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Year 10 Revision Timelines: The Roaring Twenties

Before First World War * Women could not vote. * Middle/upper class women did not work but had the role of mothers and housewives. Working class women had low paid jobs such as factory work and cleaning. * Women usually wore full length dresses, wore no make up and had their hair tied back in buns. * Divorce was very rare and so was sex before marriage. * Women did not smoke or drink in public. * They had to go out with a chaperone (a family member) when they met their boyfriend.

How did the First World War change the lives of women? * During the war, women began to work in areas like heavy industry. They proved they could work as well as men. By 1929, there were 10 million women workers; a rise of 24% since 1920. * Working gave women independence and they began smoking and drinking in public. * Women were given the vote in August 1920 but few were chosen to be actual politicians. * Production of consumer goods such as vacuum cleaners and washing machines meant women had more time for leisure activities. * Flappers emerged in the 1920’s = women from middle and upper class families from the Northern States. They cut their hair in short bobs, wore make up, short skirts and bright clothes. They also smoked and drank in public, went to speakeasies, danced the Charleston with men and listened to Jazz and drove cars and motorbikes. * BUT many groups, particularly in rural areas thought the flappers were too outrageous. * Hollywood saw the emergence of female stars such as Mary Pickford and Gloria Swanson who * were female role models. * Advertising was aimed at women for the new consumer goods of the 1920s e.g in 1925 Ford introduced colours other than black for his Model T to appeal to women. * Divorce rate doubled between 1914-1929 * CHANGES AFFECTED MAINLY MIDDLE CLASS WOMEN IN THE CITIES.

In what ways did women’s lives not really change? * Although more women did work, they were given poorly paid, unskilled jobs e.g only 4% of * University professors were women. * Women were paid much less than men for doing the same job * The Supreme Court refused to set a minimum wage for women, e.g. in 1927 female textile workers in Tennessee went on strike for better pay but the government took the side of the employers and the strikers were arrested by the police. * Once women married, they gave up their jobs. However, women in the 1920s had fewer children e.g on average 2.6 compared to 3.6. * Many poor women could not afford goods such as vacuum cleaners * Political parties did not choose women to stand as politicians as they believed they were “unelectable”. * WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS LIVED MORE TRADITIONAL, CONSERVATIVE LIVES THAN THOSE IN THE CITIES.

Why was Prohibition introduced? * Women reformers argued that there was a clear link between alcohol and wife/child abuse e.g these ‘dries’ argued that 3,000 babies were smothered in bed by drunken parents, rolling onto them. * Henry Ford and other leading industrialists were concerned about their workers have less efficiency because of hangovers from alcohol. * Many religious groups saw alcohol as a sin e.g Anti-Saloon League (set up in 1865) and Women’s Christian Temperance Union. These temperance movements were more powerful in rural areas. * By 1917, alcohol was already banned in several states= 21 states. * During First World War, ban of alcohol became a patriotic issue because most brewers were German e.g beer became known as the ‘Kaiser’s brew’. * January 1920 Volstead Act was passed which banned the manufacture, transport and sale of alcohol.
What effects did prohibition have on American society? * It was popular in rural areas and the mid-West but not in the cities. * Huge numbers of law abiding citizens were prepared to break the law and drink alcohol. * Illegal alcohol was smuggled into USA from Europe, Canada (2/3 came from here) and Mexico. * The people who brought in the alcohol were called bootleggers. * Illegal alcohol was sold at drinking dens called speakeasies. There were actually more speakeasies than there had been saloons before prohibition e.g 30,000 in New York alone * There were some agents who did try to stop bootlegging such as Moe Smith and Isadore Einstein who made over 4,000 arrests. * Police corruption became a serious effect of prohibition e.g bootleggers had to bribe the police. Often the police would even tell people which speakeasies to drink in. * Although deaths from alcoholism were reduced by 80%, deaths from alcoholic poisoning were on the increase e.g 50,000 such deaths by 1926. This was because people brewed their own alcohol called ‘moonshine’. * Brewing industry was permanently damaged: e.g. 22 breweries in St Louis before prohibition; but only 9 opened after it ended. * By early 1930’s, growing demands for prohibition to end. Government also saw it could create jobs in the brewing industry if Prohibition ended and get taxes from sale of alcohol. * President Roosevelt ended Prohibition in December 1933. * IT HAD MADE AMERICA LAWLESS, POLICE CORRUPT AND THE GANGSTERS RICH.
Organised Crime * Organised criminal gangs realised they could make huge sums of money from providing illegal alcohol e.g estimated at $2 billion such as gangster George Remus who gave a car to every female guest at a party and diamond cufflinks worth $25,000 to every male guest! * Organised gangs made use of the newly designed cars and the Thompson sub-machine gun.
Al Capone * Son of an Italian immigrant, he left school at a young age and became a club bouncer, where he was attacked, getting the nickname ‘Scarface’. * Capone left New York for Chicago where he worked for the gangster, Johnny Torrio and then later took over his criminal operation. * Capone bribed the mayor and senior police officers; fixing local elections. * He controlled brothels, casinos, speakeasies and horse racing tracks in Chicago. He is estimated to have made $60million a year from speakeasies alone. * Capone also charged local businesses protection money or he would damage them. * However, Capone also attracted positive publicity e.g setting up the first soup kitchen in Chicago during the Depression which cost him $30,000 and giving $100 tips to waiters and shop girls. * His true colours were seen at the St Valentine’s Day Massacre on 14 February 1929 where he organised the shooting of his rival Bugsy Moran and his gang. * In 1931 he was arrested by Eliot Ness of the Untouchables for tax evasion; he owed $200,000 in taxes.

