company objectives are attained. Mike Hughes and David Potter (2002) for instance mention that the role of the middle managers has suffered impressive mutations throughout the past recent. Middle managers are no longer just the heads of departments, but they represent change and evolution, they play a crucial part in "the quality of teaching and learning." Given the problems faced by Wal-Mart, it becomes obvious that the development of the managerial team is crucial to attaining company objectives, to developing the staff members and to as such enhancing organizational strength. Following this line of thoughts, it is now necessary to generate an adequate comprehension of the concept of management development. According to Karen Bright, management development represents a process by which the effectiveness......

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...Human Development Report 2014 Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience Empowered lives. Resilient nations. The 2014 Human Development Report is the latest in the series of global Human Development Reports published by UNDP since 1990 as independent, empirically grounded analyses of major development issues, trends and policies. Additional resources related to the 2014 Human Development Report can be found online at http://hdr.undp.org, including complete editions or summaries of the Report in more than 20 languages, a collection of papers commissioned for the 2014 Report, interactive maps and databases of national human development indicators, full explanations of the sources and methodologies employed in the Report’s human development indices, country profiles and other background materials as well as previous global, regional and national Human Development Reports. Human Development Report 2014 Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience Empowered lives. Resilient nations. Published for the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Reports 1990–2014 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007/2008 2009 2010 2011 2013 2014 Concept and Measurement of Human Development Financing Human Development Global Dimensions of Human Development People’s Participation New Dimensions of Human Security Gender and Human Development......

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...Development’ is a concept which is contested both theoretically and politically, and is inherently both complex and ambiguous ... ... Recently [it] has taken on the limited meaning of the practice of development agencies, especially in aiming at reducing pov- erty and the Millennium Development Goals. (Thomas, 2004: 1, 2) The vision of the liberation of people and peoples, which animated development practice in the 1950s and 1960s has thus been replaced by a vision of the liberaliza- tion of economies. The goal of structural transformation has been replaced with the goal of spatial integration.... ... The dynamics of long-term transformations of econ- omies and societies [has] slipped from view and attention was placed on short-term growth and re-establishing fi nancial balances. The shift to ahistorical performance assessment can be interpreted as a form of the post-modernization of development policy analysis. (Gore, 2000: 794–5) Post-modern approaches... see [poverty and development] as socially constructed and embedded within certain economic epistemes which value some assets over others. By revealing the situatedness of such interpretations of economy and pov- erty, post-modern approaches look for alternative value systems so that the poor are not stigmatized and their spiritual and cultural ‘assets’ are recognized. (Hickey and Mohan, 2003: 38) One of the confusions, common through development literature is between devel- opment as immanent...

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...The process of educating children begins at a young age in the early childhood program. Children need to be received in a warm inviting classroom in which the social, emotional, physical and cognitive development are a priority and address on a daily basis. Meeting the children’s needs of feeling safe and nurtured at school will facilitate learning to take place. Before students entered the classrooms to be filled with factual knowledge under scripted lessons that were to accommodate all learners. Educating children these days is more like an art that requires the use of creativity and knowledge to consider the student’s needs to prepare the lessons, incorporate personal philosophies, and implement the proper pedagogic strategies to develop children’s academic potential. Being an early childhood teacher is a privilege that requires to be assumed with responsibility as early childhood teachers spend the majority of the day teaching children who’s both parents work to cover the family needs. Children at the Pre K to K start school between the ages of 3-5 depending on the program and school children are attending. For my final paper, I will identify and discuss the theories and/or philosophies that demonstrate how I envision the appropriate classroom to be for the selected age group. I will also provide an overview of the concepts I will teach in each academic area, and share some of the strategies and activities that will be implemented in the classroom which will be a......

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...The Development Gap. Luca Conti 9N 8/6/15 What is development, how does it vary around the world and which two countries are we looking at today? Firstly, development is when a country begins to grow in economic value; a developed county must also have high standard of living and very good healthcare. Normally more developed countries export higher value goods that have usually been processed therefore adding value. In this issue we will be looking at two very different countries, namely, Italy and Malawi. Lets look at the stats’. Italia…. * GDP= 2.194 trillion USD * Infant mortality per 15000= 3 * Pop. Growth rate= 0.5% * Pop. Per doctor= 4.1 * Any period of colonisation= it has never been colonised * Current Pop. = 59.33 million * GDP per capita= 35,925 USD * Literacy rate (average)= 99% * Average life expectancy= Men= 82 Women= 85 * % of Pop. Unemployed= 12.4% HDI (human development index) = very high standard of living. Malawi… * GDP= 3.705 billion USD * Infant mortality= 38 of 1000 * Pop. Growth rate= 2.8% * Pop. Per doctor= 65,000 approx. * Period of colonisation= 1891 - under British rule * Current Pop. = 16,407 million * GDP per capita= 857 USD * Literacy rate (average)= 54.6% * Average life expectancy= Men= 58 Women= 61 * % of Pop. Unemployed= 42.32% * HDI= very low standard of living. More...

