Free Essay

“Discuss the Impacts of Storm Events in the British Isles and Evaluate the Responses to Them” (40 Marks)

In: Social Issues

Submitted By maxjohnson1701
Words 1252
Pages 6
“Discuss the impacts of storm events in the British Isles and evaluate the responses to them” (40 marks)
A storm event is characterised by very strong winds and (or) heavy rainfall over a short period of time. They can occur more often In the British Isles due to the climate it has. It is located between the Polar and Ferrell cell which means it is influenced by the jet stream, these regulate the nation’s climate. Its temperate climate comes about due to its oceanic and air born currents, but the main regulator of the BI is the North Atlantic drift. This comes from the Caribbean, and carries warm tropical air towards the BI and results in the South-Westerly prevailing winds. Although beneficial is some ways, this unstable air around the Caribbean area, due to warm temperatures causing air to rise rapidly and air replacing this at the earth’s surface, can also be transported up to the BI. These hurricanes and strong tropical storms will never fully impact the BI as it does further south due the air masses cool as it travels over the Atlantic, but depressions are likely to occur.
Depressions form when a mix of hot light air and cold dense air come together. Instability over the Polar Front allows hot air to force its way into the colder air and a boundary forms called the warm front. Because the cold air is more dense it under cuts it and the cold front forms. This is faster and will eventually catch up with the warm front and lift away.
The great storm of 1987 was a major storm event in the British Isles which caused international chaos and death. The depression formed over the Bay of Biscay on October the 15th 1987 and quickly began to impact the BI. As soon as the storm moved in, predicted wrongly by the Met Office, the impacts began to roll in as people were not expecting the massive power the depression generated. This can be related to an incident which happened in 2015, a long period of heavy rain in Keswick caused mass flooding in which one person died. The flooding was predicted to happen once every 200-250 years and the 2015 flood was the second in a decade. It was the worst storm in 300 years and warranted the home sectary to call a meeting effective immediately. Winds reached up to 94 mph in London and fastest recorded were in the English Channel at 115 mph. These high winds caused primary deaths as trees toppled and shop fronts fell, 13 died in total. 5 in Kent, 2 firemen in Dorset where a tree fell on a house, a motorcyclist in Kings Lyn and one elderly man died of exposure on a beach in Sussex. These falling trees caused mass scale damage, the primary effects resulted in 1 million with no electricity as the trees fell on the lines. In the 2015 flood of Desmond, water flooded the electricity generators resulting in mass losses of power across the town. They also blocked roads and rail lines slowing down emergency services and bringing the UK to a halt, people couldn’t turn up to work and the stock market began to be effected. Black Monday followed and the great storm could be seen as a contributing factor. This long term effect shows the longevity of the impacts of a storm and secondary impacts can be just as bad as primary. 15 million trees fell and whole forests were flattened e.g. Sussex the council began to clear the trees up, but the long term impacts of this are large. The removal of the trees meant they could not biodegrade and potential nutrients were removed from the soil which would have aided the trees that would have followed the ones being blown out of the ground. In evaluating the impacts it was quite clear to see that this caused massive long term effects not just short term. 100 million in insurance claims set the government back massive costs weakening the economy. When followed with the immediate impact of Black Monday the UK economy was crippled. Business’ lost mass amounts of money as shop fronts were destroyed and shoppers were scared to go outside. Ferries were temporarily stopped as a Sea Link ferry was run a shore of the coast of Folkston. Another evaluative point is that the extent of the Storm did not stop In the British Isles, the storm merely started its long destructive path there; as it passed into France a further 4 people died. A day later on the 16th of October the destruction was final and clear. It was now the job of the Government and local councils to clear up the mess.
After the storms had gone, the people of England tried in many ways to rejuvenate their land. Trees were planted in an attempt to restore the millions of trees that had fallen and those trees that had fallen had been taken to be used prematurely for resources such as furniture and paper. Generally widespread panic was a factor of the storms during and after the time as well as people blaming the Met Office for not forecasting the storm prior to the events. These responses cost 10’s of millions of pounds and were necessary to replenish the lost nutrients and regain the balance of C02 uptake and 02 output the carbon cycle causes.
Since the storm newer and better weather indicators were stationed in the Atlantic ocean as well as points throughout the British Isles which means that if anything looks like it is heading out way then we will be warned in plenty of time. This is one of the most important responses as a cause of a lot of the destruction was a lack of knowledge the event was going to cause. But an issue with this is only 3 years later a massive storm occurred again, 47 people died and 3 million trees were knocked over. This resulted in 1.9 million insurance claims as well. This statistic is great for evaluation of the methods put in place to respond to the storm in 1987 as it shows the extent to which they had an effect. Clearly in this case the effects were not big enough as even with an increase in the technology used to inform the public of the accurate weather it still caused more deaths in 1990. Although the success of some methods were clear, most offices in London now have a backup generator which means that they can fire up if another blackout occurs. This means that the stock market will not be effected as much next time as was the case in 1987 and in 1990 there was minimal if any effect on the market and the economy was not effected in the long term. Airports themselves have a sophisticated weather system which means that they can predict if a flight is likely to get delayed or cancelled and tell the customers sooner rather than at the time. Trees now are often planted not too close to buildings so that if they do fall then no damage is called to houses or other buildings.
Developed even more recently, the Cray super computer has altered the weather forecast forever. The accuracy of where a storm will hit and how it will affect the area are clearer than ever. Wind strength and amount of rain are calculated with ease.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Discuss Weather and Climate

