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Dinasti Maurya

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Pendahuluan Tamadun indus merupakan tamadun terawal di India. Tamadun ini bermula kira-kira pada tahun 2350 S.M. Keruntuhan tamadun tersebut dikaitkan dengan serangan orang Aryan (dari utara). Kedatangan orang Aryan ini telah membawa fasa baru dalam sejarah India iaitu bermulanya Zaman Vedik. Nama vedik diambil sempena kelahiran kitab-kitab Veda. Pengaruh Indo-Aryan ini telah membawa kepada kelahiran agama Hindu. Empayar Maurya merupakan empayar yang pertama di India iaitu bermula pada tahun 320 S.M. Chandragupta Maurya merupakan pengasas Empayar maurya. Baginda melahirkan Dinasti Maurya dengan menyatukan kerajaan-kerajaan kecil selepas mengalahkan kerajaan Magadha. Baginda menjadikan Pataliputra sebagai ibu negeri serta pusat pemerintahan. Baginda turut membina angkatan tentera yang terdiri daripada 9000 gajah, 300000 kavalri dan 600000 infantri. Empayar Maurya mencapai kemuncak kegemilangannya dibawah zaman pemerintahan Asoka. Menurut kitab-kitab Buddhisme, Asoka telah membunuh 98 anggota keluarganya dalam usaha mendapatkan takhta. Asoka menjalankan reformasi dalam pentadbiran melalui ‘Dharma-Mahamatra’ dimana pegawai kerajaan di wilayah menjalankan tugas mengikut arahan pusat. Proses pemusatan kuasa ini merupakan proses yang paling berjaya dalam sejarah tamadun India. Empayar yang diasaskan oleh Asoka meliputi seluruh bahagian Utara India termasuk Afghanistan dan Baluchistan. Dalam kajian ini, kami ingin mengkaji latar belakang dan ciri-ciri zaman kegemilangan Dinasti Maurya dari segi ketenteraan, undang-undang, kedudukan ekonomi, sistem social dan agama, pemerintahan dan pentadbiran serta sumbangan Dinasti Maurya terhadap zaman ini.

Bahagian A - Pengenalan
Dinasti Maurya merupakan dinasti kerajaan pertama yang mampu menguasai hampir seluruh daratan India, berdiri atas usaha Chandragupta Maurya. Ia berhasil mengusir koloni-koloni Yunani yang ditinggalkan oleh pasukan Iskandar Agung. Pusat kerajaan ini berada di Pataliputra. Kawasan empayar Maurya meliputi kawasan Teluk Benggala hingga ke pergunungan, manakala wilayahnya mencakup Kabul di utara hingga Khrisna di Selatan. Cara pembentukan empayar Maurya adalah dengan menyatukan kerajaan-kerajaan kecil di India.
Di samping itu, Chandragupta Maurya telah mengubah status Raja kepada Maharaja. Untuk pengetahuan anda, Maharaja terkenal dari dinasti ini adalah Maharaja Asoka. Maharaja Asoka telah memangkitkan kegemilangan empayar Maurya. Sebab kegemilangan Empayar Maurya adalah kerana Maharaja Asoka berjaya menamatkan perang saudara selepas kematian ayahnya, Maharaja Bindusara. Asoka berjaya menaluki Negeri Kalinga. Selepas kejadian perang kalinga, Asoka menekankan keamanan atau kedamaian dan kemajuan sosial. Oleh yang demikian, pembaharuan asoka mewujudkan birokrasi pentadbiran dalam pemerintahan. Asoka telah mewujudkan jawatan pegawai-pegawai khas Dharma Mahamatra atau Dhamma-Mahamatas yang ditugaskan untuk menyebarkan Dharma di kalangan rakyatnya.
Pada waktu yang sama, Dinasti Maurya merupakan zaman yang mengutamakan undang-undang melalui titah raja. Dinasti Maurya merupakan zaman berkonsep keadilan dan kesejahteraan rakyat. Sesungguhpun dikatakan tidak ada banyak bezanya pentadbiran Asoka dengan datuknya, Chandragupta, namun Maharaja Asoka menegaskan prinsip kerajaanya yang mengutamakan kebajikan dan keselamatan rakyat. Undang-undang yang berkaitan diukir pada batu, iaitu Tiang Asoka.
Raja Ashoka berhasil menyelesaikan cita-cita penyatuan India lewat penaklukan berdarah atas Kalinga (sekarang Orissa). Namun begitu, penaklukan ini menimbulkan perasaan bersalah di diri Raja Asoka. Kerana itu dia mengadopsi ajaran Buddha yang dianggap bisa memberikan ketenangan dan memulai era penaklukan melalui dharma, iaitu ajaran kebaikan. Misionaris Buddha dari Asoka menyebar hingga ke seluruh Asia Selatan bahkan ke Sri Lanka.