Black Americans * Africans were brought to America as slaves in 17th/18th century. By 1860s there were more black people than white living in the Southern states of America. This lead to Jim Crow laws being passed in the Southern states which made segregation legal as long as it was “separate but equal”. In reality, facilities such as schools, parks, hospitals, libraries were separate but never equal with blacks getting the worse facilities. * Ku Klux Klan(KKK) was set up in 1860s by soldiers who had fought in American Civil War. Their aim was to terrorise people recently released from slavery. The Klan was revived after the release of the film “The Birth of a Nation” which attracted huge audiences, including President Wilson. * KKK were WASPs = White Anglo-Saxon Protestants- meaning they were anti-communist, anti-black, anti-Jew, anti-Catholic and against all foreigners. * KKK were most powerful in the South and the Mid-West where working class whites competed with black people for unskilled jobs. * By 1925-KKK claimed to have 5 million members including the State Governors of Oklahoma and Oregon. However, its popularity went into decline when one of its leaders, David Stephenson was convicted of a vicious sexually motivated murder. * KKK lynched black people and beat up and mutilated anyone they chose. They also stripped victims and put tar and feathers on their bodies. * Klan members wore white robes and hoods. They were often made up of members of the police, judges and lawyers. * In the South, blacks could vote in theory but were made to sit impossible literacy tests with very difficult questions so that in reality most didn’t vote. They were also denied access to good jobs and education. * Segregation in the south lead to blacks moving north e.g the black population of Chicago and New York doubled in the 1920s. * However, in the North, conditions were not much better for blacks e.g poorly paid jobs and “last to be hired, first to be fired” but a small middle class did develop who began to campaign for better rights e.g boycotting department stores in Chicago until they employed black assistants. * A black capitalist movement was also started to encourage black people to set up their own businesses. * Some black Americans entered politics e.g WEB Dubois who set up the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). It campaigned to end segregation laws and to get laws passed against lynching. * Marcus Garvey set up the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) which taught people to be proud of their race and colour. UNIA helped people set up their own businesses. * Harlem in New York became a centre for black artists, jazz music, dancehalls, etc. * Life expectancy increased from 45 in 1900 to 48 in 1930 which was still 10 years less than white people at this time. * Blacks were also mistreated in North e.g when blacks tried to use parks, playgrounds and beaches in the Irish and Polish districts of Chicago they were attacked by gangs called the ‘athletic clubs’.