...weather experienced by stations A and B. (7) (b) Explain the characteristic features of the weather associated with a winter anticyclone in the British Isles. (8) (c) Evaluate the concept of the urban heat island. (10) Critically evaluate the possible effects of the phenomenon known as global warming and suggest possible responses to them. (40) Weather, Climate and associated Hazards - Sample Paper 2 - Study Figure 2, a diagram showing the impact of Hurricane Floyd 1999. (a) Using Figure 2, comment on the responses to Hurricane Floyd in September 1999. (7) (b) Explain the causes of tropical revolving storms. (8) (c) With reference to one tropical region that you have studied, describe and explain the characteristic features of the climate of that region. (10) “Urban areas have a significant impact on climatic characteristics.” Discuss this statement. (40) Exam Board Approved Back of Textbook Sample Paper (a) Study figure 2 which shows the global origins and occurrences of tropical storms. Describe and account for the distribution of tropical storms and their travel paths. (7) (b) Explain how urban temperatures can differ from the temperatures of surrounding rural areas, and why these......

Words: 500 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Exam Questions

...Exam series | Sect A Plate Tec(7 marks) | Sect APlate tec(8 marks) | Sect A Plate tec(10 marks) | | Sect CPlate tec essay (40 marks) | June 2010 | Study fig 1 a photo …recent earthquake. Using fig 1 only, comment on the evidence that suggest that an earthquake has recently taken place | Describe how seismic waves and earthquakes can be measured | With reference to two seismic events you have studied from contrasting areas of the world, compare the ways in which earthquakes and their impacts have been managed | | “The hazards presented by volcanic and seismic events have the greatest impact on the world’s poorest people” To what extent do you agree with this view? | Jan 2011 | Study fig 1, a map showing tectonic features in the Philippines. Comment on the degree to which the area of the Philippines might be subject to tectonic hazards | Outline the formation of hot spots and explain their relationship to plate movement | With reference to 2 volcanic events that you have studied from contrasting areas of the world, compare the nature of the volcanic hazard and its impact | | “Volcanic and seismic events are major pieces of evidence towards proving that plate tectonics theory is valid”. Discuss the extent to which you agree with this statement. | June 2011 | Study fig 1 which is an image of the sea bed of the N Atlantic Ocean … Comment on the extent to which the features shown support the theory of plate tectonics. | Describe the characteristics of, and explain the......

Words: 1106 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

British Isles Storms

...Discuss the impacts of storm events in the British Isles and evaluate the responses to them (40 marks) The British Isles has a Cool Temperate Western Maritime Climate which is owing to its location at the edge of a continent, between two seas and subject to the influences of five major air masses; north-westerly, south-westerly, northerly, easterly and southerly. British climate is classified as temperate as it rarely features the extremes of heat or cold, rain, drought or wind that are common in other climates. Basic characteristics of this climate include temperature, precipitation, wind and air masses. The mean summer temperatures in the UK are lower than the average for its latitude which is due to the cooling influence from the Atlantic Ocean with its daily maximum being about 30 degrees. The average monthly values rarely exceed 16 degrees. In the winter, the average temperatures are above freezing (2-7 degrees) in coastal areas and relatively high winter values are owed to the warming influence of the sea. Oceans have an ameliorating effect on the temperature in the British Isles ad so it isn’t too hot or too cold. Also within the British Isles, precipitation occurs throughout the year yet varies in relief in upland areas, for example, western coast rainfall totals can exceed 2,500mm whereas a short distance further east in low land areas in the shadow of mountains, annual totals can be as little as 500mm. Most of the rainfall is brought by frontal systems moving......