Peninggalan Seni
Asoka turut memberi sumbangan dalam bidang seni bina. Baginda dikatakan menjadi pengasas dua buah Bandar, iaitu Srinaga di Kashmir dan Lalitapatan di Nepal. Baginda juga membina monastri (kuil) dan kediaman untuk sami-sami Buddha. Pada zaman ini juga terdapat beribu stupa untuk menyimpan bahan-bahan yang berkaitan dengan Buddha.
Pilar dan Tugu Asoka
Pilar dan tugu Asoka merupakan karya seni yang paling menonjol dari masa ini. Meskipun konsep pilar sudah ditemui sebelum Dinasti Maurya dan tetap bertahan setelahnya, namun kapital Asoka adalah suatu ciri yang khas. Salah satu yang masih utuh dan bisa diteliti adalah yang terdapat di Lauriya Namdangarh di Propinsi Bihar. Bentuk kapitalnya adalah kuartet singa yang menduduki lonceng besar terbalik. Keempat singa ini saling membelakangi dan menopang roda besar di atas kepalanya. Kapital Asoka di Lauriya Namdangarh terbuat dari batu pasir setinggi 32 kaki dan berat 50 ton. Perbuatan pilar dan tugu memerlukan pengetahuan teknis yang baik untuk bisa membuat tugu ini berdiri.
Gua Buatan dari Batu Cadas
Bentuk gua buatan dari batu cadas merupakan awal dari Chaitya. Ia dibentuk dengan memotong bagian tengah batu cadas sehingga terbentuk ruang pemujaan. Kemungkinan besar seni bangunan ini adalah pengaruh kebudayaan Persia yang dikenal ahli dalam mengolah batu. Contoh paling baik dari bangunan ini adalah Gua di Lomas Rishi. Meskipun terbuat dari batu, namun motif hiasnya memperlihatkan usaha meniru tekstur kayu. Pintu gua berupa lengkungan yang terlihat seolah menyokong bangunan utama.
Stupa
Stupa telah ditemui dalam periode ini, meskipun masih menjadi bagian dari bangunan lain dan belum menjadi pusat pemujaan. Stupa telah diperbuat untuk menyimpan relik-relik dan abu Buddha dan menjadi pusat pelaksanaan ritual. Puluhan ribu stupa yang dibangun pada masa Maurya akhirnya hilang dimakan usia karena pembuatannya tidak menggunakan pertimbangan bahan yang matang. Penguasa pada masa itu lebih memilih stupa dari kayu daripada batu yang kokoh. Salah satu stupa yang bertahan adalah Stupa Sanchi yang kemudian direnovasi menjadi lebih megah pada periode Dinasti Andhra.

Referensi * Craven, Rove. Indian Art. Thames & Hudson. New York: 1987 * Dehejra, Vidya, Indian Art. Phaidon Press Ltd. London: 1997