Immigrants * In 18th/19th centuries, millions of people migrated to USA from Britain, Germany, Ireland, Italy,etc * Between 1901-1910- immigration reached a peak. * As immigrants competed for jobs, hostility against them began e.g First World War lead to anti-German feelings. * Immigrants from Eastern Europe were looked down upon more * Most immigrants were very poor with little education. They lived in ghettoes in the Northern cities.
What was the Red Scare? * Began following the Russian Revolution of 1917. Many Americans feared immigrants from Eastern Europe would bring communism to America. * 400,000 American workers went on strike in 1919 about poor pay and working conditions. To many people it seemed as if revolution was coming to America. * There were race riots in 25 towns. * 1919, a bombing campaign began, organised by anarchists e.g Attorney General (Head of Department of Justice), Mitchell Palmer was attacked. * In 1919- 36 bombs were sent to important Americans and in June bombs went off in 7 cities. * Mitchell Palmer organised a clerk called J Edgar Hoover (later head of the FBI) to round up any suspects. Between 1919-1920- 10,000 immigrants were kicked out the USA in purges.

Sacco and Vanzetti * Sacco and Vanzetti were Italian Americans who were accused of armed robbery and the murder of Fred Parmenter (paymaster of a factory).They were both anarchists (people who disagree with government of any kind and want to overthrow it). * Their trial became more about political beliefs than anything else. * There was little evidence against the two men but because they were anarchists they were not given a fair trial. Indeed the judge described them as “anarchist bastards”. * Both men were executed in 1927 to a storm of protest showing they were the victims of racial discrimination. * In 1970, the Governor of Massachusetts issued a pardon admitting the men had been wrongfully accused.

Immigration Laws * From 1924, laws were passed which restricted the number of immigrants coming to USA from Southern and Eastern Europe. * 1929 Immigration Act restricted the number of immigrants to 150,000/year- no Asians, with 85% of places going to people from Northern and Western Europe.
Monkey Trial * A famous trail which showed the difference between beliefs held by Americans in rural areas and urban areas. * People in towns accepted Darwin’s theory of evolution; that humans had evolved from ape-like creatures. * People in the countryside had strong Christian beliefs and believed that God had created all living things. * 6 States decided to ban the teaching of Darwin’s theory of evolution in their schools. A biology teacher called John Scopes wanted to teach Darwin and so deliberately taught about evolution at his school in Tennessee. He was arrested and put on trial. * In the trial of 1925, John Scopes was shown to be an intelligent man whilst those who wanted evolution banned called the Fundamentalists were seen to be ignorant and uneducated. However, Scopes was found guilty and evolution was banned in Tennessee until 1967.

Year 10 Revision Timelines: Economic Boom in 20s America

Why was there an economic boom in the 1920’s?
First World War * America became richest country in the world, supplying weapons to Europe and taking over world trade. Also farmers prospered, sending food to Europe. This was because they did not become involved in the war until 1917 whilst Britain and France had been fighting since 1914 and so could not produce goods or grow food. * America took over Britain and France’s world trade during the war. * America took over position as world’s producer of chemicals from Germany
Republican Governments * Republican party were in power throughout 1920s * President Harding/President Coolidge/President Hoover all believed in ‘laissez-faire which meant people should be left to get on with their own lives. This meant people paid low taxes so the rich got richer and the poor got poorer because less benefits. * Republican governments put high tariffs on foreign goods to encourage people to buy American e.g * Fordney-McCumber tariff- imposed by the Republican government in 1922 which made foreign goods 40% more expensive so people would buy American goods. This helped American businesses grow and prosper. * Republican governments allowed trusts to be set up which allowed one business to control a whole Industry e.g Carnegie in steel and Rockefeller in oil. * Consumer Goods- lots of new electrical goods produced such as vacuum cleaners, fridges, radios, etc. * New advertising encouraged people to buy the goods. Even poor people could buy expensive goods on Hire Purchase or HP and pay for it week by week. * Car industry played a huge part in the economic boom of the 1920s. * Henry Ford at his factory in River Rouge, Detroit introduced a conveyor belt system which allowed cars to be mass- produced and therefore cheaper. He paid his workers $5/day which was more than other places but they had to work extremely hard. A Model T car was produced every 10 seconds which made them cheap to buy, The car industry became America’s biggest industry and it helped boost other industries such as leather (seat), glass, rubber, steel and petrol. * Development of cars lead to suburbs developing around cities, where middle class people now bought homes. * Construction Industry * went through a boom in 1920s e.g skyscrapers, department stores, houses in suburbs were all built * transport system improved e.g road building tripled

