Premium Essay

Discuss the Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods as They Are Employed in Psychology.

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By fatparker
Words 939
Pages 4
In the early days, psychology was known as the science of the mind, then shifted focus to behaviour in the 1950s, and has since swung back to the mind, but, however chequered its history may have been, it has remained predominantly shaded by the science umbrella.
As Searle (1999) points out “academic psychology has placed great importance on the use of scientific approaches”, which has resulted in an emphasis on quantitative research methods, centred on collection of numerical data and statistical analysis (the empirical approach).
However, since the 1960s there has been increasing criticism of such reliance on the quantitative data-collection characteristics of the scientific method, which has developed over subsequent decades into a strong shift towards more qualitative approaches. This has led to the somewhat inevitable, yet ultimately unhelpful, divide between competing methods: quantitative versus qualitative.
According to Bauer, et al (2000), quantitative research deals with numbers, makes use of statistical models to explain the data and is considered ‘hard’ research, whereas qualitative research avoids numbers, involves interpretation of social realities and is considered ‘soft research. Both approaches, however, have their strengths and weaknesses.
The strengths of quantitative research, as outlined by Burns (2000), includes precision and control – precision is achieved through quantitative and reliable measurement, control through sampling and design. Further, “experimentation leads to statements about causation” in that the systematic manipulation of a variable, in an environment where other variables have been eliminated or controlled, can be shown to have a direct causal effect on another. Finally, quantitative data allows statistical analysis.
Coolican (1999) points out that the pure quantitative position deems measurement to be fundamental to...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Lecture 7

...COMPREHENSIVE EXAM QUESTIONS IN RESEARCH METHODS(1) 1. PHILOSOPHY, LOGIC AND ETHICS OF SCIENCE A) General A1. A2. A3. Starbuck has suggested that "the properties shared by all organizations ought to be uninteresting TH and unimportant." He also notes that "although statements about averages bother very few, they ought to bother many" (Journal of Management Studies, vol. 30(6), 1993). Do you agree with these statements? If so, why, and what are the implications of your beliefs for research methods in strategic management and organization science? If not, why not, and what are the implications of your beliefs for research methods in those areas? Lay out the components of the Runkel and McGrath (1972) Research Cycle and the Martin (1982) Garbage Can Model of the research process. What are the aims of either approach? What assumptions does each approach make? What basic themes does each approach emphasize? What kinds of constraints on the process of doing research does each approach highlight? How are the two approaches alike and different in other ways? What are the likely pitfalls of viewing the research process from only one of these two viewpoints? Define (and discuss important features or issues concerning) the following constructs of Philosophy and Logic of Science. (Define any four terms). 1. Null hypothesis 3. Paradigm 4. Independent variable 5. Operational definition 6. Nomological network 8. The fallacy of affirming the consequent 9. Theory 2....

Words: 21963 - Pages: 88

Premium Essay

Reseach Methods

...AND DISTANCE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EXTRA-MURAL STUDIES. In collaboration with CENTRE FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING MASTER IN PROJECT PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT COURSE: LDP 603: RESEARCH METHODS Authored by: Dr. Christopher Mwangi Gakuu Senior Lecturer, Department of ExtraMural studies, University of Nairobi & Dr. Harriet Jepchumba Kidombo Senior Lecturer, Department of Educational Studies University of Nairobi Page 1 of 240 GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE MODULE The Research Methods course is one of the first semester core courses for those learners pursuing the Master in Project Planning and Management course. You are aware that any good decision is based on facts. Facts are based on data. The data must be systematically collected, processed, analysed and presented for use. The best-known way of collecting empirical data is through scientific research methods. This is what this course module is all about. The main aims of this course unit is to: 1. Providing you with the basic information needed to understand the research process. 2. Enable you to use the knowledge to design their own research agenda on an area of personal interest or that of an organization. MODULE STRUCTURE The module is covered in Lectures. Each Lecture focuses on area in research. You will note that in each unit, there is an introduction, unit objectives, contents presented in subtopics, activities, summary and suggestions for further readings. This......

Words: 62976 - Pages: 252

Premium Essay

Pirelli Re

... | |The cultural and social influences on the buying behaviour process: the Pirelli RE case study | | | | | |IM44 | |Marketing Research Project, Fall semester of 2009...