Bahagian B - Perbincangan dan Analisis
Angkatan tentera yang kuat
Di bawah pemerintahan Maharaja Asoka(tahun 273-232 S.M), Dinasti Maurya telah mencapai kegemilangaan. Angkatan tentera yang kuat merupakan satu aspek yang menyumbang dalam kegemilangan dinasti Maurya. Raja memegang jawatan pegawai tertinggi dalam angkatan tentera. Angkatan tentera terdiri daripada 600 000 orang askar berjalan kaki, 30 000 orang tentera yang berkereta kuda. Angkatan tentera yang begitu besar telah dibahagikan kepada 30 badan pentadbiran dan 6 lembaga dengan 3 orang ahli dalam satu lembaga.Sebagai contoh,lembaga terdiri daripada tentera laut,tentera darat berjalan kaki,tentera berkuda,tentera bergajah dan tentera berkenderaan yang membekalkan alat-alat senjata. Dengan pembahagian ini, angkatan tentera menjadi lebih sistematik. Askar-askar dinasti maurya dibayar dengan gaji yang tetap.Selain itu,selepas Asoka menganut agama Buddha,beliau tidak lagi agresif dalam bidang ketenteraan.Walaupun beliau mengutamakan sikap toleransi dan berperikemanusiaan,tetapi beliau tidak mengabaikan terus dalam bidang ketenteraan.Untuk menggelakkan wilayah diserang dari luar,Asoka telah menempatkan tenteranya di beberapa kawasan yang penting dan berstrategik.Sebagai contoh,Punjab ditempatkan tentera yang kuat kerana kawasan itu berhampiran dengan pusat pentadbiran dan sentiasa terdedah kepada ancaman luar.

Undang-undang yang teratur
Undang-undang yang teratur amat penting bagi sebuah dinasti yang mencapai kegemilangan.Dengan mempunyai undang-undang yang teratur,keselamatan rakyat dan negera dapat dijaga,ketertiban masyarakat dapat dijamin,dan juga boleh menjamin kedudukan raja untuk memastikan pentadbiran kehakiman dilaksanakan dengan betul. Kitab undang-undang Hindu tertua iaitu Kitab Dharma Sastra digunakan untuk memastikan perjalanan kerajaan serta keberkesanan pentadbiran.Pada zaman kegemilangan dinasti maurya yang di bawah pemerintahan maharaja Asoka,beliau telah menggubal undang-undang Negara dengan dasar Kitab Dharma.Beliau memegang pada konsep kesejahteraan rakyat.Dengan itu, beliau telah menubuhkan sebuah jabatan yang berfungsi untuk menyebar prinsip-prinsip ataupun undang-undang kesagihan.Selain itu, tiang-tiang Asoka telah didirikan di tepi jalan raya supaya dapat dibaca oleh rakyat.Undang-undang atau perintah maharaja disampaikan melalui ukiran pada tiang-tiang Asoka.Denda dijatuhkan berdasar kesalahan yang dilakukan.Kehukuman yang paling keras merupakan hukuman mati.

Kedudukan ekonomi yang kukuh
Perkembangan ekonomi di empayar Maurya bermula pada abad ke-3 S.M. dan berkembang pesat pada abad ke-4 S.M. Dinasti Maurya mempunyai kedudukan ekonomi yang kukuh kerana banyak terlibat dalam bidang pertanian, perlombongan, perdagangan dan perhubungan. Kegiatan ekonomi utama adalah pertanian, perdagangan dan perusahaan. Dalam bidang pertanian, peperangan orang tawanan telah digunakan untuk membuka tanah baru dan menjadi kawasan pertanian. Chandragupta Maurya membenarkan petani-petani mengerjakan satu pertiga daripada hasil pertanian kepada kerajaan. Petani-petani menggunakan tali air untuk mengairi tanah pertanian. Semasa pemerintah Asoka, system ekonomi diperkemaskan lagi dengan menyuruh golongan Sudra membersihkan tanah baru untuk menjadikan kawasan pertanian. Cukai tanah dan cukai ke atas hasil, seperti cukai pengeluaran pertanian dan cukai jalan telah dipernalkan oleh Asoka. Perusahaan utamanya ialah menenum kain kapas, pertukangan gangsa, tembaga, emas, perak dan tembikar. Pada zaman Maurya, perdagangan juga aktif dalam atau luar Negara. Negara-negara seperti Greek, Ceylon, Timur Tengah, China dan Asia Tenggara Terdapat banyak pedagang asing berdagang di India. Emas, perak dan tembaga turut diusahakan. Lombong di daratan dan lombong di lautan jaga dimajukan oleh Maurya. Pegawai-pegawai ditugaskan menjaga kutipan mutiara, berlian dan gara manakala pegawai di daratan melindungi lombong lama di samping mencari lombong baru. Orang India Selatan ialah peniaga yang giat menjalankan perniagaan dengan dunia luar. Pekembang perdagangan turut membantu dalam perkembangan perindustrian di Empayar Maurya. Hal ini telah dibuktikan bahawa Empayar Maurya sememang telah mencapai kecermelangan dalam aspek kegiatan ekonomi sekitar abad keempat sebelum masihi.

