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Convenience Sample- The sample or group used in this kind of sample are only used because they are easily accessible and don't involve pre-planning. They may not represent the whole population but they are easy to find and are very cheap for researchers. Another pro of this sampling is that it pretty much randomizes the sample on its own. An example on when this is used is if you want the opinion of students on if they liked a class you might choose the first 5 to walk out or the first 5 on the attendance sheet. Basically which on ever is more convenient for you.

Random Sample- The subset of individuals are randomly selected from a population. Because researchers usually cannot obtain data from every single person in a group, a smaller portion is randomly selected to represent the entire group as a whole. The goal of a random sample is to represent the population. You want to use this type of sampling when you cannot get the opinion of the whole population and you want an opinion of what the population would most likely think. For example, if you wanted to see what was a city's favorite food, you randomly select people for your sample.

Stratified sample- Stratified sampling is a probability sampling technique wherein the researcher divides the entire population into different subgroups or strata, then...

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...Non-Probability Sampling Non-probability sampling is a sampling technique where the samples are gathered in a process that does not give all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected. In any form of research, true random sampling is always difficult to achieve. Most researchers are bounded by time, money and workforce and because of these limitations, it is almost impossible to randomly sample the entire population and it is often necessary to employ another sampling technique, the non-probability sampling technique. In contrast with probability sampling, non-probability sample is not a product of a randomized selection processes. Subjects in a non-probability sample are usually selected on the basis of their accessibility or by the purposive personal judgment of the researcher. The downside of the non-probablity sampling method is that an unknown proportion of the entire population was not sampled. This entails that the sample may or may not represent the entire population accurately. Therefore, the results of the research cannot be used in generalizations pertaining to the entire population. Types of Non-Probability Sampling Convenience Sampling Convenience sampling is probably the most common of all sampling techniques. With convenience sampling, the samples are selected because they are accessible to the researcher. Subjects are chosen simply because they are easy to recruit. This technique is considered easiest, cheapest and least time...

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...Sampling and data collection in research paper BSHS/435 January 18 2016 Sampling and data collection in research paper Introduction In this essay, I will discuss two ways for him to service professional to conduct research through sample lien and data collection. Through the use of research and he was there's a vessel can be better assist their clients ensuring their clients have the skills needed to reach their goals and objectives. What is the purpose of sampling Sampling allows the human service professional to research one narrow topic at a time instead of a whole group "A major reason for studying samples rather than the whole group is that the whole group sometimes is so large that studying it is not feasible" ( Monette, D. R., Sullivan T. J., & DeJong, C. R. (2011). A human service professional will receive better information through sampling; a sample is one or more elements of a population. The characteristics of probability and nonprobability "Probability sampling techniques is too sure that each element has an equal chance of inclusion"(Monette, D. R., Sullivan T. J., & DeJong, C. R. (2011). There are four aspects of probability sampling, simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, and area sampling. When probability sampling is not always the appropriate technique to use "Nonprobability sample's in which the investigator does not know the probability of beads populations elements inclusion in the......

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...outweigh the limitations. It will focus on different types of observational methodologies and their strengths and weaknesses. It will also consider the importance of observation within practice and research. An observation involves watching someone and dealing with what they do rather than what they say they do (Gillham, 2008: 1). It allows the observer to directly see and hear what’s happening (Mac Naughton and Hughes, 2008: 157). In terms of children it allows us to tune into them (Fawcett, 1996: 3) and understand what they already know. There are many different observational techniques, these include: narrative observation, time sampling, event sampling, anecdotal and diary records, checklists and rating scales (Bentzen, 2000: 84). For the purpose of this essay, only a few of these techniques will be expanded on. One observational technique which may be used to understand child development is a checklist. These are regularly used within schools to record children’s individual progress (Sharman et al, 2007: 5).They also aid practitioners in picking up on the presence or absence of specific behaviour (The Goodheart-Willcox Co 2009:59). Another type of technique which may be used is event sampling. This technique measures the child’s behaviour when facing different events. When carrying out event sampling Gillham (2008: 10) states that observation is key, if it is disrupted then events may be missed. A third type of technique is time sampling. This involves splitting up an......

