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Dialog Styles

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By siphamandla
Words 2834
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The Dialog service is the world's most comprehensive online information
Retrieval service and has been serving users since 1972. With over 600 databases from a broad range of disciplines, Dialog provides international access to information in a broad scope of subject areas. The volume of data available combined with the system's searching capabilities make Dialog the largest and most powerful online service of its type. The Dialog content collection contains hundreds of databases comprised of millions of documents drawn from a multitude of sources. Dialog brings you scientific and technical literature; full-text trade journals, newspapers and newswires; details on millions of chemical substances; information on patents and trademarks issued worldwide; demographic data; and company financial statistics.
Accessing Dialog.
All Dialog Command Language interfaces are accessible via the Internet using TCP/IP protocols, most commonly using: A Web browser. Internet Explorer 5.X or higher or Netscape Navigator 4.7 or higher are recommended. Internet access is available at the desktop in most businesses and academic institutions. Internet Service Providers (ISP) also provides Internet access for a fee by means of a telephone dial-up connection, DSL broadband cable, or wireless service. In addition to Internet access, you will also need a valid user account for Dialog. Each account is assigned User ID and password that are required in order to log on to the service. Institutions also may opt for automatic authentication for some Dialog services in lieu of individual User IDs and passwords.

Dialog Command Language Search Basics
A search using Dialog Command Language can be as simple as typing a few words of text, or it can incorporate an array of search features and commands that can enhance both the search process and the final search results. Every search involves an interaction between you and the search engine — a “dialog.” This Basics section describes how to enter commands, put searches together using operators, and display output and uses special techniques for numeric and range searching.

Entering Commands
After signing on, you will see a system prompt: a question mark? This signals that the system is ready to accept a command. [Note: In Dialog Web—Command the question mark (?) system prompt does not display.] To instruct the system what to do, type a command in the prompt line (Dialog Classic) or input box (Dialog Classic Web, Dialog Link Dialog Web—Command). Press the key to send the command. Most commands are followed by some additional data before is pressed. For example, a file number(s), a category name(s), or a combination of both follows the BEGIN command. Most commands can be abbreviated. In general, the format for entering a command is: COMMAND SPACE DATA
You can enter up to 2,000 characters (including commands, punctuation, and spaces) following any system prompt before pressing .

1) BASIC INDEX- it is the main index of the dialog database, it combines all articles in all fields in an alphabetical arrangement. Each term in the basic index is marked with a two-letter code to show the field from which it was taken. This marking is then used to point to the individual index term in the field. SELECT command from for any term caused the search in the basic index.
2) SUBJECT INDEX- they are build from words or character string from fields that contain the subject of the documents. The system excludes the stop words like and, from, on, there, to, will etc. The typical subject fields are the title, abstract and index terms supplied by the developer. Index terms are also known as the descriptors or identifiers or keywords. They are alphabetically arranged in the basic index regardless of the field from which they were taken. Each term in the basic index is marked by a two-letter code to show field it came.
SELECT is the basic retrieval command used on Dialog. SELECT, followed by one or more search terms, retrieves a set of records containing those terms. SELECT may be followed by a single search term (SELECT Statements) or by multiple search terms connected with logical or proximity operators. The complete command is called a SELECT statement. Dialog looks for the search terms you SELECT in the Basic and Additional Index fields, as defined on the database Blue sheet. There are two ways to enter a SELECT command: SELECT shows intermediate results and creates a single, final set SELECT STEPS creates a set for each search term and each proximity operator, plus one for the final set
You can SET to receive an abbreviated response to your SELECT statements, i.e., no intermediate unnumbered results are shown.
Note: The use of SELECT is preferred unless you need a set number for each Individual term. • To SELECT from the Basic Index:
? Select eclipse S1 415 ECLIPSE • To SELECT from an Additional Index:
? Select py=2007 S2 23054 PY=2007

Te following are suffix used to specify subject index field in the basic index
Common field symbols fields
/AB Abstract
/DE Descriptors
/DF Full descriptors
/IF Full identifiers
/TI Title
NT/ Note
/SH selecting Heading