Perkembangan dalam sistem sosial dan agama Pada masa Chandragupta Maurya ( 322-298 SM ) , bidang social tersusun sangat baik. Dingding kota Pataliputra dibuat dari balok kayu dan dapat jembatan gantun-guntuk menghubangkan bahagian dalam kota dan luar kota, terletak pada setiap gerbang bermenara yang terletak pada jarak tertentu. Kota ini dibinakan dengan baik dan cantik. Tempat disana juga terdapat warung minum, gedung sandiwara, rumah judi, tempat pacuan kudadan balai pertemuan umum .Selain itu, juga terdapat bazar dan tempat pasar yang besar dagangan dari dalam negeri dan luar negeri. Selain itu, telah mengenai system transpotasi pada waktu itu. Rumah-rumah peristirahatan yang sekaligus dipergunakan sebagai pos-pos pergantian kendaraan. Sepanjang jalan raya pada setiap jarak disana juga didirikan tiang-tiang petunjuk jarak. Disamping itu, telah mengenai sistem perdagangan. Seterusnya, arus perdagangan antar negara amat ramai, terutama dengan Yunani, Romawi, Tiongkok, Mesopotamia. Dapat di simpulkan bahwa kehidupan di bidang sosial pada masa Chandragupta iaitu sudah tersusun sangat baik seperti transportasi yang sangat jelas ditunjukan dengan adanya tiang-tiang petunjuk jarak pada setiap jarak, keadaan tata kota yang sangat baik system, serta sitem perdagangan yang sangat ramai antara negara dan masyarakat juga pegang sistem kasta yang merupakan system sosial dengan kuat. Di bidang keagamaan pada masa Chandragupta dikatakan masyarakat beragama Hindu memuja Heracles, Dionysus, maupun Zeus Ombrios. Dan juga dimaksudkan dengan Dionysus boleh jadi Dewa Siwa, dan Zeus ialah Dewa Indra. Kesimpulanya, pada masa Chandragupta bahawa masyarakat banyak memuja Dewa dalam bidang keagamaan. , dan Dewa local mempuja Dewa. Pada masa Bindusara ( 298-273 SM ) , bidang sosial tidak berbezaan jauh dengan masa Chandragupta, iaitu sudah tersusun sangat baik, seperti keadaan tatakota yang sangat baik, sistem perdagangan yang sangat ramai antara negara, sistem kasta merupakan sistem sosial yang masih dipegang kuat oleh masyarakat dan sistem transportasi yang sangat baik ditunjukan dengan adanya tiang-tiang petunjuk jarak pada setiap jarak tertentu. Dalam bidang keagamaan pada masa Bindusara, juga kurangnya sumber berita tentang Raja ini, tetapi juga dapat disimpulkan bahawa dalam bidang keagamaannya tidak berbezaan jauh dengan masa Chandragupta, masyarakat pada masa Bindusara juga banyak memuja Dewa. Pada masa Asoka ( 273-232 SM ) , bidang social didirikan tonggak-tonggak sabda Raja, juga menanam pohon-pohon pelindung di sepanjang jalan raya, dan membangun rumah-rumah sakit untuk manusia maupun hewan. Lembaga-lembaga sekolah juga didirikan untuk meningkatan pendidikan rakyat-rakyat, terutama yang mengajarkan agama Budha.
Dalam bidang agama pada masa Asoka, adalah berkembangnya agama Budha. Hal ini kerana pada tahun 261 SM, Asoka merebut wilayah terletak di teluk Benggala dengan Kalingga atau Orissa, di katakana bahawa 125 orang di tawan, 100.000 orang mati terbunuh dan berlipat ganda dari semua itu musnah . Tindakan yang di lakukan Asoka tersebut telah membuat proses pemersatuan India dari sang raja yang ingin berkuasa dengan segala kekejaman. Hingga sang raja terpengaruh oleh kebijaksanaan seorang pendeta agama Budha yang bernama Upagupta sehingga raja berubah menjadi orang bijak serta belas kasihan terhadap sesama. Asoka memasuki salah satu aliran Budha dan menjadi seorang biksu serta bertekat mengembangkan ajaran Budha ke seluruh penjuru daerah kekuasaannya.

