Free Essay

Discuss the School Health Programs as a Community Health Intervention Strategy. Suggest Ways of Increasing Its Effectiveness.

In: Social Issues

Submitted By maweebabe
Words 1979
Pages 8
COMMUNITY HEALTH
ASSIGNMENT 1
DISCUSS THE SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMS AS A COMMUNITY HEALTH INTERVENTION STRATEGY. SUGGEST WAYS OF INCREASING ITS EFFECTIVENESS.

A Schools Health Program is an integrated set of planned, sequential, school affiliated strategies, activities and services designed to promote the optimal physical, emotional and education development of students. The program involves and is supportive of families and is determined by the local community based on community needs, resources, standards and requirements. It is coordinated by a multidisplinary team and accountable to the community for program quality and effectiveness (The National Academics 2014).
A School health Program is an approach that brings together the resources of families, schools and communities to help students stay health and make most of their educational opportunities. A School Health Program is organised in eight components which include health education, physical education, school health services, counselling, psychological and social services, school nutrition services, a healthy school environment, staff wellness programs and family and community involvement.
School Health Programs can play an important role in promoting lifelong health. The national health promotion and disease prevention objectives encourage schools to provide education from pre-school through to university. An effective school health program can be one of the most cost-effective investments a nation can make to simultaneously improve education and health. WHO promotes school health programs as a strategic means to prevent important health risks among youth and to engage the education sector in efforts to change the educational, social economic and political conditions that affect risks.
School health programs are said to be one of the most efficient strategies that a nation might use to prevent major health and social problems. Next to the family, schools are the major institution for providing the instruction and experiences that prepare young people for their roles as healthy, productive adults. Schools can and inevitably do play a powerful role in influencing students’ health-related behaviours. Elementary, middle, and secondary schools are therefore prime setting for public health programming. Appropriate school interventions can foster effective education, prevent destructive behaviour and promote enduring health practices. For many young people in their formative years, school may in fact be only nurturing and supportive place where they learn health information and have positive behaviour consistently reinforced.
In addition, health and success in school are inextricably intertwined. Good health facilitates children’s growth, development and optimal learning, while education contributes to children’s knowledge about being health. Studies of young people have found that health-risk behaviours negatively affect (i) education outcomes including graduation rates, class grades and performance standardized tests, (ii) education behaviours including attendance, dropout rates, behavioural problems and degree of involvement in school activities such as homework and extracurricular pursuits and (iii) students attitudes, including aspirations for postsecondary education, feelings about safety at school and positive personal attitudes.
Schools cannot achieve their primary mission of education if students and staff are not health and fit physically, mentally and socially. Children who are sick, hungry, abused, using drugs, who feel that nobody cares, or who may be distracted by family problems are unlikely to learn well. On child’s lack of progress can impede the learning of the other children in the classroom as well. Education reform efforts are bound to be of limited effectiveness unless health-related barriers to learning are directly addressed. As Harriet Tyson writes, ‘First among those barriers are poor physical and mental health conditions that prevent students from showing up for school, paying attention in class, restraining their anger, quieting their self-disruptive impulses and refraining from dropping out. When surveyed, most parents and members of the general public consistently rate health as an important topic that schools should address.
School Health Programs as a community health intervention strategy seeks to mobilise and strengthen health promotion and education activities at the local, national regional and global levels. It is designed to improve the health of students, school personnel, families and other members of the community through schools such as alcohol and substance abuse, violence and antisocial behaviour decrease as parent involvement increases. Students are less likely to succeed when communities are economically deprived, disorganised and lack opportunities for employment or youth involvement, when families do not set clear expectations, monitor children’s behaviour, or model appropriate behaviours and when school present a negative climate and do not involve students and their families. School community partnerships have contributed to the success of coordinated school health programs across the country. Communities expect schools and families to prepare students to become healthy, productive citizens. Communities can in turn have a responsibility to join with school and families in support of efforts that can help achieve this goal.
A school health program empowers students with not only the knowledge, attitudes and skills required to make positive health decisions but also the environment, motivation, services and support necessary to develop and maintain health behaviours. According to Resnicow K. (1991) a school health program includes health education, a healthy environment, health services, counselling, psychological and social services, integrated school and community efforts, physical education and a school based program for faculty and staff.