Words: 15068 - Pages: 61

Premium Essay


...Qualitative Research Defining and Designing 1 8 T he qualitative research methods introduced in this book are often employed to answer the whys and hows of human behavior, opinion, and experience— information that is difficult to obtain through more quantitatively-oriented methods of data collection. Researchers and practitioners in fields as diverse as anthropology, education, nursing, psychology, sociology, and marketing regularly use qualitative methods to address questions about people’s ways of organizing, relating to, and interacting with the world. Despite the interdisciplinary recognition of the value of “qualitative research” (or perhaps because of it), qualitative research is not a unified field of theory and practice. On the contrary, a plethora of viewpoints, sometimes diametrically opposed to one another, exist on the subject. Scholars regularly debate about what qualitative research is, how and why it should be conducted, how it should be analyzed, and in what form it should be presented. In fact, fundamental and often heated disagreements about philosophical assumptions and the nature of data exist among qualitative researchers. We don’t pretend to be able to solve any of these controversies. Nor do we suggest one approach or viewpoint is superior to another in the grand scheme of things. How one approaches qualitative research, and research in general, depends on a variety of personal, professional, political, and contextual factors. Ultimately,......

Words: 15061 - Pages: 61

Premium Essay


...ZIMBABWE SCHOOL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL (ZIMSEC) ADVANCED LEVEL SYLLABUS BUSINESS STUDIES 9198 EXAMINATION SYLLABUS FOR 2008-2012 2 BUSINESS STUDIES ZGCE Advanced Level 9198 CONTENTS Introduction Syllabus Aims Assessment Objectives Scheme of Assessment Curriculum Content Notes for Guidance Resource List PAGE 2 2 2 3 3 10 25 3 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The aim of this syllabus is to enable Centres to develop Business Studies courses that are suitable for Advanced Level candidates. The syllabus contains largely the same body of curriculum content as the Management of Business Advanced Level syllabus (9368) and AICE Business Studies syllabus (0128) which previously were examined by UCLES. Although no previous study of the subject is assumed by the syllabus, it would be recommended that students should have done 'O' Level Business Studies 1.2 1.3 2 SYLLABUS AIMS The syllabus is intended to lead to courses that will encourage students to: 2.1 2.2 Understand and appreciate the nature and scope of business and its role in society; Develop critical understanding of organisations, the markets they serve and the process of adding value. This should involve consideration of the internal workings and management of organisations and, in particular, the process of decision making in a dynamic environment; Be aware of the economic, environmental, ethical, governmental, legal, social, technological etc issues associated with business activity; Develop skills......

Words: 7797 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

Survey Sampling

...incredibly fruitful method in gathering informational data related to a particular field or idea. When conducting that survey, one of the first questions to answer is who will partake in the survey. The methodology employed to determine how many, and the parameters of who will be surveyed is known as sampling. This literature review will summarize and synthesize many articles on the topic of sampling. Introduction Literature Review Purpose This literature review will summarize and synthesize over twenty-four articles related to the science and art of survey sampling. Sampling for a survey is paramount to the research as it ensures accuracy of polling a population. An understanding of sampling will not be necessary to the comprehension of this review. It serves to introduce the reader to survey sampling in general, while acting as a quick handbook to sampling. Those with a beginning interest should be able to use this review as a first step into sampling science. Each section should provide a further understanding of sampling from the various articles reviewed. Literature Review Outline The literature review will begin with an introduction section to survey sampling. The history of survey sampling will be shown by the articles reviewed. Following an introduction to sampling, methodologies used in sampling will be explored. Each methodology will be represented by at least one scholarly article. The reader will have a general understanding of each method. Before the......

Words: 6113 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Scientific Methods of Research

...03-Bloomberg-45467.qxd 12/26/2007 11:52 AM Page 65 CHAPTER 3 Presenting Methodology and Research Approach OVERVIEW Chapter 3 of the dissertation presents the research design and the specific procedures used in conducting your study. A research design includes various interrelated elements that reflect its sequential nature. This chapter is intended to show the reader that you have an understanding of the methodological implications of the choices you made and, in particular, that you have thought carefully about the links between your study’s purpose and research questions and the research approach and research methods that you have selected. Note that in the proposal’s chapter 3, you project what you will do based on what you know about the particular methods used in qualitative research, in general, and in your tradition or genre, in particular; hence, it is written in future tense. In the dissertation’s chapter 3, you report on what you have already done. You write after the fact; hence, you write in past tense. As such, many of the sections of chapter 3 can be written only after you have actually conducted your study (i.e., collected, analyzed, and synthesized your data). To write this chapter, you need to conduct literature reviews on the methodological issues involved in qualitative research design. You need to show the reader that you (a) have knowledge of the current issues and discourse, and (b) can relate your......