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...Probability Sampling Cultural Studies Essay A probability sampling method is any method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection. In order to have a random selection method, you must set up some process or procedure that assures that the different units in your population have equal probabilities of being chosen. Humans have long practiced various forms of random selection, such as picking a name out of a hat, or choosing the short straw. These days, we tend to use computers as the mechanism for generating random numbers as the basis for random selection. Probability sampling methods are those in which every item in the universe has a known chance, or probability of being chosen for sample. This implies that the selection of the sample items is independent of the person making the study that is the sampling operation is controlled so objectively that the items will be chosen strictly at random. Types of probability sampling Simple Random Sampling: The simplest form of random sampling is called simple random sampling. Neither of these mechanical procedures is very feasible and, with the development of inexpensive computers there is a much easier way. Simple random sampling is simple to accomplish and is easy to explain to others. Because simple random sampling is a fair way to select a sample, it is reasonable to generalize the results from the sample back to the population. Simple random sampling is not the most statistically efficient method of sampling......

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...Sampling is one of the most important factor in educational research, sampling is a way of sele cting a fraction of people in a population of research in order to find the needed information which can generalised and extend their results further than the respondents, The researcher may not manage to collect the information for every individual of interest as it is costly, time consuming and stress nous, as(Mcmillin,1996) stated that when conducting an educational research, it is usually impractical and unnecessary to measure all the elements in the population of interest. The are two main types of sampling procedures suitable for conducting educational research, which is probability also known as random sampling and non-probability or non-random sampling. This paper will further discuss the two categories of sampling procedures that are commonly used in educational research and highlight the strength and weakness of using the discussed sampling procedures. Probability sampling is the type of research in which the researcher chooses the respondents randomly. In this type of research each respondent has an equivalent possibility of taking part in the research. probability sampling is a way of choosing the respondents randomly as (Mcmillin,1996) highlighted that “this way of random selection implies at least every member of the population or the subgroups has an equal chance of being selected” Each of the population has equal chance of being picked up into the sample,......

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...org/OurWork/Schools/Fieldwork+and+local+learning/Fieldwork+techniques/Sampling+techniques.htm Two categories of sampling techniques, and variety of sampling techniques within each category Sampling techniques What is sampling? • A shortcut method for investigating a whole population • Data is gathered on a small part of the whole parent population or sampling frame, and used to inform what the whole picture is like Why sample? In reality there is simply not enough; time, energy, money, labour/man power, equipment, access to suitable sites to measure every single item or site within the parent population or whole sampling frame. Therefore an appropriate sampling strategy is adopted to obtain a representative, and statistically valid sample of the whole. Sampling considerations • Larger sample sizes are more accurate representations of the whole • The sample size chosen is a balance between obtaining a statistically valid representation, and the time, energy, money, labour, equipment and access available • A sampling strategy made with the minimum of bias is the most statistically valid • Most approaches assume that the parent population has a normal distribution where most items or individuals clustered close to the mean, with few extremes • A 95% probability or confidence level is usually assumed, for example 95% of items or individuals will be within plus or minus two standard deviations from the mean • This also means that up to five per cent may lie......

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...Sampling Techniques Psychology 341 August 11, 2013 ABSTRACT The present research paper was designed to discuss the different types of sampling methods used to conduct research in the field of Psychology. The sampling techniques included in this paper are probability sampling, non probability sampling, surveys and questionnaires. The use of examples for each type of technique is given to further the understanding of each specific type. Furthermore, some the most important aspects that should considered before selecting a method are outlined in detail. Sampling Techniques When conducting research, it is almost impossible to study the entire population that we are interested in looking at more in depth. For example, if we were interested in comparing the level of romantic satisfaction among college students in the United States, it would be practically impossible to survey every single person who is attending college in the country. Not only would it take an extremely long time to do so, but it would also be very expensive. That is why researchers will use small samples from the population to gather their data instead. A sample is particularly useful because it allows the researcher to make inferences about a specific population without having to actually survey the entire population (Trochim, 2006). There are several sampling techniques used to gather information about a sample. Some of these include probability sampling, non probability sampling, surveys, and......