Max and Wooley (1998) argue that school health programs as a community health intervention has seen family and community partnerships with schools when children feel valued, they are more likely to develop health skills, avoid risky behaviours and remain in school. When parents are involved, students achieve more regardless of socio-economic status, ethical/racial background, or the parents ‘education level. The more extensive the parent involvement, the higher the student achievement. Negative student behaviours such as alcohol and substance abuse, violence and antisocial behaviour decrease as parent involvement increases. Students are less likely to succeed when communities are economically deprived, disorganised and lack opportunities for employment or youth involvement, when families do not set clear expectations, monitor children’s behaviour, or model appropriate behaviours and when school present a negative climate and do not involve students and their families.
School-community partnerships have contributed to the success of coordinated school health programs across the country. Communities expect schools and families to prepare students to become healthy, productive citizens. Communities can in turn have a responsibility to join with schools and families in support of efforts that can help achieve this goal. To be successful, school and community partnership must have clear concise responsibilities and expectations for each participant, allow for flexibility in organisation and implementation acknowledge that partnerships require a time commitment and that initial gains may be small and provide appropriate training for teachers, administrators and community members. The school, the family and the community each has its own unique resources, each can reach students in way the other cannot and each influences young people’s behaviours in different ways. Together as participants in a school health program, they can provide an environment in which students can learn and mature successfully.
Aldiner (2008) maintains that School based health programs have successfully reduced parasitic helmith infections and addressed issues ranging from tobacco use prevention hygiene, nutrition and sexual education. Schools that provide health services and education not only benefit school aged children, but also the entire community. It has been demonstrated that de-worming programs in school benefit out-of-school children reducing disease transmission in the community as a whole (Bundy et al). school children can act as messengers for other out-of-school children and members of their communities to communicate better practices in hygiene and overall health. Costs can also be reduced by using existing school system infrastructure as a key delivery mechanism. School health interventions have numerous economic returns through adult health outcomes. The effect of health on productivity and earnings may be the strongest where low-cost health interventions produce large effects. Healthier children are more likely to attend school and modest improvements in schooling will allow for the continuation of education. Education and good health offer children the power of choice and opportunity, as well as optimism for a better life. Evidence suggests that education can help protect individuals, particularly young women, for HIV infection and pregnancy. According to Bundy et al, health education in childhood can also help establish lifelong positive behaviours. It is widely recognised that school health and nutrition programs are essential to achieving the Millennium Development Goals and are central to preventing further HIV/AIDS pandemic. Today the majority of low-income countries have recognised the need for school health and nutrition programs and are seeking to implement these important programs.
School health programs are said to be one of the most efficient strategies that a nation might use to prevent major health and social problems. Nest to the family, schools are the major institution for providing the instruction and experiences that prepare young people for their roles as health, productive adults.
Schools can and invariably do play a powerful role in influencing students’ health related behaviours. Appropriate school interventions can foster effective education, prevent destructive behaviour and promote enduring health practices for many young people in their formative years, school may, in fact, be the only nurturing and supportive place where they learn health information and have positive behaviour consistently reinforced.
One way of increasing school health programs’ effectiveness is the need for staff development. Staff development increasingly is approached as the day-to day fostering of continuous improving in one’s professional practice and not as a workshop that occurs in isolation. Another way to increase effectiveness of school health programs is the involvement of active students. Students are more likely to turn to peers for advice and change is more likely to occur if someone similar o them recommends the change. Peer instruction has been effective in improving decision-making and problem solving skills which may be prerequisites for implementing behaviour change. Peer involvement may occur in a variety of ways such as peer counselling, peer instruction, peer theatre, youth service and cross-age mentoring.
Ways of increasing effective school health programs in community health are by focusing on priority behaviours that affect health and learning. These behaviours are tobacco use, unhealthy dietary behaviours, inadequate physical activity, alcohol and other drug abuse, sexual behaviours that may result in HIV infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, or unwanted pregnancies and behaviour that may result in intentional injuries and unintentional injuries. Another way of increasing the program’s effectiveness is by ensuring on-going staff development of which to assure effective programming, there is need for staff development programs. Systematic program planning is another effective way of increasing school heal programs’ effectiveness in which every organisational group that is part of the school health program needs to use a programming process to assure continuous improvements in programing.