Who did not go through the boom in 1920’s? * Farmers- during the First World War, they had done well, supplying food to Europe but they lost this market once the war stopped. * They used efficient farming methods which meant they were producing too much food which they could not sell. This meant food prices dropped and so did farmers incomes. * Prohibition meant less barley was grown and this affected farmers badly. At least 50% of the American population was affected by problems in farming. * Farm income dropped from $22 billion in 1919 to $13 billion in 1928 * Overproduction was a major problem e.g tractor and combine harvester made agriculture more efficient. * This lead to farmers producing more than they could sell. prices began to fall e.g by 50% in 1921. * Many farmers went bankrupt e.g 600,000 in 1924. * Black Americans/Immigrants- unemployed and too poor to buy consumer goods. * Workers in Older industries – e.g. coal, leather and textiles went on strike about low wages. * About 70 million out of a population of 110 million Americans at the time were living below the poverty line.

Wall Street Crash 1929
What caused the Wall Street Crash of October 1929? * Share speculation- during the economic boom of the 1920s, many people bought shares in companies to get rich quick. * In 1920 there were only 4 million share owners but this increased to 20 million by 1929. * These new investors were called speculators who did not intend to keep their shares for long but sell them as soon as they made a profit. * Even poor people bought shares by borrowing money from banks and then paying them back once they had made a profit. Some people only bought a % of the shares called ‘buying on the margin’ and then paid back the full amount once the shares made a profit. * American banks lent $9 billion to speculators in 1929. Price of shares in certain companies quadrupled in price in 1929. This was known as a bull market, where prices were rising fast. * Overproduction-by 1929 many companies were producing more goods than they could sell i.e. you only need 1 fridge. * American companies could not sell their goods abroad because European countries had placed high tariffs on American goods in revenge for the Fordney-McCumber tariff. * As investors realise companies cannot sell their goods, they lose confidence and begin to panic sell their shares before the price dropped too quickly. On Tuesday 29 October 1929, the Wall Street Crash takes place where investors tried to sell millions of shares at rock bottom prices.

What were the results of the Wall Street Crash? * Huge numbers of speculators were ruined. Many people could not afford to pay back loans to the banks. * Many banks went bankrupt- 1929- 650 banks failed. Many people lost their savings. 1931 another 2,000 banks failed. * Businesses and companies were forced to sack workers or lower wages. In fact wages were reduced by 60%. * Higher unemployment and lower wages meant people had less money to buy goods so even more businesses lost money and had to sack workers. * By 1932 America was in a terrible Depression with: * 14 million unemployed * 5000 banks bankrupt * Farm prices at rock bottom * Trade reduced from $10 billion in 1929 to $3 million in 1932

What was The Depression? * Farmers hit hardest. * Could not pay mortgages and land was taken by the banks. Had to pack up belongings and go in search of work, often in West America in California, picking fruit. * Many came from farming states of Oklahoma and Arkansas and were known as ‘Okies’ and ‘Arkies’. * Also because of drought in states such as Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, New Mexico and Kansas millions of acres of farmland was turned into a ‘dust bowl’ which could not be farmed. * Cities- also hit hard. * By 1932 there were 12-14 million unemployed in America. In some cities e.g. Cleveland 50% of workers were unemployed. Parks filled up with homeless people. Unemployed queued up at soup kitchens which gave free bread and soup provided by charity. People made shanty houses made of cardboard, etc which they sarcastically called Hoovervilles after President Hoover who failed to solve the crisis. Newspapers became known as Hoover blankets to keep the homeless warm. * People were starving and searching rubbish tips for scraps of food. Birth rate went down but the suicide rate went up. * Some people travelled across America in search of work called hoboes. * Black Americans suffered in the Depression with “last to be hired, first to be fired”- 50% of blacks unemployed during the Depression. * Family Life- * The number of marriages fell and so did the birth rate. * Schools closed down e.g Arkansas for 10 months because not enough money to pay teachers * Increase in suicide rate