Words: 1732 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Alevel Geography Revision Notes

...movement |Nature of ecosystems | |Earth structure, plate tectonics theory: convection |Structure of ecosystems, energy flows, trophic levels, | |currents and sea-floor spreading. Evidence: |food chains and food webs. | |continental drift and palaeomagnetism. | | |Destructive, constructive and conservative plate |Ecosystems in the British Isles over time | |margins. Processes: seismicity and vulcanicity. |Succession and climatic climax: illustrated by one of | |Associated landforms: young fold mountains, rift |lithosere, psammosere, hydrosere or halosere....

Words: 2405 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Geography

...movement |Nature of ecosystems | |Earth structure, plate tectonics theory: convection |Structure of ecosystems, energy flows, trophic levels, | |currents and sea-floor spreading. Evidence: |food chains and food webs. | |continental drift and palaeomagnetism. | | |Destructive, constructive and conservative plate |Ecosystems in the British Isles over time | |margins. Processes: seismicity and vulcanicity. |Succession and climatic climax: illustrated by one of | |Associated landforms: young fold mountains, rift |lithosere, psammosere, hydrosere or halosere....

Words: 2405 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Politics

...GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS AS LEVEL UNIT TWO GOVERNING THE UK “Never, never, never give up” Winston S Churchill 1874-1965 1 GOVERNING THE UK 50% of AS [25% of A2] UNIT TWO SAMPLE QUESTION Answer one question from Section A and one question from Section B in 80 minutes. Spend 40 minutes on Section A and 40 minutes on Section B SECTION A QUESTION ONE PRIME MINISTERIAL POWER “For too long the big political decisions in this country have been made in the wrong place. They are not made around the Cabinet table where they should be, but they are taken on the sofa in Tony Blair’s office. No notes are kept and no one takes the blame when things go wrong. That arrogant style of government must come to an end. I will restore the proper process of government. I want to be Prime Minister of this country not a President (Source: David Cameron, The Times, 5th October 2006) “The Cabinet is the committee at the centre of the British political system. Every Thursday during Parliament, Secretaries of State from all departments as well as other ministers meet in the Cabinet Room in Downing Street to discuss the big issues of the day. The Prime Minister chairs the meeting, selects its members and also recommends their appointment as ministers to the monarch. The present Cabinet has 23 members (21 MPs and two peers). The secretary of the Cabinet is responsible for preparing records of its discussions and decisions”. (Source: From a modern textbook) (a)......

Words: 68254 - Pages: 274

Premium Essay

Pr Cases

...Public Relations Cases This collection of contemporary international public relations case studies is an invaluable resource for teachers, researchers and students working in public relations, corporate communications and public affairs, as well as offering practitioners an indepth understanding of the effective use of public relations in a range of organizational contexts. Including cases from the UK, Norway, Sweden, Spain, South Africa, Canada and the USA, with a focus on such global corporations as Shell, BBC America, Worldcom, PriceWaterhouseCoopers and Marks & Spencer, it offers important insights into the development of public relations and communications strategies. These include: • • • • • • • • Corporate identity change and management Global reputation management Crisis management in the oil, shipping and tourism industries Developing strategic alliances between voluntary and private sector organizations Public relations support for international branding and market entry The importance of internal communications during international mergers The integration of public relations and marketing communications Business-to-business communication The cases examined in this book demonstrate the breadth of contemporary public relations practice and the increasing importance of the public relations function in both public and private sector organizations worldwide. Danny Moss is Co-Director of the Centre for Corporate and Public Affairs at the Manchester Metropolitan......