In summary, school health programs can provide the nurture and support needed to facilitate the adoption of health-enhancing behaviours. This helps assure that educational gains achieved by a student will be maximized by a long and healthy life as an adult. A school health program can promote the optimal physical, emotional, social life of educational development.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Aldinger C. Zhang, X W Lui et al (2008) Changes in attitudes, Knowledge and behaviour associated with implementing a Comprehensive School Health Program in a Province of China
Allenworth, Diane D.et al eds. (1994). Healthy Students. An Agenda for Continuous Improvement in America’s Schools
Blair, Stevel N. et al. (1984). Health Promotion for Educators: Effects on Health Behaviours, Satisfaction and General Well-Being
Kane, William M.(1994) Planning for a Comprehensive School Health Program.
Marx E and Wooley S. F. (Eds) (1998). Health is Academic: A guide to Coordinated School Health Programs: New York.
Resnicow K.(1981) Cancer Prevention and Comprehensive School Health Education: the Role of The American Cancer Society.
The National Academics/500 fifth st. N.W/Washington DC.20001 (2014) National Academy of Sciences.
Tyson, Harriet (1999). A load off the Teachers’ backs: Coordinated School Health Programs
www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record-id.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Anti-Bullying Prevention Proposal

...Prevention Proposal – XYZ High School Anti-Bullying Program 20130228 Juvenile Justice Prevention Program Proposal Section 1. DESCRIBE THE TARGET GROUP The direct target group is the current freshman class at suburban middle class XYZ High School (XYZHS). Naturally, as the sophomore, junior, and senior classes matriculate through the school, they will be indirectly affected by the program and expected to hold true to the lessons and values taught in the anti-bullying curricula during their freshman year. The demographic for the direct and indirect target groups are as follows: • General Demographic o The population of residents ages 15 to 19 for the school district is 9,075 making up roughly 8.3 of the county population (Harnett County Schools, NC General Demographic Characteristics, n.d.). o Of the 108,885 residents, 71% are white, 23% are African American, 2% claim American Indian or Alaskan native as their race, 1.3% are Asian, 0.2% claim Pacific Islander, and 5.5% claim some other race (Harnett County Schools, NC General Demographic Characteristics, n.d.). o 9,171 residents or 8.4 of the county population are of Hispanic or Latino descent (Harnett County Schools, NC General Demographic Characteristics, n.d.). • Social Characteristics o Out of 39, 356 households, 1,130 are single fathers with kids under 18, and 3,918 are single mothers with kids under 18 (Harnett County Schools, NC Social Characteristics,......

Words: 6417 - Pages: 26

Free Essay

Lessen the Impact of Divorce

... LESSEN THE IMPACT OF DIVORCE Michael Jennings DeVry University Lessen the Impact of Divorce Charlie is 9 years old and lives in a single parent home where the parent works to support the family, where not much time is spent with Charlie, who must figure certain things out on his own.  Where does Charlie go after school?  If no one is home having Charlie home alone is not a very good option.  If siblings or friends are there but, no adult is present during the after school hours, home is still not a very good option.  The term “latch-key” kid is one who has their own key to their home and is expected to be home with minimal supervision.  Once a child reaches a certain responsible age, being a latch-key kid often makes sense.  Charlie must get home safe from school, stay out of trouble, and complete his homework, with little to no adult supervision.  After-school activities should be available to Charlie because he may not be responsible enough or his parents may not trust him to be home alone yet. Everyone is affected by the consequences of parental divorce, especially the children involved.  In any society, the children are the future.  In the United States alone, 40 to 50% of first marriages end in divorce, according to the American Psychological Association.  As citizens of the United States, we are all stakeholders of our future and should care about the well-being of all our children, especially those of disadvantaged environments such as parental divorce.  Additional...