How did President Hoover deal with the Depression?
What did he do? * Tax cuts in 1930 to give people more money in the hope they would buy goods and the economy would recover. * Tried to persuade business leaders not to cut wages but was ignored. * Set up the RFC or Reconstruction Finance Company which gave $2 billion in loans to help banks not go bankrupt in 1932. * Passed the Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act in 1930 which made foreign food imports more expensive. * Did encourage states to spend $1.5 billion on public works programmes e.g Hoover Dam

What did he not do? * Did not give much government help because believed in ‘rugged individualism’- people standing on their own two feet. * Would not give social security to the poor because did not want people to rely on the government American people saw Hoover as heartless and uncaring. “In Hoover we trusted but now we are busted”. * This lack of help ruined the popularity of the Republican Party for a long time. * Many of his policies were introduced in 1932 which was election year and this turned people against Hoover even more.

What was the Bonus Army? * In May 1932, a group of 12,000 (some estimate 40,000) ex-soldiers who had fought in the First World War marched on Washington to ask President Hoover for their war bonus to be paid early because of the depression. * Hoover said he could not afford to pay the bonus which would cost $2.3 billion. * Hoover had them fired on with tear gas and an 11 week old baby was killed.

Year 10 Revision Timelines: Roosevelt & The New Deal

Franklin Delano Roosevelt becomes American President in 1933 * Roosevelt who was a Democrat won the 1932 election by a huge majority and became President in 1933. * He believed the government had to try and improve the lives of the American people * He wanted to use public money to reduce unemployment * He was willing to seek advice from many different groups such as factory owners, workers, etc. * He promised the American people a “New Deal” to get America back to work, protect their savings and property, help the poor, ill and sick and get American industry and farming back on its feet.

First New Deal “The Hundred Days”
* Emergency Banking Act =Roosevelt closed down all the banks and only allowed 5,000 trustworthy ones to reopen so that people would get their confidence back in the banking system.
Poor Americans * FERA or the Federal Emergency Relief Administration which gave $500 million of government money to spend on soup kitchens, blankets, etc for the poor.
Unemployed Americans- * CCC or Civilian Conservation Corps aimed at unemployed young men aged 18-25. They signed on for 6 months which could be renewed if they did not get work at the end of this. They carried out environmental projects like planting trees. They earned $30 a month but $25 had to be sent back home to families. It did employ 8,000 women. * PWA or Public Works Administration used over $3000million government money to build schools, roads, bridges and airports. Created millions of jobs. * CWA or Civil Works Administration provided 4 million jobs
* AAA or Agricultural Adjustment Act helped farmers use modern methods which would protect the soil. Also tried to increase price of food by ordering the slaughter of animals e.g. 6 million pigs and wheat (at a time when many were starving). * FCA or Farm Credit Administration which gave money to help farmers pay mortgages. 20% of farmers benefited from this. * TVA or Tennessee Valley Authority which covered 7 states where poverty and poor farming conditions existed. It built dams which meant the ‘dustbowl’ land could now be irrigated. Electricity also provided. * TVA created many jobs. Some states opposed this as they saw Roosevelt and the federal government telling the states what to do.
Industrial Workers * NRA or National Recovery Administration which set fair prices, wages and working conditions. * Employment of children stopped. Those companies who signed up had a blue eagle symbol. Stated that women should be paid less than men. However, the Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional because the federal government did not have the authority to tell private companies what to do.
* Reconstruction Finance Corporation started by Hoover but expanded by Roosevelt. Invested $15,000 million of public money in helping banks and businesses.