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...LONG AGO AND NOT TRUE ANYWAY BLOGGING ABOUT INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, POLITICS AND LIVING WITH DISEASE. SUNDAY, OCTOBER 09, 2005 Four Fallacies of African Development Someone called Chris has placed a comment below my last little piece on aid and conditionality and, as is sometimes the case when he resists his impulse to troll, he has made some almost-sensible points. Or at least, points that have had much currency in the mainstream media and debates about international development. So I thought I’d take the time to discuss them here. In his post Chris wrote: ...the fact remains, Africa's problems are by and large internal…True, agricultural subsidies must be lifted by the US and the EU, but simply throwing aid money at the problem will ultimately come to no good. After all, even when African countries do possess sources of great wealth--diamonds in Sierra Leone and oil in Nigeria, for instance--those resources often end up being a curse on95% of the respective country's populace. On the other hand, a few nations have done better through internal improvements; Botswana is often cited as an example of this, but their 40% Aids rate--definitely attributable to rampant sexual activity--is impossible to overlook.  Encapsulated in this spiel are what could be termed ‘the four great fallacies of the Africa Debate’. I’ll attend to each of these in turn. Fallacy 1 - Africa’s problems are by in large internal  There’s no denying that some of Africa’s problems are......

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...How a child developments is fundamentally important at a young age as it affects all aspect of their lives once the child matures. Throughout the class, we looked at many theorists during the course of the semester. The theorists opened up our minds to a world that we have never seen before and concepts about child development we have never been taught but have seen in the practical work we do every week. What makes humans unique is the ability that we have to interpret the language being used, as Lois Bloom and Margaret Lahey describe in their book Language Development and Language Disorders “language is like a code, it is a means of representation” Although, everyone is able to interpret the use of language some interpret it more than others. This delay in language, we have learned, could be for a variety of reasons. The characteristics of a child will depend on: how they were brought up, who they were brought up by, what kind of condition they were brought up in, what kind of parents the child was brought up by, if was the child brought up in poverty, etc. Language is a key part in anyone’s life as it is a major form of communication. Language is what separates us from other species to be intellectual and to rule society. Language development is important in a child’s life as it will pave the way for successful communication with various other children and other people in society. By means of talking to one another when we are young they stated, development of language......

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Development

...William Monette Mrs. Misch ENGL 1301 September 29, 2014 Development over the Years October 1, 2004, I was in the fourth grade, I was tested for Dyslexia. The test had many things like rapid naming, phonological memory, word memory, and reading comprehension. After the test I was diagnosed with Dyslexia. At the time I didn’t know what Dyslexia really was. I didn’t understand what it actually meant. I had to go to a class during school to help me with my reading and writing skills. I was very good at reading and writing growing up. I was in the Dyslexia class for over nine months. After I tested out of this class I had better knowledge of Dyslexia. Later on in school I was also diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder. I was a freshmen in high school when I was diagnosed with A.D.D. During my freshman year my grades were dropping. I wasn’t paying attention in class, I was forgetting my homework at home or I just didn’t remember if I had any homework. I was much unorganized. I had a difficult time staying on task. It took a long time to read any books or papers. Whenever the teacher would give us many directions, I would forget a lot of them. With my Dyslexia I would mix words up, or mix up letters. When reading I was always behind other kids in my class because it took time for me to read a book, or a paper. I couldn’t remember the important details of the story we would read, so I would have to read the story over and over again. With Dyslexia I had trouble fully......

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...x Material Development Matrix Part I – Developmental Stages For each developmental domain, physical, cognitive, and social, identify two major changes or challenges associated with the following stages: childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Stage of Development Physical Development Cognitive Development Social Development Childhood 1.Children gain more weight and height at this stage. 2. Throughout this stage girls tend to develop slightly faster than boys. 1. During this stage children continue to advance their skills in observing and interacting with what’s around them. 2. During this stage young children’s play becomes increasingly imaginary and filled with fantasies. 1. At this stage of social development, friendship usually means sharing toys and having fun playing together. 2. They often enter a rough and tumble play which includes running, racing, climbing, or competitive games. Adolescence 1. For girls you might start to see early physical change as young as 8 years old or as old as 13 years old. 2. For boys changes usually starts around 11 or 12 years old, but they might start as young as 9 years or old as 14 years. 1. Individual’s thoughts start taking more of an abstract from and egocentric thoughts decrease. 2. Begins to think long term. 3. Searching for identity. 2. Seeking more responsibility both at home and school. Adulthood 1.Sensitivity to sound decreases; it happens twice as quickly for men as for women. 2. The skin becomes drier and......

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