Words: 2446 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Altrabjo

...change d. OD encompasses strategy, structure, and process changes e. all of the above ANS: e 2. Organization development distinguishes itself from organization change and change management by which of the following characteristics? a. addressing the effective sequence of leadership issues that produce organization improvements b. focusing narrowly on cost, quality, and schedule c. focusing on the transfer of knowledge and skills to help the system manage future change d. taking a broadly focused approach that can apply to any kind of change e. none of the above ANS: c 3. Which of the following is not one of the “stems” of OD? a. laboratory training b. environmental analysis c. action research/survey feedback d. participative management and quality of work life e. strategic change ANS: b 4. The first “T-group” was formed a. to facilitate decision making b. to work on group projects c. to make the group more cohesive d. as people related to data about their own behavior ANS: d 5. The assumption underlying the use of survey feedback in OD is a. surveys are the best way to collect data b. surveys allow one to collect a great deal of data c. surveys can provide feedback to the organization and be used to initiate change d. responses and surveys are easily interpreted ANS: c 6. According to the Managerial Grid, an individual’s style can best be described as which of the following: a. the way he or she dresses b.......

Words: 14422 - Pages: 58

Premium Essay

Hokage

...supportive and caring school community 7 4. Social and Emotional Learning 7 5. A Strengths-based Approach 8 6. A sense of Meaning and Purpose 8 7. A Healthy Lifestyle 9 Section 4: International Focus on Student Wellbeing 9 Section 5: Student Wellbeing in the Australian Educational Context 9 5.1: Australian Government National Frameworks in Education 9 5.2 Report on the of the Responses of State and territory and non-government education authorities to the Concept of a National Student Wellbeing Framework 11 5.3 Student Wellbeing in State and Territory Curriculum and Policy Documents 11 Section 6: Whole School Approaches to Student Wellbeing: Issues of School Leadership, Implementation and Sustainability of Student Wellbeing Initiatives 12 Section 1: Project Overview 13 1.1 Introduction 13 1.2 Project Objectives 13 1.3 Methodology 14 Section 2: Student Wellbeing and its Pathways 16 2.1 What is Student Wellbeing? 16 The Definition of Student Wellbeing Used in this Report 21 Explanations of Key Terms in this Definition 21 The Assumptions Underpinning this Definition 22 2.2 The Pathways to Student Wellbeing 22 The seven pathways identified from the research 23 Section 3: The Outcomes of Student Wellbeing and its Pathways 31 3.1 Introduction 31 Productivity 31 Social Inclusion 32 Social Capital 32 3.2 Academic Achievement 32 Increasing Student Motivation 33 Increasing Student Engagement 33 Increasing Student Attendance and School......

Words: 33991 - Pages: 136

Premium Essay

Points on a Flower Petal

...M.D. Stanford University School of Medicine ABSTRACT THE MEANING OF SELF-MANAGEMENT Self-management has become a popular term for behavioral interventions as well as for healthful behaviors. This is especially true for the management of chronic conditions. This article offers a short history of self-management. It presents three self-management tasks—medical management, role management, and emotional management—and six self-management skills—problem solving, decision making, resource utilization, the formation of a patient–provider partnership, action planning, and self-tailoring. In addition, the article presents evidence of the effectiveness of self-management interventions and posits a possible mechanism, self-efficacy, through which these interventions work. In conclusion the article discusses problems and solutions for integrating self-management education into the mainstream health care systems. Whether one is engaging in a health promoting activity such as exercise or is living with a chronic disease such as asthma, he or she is responsible for day-to-day management. Gregory Bateson (3) once said, “one cannot not communicate.” The same is true for health behavior and disease management. One cannot not manage. If one decides not to engage in a healthful behavior or not to be active in managing a disease, this decision reflects a management style. Unless one is totally ignorant of healthful behaviors it is impossible not to manage one’s health. The only question is......