Second New Deal 1935-1939
Unemployed Americans * WPA or Works Progress Administration created jobs for 8.5 million unemployed people who built schools, hospitals, etc. * SSA or Social Security Act gave benefits for the first time to help the unemployed, sick and elderly. * They were given $10/month which although low was better than nothing.

Industrial Workers * National Labour Relations Board (NLRB) said workers could join trade unions. This saw a rise in strikes as workers fought for higher pay. However, some employers sacked striking workers and some companies such as Ford refused to allow trade unions.

Who opposed the New Deal?

* Republicans- believed Roosevelt acting as a dictator and did not believe the federal government should interfere in people’s lives. * American Liberty League- made up of wealthy businessmen who did not like Roosevelt telling them how to run their affairs. * Huey Long- Democratic Senator and Governor of the State of Louisiana who believed the New Deal did not go far enough. He wanted the rich to be taxed more highly and any personal fortune over $5 million confiscated by the government. He wanted a ‘Share Our Wealth’ scheme where every American family would be given $6000 to spend. He was assassinated in 1935. * States rights supporters- were angry that the federal government was telling the states what to do. * Conservative Democrats felt the government was putting in too much money to help the poor * Supreme Court- ruled NRA was illegal in the ‘sick chickens’ case where the Schechter brothers were prosecuted for breaking NRA codes about selling diseased chickens. The brothers complained to the Supreme Court that government was interfering in their affairs. The Supreme Court agreed and the NRA was cancelled. The Supreme Court were mainly made up of Republican judges and in 1937, Roosevelt tried to retire them and introduce younger people who were pro-New Deal but after a public outcry that he was acting like a dictator, he had to abandon the idea.

Was the New Deal a success or failure?

* Unemployment- New Deal reduced unemployment from 12-14 million in 1932 to 7 million in 1937. However, unemployment rose again in 1938 when Roosevelt was forced to sack some New Deal workers because the government was running out of money. This meant unemployment rose to 10 million in 1938. By 1941, 6 million were unemployed. It was the Second World War which brought unemployment right down. New Deal also reduced poverty in areas like the Tennessee valley with the TVA and got the unemployed involved in worthwhile projects like building schools/planting trees.

* Black Americans-about 200,000 blacks were employed by New Deal agencies but they were discriminated against e.g. given less money or not taken on at all. In the CCC very few blacks were employed and they were segregated from whites. Roosevelt did not pass a law to stop lynching because feared losing the support of the Southern Democrats.

* Women-Roosevelt did appoint some women to top government positions such as Frances Perkins and his own wife, Eleanor Roosevelt campaigned for the poor but most New Deal agencies were aimed at men not women. NRA said men to be paid more than women. Some states tried to avoid paying SSA (social security) to women.

* Industrial Workers- NRA and NLRB helped workers get better pay and conditions and allowed them to join trade unions for the first time in American history. Many workers went on strike in factories where they were not allowed to join a union such as Ford and General Motors. They were successful and the workers were able to join the Union of Automobile Workers. However, violence often used against strikers.

* Farmers – prices of wheat increased because of measures like the AAA. TVA was a real success creating fertile soil and bringing electricity to one of the poorest parts of America.

Unit 2c: USA 1919-1941 Exam Paper

* Exam paper = 1 hour 15 minutes * You have to answer 3 questions which are broken down as follows;

Question 1 – divided into 4 parts = 26 marks

Question 2- you have to answer 1 question from a choice of two = 8 marks

Question 3- you have to answer an essay question from a choice of two = 16 marks

Answer six questions (1(a), (b), (c), and (d), 2(a) OR 2(b), 3(a) OR 3(b)).

Question 1
(a) Source comprehension and simple inference (4 marks)

* In this question, you will be given a source and then asked a question based on the source. * You must make at least two inferences (hidden meanings) from the source and include embedded quotes which back these up in your answer.