Words: 107599 - Pages: 431

Premium Essay

The Rise of the Tale

...BRITISH SHORT FICTION IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY This page intentionally left blank British Short Fiction in the Early Nineteenth Century The Rise of the Tale TIM KILLICK Cardiff University, UK © Tim Killick 2008 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. Tim Killick has asserted his moral right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as the author of this work. Published by Ashgate Publishing Limited Gower House Croft Road Aldershot Hampshire GU11 3HR England Ashgate Publishing Company Suite 420 101 Cherry Street Burlington, VT 05401-4405 USA www.ashgate.com British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Killick, Tim British short fiction in the early nineteenth century : the rise of the tale 1. Short stories, English – History and criticism 2. English fiction – 19th century – History and criticism 3. Short story 4. Literary form – History – 19th century I. Title 823’.0109 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Killick, Tim. British short fiction in the early nineteenth century : the rise of the tale / by Tim Killick. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7546-6413-0 (alk. paper) 1. Short stories, English—History and criticism. 2. English fiction—19th...

Words: 98420 - Pages: 394

Free Essay

Televison

...provided by Sky to consumers; and the number of Sky subscribers. 2. In its inquiry Ofcom has put forward a view that Sky has continually raised charges for its pay TV services over time, reducing the value for money received by consumers, while at the same time increasing the number of its subscribers. Ofcom then infers from this assessment that Sky does not face effective competition at the retail level. Sky considers that the facts of the matter wholly contradict this assessment by Ofcom, and the inference that is drawn from it. Sky has already provided Ofcom with significant evidence collected by PwC, which shows that in relation to pay TV services UK consumers are well served compared to their European peers. Similarly, in its Response to Ofcom‟s Third Consultation Document, Sky demonstrated that Ofcom‟s proposition that examination of Sky‟s profitability shows that retail prices for pay TV services are excessive is without foundation.2 4. 1 Paragraph 4.410 of Ofcom‟s Third Consultation Document. Ofcom considers Sky Movies Action & Thriller, Sky Movies Comedy, Sky Movies Drama, Sky Movies Family, Sky Movies Premiere, Sky Movies Premiere+1, Sky Movies Sci Fi & Horror, Sky Movies Screen 1, Sky...

Words: 29463 - Pages: 118

Premium Essay

British Short Fictions

...BRITISH SHORT FICTION IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY This page intentionally left blank British Short Fiction in the Early Nineteenth Century The Rise of the Tale TIM KILLICK Cardiff University, UK © Tim Killick 2008 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. Tim Killick has asserted his moral right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as the author of this work. Published by Ashgate Publishing Limited Gower House Croft Road Aldershot Hampshire GU11 3HR England Ashgate Publishing Company Suite 420 101 Cherry Street Burlington, VT 05401-4405 USA www.ashgate.com British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Killick, Tim British short fiction in the early nineteenth century : the rise of the tale 1. Short stories, English – History and criticism 2. English fiction – 19th century – History and criticism 3. Short story 4. Literary form – History – 19th century I. Title 823’.0109 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Killick, Tim. British short fiction in the early nineteenth century : the rise of the tale / by Tim Killick. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7546-6413-0 (alk. paper) 1. Short stories, English—History and criticism. 2. English fiction—19th...

Words: 98420 - Pages: 394

Premium Essay

Marxist

...BRITISH SHORT FICTION IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY This page intentionally left blank British Short Fiction in the Early Nineteenth Century The Rise of the Tale TIM KILLICK Cardiff University, UK © Tim Killick 2008 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. Tim Killick has asserted his moral right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as the author of this work. Published by Ashgate Publishing Limited Gower House Croft Road Aldershot Hampshire GU11 3HR England Ashgate Publishing Company Suite 420 101 Cherry Street Burlington, VT 05401-4405 USA www.ashgate.com British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Killick, Tim British short fiction in the early nineteenth century : the rise of the tale 1. Short stories, English – History and criticism 2. English fiction – 19th century – History and criticism 3. Short story 4. Literary form – History – 19th century I. Title 823’.0109 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Killick, Tim. British short fiction in the early nineteenth century : the rise of the tale / by Tim Killick. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7546-6413-0 (alk. paper) 1. Short stories, English—History and criticism. 2. English fiction—19th...

