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Diabetic Retinopathy Case Study

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How to cope with Diabetic retinopathy?

What is diabetic eye disease?
Diabetic eye disease (DED) is normally used for a group of eye diseases that patients with diabetes mellitus may get as a complication of diabetes. Diabetic eye disease can be the cause of severe vision loss or blindness, above all. Diabetic eye disease includes diabetic retinopathy, cataract and glaucoma.

What is Diabetic Retinopathy?
Diabetic retinopathy is one of the complications of diabetes out of tripathy. Diabetic retinopathy occurs when hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar levels) causes damage to the cells at the back of the eye, known anatomically as, the retina. Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of loss of vision.
The chief culprit behind diabetic retinopathy
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The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study reported the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in urban Chennai to be 17.6% in diabetic population, and the Aravind Comprehensive Eye Study reported the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in rural South India to be 10.5%.
Screening for diabetic retinopathy
Screening for diabetic retinopathy is must as severe retinopathy can cause sudden onset of blindness. Diabetic retinopathy needs early identification and treatment. The chief purpose of screening for diabetic retinopathy is to reduce the risk of vision loss in patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Everyone with diabetes who is 12 years old or over is invited for screening once a year. The screening test involves examining the back of the eyes and taking photographs of the retina. Screening can detect diabetic retinopathy before one notice any changes in the vision.
Causes
Over the time, hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar content) causes blockage of the minute blood vessels that provide nourishment to the retina, thereby cutting off the blood supply. As a result, the eye attempts to grow new blood vessels. The new blood vessels don't undergo proper development and undergo leakage
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In this more common form — called non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) — new blood vessels aren't growing (proliferating). When one has non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, the walls of the blood vessels in retina weaken. Tiny bulges (microaneurysms) protrude from the vessel walls of the smaller vessels, sometimes leaking fluid and blood into the retina. Larger retinal vessels can begin to dilate and become irregular in diameter, as well. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy can progress from mild to severe, as more blood vessels become blocked. Nerve fibers in the retina may begin to swell. Sometimes the central part of the retina (macula) begins to swell (macular edema), a condition that requires treatment.
 Advanced diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy can progress to this more severe type, known as proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this type, damaged blood vessels close off, causing the growth of new, abnormal blood vessels in the retina, and can leak into the clear, jelly-like substance that fills the center of your eye (vitreous).
Signs and Symptoms
At first, diabetic retinopathy may cause no symptoms or only mild vision problems. Eventually, it can cause

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