The number of fields in the basic indexes varies with databases. Some will have all the above fields and some will have little. Sometimes index terms are word phrased instead of single words. This occurs with files with a thesaurus for controlling vocabulary. Such phrases are imputed in the basic index as multiword terms and each word in the input is phrased individually e.g. DATABASE MANAGEMENT is imputed in three phases i.e. DATABASE MANAGEMENT DATABASE DATABSE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT
Such are selected in the same manner as single words terms

Such terms are selected in the same manner as single words terms

Alternatively separate searching can be done in single words ending with results but the often cause false drops or noise due to transposed word order. E.g.
+ s Venetian blind (curtain)
+ s blind Venetian (blind Venetian)
The two concepts are unrelated and produce two transposed hits.

A phrase with one stop word will be entered as it is in the basic index. However, when single words are extracted for inclusion in the basic index only non trivial words will be extracted. E.g.

+ S Rural to urban migration Migration Rural Urban Rural to urban migration

Non-subject index
For each database there is a non-subject index. The non-subject index includes something like author, language, journal, announcement, and corporate source. All items are given prefix codes. These codes specify the field from which the item was taken. Searching in this index must include a code and terms maybe single words or multiword.
The following are non-field indicators

Common prefix codes fields

AU Author
CS Corporate source
DT Document
JN journal name
LA language

E.g. t select JN=African review T select DT= report

The basic retrieval command establishes a record set 1 of the records contain the term and list the record of posting

1. 5 AU= WOOLS Blanche

+ Select law schools
2. 200 law schools

Selecting a term from the non-subject index, note the system generates the record set 2.

Word phrasing including the Boolean operator are selected as single words term in the basic index. E.g.
+ Select boys ‘AND’ girls
3. 60 boys
40 girls

Word phrase in the basic index that includes the word in the Boolean operator must have the entire phrase in quotes. E.g.
+ S ‘boys AND girls’ 4 70 boys and girls

Viewing the index

Sometimes the author might not be sure of the author’s name, Dialog allows search to examine the portion of index in the area of interest. The basic command for this is the EXPAND COMMAND (E).this allows the searcher to verify spellings of words, name of author, title of journal.


+E term=
This display the index alphabetically around the term up to 12 lines and gives postings for each name shown. Word phrase included in the basic index are expanded in exactly the same manner as used. The user can terminate the display by hitting the break key at any time to stop display. Example:
+E Organization
Ref items index term
E1 51 Organics
E2 11 organisation
E3 57 organization
E4 87 organization development
E5 61 organization theory
E6 467 organizational
E7 214 organizational behavior
E8 577 organizational change
E9 667 organizational plans
E10 65 organizationally
E11 6565 organizations
E12 880 organize

You can also expand in the non-subject index, e.g.
Ref items index term

E1 55 JN=bulletin of American society
E2 11 JN=bearcat
E3 57 JN=business
E4 87 JN=business society review
E5 61 JN=business American
E6 467 JN=business form reporter
E7 214 JN=business in brief
E8 577 JN=business insurance
E9 667 JN=business employer
E10 65 JN=business lawyer
E11 6565 JN=business people
E12 880 JN=business weekly More

+Page (p)
If the word “more” appears after the last line of an Expand command, if additional terms are needed give a page command. A code is assigned to each displayed term E1-E50.
It is also possible to select from an expand command e.g. +s E8 the system will list all the item on business insurance

Combined command

Used only with numbers from previously created sets to create new set using the operators AND, OR, and NOT and are numbered sequentially. This may also include multi sets. e.g.
+C 1 OR 2 and this retrieve 1 and 2

+C 1 OR 3 0R 4 and this retrieve 1 and 3 and 4
The OR operator combines sets.

+C 15 AND 16 AND 17
The AND operator combines 2 or more sets in specified sets will occur in the same document.

+C 1 NOT 2
This excludes a set from the search. It narrows the search by excluding other sets.

Combine command can be used with a range of sets and with a single operator to save typing time. E.g.

+C 1-4/or
Means combine 1 OR 2 OR 3 OR 4

+C 1-4/AND
Means combine 1 AND 2 AND 3 AND 4

However, a range of records in single operator cannot be used in combined statement having another operator. E.g.
+C (1-4/OR) AND C5

This is illegal and is not allowed.