Words: 15567 - Pages: 63

Premium Essay

Research Fundations

...Customer Satisfaction Research Proposal CommunnaTell Wireless Company: Team B Tammy Cech, William Frudakis, Robbie Hollingsworth RES/320 August 30, 2010 Instructor: Dr. Michele Burpeau-Di Gregorio Customer Satisfaction Research Proposal: CommunnaTell Wireless Company CommunnaTell Wireless commits to delivering outstanding customer satisfaction. The company offers quality products and services on the nation’s largest and most reliable wireless voice and 3G network, and it delivers the industry-leading customer service – online, over the phone and in-person. Recently the company has experienced an increase in complaint calls, which reported to the research team for follow-up. The design of the proposal was to determine the cause or causes of the lack of customer satisfaction. Senior Research Proposal Research Question CommunnaTell Wireless Company being the largest wireless phone company in the United States has done several new and innovating advances with-in the management of several departments. These new changes created several opportunities in the Call Centers because of higher turnover rates. Complaints from customers calling into the Call Centers rose over the last few months creating concerns over the effectiveness of training given to the new associates. CommunnaTell Wireless will conduct surveys of recent customers to the call center to determine the root cause of the recent complaints. Propose Research CommunnaTell Wireless Company......

Words: 5597 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Students’ Attitudes Towards Counselling: a Cross-Cultural Study

...STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS COUNSELLING: A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY by KATLEGO FANDIE This thesis is submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree Philosophiae Doctor in the FACULTY OF THE HUMANITIES DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY at the UNIVERSITY OF THE FREE STATE BLOEMFONTEIN January 2015 Promoter: Prof. L. Naudé DECLARATION I declare that the thesis hereby submitted by Katlego Fandie for the degree Philosophiae Doctor at the University of the Free State is my own independent work and has not previously been submitted by me at another University/Faculty. I further more cede copyright of the thesis in favour of the University of the Free State. SIGNATURE: _____________________________ DATE:____________________________ i DECLARATION OF SUPERVISOR ii PROOF OF LANGUAGE EDITOR  083 2877088  +27 51 4367975 CORRIE GELDENHUYS POSBUS 28537 DANHOF 9310 3 January 2015 TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN Herewith I, Cornelia Geldenhuys (ID 521114 0083 088) declare that I am a qualified, accredited language practitioner and that I have edited the following PhD thesis by Katlego Fandie: STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS COUNSELLING: A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY All changes were indicated by track changes and comments, to be addressed by the researcher. ............................................................ C GELDENHUYS MA (LIN – cum laude), MA (Mus), HED, HDLB, UTLM ACCREDITED MEMBER OF SATI......

Words: 53406 - Pages: 214

Premium Essay

Business Psycology

...[Pick the date] [Pick the date] Business Psychology Individual Assignment Business Psychology Individual Assignment Prepared by – Dashny Sarvaloganayagan Lecturer – W.M.S. Rambadagalla Unit code – F/601/1027 Batch No – 13 Edexcel No – GI 18931 American College of Higher Education, Kandy Prepared by – Dashny Sarvaloganayagan Lecturer – W.M.S. Rambadagalla Unit code – F/601/1027 Batch No – 13 Edexcel No – GI 18931 American College of Higher Education, Kandy Contents Plagiarism Acknowledgement Introduction 1.1 Major theoretical approaches 1.2 Assess the contribution of a scientific approach to investigating workplace behaviour 1.3 Assess strength & limitations of qualitative & quantitative approaches to understand the workplace behaviour 2.1 Describe the type of individual differences which have been the subject of assessment 2.2 Assess the usefulness of psychometric instruments with particular references to reliability and validity 2.3 Make justified communications for the use of two types of measures of individual differences in making business decisions 3.1 Use the theory to explain human reactions to change 3.2 Make justified recommendations for implementing change in selected organization 3.3 Make......