Look at the model example below:

1 Study Source A.
Source A: From a history of the USA 1919-41, published in 1998.

The First World War helped the US economy in several ways. Throughout the war there was a one-way trade with Europe. Money poured into the USA for food, raw materials and munitions. The USA took over European overseas markets and many industries became more successful than their European competitors. The war also saw advances in technology such as mechanisation and new materials like plastics.

(a) What does Source A tell us about the impact of the First World War on the economy of the USA? (4)

From Source A, I can learn that the First World War turned America into a very rich and powerful economy. Firstly, countries such as Britain and France were fighting war from 1914, which meant they had to rely on the USA for “food, raw materials and munitions”. America became even richer when it “took over European overseas markets”. Finally, as America did not enter the war until 1917 it could focus on producing both “new materials” and “technology”, making the USA the world’s economic Superpower.

3 inferences backed up by embedded quotes = 4 marks

Question 1
(b) Recall and describing key features (6 marks)

* In this question you are asked to describe what happened. This means write down facts about a particular event. * To get 6 marks, you need to include 3 detailed points in your answer

Look at the model answer below:

b) Describe USA government policies towards industry in the 1920s. (6)

Throughout the 1920s, the Republican party was in government in America. They believed in laissez faire, which meant that the government should not interfere in the affairs of business. The government reduced taxes to encourage workers to spend money on consumer goods, leading to a boost in the sale of cars, fridges, etc. Tariffs such as the Fordney-McCumber tariff were also introduced, which made foreign goods more expensive. This encouraged Americans to buy American goods; leading to a boom in the industries of the USA. Finally, the government encouraged the development of trusts, where one businessman took over complete control of a whole industry such as Carnegie with the steel industry.

3 detailed points = 6 marks

Question 1
(c) explaining effects – consequence and recall (8 marks)

* In this question you are asked to explain the effects of something on other things. * To get 8 marks, you need to make two detailed points which are linked together

Look at the model answer below:

(c) Explain the effects developments in the car industry had on the economy in the
1920s. (8)

Henry Ford and his car factory at River Rouge, Detroit was to have an enormous impact on the American economy in the 1920’s. Firstly, in 1913, Ford introduced the assembly line method, where a worker stayed in one place and waited for their job to come to them on a moving line. This form of mass production meant that by 1920, Ford was producing a Model T car every 10 seconds which cost under $300. Other industries such as consumer goods copied the assembly line, making their products cheap to buy and thus boosting the American economy. Secondly, Ford used new techniques to boost sales, which were once again copied by other industries such as advertising and hire purchase, where even poor people could buy now and pay later. By the end of the 1920’s the car industry was the biggest in USA, which led to a boom in related industries, such as glass, leather, rubber and road building. Finally, the car meant suburbs developed around cities, leading to a boom in house building.

At least 2 detailed points which are linked = 8 marks
Question 1
(d) a ‘why’ question – causation and recall (8 marks)

* In this question you need to explain why something happened * To get 8 marks you need to give at least 2 very detailed points which are linked together

Look at the model answer below:

(d) Explain why there was a depression in agriculture in the 1920s. (8)

During the First World War, American farmers had done well, supplying food to Europe. As a result, many farmers had taken out mortgages so they could buy more land and technology such as the tractor and combine harvester. However, they lost this overseas market once the First World War stopped. Matters became worse because this new technology lead to efficient farming methods which meant overproduction, where farmers were producing too much food which they could not sell. This meant food prices dropped by 50% and so did farmers incomes from $22 billion in 1919 to $13 billion in 1928. A lack of income meant that many farmers could not pay their mortgages and by 1924, 600,000 farmers went bankrupt. This depression in agriculture affected 50% of the American population.