Allows multi-faceted searching using the Boolean operator AND, OR, and NOT. It is necessary to include a space on either side of the Boolean operators. Super Select command gives a display of the postings counts of each element but lonely lone set. The maximum character length is 256.Each SELECT statement will result in a single set but the number of records for each statement is displayed.

E.g. +SS Business insurance AND non-profit making organizations 100 businesses 300 insurance 400 non-profit making 200 organisations
Set 1. 50 business insurance AND non-profit making organisations

+SS solar OR air 200 solar 500 air
Set 2. 700 solar OR air

+SS solar AND air 200 solar 500 air
Set 3. 150 solar AND air

+SS air NOT solar 3425 air 455 solar
Set 4. 3365 air NOT solar +SS SOLAR
SET 5. 445 SOLAR

Combining sets +SS air AND S5 3425 air
Set 6. 60 air AND S5

+SS air AND #5 3425 AIR
SET 7.660 air AND #5

When combining a term with previous set number you must first prefix the set number with a ‘S’ or Hash.

You can also use suffix qualifiers. The use of suffix qualifiers is to limit he searches into specified fields in the title index. E.g.

+SS Egyptian/TI AND art/TI 40 Egyptian/TI 50 Art/TI
SET 1. 4 Egyptian/TI AND art/TI

We can also select a term from the basic index and from additional index. The latter term must be preceded by a two-letter code and an equal sign. For example,

+SS Epilepsy AND TC=0315 14536 Epilepsy 3684 TC= 0315 congenital defects
Set 2. 26 epilepsy and TC=0315 congenital defects

We can also select prefix codes terms from additional index. For example, +SS PN= automobile AND CN=California 8811PN= automobile (PC=3711100) 3296CN= California (CC= 1906)
SET 3. 24PN= Automobile and CN= California


SS may be used with AND, OR and NOT to retrieve a separate number for each set element as well as for the final set. There must be a space after the SS and before and after a Boolean operator e.g.

+SS solar OR air
Set1. 1455 solar
2. 3435 air
1. 3820 1 OR 2
Each term in the select step statement receive a separate set number.

+SS air and #1
Set 1. 3425 air 2. 60 2 AND 1

When combining a term with a previous set number, you must prefix set number with the letter ‘S’ or # otherwise it will search a number as a term.

+SS solar NOT air
Set 1. 455 solar 2. 3425 air
2. 395 1 NOT 2

+SS children/TI AND television/TI, AB AND violence
Set 1. 104 children/TI 2. 934 Television/TI, AB
3.706 Violence
2.124 1 AND 2 AND 3
THE system looks for children in the title, television in title and abstract and violence in the additional index.

+SS computer AND JN= Scientific American
Set 1. 1070 computer
2.2002 JN= scientific American
3. 2= 1 AND 2

Use of proximity indicators in dialog

Used when doing full text searching in the basic index and in the non-subject index. Used to searching phrases that do not appear in the descriptors/ identifier fields but in the title and abstract fields. Searching in this manner is called full text searching and is dependant upon the position of the term in the database

List of proximity indicators (least restrictive – most restrictive)

(C)- requires terms to be anywhere in the same document e.g. +S antenna (C) mobile/TI, AB

(F)- require the terms to be in the same field and can be in any order e.g. +S antenna (F) mobile/TI,

(L)- requires hierarchical relationship of terms in the descriptors Field e.g. +S antenna (L) television

(S)- specifies the database in which you want the search to be Conducted e.g. +S antenna (S) television

(n) Stipulates the number of words between the terms and must be in specified order e.g. +S mobile (n) antennas

(X) Requires adjacent terms that are identical e.g. +S protein (X) protein

One can also use proximity indicators in the non-subject indexes e.g.

+S CS=Johns () CS= Hopkins this requires the prefix code to be entered on each side of the full text operator

+S CS= Johnson (X) CS= Johnson
With the X operator it is possible to search for adjacent or near adjacent words that are the same.