Sistem Pentadbiran dan Pemerintahan yang Sistematik
Dinasti Maurya (324 S.M-185 S.M) telah melahirkan empayar yang pertama di India. Agama Hindu adalah agama negara di dinasti ini. Dinasti ini didirikan Chandragupta Maurya pada tahun 322 S.M. Pusat pemerintahan berada dekat di aliran Sungai Gangga, Pataliputra. Kerajaan-kerajaan kecil telah diyatukan di bawah pemerintahan Chandragupta Maurya. Hal ini demikian, kerana mengubah status raja kepada maharaja. Oleh sebab keluasan tanah jajahan Dinasti Maurya, Chandragupta Maurya cuba beratur sistem pentadbiran dengan kemas. Pegawai-pengawai yang kebolehan dilantik oleh Chandragupta Maurya dan penasihatnya iaitu Kautilia untuk mentadbir kawasan Dinasti Maurya. Chandragupta Maurya membahagikan Empayar Maurya kepada setiap wilayah yang dipimpim oleh setiap wizurai. Pada peringkat ini, pihak gabenor(Mahatmatra) mentadbir wilayah-wilayah tadi yang dipecahkan kepada beberapa kawasan tertentu. Kawasan dipecahkan kepada daerah-daerah yang lebih kecil. Kemudian daerah-daerah ini dipecahkan lagi kepada peringkat kampung yang unit-unit lebih kecil. Ketua peringkat kampung ialah penghulu (gramini). Dua pengawai iaitu “accountant” dan “tax collector” di peringkat atas dipanggil stanika telah mengawasi daerah dan juga membantu penghulu. Dinasti Maurya memberi sumbangan yang besar dalam India untuk menyatukan kerajaan-kerajaan kecil yang pecat-belah di seluruh utara dan selatan India. Pada masa pemerintahan, Raja Asoka sering diserang oleh Kerajaan Kalinga. Dalam hal ini, Asoka telah mengubah sikap menjadi membenci peperangan. Akhirnya Asoka berjaya menyatukan Kalinga melalui menakluk dan menamatkan perang Kalinga. Ketika pemerintahan Asoka adalah dinasti yang mencapai kemuncak kegemilangan.

Bahagian C - Pandangan Pelajar
Keruntuhan Dinasti Maurya
Dinasti Muarya, dikenal sebagai dinasti yang membawa Kerajaan Magadha pada masa kejayaan dengan melakukan perluasan kekuasaan sehingga hampir menyatukan india melalui peperangannya, sebelum mengalami kemerosotan yang sangat drastik. Faktor mengenai runtuhnya Dinasti Maurya adalah seperti berikut.

1. Pembahagian Empayar Maurya
Penyebab langsung keruntuhan tersebut adalah pembahagian Empayar Maurya menjadi dua bahagian. "Seandainya pembahagian tidak terjadi, pencerobohan Yunani dari Barat Lautbisa sahaja dibendung untuk sementara waktu. Pembahagian kerajaan juga mengganggu berbagai layanan.”

2. Kelemahan Pemerintah Maurya Setelah Asoka
Penggantian penguasa Maurya yang lemah setelah Asoka mengganggu pentadbiran Maurya. Kelemahan pemerintah ini dapat dibayangkan dari kenyataan bahawa sebanyak enam penguasa memerintah dalam kurun waktu 52 tahun Kekaisaran dan akhirnya raja Maurya yang terakhir dibunuh oleh Panglimanya sendiri Pusyamitra Sungha yang kemudian naik takhta dan memulakan kekuasaan Dinasti Sungha.