1st Detailed point which is linked together

2nd detailed point which is linked together

Question 2
Is an ‘explain how’ question covering, for example change or causation and recall
(8 marks)

* In this question you have to explain how something changed or why something changed * To get 8 marks you should have 2 detailed points

Question 3
Is an essay question, for example a causation question asking students to consider the importance of different factors (16 marks)

* In this question, you have to explain the importance of several different factors * To get 16 marks, you have to write a detailed essay which tries to link some factors and reaches a judgment that all factors were important for different reasons

Look at the model answer below:

3 Was the poor treatment of black people the most serious problem facing US society in the 1920s? Explain your answer. You may use the following information to help you with your answer. You must include your own ‘bullet point’
• The poor treatment of black people
• Prohibition

Black people in America had always been treated badly since the days of slavery. The 1920s saw an increase in racism with the growth of the Ku Klux Klan and prejudice against all immigrants with the ‘Red Scare’, highlighted by the case of Sacco and Vanzetti. However, the introduction of prohibition in 1920 led to other serious problems in US society, including the emergence of organised crime.
Poor treatment of black people in America was a very serious problem in the 1920’s. Indeed, the Jim Crow laws in the southern states of America made racism legal, where segregation of all facilities was allowed because they were ‘separate but equal’. This meant blacks and whites went to separate schools, toilets, drinking fountains and even shops. Black facilities were inferior in every way but nothing was done because literacy tests meant that blacks could not even vote and so were ignored by politicians. Indeed, even President Wilson was known to support the Ku Klux Klan; a white supremacy movement. This group was set up in 1865 after the American Civil war, when slavery was banned. By 1924 it had 4.5 million members, who as WASPs attacked not only blacks but Jews, Catholics and immigrants. Methods used included lynchings, beatings and intimidation. Crimes, including murder were rarely punished as the police were often Klan members.

Indeed, the poor treatment of immigrants ignited by groups like the Ku Klux Klan and the ‘Red Scare’ were another serious problem facing American society. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, fear of communism grew in America, known as the ‘Red Scare’. A wave of strikes, involving 400,000 American workers was blamed on immigrants from Eastern Europe spreading communist ideals. In 1919, a bombing campaign in 7 cities carried out by anarchists was blamed on immigrants and led to a purge by J Edgar Hoover, in which 10,000 immigrants were deported from America. Further racism by the authorities was shown in the Sacco and Vanzetti case, where these Italian immigrants were arrested in 1920 for armed robbery. Despite little evidence, the men were abused for being anarchists by the judge and later executed in 1927. The case was also used as an excuse by the American government to restrict immigration, particularly from Southern and Eastern Europe.

Other serious problems affecting American society in the1920s were caused by the introduction of the Volstead Act or Prohibition in 1920. This banned the sale, manufacture and transportation of alcohol in America. It was introduced following campaigns by the Anti-Saloon League and Women’s Christian Temperance Union who feared family and social breakdown caused by alcohol. However, Prohibition actually created problems, including turning law abiding citizens into law breakers with people making their own ‘moonshine’ which could cause blindness and an increase in alcoholism by 1933.

The most serious problem to American society created by Prohibition was the rise of organised crime. Despite Prohibition, people still wanted to drink alcohol and criminal gangs bootlegged supplies from Canada and Mexico to meet the huge demands, particularly in Northern cities. Much of the alcohol was sold in illegal ‘speakeasies’ run by gangsters such as Al Capone who made up to $60 million a year from these drinking dens alone. He ran his gang out of Chicago, where he made money from not only alcohol but also gambling and prostitution. Despite his use of extreme violence for example the St Valentine’s Day Massacre, Capone could only be arrested for tax evasion, because witnesses were too scared to testify and government officials, including Chicago’s Mayor William Hale Thompson were bribed. Indeed, police corruption became widespread and was a serious problem caused by Prohibition.

In conclusion, it can be argued that racism was the most serious problem facing American society in the 1920’s, particularly in the Southern States where the Jim Crow laws existed. However, civil rights groups like the NAACP and Universal Negro Improvement Association and the popularity of jazz led to a reduction of racism in the Northern cities. The negative effects of Prohibition and organised crime were more of a serious problem in the North but Prohibition was only a short term problem as it ended in 1933. However, organised crime and the growth of the Mafia remained a serious problem in American society.

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