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The rules of logic specify the precise meaning of mathematical statements. For instance, the rules give us the meaning of such statements as, “There exists an integer that is greater than 100 that is a power of 2”, and “For every integer n the sum of the positive integers not exceeding n is ”. Logic is the basis of all mathematical reasoning, and it has practical applications to the design of computing machines, to artificial intelligence, to computer programming, to programming languages, and to other areas of computer science.

A proposition is a statement that is either true or false, but not both.

Letters are used to denote propositions, just as letters are used to denote variables. The conventional letters used for this purpose are p, q, r, s, … The truth value of a proposition is true, denoted by T, if it is a true proposition and false, denoted by F, if it is a false proposition.

We now turn our attention to methods for producing new propositions from those that we already have. Many mathematical statements are constructed by combining one or more propositions. New propositions, called compound propositions, are formed from existing propositions using logical operators.

Let p be a proposition. The statement “It is not the case that p” is another proposition, called the negation of p. The negation of p is denoted by p. The proposition p is read “not p”.

A truth table displays the relationships between the truth values of propositions. Table 1. The truth table for the negation of a proposition | P | p | TF | FT |

The negation of a proposition can also be considered the result of the operation of the negation operator on a proposition. The negation operator constructs a new proposition from a single existing proposition. We will now introduce the logical operators that are used to form new propositions from two or more existing

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...Course Design Guide MTH/221 Version 1 1 Course Design Guide College of Information Systems & Technology MTH/221 Version 1 Discrete Math for Information Technology Copyright © 2010 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Course Description Discrete (as opposed to continuous) mathematics is of direct importance to the fields of Computer Science and Information Technology. This branch of mathematics includes studying areas such as set theory, logic, relations, graph theory, and analysis of algorithms. This course is intended to provide students with an understanding of these areas and their use in the field of Information Technology. Policies Faculty and students/learners will be held responsible for understanding and adhering to all policies contained within the following two documents: University policies: You must be logged into the student website to view this document. Instructor policies: This document is posted in the Course Materials forum. University policies are subject to change. Be sure to read the policies at the beginning of each class. Policies may be slightly different depending on the modality in which you attend class. If you have recently changed modalities, read the policies governing your current class modality. Course Materials Grimaldi, R. P. (2004). Discrete and combinatorial mathematics: An applied introduction. (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Addison Wesley. Article References Albert, I. Thakar, J., Li, S., Zhang, R., & Albert, R...

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...21-110: Problem Solving in Recreational Mathematics Homework assignment 7 solutions Problem 1. An urn contains ﬁve red balls and three yellow balls. Two balls are drawn from the urn at random, without replacement. (a) In this scenario, what is the experiment? What is the sample space? (b) What is the probability that the ﬁrst ball drawn is red? (c) What is the probability that at least one of the two balls drawn is red? (d) What is the (conditional) probability that the second ball drawn is red, given that the ﬁrst ball drawn is red? Solution. (a) The experiment is the drawing of two balls from the urn without replacement. The sample space is the set of possible outcomes, of which there are four: drawing two red balls; drawing two yellow balls; drawing a red ball ﬁrst, and then a yellow ball; and drawing a yellow ball ﬁrst, and then a red ball. One way to denote the sample space is in set notation, abbreviating the colors red and yellow: sample space = {RR, YY, RY, YR}. Note that these four outcomes are not equally likely. We can also represent the experiment and the possible outcomes in a probability tree diagram, as shown below. Note in particular the probabilities given for the second ball. For example, if the ﬁrst ball is red, then four out of the remaining seven balls are red, so the probability that the second ball is red is 4/7 (and the probability that it is yellow is 3/7). On the other hand, if the ﬁrst ball is yellow, then ﬁve out of the remaining...