Words: 6868 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Thesis Primer

...A Brief Primer for Writing Research Abstracts at Walden University Developed by the Associate Directors Center for Research Support Lou Milanesi, PhD Dan Weigand, PhD Laura Lynn, PhD George Smeaton, PhD Executive Director In Conjunction with the Walden University Writing Center Jeff Zuckerman, Director of Writing Services Martha King, Senior Dissertation Editor Abstract Primer This document is intended to assist Walden University students in drafting a concise and informative abstract to accurately and comprehensively represent their research. It describes the purpose the abstract serves within the larger community of scholars and its additional importance within the Walden research process. Also presented are more detailed explanations regarding the Abstract Guidelines and before-and-after examples of abstracts that were edited to better meet university requirements. What is an abstract? As described in the Abstract Guidelines for Theses, Dissertations, and Doctoral Studies, posted on the Research Center Web site and included at the end of this primer, the abstract “is a window for others into your research.” First, consider that the title of your research will provide the first clue about your study to those who are searching various databases for studies that contain information relevant to their own scholarly interests. Next, the abstract is intended as a means for you to extend the limited information found in your title by......

Words: 5655 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Pdhpe

...CQ1) How are priority issues for Australia’s health identified? 1. Account for the differences in health status of men and women in Australia (7 marks) 2. Define the following terms: mortality, morbidity and life expectancy (3 marks) 3. How is epidemiology used to improve the health of Australians? Provide examples (6 marks) 4. Outline two indicators of morbidity. Include examples in your answer (3 marks) 5. Why is it important to prioritise particular health issues in Australia? Include examples in your answer (5 marks) 6. Discuss the limitations of using epidemiology to describe the current health status of a population (4 marks) 7. Compare the health status of Australian males to Australian females (4 marks) 8. Analyse the importance of social justice principles in selecting health priorities in Australia (6 marks) 9. Demonstrate how an illness or disease is selected as a National Priority area (5 marks) 10. What is the role of epidemiology? Explain how epidemiology can be used to determine the priority areas for Australia’s health (4 marks) 11. Explain the main measures of epidemiology. What information do they provide about the current health status of Australians (4 marks) 12. Is Australia a healthy nation compared with the rest of the world? Explain your answer. How can Australia’s health be improved? (5 marks) 13. Distinguish between the terms ‘prevalence’ and ‘incidence’ (2 marks) 14. Identify reasons for Australia’s declining infant mortality......

Words: 8021 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay

Kindred Todd and the Ethics of Od

...Employee Involvement 350 CHAPTER 16 Work Design 376 PART 5 Human Resource Management Interventions 419 46 CHAPTER 17 Performance Management 420 74 CHAPTER 18 Developing Talent 451 CHAPTER 19 Managing Workforce Diversity and Wellness 473 23 CHAPTER 4 Entering and Contracting 75 CHAPTER 5 Diagnosing Organizations 87 CHAPTER 6 Diagnosing Groups and Jobs CHAPTER 14 Restructuring Organizations 107 PART 6 Strategic Change Interventions 504 CHAPTER 20 Transformational Change 505 CHAPTER 7 Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic Information 121 CHAPTER 21 Continuous Change 535 CHAPTER 8 Feeding Back Diagnostic Information 139 CHAPTER 22 Transorganizational Change 561 CHAPTER 9 Designing Interventions 151 CHAPTER 10 Leading and Managing Change 163 CHAPTER 11 Evaluating and Institutionalizing Organization Development Interventions 189 PART 3 Human Process Interventions 252 CHAPTER 12 Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches 253 CHAPTER 13 Organization Process Approaches 276 PART 4 Technostructural Interventions iv PART 7 Special Applications of Organization Development CHAPTER 23 Organization Development in Global Settings 613 614 CHAPTER 24 Organization Development in Nonindustrial Settings: Health Care, School Systems, the Public Sector, and Family-Owned Businesses 651 CHAPTER 25 Future Directions in......