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...Summary Audit sampling is necessary and helps improve an audit engagement because examining all items are rather very timely, requires more effort, and of course, at higher cost. Audit risks such as inherent, control and detection risk are first assessed when doing audit sampling. Low control risk means auditors rely extensively on the entity's internal control, and vice versa. The process for determining risks and gathering evidences to provide reasonable assurance are done through other audit procedures such as tests of controls and tests of details. These procedures are done by sampling. Using sampling, when auditors do not obtain sufficient and appropriate evidences, there is a risk of not identifying material errors and therefore result in a wrong conclusion. The use of either non-statistical sampling techniques or statistical ones does not directly affect application of audit procedures, appropriateness of audit evidences or courses of actions that could be taken. Even though the procedures in non-statistical sampling is less formal, they are still rigorous. Non-statistical sampling method involves eight steps namely establish objective test, defining the population, determining distortions, determining the appropriate sample size, determination of the right method for the sample selection, proper testing of the selected sample, extrapolating results, risk assessment. Firms include in their policies the techniques which they use to implement auditing procedures....

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...merits of alternative sampling frames. Suggest most appropriate one and justify your selection. Research population is the target population on which a study or research is conducted through various different methods inorder to reach a conclusion from the data generated. It is for the benefit of the population directly or indirectly. But, due to very large size of research population, it is not feasible to test all the individuals of the population since it will take too much time and will be expensive as well. So the researchers take few individuals from the research population ( a subset of the set of target population) using sampling techniques. These techniques helps to take out sample as per the requirements of the type of research that is to be conducted. A research population is also known as a well-defined collection of individuals or objects known to have similar characteristics. All individuals or objects within a certain population usually have a common, binding characteristic or trait. Usually, the description of the population and the common binding characteristic of its members are the same. "Government officials" is a well-defined group of individuals which can be considered as a population and all the members of this population are indeed officials of the government. There are various sources from which a sample is created. A set of all these sources is called a Sampling frame from which the sample is selected. With the help of sampling frames,......

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... Contents 1. Introduction to Research 2.1 The need and importance of research 2.2 Scientific method and business research 2.3 Ethics and legal issues of research 2.4 Variables and measurement scales 2 Types of Research 2.1 By purpose 2.1.1 Basic research 2.1.2 Applied research 2.1.3 Action research 2.2 By method and technique 2.2.1 Historical 2.2.2 Descriptive – survey, causal comparative, correlation 2.2.3 Experimental 2.2.4 Qualitative – ethnography, case study, content analysis 3 Research Problem 3.1. Selection and statement 3.2.1. Selection 3.2.2. Sources 3.2.3. Statement 3.2. Review of Related Literature 3.3.4. Need 3.3.5. Sources 3.3.6. Note taking 3.3.7. Organizing and citation 4 Formulation and Statement of Hypotheses 4.1 Definition and purpose 4.2 Types of hypotheses 4.3 Stating the hypotheses 4.4 Testing the hypotheses 5. Selection of Sample 5.1 Sampling: definition, purpose 5.2 Definition of population 5.3 Probability Sampling 5.3.1 Random sampling 5.3.2 Stratified sampling 5.3.3 Cluster sampling 5.3.4 Systematic sampling 5.3.5 Double sampling...

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...Sampling and Data Collection in Research Paper BSHS 435 Roxanne January 12, 2015 Heather Suggs Sampling and Data Collection in Research Paper Research is essential to improve the effectiveness of the delivery of human services and to further the education of human service professionals. Research allows human service professionals to understand and apply what was learned in research to better assisting clients to accomplish their objectives and goals. There are different ways to conduct research in human services. I will be discussing two ways to conduct research which are sampling and data collection. I will discuss the purpose of sampling and data collection and how it relates to human service. Sampling Sampling is one way to conduct research in human services. Sampling can be obtained from a certain population, depending on the research. The sample is generally composed of one or two elements which are obtained from the population being studied. In order to attain a preferable sample, first you have to identify the type of population to get a sample. In case you are not able to obtain a good sample, it is more likely to affect your conclusion. There are two types of sampling, which are probability sampling and non-probability sampling. Probability sampling can be used to achieve every element that has the opportunity to be incorporated in the sample. Probability sampling is usually done randomly like how people pull names out of a hat or drawing straws.......