+S CS= Chicago (F) CS= University
The terms can be in any order

The proximity indicators can be used to search for both the basic and the non-subject index e.g.
+S data () bases (C) AU= Keith Allen

Order of precedence

Order of Precedence
You can use any of the logical operators (OR, AND, and NOT) and any of the proximity operators in the same SELECT statement. The system first processes any proximity operators that it finds in a SELECT statement. The next operator to be processed is NOT, followed by AND, and finally OR. To alter this order, place parentheses around the group of terms and operators that must be processed first. Parentheses are most often used to specify that an OR combination be processed before an AND combination. You may use more than one level of parentheses in a SELECT statement; the innermost group is processed first. Order of Processing
Proximity operators (T W N L S F) NOT AND
E.g. +SS (cat OR kitten) AND dog Set 1. Cat AND dog 2. Kitten AND dog 3. Cat AND kitten AND dog +SS cat OR (kitten AND dog)
Set 1. Kitten AND dog 2. Cat 3 cat AND kitten AND dog

Truncation is used to permit variations in word length or spelling of search terms with the SELECT command. Type of Truncation Symbol Used Example Open: any number of characters following stem? S EMPLOY? Retrieves EMPLOY, EMPLOYMENT, EMPLOYER, etc.

S AU=ROSS E? Retrieves ROSS, ERIC; ROSS, ELLEN S., etc. Restricted: maximum of one additional character following stem? ? S CAT? ? Retrieves CAT, CATS, etc. (but not CATALOG).

S HOUSE? ? Retrieves HOUSE, HOUSES, HOUSED, etc. (but not HOUSEHOLD).
Restricted: maximum number of additional characters equal to number of question marks?? S COMPUT?? Retrieves COMPUTE, COMPUTER, COMPUTED, etc., (but not COMPUTATION).
S PLANT??? Retrieves PLANT, PLANTS, PLANTING, etc. (but not PLANTATION).
Internal: allows character replaced by question mark to vary; one character replacement per question mark? S WOM? N retrieves WOMAN, WOMEN, and WOMYN.

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...STYLE and Art:  A discussion of how Art is classified into Styles, Periods, and Movements. [there is an important note at the bottom of this page] One of the ways that Art and the field of art history is looked at is to categorize [or divide] art, artists, cultures, periods, locations and artworks into some form of larger grouping. There are a variety of approaches to this and they all have their vagaries and complications. * Time – we call these Art Periods – this is especially helpful with cultures and artworks [or artifacts] that are so old that we do not know: * who the artist/maker was * what their cultural aspects were * objects that are so unknown that the only identifier is time [based on the archaeological strata the work was found in]. * Geography – Frequently mixed with cultural labels and aspects, these are artworks grouped by location. * An example of a very broad category would be African Art. *  examples of the problem with this: Should we include Egyptian works in the heading of African Art? [some do and some don’t here]. What about Nigerian, Ethiopian, South African and the many other cultures of Africa? * Culture - When it can be done, and makes helpful sense, and a thread can be followed, we might use a cultural reference. * An example might be Hindu Art of India and Buddhist Art of India, which then has sub-groups by geography - Northern and Southern styles. * Styles – another way the......

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Learning Styles

...LEARNING STYLES Students preferentially take in and process information in different ways: by seeing and hearing, reflecting and acting, reasoning logically and intuitively, analyzing and visualizing, steadily and in fits and starts. Teaching methods also vary. Some instructors lecture, others demonstrate or lead students to self-discovery; some focus on principles and others on applications; some emphasize memory and others understanding. When mismatches exist between learning styles of most students in a class and the teaching style of the professor, the students may become bored and inattentive in class, do poorly on tests, get discouraged about the courses, the curriculum, and themselves, and in some cases change to other curricula or drop out of school. Professors, confronted by low test grades, unresponsive or hostile classes, poor attendance and dropouts, know something is not working. They may become overly critical of their students (making things even worse) or begin to wonder if they are in the right profession. Most seriously, society loses potentially excellent professionals. To overcome these problems, professors should strive for a balance of instructional methods (as opposed to trying to teach each student exclusively according to his or her preferences.) If the balance is achieved, all students will be taught partly in a manner they prefer, which leads to an increased comfort level and willingness to learn, and partly in a less preferred manner, which......

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