Words: 400144 - Pages: 1601

Premium Essay

Mental Health Ati

...PN MENTAL HEALTH NURSING EDITION . CO NT ASTERY SERI ES TM N E R EV MOD IE W LE U PN Mental Health Nursing Review Module Edition 9.0 CONtriButOrs Sheryl Sommer, PhD, RN, CNE VP Nursing Education & Strategy Janean Johnson, MSN, RN Nursing Education Strategist Sherry L. Roper, PhD, RN Nursing Education Strategist Karin Roberts, PhD, MSN, RN, CNE Nursing Education Coordinator Mendy G. McMichael, DNP, RN Nursing Education Specialist and Content Project Coordinator Marsha S. Barlow, MSN, RN Nursing Education Specialist Norma Jean Henry, MSN/Ed, RN Nursing Education Specialist eDitOrial aND PuBlisHiNg Derek Prater Spring Lenox Michelle Renner Mandy Tallmadge Kelly Von Lunen CONsultaNts Deb Johnson-Schuh, RN, MSN, CNE Loraine White, RN, BSN, MA PN MeNtal HealtH NursiNg i PN MeNtal HealtH NursiNg review Module editioN 9.0 intellectual Property Notice ATI Nursing is a division of Assessment Technologies Institute®, LLC Copyright © 2014 Assessment Technologies Institute, LLC. All rights reserved. The reproduction of this work in any electronic, mechanical or other means, now known or hereafter invented, is forbidden without the written permission of Assessment Technologies Institute, LLC. All of the content in this publication, including, for example, the cover, all of the page headers, images, illustrations, graphics, and text, are subject to trademark, service mark, trade dress, copyright, and/or other intellectual property rights or......

Words: 83801 - Pages: 336

Free Essay

Bnoneh

...of this document as well as additional materials on immunization, vaccines and biologicals may be requested from: World Health Organization Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland • Fax: + 41 22 791 4227 • Email: vaccines@who.int • © World Health Organization 2009 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; email: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications—whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; email: permissions@who.int). e designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. e mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the......

Words: 13534 - Pages: 55

Premium Essay

Online Learning

............................................................................... v Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 1 Overview of Online Learning for Secondary Education .................................................... 1 Purpose of this Report ..................................................................................................... 3 Introduction to the Measurement of Educational Productivity ............................................... 5 Estimating Program Costs ............................................................................................... 8 Documenting Context and Implementation .................................................................... 10 Measuring Program Outcomes ...................................................................................... 10 Cost-Effectiveness Research Requirements .................................................................. 12 The Productivity Potential of Online Learning .................................................................... 15 Opportunities to Reduce Educational Costs Through Online Learning ........................... 25 Implications ....................................................................................................................... 33 The Need for Transformation ......................................................................................... 34......

Words: 22355 - Pages: 90

Free Essay

Applying Social Network Interventions in Men Who Have Sex with Men: a Systematic Review

...Applying Social Network Interventions in Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Systematic Review Communication 623 Final Paper Presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Health Psychology Seminar at Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania by Qijia Chen May 2014 Instructor: Professor John B. Jemmott, Annenberg School for Communication Abstract The current paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature on social network intervention in HIV prevention among MSM. I performed a systematic literature research in multi-lingual databases and located a relatively exhaustive collection of articles on social network interventions in MSM. There is strong evidence that such interventions are efficacious in generating changes in behavioral and psychological constructs that might lead to risk reduction in HIV infection and transmission. This paper identified several urgent issues in the current state of research development, particularly, a lack of theoretical development, an insufficient numbers of methodologically rigorous studies, and an absence of clear conceptual distinctions and implementary recommendations. The review also proposes potential solutions and suggestions for future research. Introduction Men who have sex with men (MSM) comprise the largest proportion of new HIV infections in the USA (CDC, 2011). Efforts to curtail the incidence of HIV infection require that at-risk individuals adopt effective behavioral changes....

