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Disaster

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* Thunderstorms are measured by the density of lightning strikes and are more common in the longitude of the equator in areas such as central Africa and the rain forests of brazil. * Thunderstorms in the United States are common in Florida and in states that run from the Southeast to the Midwest because of the abundance of moisture in the atmosphere that flows north from the gulf of Mexico * Thunderstorm occur when unstable, warm, and moist air rapidly rises into cooler air and condenses * When water vapor condenses it releases heat * Warm air is less dens than cold air, the added heat will make the rising air continue in an updraft * If updrafts push air high enough into the atmosphere, the water droplets freeze in the tops of cumulonimbus clouds( tall clouds that rise to high altitudes and spread to form wide, flat, anvil-shaped tops. * Cold air pushing under warm air is a common mechanism triggering system for these storms * Thunderstorms average 24 kil across but can travel as much as 1000 killometers * Lightning is a result of a charge separation from the top and bottom of the cumulonimbus clouds * Charge separation increases as particles are carried in updrafts toward the top of the clouds and collide with the downwards moving ice particles or hail * Enormous electrical separation or potential between different parts of the cloud and between the clouds and the ground. * Electrical resistance cannot keep the opposite charges apart and the positive and negative charges rejoin and with an electrical lightning stroke * Cloud to ground lightning is generated when charged ions in a thundercloud discharge to the best conducting location on the ground * Lightning strikes from cloud to cloud to equalize its charges * Lightning is visible because of the difference between the speed of light and the speed of sound * The expansion of air at supersonic speed causes thunder * Small areas of rapidly descending air is called downbursts * Caused by cold air and followed by rain * Tornadoes are created through the collision of warm humid air moving north from the gulf of mexico with cold air moving south from Canada * No major east-west mountain range to keep these air masses apart, they collide across the southeastern and Midwestern United States * Tornadoes are small funnels of intense wind that may descend near the trailing end of a hurricane * Tornadoes form when warm , humid air shears over cold air in a strong thunderstorm.

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