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...* MTH/221 Week Four Individual problems: * * Ch. 11 of Discrete and Combinatorial Mathematics * Exercise 11.1, problems 8, 11 , text-pg:519 Exercise 11.2, problems 1, 6, text-pg:528 Exercise 11.3, problems 5, 20 , text-pg:537 Exercise 11.4, problems 14 , text-pg:553 Exercise 11.5, problems 7 , text-pg:563 * Ch. 12 of Discrete and Combinatorial Mathematics * Exercise 12.1, problems 11 , text-pg:585 Exercise 12.2, problems 6 , text-pg:604 Exercise 12.3, problems 2 , text-pg:609 Exercise 12.5, problems 3 , text-pg:621 Chapter 11 Exercise 11.1 Problem 8: Figure 11.10 shows an undirected graph representing a section of a department store. The vertices indicate where cashiers are located; the edges denote unblocked aisles between cashiers. The department store wants to set up a security system where (plainclothes) guards are placed at certain cashier locations so that each cashier either has a guard at his or her location or is only one aisle away from a cashier who has a guard. What is the smallest number of guards needed? Figure 11.10 Problem 11: Let G be a graph that satisfies the condition in Exercise 10. (a) Must G be loop-free? (b) Could G be a multigraph? (c) If G has n vertices, can we determine how many edges it has? Exercise 11.2 Problem 1: Let G be the undirected graph in Fig. 11.27(a). a) How many connected subgraphs ofGhave four vertices and include a cycle? b) Describe the...

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...Phase 2 IP Matt Peterson MATH203-1403A-03 Part 1 Consider the following 2 sets of data that list football teams and quarterbacks: D = {Jets, Giants, Cowboys, 49’ers, Patriots, Rams, Chiefs} Q = {Tom Brady, Joe Namath, Troy Aikman, Joe Montana, Eli Manning} 1. Using D as the domain and Q as the range, show the relation between the 2 sets, with the correspondences based on which players are (or were) a member of which team(s). (You can usehttp://www.pro-football-reference.com to find out this information). Show the relation in the following forms: * Set of ordered pairs (Jets, Namath) (Giants, Manning) (Cowboys, Aikman) (49ers, Montana) (Chiefs, Montana) (Patriots, Brady) 2. The relation is a function, no one element of the domain matches no more than one element of the range. * Directional graph Jets Namath Giants Manning Cowboys Aiken 49er’s Montana Chiefs Montana Patriot’s Brady 3. Now, use set Q as the domain, and set D as the range. Show the relation in the following forms: * Set of ordered pairs (Namath, Jets), (Manning, Giants), (Aiken, Cowboys), (Montana, 49er’s), (Montana, Chiefs), (Brady, Patriots) 4. The relation is not a function, one element of the domain matches with two elements of the range. ( Montana, Chief’s & 49er’s) * Directional graph Namath Jet’s Manning Giant’s Aiken Cowboy’s Montana 49er’s Montana Chief’s Brady Patriot’s Part 2 Mathematical sequences...

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...Exercise 4.1: 4. A wheel of fortune has the integers from 1 to 25 placed on it in a random manner. Show that regardless of how the numbers are positioned on the wheel, there are three adjacent numbers whose sum is at least 39. Work: Let suppose that there are not three adjacent numbers whose sum is at least 39 then for every set of 3 adjacent numbers their sum is less than 39 Since all the numbers are integers for every set of 3 adjacent numbers their sum is less than or equal to 38 Let select the 24 numbers around the “1”, from these 24 numbers we can create 8 sets of 3 consecutive adjacent numbers , then the total sum is less than or equal to 8(38)+1 = 305 So we have that the sum of 1+2+3+……+25 305 (but this is false) because 1+2+….25 = 25(26)/2 = 325 > 305 Then we proved that regardless of how the numbers are positioned on the wheel, there are three adjacent numbers whose sum is at least 39. 7. A lumberjack has 4n + 110 logs in a pile consisting of n layers. Each layer has two more logs than the layer directly above it. If the top layer has six logs, how many layers are there? Work: The 1st layer (the top one) has 6 logs The 2nd layer has 6+1(2) logs The 3rd layer has 6+2(2) The 4th layer has 6+3(2) ……………. The nth layer 6 +(n-1)(2) Total number of layers is: 6n +2(1+2+3+….+n-1) = 6n + 2(n-1)n/2 = 6n+n(n-1) = (n+5)n ...

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...Discrete Math for Computer Science Students Ken Bogart Dept. of Mathematics Dartmouth College Scot Drysdale Dept. of Computer Science Dartmouth College Cliﬀ Stein Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research Columbia University ii c Kenneth P. Bogart, Scot Drysdale, and Cliﬀ Stein, 2004 Contents 1 Counting 1.1 Basic Counting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Sum Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abstraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summing Consecutive Integers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Product Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two element subsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Important Concepts, Formulas, and Theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Counting Lists, Permutations, and Subsets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Sum and Product Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lists and functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Bijection Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . k-element permutations of a set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Counting subsets...

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