Words: 5732 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Smoke-Free Ontario Strategy Evaluation Report

...Smoke-Free Ontario Strategy Evaluation Report Ontario Tobacco Research Unit November 2012 Smoke-Free Ontario Strategy Evaluation Report Suggested Citation: Ontario Tobacco Research Unit. Smoke-Free Ontario Strategy Evaluation Report. Toronto: Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, Special Report, November 2012. Ontario Tobacco Research Unit ii Smoke-Free Ontario Strategy Evaluation Report Acknowledgements Many people were involved in the preparation of this report. Key authors are Robert Schwartz, Shawn O’Connor, Alexey Babayan, Maritt Kirst, and Jolene Dubray. Marilyn Pope, David Ip, Pamela Kaufman, and Marian Smith provided editorial comments on an earlier draft and Sonja Johnston provided production assistance. The interpretation and opinions expressed in this report are the responsibility of the Principal Investigators of the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit (OTRU):         Susan Bondy, University of Toronto K. Stephen Brown, University of Waterloo Joanna Cohen, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, University of Toronto Roberta Ferrence, University of Toronto, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health John M. Garcia, University of Waterloo Paul McDonald, University of Waterloo Robert Schwartz, University of Toronto, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Peter Selby, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto Ontario Tobacco Research Unit iii Smoke-Free Ontario Strategy Evaluation Report Table of......

Words: 43612 - Pages: 175

Premium Essay

Nurse Educacion

...1 Nurses and other health care professionals are under increased scrutiny to provide safe, effective care. Likewise, nursing education programs are faced with increased pressure to produce graduates who are capable of providing safe patient care. Toward that end, nursing education programs develop curricula, hire qualified faculty, and select learning experiences for students in an effort to train and graduate competent, effective nurses. The instructional strategies utilized in both didactic and clinical components of nursing education courses are highly influential in determining critical thinking and clinical decisionmaking ability as well as in developing the psychomotor skill performance of new graduates. Of course, it is unrealistic to think that graduates of nursing education programs have received all the training they need when they depart the doors of academia. Orientation programs for new graduates and continuing education for nurses are essential tools to help practitioners improve their knowledge, skills, and expertise so that quality patient care is provided and outcomes are optimized while errors are minimized. Ongoing evaluation of nursing competence is necessary to promote patient safety. In the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health Care System, simulation training is recommended as one strategy that can be used to prevent errors in the clinical setting.1 The report states that “… health care......

Words: 20085 - Pages: 81

Free Essay

Food Security Review Centric Research Paper

...is ever increasing in a profitable manner. A new model is presented to explain the important aspects of food security in some specific domains. The model highlights various business domains that are benefited with food. This report depicts the major domains Nutrition, Agro biodiversity, Farming and Stamp. Food industry and its business is vast. Therefore, the suggested model is particularly useful to understand the domain specific food security and its prioritization, utilization and its utmost importance. Introduction “There is growing literature concerning food security in under developed countries Scholars, community organizations, and media alike are increasingly scrutinizing food, food systems, and food security. As these areas of interest grow in popularity, the discourse that surrounds them is also being examined to explore the ideological underpinnings and the power relations that surround food.(Knezevic, Hunter, Watt, Williams, & Anderson, 2014) In China, the term food safety has become a buzzword that evokes concerns from individual consumers as well as food policy stakeholders. Understanding consumers’ awareness of the problem is crucial to formulating custom actions to facilitate health communication and eventually improve food security.(Xiang, Bo, & Emily, 2015) Low food security is associated with negative developmental outcomes in infants and toddlers. Persistently low food security in early childhood is associated with long-term lower health status......

Words: 6541 - Pages: 27