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...and responses should follow APA rules for attributing sources. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of at least 2 different sampling methods. Describe how researchers go about selecting a sampling strategy. What role does the research question play in choosing the sample? What does it mean to have a representative sample and why is this vital to the outcome of the study? You may wish to incorporate some of the scholarly sources you have been reviewing for your research project within your discussion. ANSWER BELOW There are many different types of sampling. Probability sampling is when involves random sampling and nonprobability sampling does not. The study being conducted largely affects what type of sampling one will do. To obtain information across a large population I think random sampling would be best. There is also quota sampling in which you only sample the number of people you need. There is target sampling in which you would use if you are targeting specific groups. A researcher would need to choose what method would work best for the type of information they are seeking. They also have to take into consideration the time, money, and available population when making a selection. In order to get more valid results one has to examine all the factors such as who, what, when, and why the research is being conducted to determine the proper sampling method. A representative sample is a sample that represents the whole population. This representative sample......

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...appropriate sampling size is somewhat tricky. There is no specific or definitive size that should be sampled in different situations. The sample size that is needed mainly based on what research has to be done and what answers and data is being looked for. Solely, sampling size is determined by what the organization hopes to achieve with the study, and the resources that are available. The lawsuit against Wal-Mart, the suit filed on behalf of 1.5 million current and former female employees of Wal-Mart says the company had a pattern of discrimination in pay raises and promotions. So to determine the appropriate sampling size, there must be certain groups and certain locations and populations in those specific locations. When there is the sampling of individuals or groups involved in lawsuit, there can be a specific sampling size that can be determined based on what information is needed for the case. Can the individual circumstances of 1.5 million different people accurately be combined into one coherent class for proper sampling? The specific results for the sampling of all of these individuals’ circumstances can take so much time but, the results can determine whether or not Wal-Mart would be indefinitely under fire. The answers can affect the corporate and legal aspect of this organization. Sampling sizes can vary depending on how much research needs to be done and how much data has to be collected. When dealing with an organization as big as Wal-Mart, taking any type of......

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...Convenience Sample A convenience sample is one of the main types of non-probability sampling methods. A convenience sample is made up of people who are easy to reach. Consider the following example. A pollster interviews shoppers at a local mall. If the mall was chosen because it was a convenient site from which to solicit survey participants and/or because it was close to the pollster's home or business, this would be a convenience sample. Let’s say that a researcher and professor at a University is interested in studying drinking behaviors among college students. The professor teaches a sociology 101 class to mostly college freshmen and decides to use his or her class as the study sample. He or she passes out surveys during class for the students to complete and hand in. This would be an example of a convenience sample because the researcher is simply using subjects that are convenient and readily available. This sample would not be representative of all college students and therefore the researcher would not be able to generalize his or her findings to all college students. The students enrolled in the sociology 101 class, for example, could be heavily weighted toward a certain characteristic (mostly freshmen, for instance). While the results of this study could not be generalized to the larger college student population, the results of the survey could still be useful. For example, the professor could use the results to refine certain questions on the survey or come......

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...RESEARCH WORK 1. Research Design 2. Types of Research Design 3. Data 4. Sources of Data 5. Descriptive Research Design 6. Types of Descriptive Research Design 7. Sampling 8. Population 9. Stratum 10. Sample 11. Sample Size 12. Randomization 13. Sampling Unit 14. Target Population 15. Respondent Population 16. Sampling Design 17. Margin of Error 18. Probability / Level of Confidence 19. Probability Sampling Designs 20. Simple Random Sampling 21. Systematic Sampling 22. Stratified Sampling 23. Cluster Sampling 24. Multi-stage Sampling 25. Non-Probability Sampling Designs 26. Purposive Sampling 27. Convenience Sampling 28. Quota Sampling 29. Snowball Sampling 1. Research Design a. The research design is a comprehensive master plan of the research study to be undertaken, giving a general statement of the methods to be used. The function of a research design is to ensure that requisite data in accordance with the problem at hand is collected accurately and economically. Simply stated, it is the framework, a blueprint for the research study which guides the collection and analysis of data. The research design, depending upon the needs of the researcher may be a very detailed statement or only furnish the minimum information required for planning the research project. b. The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby,......

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