Words: 13240 - Pages: 53

Premium Essay

Educationa Research

...EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Unit Structure 1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Sources Acquiring Knowledge 1.3 Meaning, Steps and Scope of Educational Research 1.4 Scientific Method, aims and characteristics of research as a scientific activity 1.5 Ethical considerations in Educational Research 1.6 Paradigms of Educational research 1.7 Types of Research 1.7.a Fundamental 1.7.b Applied Research 1.7.c. Action Research 1.0 OBJECTIVES : After reading this unit, you will be able to: 1 To explain the concept of Educational Research 2 To describe the scope of Educational Research 3 To state the purpose of Educational Research 4 To explain what is scientific enquiry. 5 To explain importance of theory development. 6 To explain relationship among science, education and educational research. 7 To Identity fundamental research 8 To Identity applied research 9 To Identify action research 10 To Differentiate between fundamental, applied, and action research 11 To Identify different paradigms of research 2 1.1 INTRODUCTION : Research purifies human life. It improves its quality. It is search for knowledge. If shows how to Solve any problem scientifically. It is a careful enquiry through search for any kind of Knowledge. It is a journey from known to unknown. It is a systematic effort to gain new knowledge in any kind of discipline. When it Seeks a solution of any educational problem it leads to educational......

Words: 78659 - Pages: 315

Premium Essay

Research Methodologies in Supply Chain Management

...Research Methodologies in Supply Chain Management Herbert Kotzab ´ Stefan Seuring Martin Mçller ´ Gerald Reiner (Editors) Research Methodologies in Supply Chain Management In Collaboration with Magnus Westhaus With 71 Figures and 67 Tables Physica-Verlag A Springer Company Professor Dr. Herbert Kotzab Copenhagen Business School Department of Operations Management SCM-Group Solbjerg Plads 3 2000 Frederiksberg Denmark PD Dr. Stefan Seuring PD Dr. Martin Mçller Supply Chain Management Center Institute of Business Administration Faculty of Business, Economics and Law Uhlhornsweg 26111 Oldenburg Germany Dr. Gerald Reiner Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration Department of Production Management Nordbergstraûe 15 1090 Vienna Austria Cataloging-in-Publication Data Library of Congress Control Number: 2005924508 ISBN 3-7908-1583-7 Physica-Verlag Heidelberg New York This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must...

Words: 69166 - Pages: 277

Free Essay

The Power of Social Networking

...and Bebo. Although most of these sites lack decent business models, they are valued at millions of pounds. Google paid 1.5 billion dollar for YouTube when it wasn’t even earning a single penny. The reason successful Social Networking Sites have become so valuable is due to the amount of people that are using it; and people are exactly what organisations are after. This report aims to find out whether Social Networking Sites have the same value in the context of recruitment. Academic literature extensively discusses online recruitment, however not much is said about recruitment on Social Networking Sites: ‘Sociocruitment’. Research revealed that professionals are quite optimistic about Sociocruitment. Although users of Social Networking Sites had a disperse opinion on organisations contacting them on these websites; not many were negative. The contemporary research furthermore harvested information from a range of sources to create understanding of key issues allowing readers to familiarise themselves with the concept. Finally the report...

Words: 26147 - Pages: 105

Premium Essay

Validity Reliability

...Y METHODS IN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH From Theory to Practice Marguerite G. Lodico, Dean T. Spaulding, Katherine H. Voegtle METHODS IN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Y METHODS IN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH From Theory to Practice Marguerite G. Lodico, Dean T. Spaulding, Katherine H. Voegtle Copyright © 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint 989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the Web at Requests to the publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, 201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, or online at Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this...

Words: 153398 - Pages: 614

Premium Essay

N Analysis of Stakeholder Management in Project Management of the Tianjin Binhai Airport Expansion “Phase Ii”

...An analysis of stakeholder management in Project Management of the Tianjin Binhai airport expansion “Phase II” Yuan Aiying 2025888 Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment for the degree of Master of Science in Management University of Stirling August 2012 Abstract This dissertation aims to evaluate the stakeholder management of the Tianjin Binhai airport’ Phase II project which started in the 2009 and is predicted finishing in 2014. Through gathering the perspectives and expectation of five stakeholders for this project: the Tianjin Binhai airport‘s top manager, the project manager, Civil Aviation Administration of China, the airport internal staffs and passengers, the strengths and weaknesses of the stakeholder management in the Phase II project management. The strengths mainly reflect firstly, the good understanding of the airport managers and staff for the demands of the passengers and combine effectively these demands in the design of Phase II project. Secondly, all estimated stakeholders support and expect good return for the project. Moreover, thirdly, they reach an agreement for the long plan of the airport operation. On contrast, the weaknesses include firstly, some staffs have negative mood for the project and there is poor cooperation between airport different departments. Secondly, both the predication for the airport operation and the identification of the largest shareholder between two stakeholders are different. For the definition of......

Words: 19566 - Pages: 79