3. Asoka Bertanggungjawab dalam Kemunduran ini
Banyak sarjana menuduh Asoka sebagai penanggung jawab atas penurunan Dinasti Maurya. HC Raychaudhuri menyatakan bahawa dasar damai Asoka bertanggung jawab kerana menghalang kekuatan empayar. Dia mengatakan: "Dari waktu Bimbisara perang Kalinga sejarah India adalah kisah perluasan Magadha dari negara kecil di Bihar Selatan ke kerajaan raksasa membentang dari kaki Hindukush ke sempadan negara Tamil.
Setelah perang Kalinga terjadi tempoh genangan pada akhir yang proses dibalik. Pentadbiran secara bertahap menyusut luasnya sampai tenggelam ke kedudukan yang Bimbisara dan para penerusnya telah dibangkitkan itu. "
Namun, pandangan Raychaudhuri itu kelihatan tidak dapat dipertahankan, karena Asoka tidak berpaling damai lengkap setelah perang Kalinga mengingat fakta bahwa ia tidak demobilisasi tentara Maurya atau menghapuskan hukuman mati. Asoka hanya menyerah kebijakan imperialis dan berkhutbah non-kekerasan setelah perang Kalinga. Pasifisme praktik juga bertanggung jawab atas penurunan Dinasti Maurya.
Harprasad Sastri memegang pandangan bahwa penurunan Kekaisaran Maurya adalah hasil daripada pemberontakan brahmanis kerana larangan pengorbanan haiwan dan merosakkan prestij Brahmana dengan "mendedahkan mereka sebagai dewa-dewa palsu". Tapi pandangan Sastri hanyalah andaian kerana pertama, Brahmanisme sendiri menekankan non-kekerasan dan kedua, Asoka hanya melarang penyembelihan haiwan pada hari-hari tertentu. Kemudian lagi sering permintaan Asoka dalam piagam-piagamnya untuk hormat untuk Brahmana dan Sramanas hampir menunjuk ke keberadaannya anti-Brahmana-manical dalam pandangan.

4. Tekanan Pada Ekonomi Maurya
D.D. Kosambi berpendapat bahwa telah terjadi tekanan terhadap perekonomian Maurya. Dapat dilihat dari tingginya pajak yang ditarik serta perdagangan yang lemah.

5. Pentadbiran yang sangat terpusat
Prof Romila Thapar berpandangan: "sistem pentadbiran Maurya begitu terpusat yang memungkinkan penguasa mampu menggunakannya baik untuk keuntungan peribadi mahupun kepentingan Kerajaan Magadha sendiri, pada tingkat yang sama itu boleh menjadi berbahaya bila penguasa yang lemah kehilangan kawalan pusat dan kemungkinan terjadi kehancuran.
Pusat kawalan Maurya yang lemah kemudian menyebabkan kelemahan pentadbiran secara secara langsung. Pembahagian kekuasaan setelah kematian Asoka telah memberikan pukulan lebih lanjut kepada pemerintah Maurya yang terpusat di bawah penguasa yang lemah, yang mengarah ke penurunan dan perpecahan Kekuasaan Maurya.
Faktor lain yang menyebabkan penurunan Dinasti Muarya telah digambarkan dalam pemberontakan kaum brahmanis terhadap kelompok dasar Pro-Budhis Asoka serta para pengikutnya. Pemberontakan rakyat terhadap pemerintahan Maurya setelah kematian Asoka.

Rujukan
Writer. 2011. What were the causes for the decline of the Mauryan Empire? (http://www.preservearticles.com/2011101815647/what-were-the-causes-for-the-decline-of-the-mauryan-empire.html) diakses tanggal 9 June 2013

KESIMPULAN
Dinasti Muarya merupakan tamadun yang kuat semasa diperintah oleh Asoka. Asoka telah memerintah kerajaannya dengan menambahbaikkan dari beberapa segi, iaitu tentera yang kuat, kedudukan ekonomi yang kukuh, undang-undang yang teratur, perkembangan dalam sistem sosial dan agama serta sistem pentadbiran dan pemerintahan yang sistematik untuk manjamin kedamaian dan kesejahteraan Dinasti Muarya. Namun begitu, tamudan Maurya mengalami keruntuhan disebabkan pembahagian empayar Maurya, kelemahan pemerintah Maurya setelah Asoka , tekanan ekonomi dan pemerintah yang terpusat. Faktor-faktor tersebut menyebabkan keruntuhan Dinasti Maurya.

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