Words: 98420 - Pages: 394

Premium Essay

Dictionary of Travel, Tourism, and Hospitality

...Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality By the same author Britain – Workshop or Service Centre to the World? The British Hotel and Catering Industry The Business of Hotels (with H. Ingram) Europeans on Holiday Higher Education and Research in Tourism in Western Europe Historical Development of Tourism (with A.J. Burkart) Holiday Surveys Examined The Management of Tourism (with A.J. Burkart eds) Managing Tourism (ed.) A Manual of Hotel Reception (with J.R.S. Beavis) Paying Guests Profile of the Hotel and Catering Industry (with D.W. Airey) Tourism and Hospitality in the 21st Century (with A. Lockwood eds) Tourism and Productivity Tourism Council of the South Pacific Corporate Plan Tourism Employment in Wales Tourism: Past, Present and Future (with A.J. Burkart) Trends in Tourism: World Experience and England’s Prospects Trends in World Tourism Understanding Tourism Your Manpower (with J. Denton) Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality S. Medlik Third edition OXFORD AMSTERDAM BOSTON LONDON NEW YORK PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO Butterworth-Heinemann An imprint of Elsevier Science Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington MA 01803 First published 1993 Reprinted (with amendments) 1994 Second edition 1996 Third edition 2003 Copyright © 1993, 1996, 2003, S. Medlik. All rights reserved The right of S. Medlik to be identified as the author of this work has been......

Words: 133754 - Pages: 536

Free Essay

The Tudors

...languages worldwide. The series began in 1995, and now represents a wide variety of topics in history, philosophy, religion, science, and the humanities. Over the next few years it will grow to a library of around 200 volumes- a Very Short Introduction to everything from ancient Egypt and Indian philosophy to conceptual art and cosmology. Very Short Introductions available now: ANCIENT P H I L O S O P H Y Julia Annas THE ANGLO-SAXON AGE John Blair ANIMAL RIGHTS David DeGrazia ARCHAEOLOGY Paul Bahn ARCHITECTURE Andrew Ballantyne ARISTOTLE Jonathan Barnes ART HISTORY Dana Arnold ARTTHEORY Cynthia Freeland THE HISTORYOF ASTRONOMY Michael Hoskin ATHEISM Julian Baggini AUGUSTINE HenryChadwick BARTHES Jonathan Culler THE B I B L E John Riches BRITISH POLITICS Anthony Wright BUDDHA Michael Carrithers BUDDHISM DamienKeown CAPITALISM James Fulcher THE CELTS Barry Cunliffe CHOICETHEORY Michael Allingham CHRISTIAN ART Beth Williamson CLASSICS Mary Beard and John Henderson CLAUSEWITZ Michael Howard THE COLD WAR Robert McMahon CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHY Simon Critchley COSMOLOGY Peter Coles CRYPTOGRAPHY Fred Piper and Sean Murphy DADAAND SURREALISM David Hopkins DARWIN Jonathan Howard DEMOCRACY Bernard Crick DESCARTES TomSorell DRUGS Leslie Iversen TH E EARTH Martin Redfern EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY Geraldine Pinch EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY BRITAIN PaulLangford THE ELEMENTS Philip Ball EMOTION Dylan Evans EMPIRE Stephen Howe ENGELS Terrell Carver ETH ICS Simon Blackburn THE EUROPEAN UNION John Pinder......

Words: 34946 - Pages: 140

Premium Essay

Jared Diamond Collapse

...COLLAPSE HOW S O C I E T I E S CHOOSE TO FAIL OR S U C C E E D JARED DIAMOND VIK ING VIKING Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, U.S.A. Penguin Group (Canada), 10 Alcorn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4V 3B2 (a division of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.) Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England Penguin Ireland, 25 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd) Penguin Books Australia Ltd, 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi—110 017, India Penguin Group (NZ), Cnr Airborne and Rosedale Roads, Albany, Auckland 1310, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England First published in 2005 by Viking Penguin, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. 13579 10 8642 Copyright © Jared Diamond, 2005 All rights reserved Maps by Jeffrey L. Ward LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA Diamond, Jared M. Collapse: how societies choose to fail or succeed/Jared Diamond. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-670-03337-5 1. Social history—Case studies. 2. Social change—Case studies. 3. Environmental policy— Case studies. I. Title. HN13. D5 2005......

Words: 235965 - Pages: 944

Premium Essay

Mass Media

...Media History Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6 1.1.7 1.1.8 1.1.9 Issues with definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forms of mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professions involving mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influence and sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ethical issues and criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 2 6 6 7 8 10 10 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 12 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 19 20 21 21 21 1.1.10 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.12 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.13 External links . . . . . . . . ....

Words: 146891 - Pages: 588