Free Essay

Disease and Disorders of Skeletal System

In: Science

Submitted By mye2006
Words 624
Pages 3
Diseases and Disorders

Leukemia The cause of most human leukemia is unknown. It is a kind of cancer in which abnormal white blood cells multiply in an uncontrolled manner. they interfere with the production of normal white blood cells. Leukemia affects the production of red blood cells. Bursitis Bursitis is a disorder that causes pain in the body's joints. It most commonly affects the shoulder and hip joints. It is caused by an inflammation of the bursa, small fluid-filled bags that act as lubricating surfaces for muscles to move over bones. This inflammation usually results from overactivity of an arm or leg. Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a disease resulting in the loss of bone tissue. In osteoporosis, the cancellous bone loses calcium, becomes thinner, and may disappear altogether. Sprains A sprain is an injury to a ligament or to the tissue that covers a joint. Most sprains result from a sudden wrench that stretches or tears the tissues of the ligaments. A sprain is usually extremely painful. The injured part often swells and turns black and blue. Fractures A fracture is a broken bone. These are some common kinds of fractures: - closed, open, multiple, comminuted, greenstick and spiral

Spina bifida Spina bifida is a spinal defect that is present at birth. In spina bifida, the spinal cord does not form properly and the vertebrae and skin cannot form around it. Spina bifida results from an error in the development of the embryo that occurs about a month after a woman becomes pregnant. This error may have various causes, including the use of alcohol or certain medications by the pregnant woman or exposure to extreme heat. Genetic factors appear to be very important. Scurvy Scurvy is a disease caused by lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the diet. If a person does not get enough vitamin C, any wound he or she might have heals poorly. The person also bruises easily. The mouth and gums become sore. The gums bleed, and the teeth may become loose. Patients lose their appetite, their joints become sore, and they become restless. Arthritis There are more than 100 diseases of the joints referred to as arthritis. Victims of arthritis suffer pain, stiffness, and swelling in their joints.

Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease, occurs when a joint wears out. Many elderly people have osteoarthritis, and the disease may also occur if a joint has been injured many times. The joints most frequently affected are those of the hands, hips, knees, lower back, and neck.

Scoliosis Scoliosis is a side-to-side curve of the spine. This condition becomes apparent during adolescence. It is unknown why Scoliosis affects more girls than boys. Talipes equinovarus Talipes equinovarus, often called clubfoot is an abnormal condition of the foot, usually present at birth. The foot is bent downward and inward so that the person can walk only on the toes and on the outside of the foot. Sometimes the foot is bent upward and outward so that the person can use only the heel for walking. Tendinitis Tendinitis is a disorder involving stiffness or pain in the muscles or joints. It is often called rheumatism. Kyphosis Kyphosis, also called hunchback is a forward bending of the spine. Kyphosis is caused by any condition that deforms the bones of the upper part of the spine so that the person is bent forward. Diseases that cause kyphosis include tuberculosis, syphilis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Poliomyelitis Poliomyelitis, also called polio, is a serious infection caused by a virus. A polio virus may attack the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord, causing paralysis. Some patients show only mild symptoms, such as fever, headache, sore throat, and vomiting. Symptoms may disappear after about a day.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Skeletal.eap3am 8/20/02 1:20 PM Page 50 50 The Body Systems: Clinical and Applied Topics The Skeletal System 6 The skeletal framework of the body is composed of at least 206 bones and the associated tendons, ligaments, and cartilages. The skeletal system has a variety of important functions, including the support of soft tissues, blood cell production, mineral and lipid storage, and, through its relationships with the muscular system, the support and movement of the body as a whole. Skeletal system disorders can thus affect many other systems. The skeletal system is in turn influenced by the activities of other systems. For example, weakness or paralysis of skeletal muscles will lead to a weakening of the associated bones. Although the bones you study in the lab may seem rigid and permanent structures, the living skeleton is dynamic and undergoing continual remodeling. The remodeling process involves bone deposition by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. As indicated in Figure A-16, the net result of the remodeling varies depending on: 2. The applied physical stresses: Heavily stressed bones become thicker and stronger, and lightly stressed bones become thinner and weaker. Skeletal weakness can therefore result from muscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis (p. 66) or the muscular dystrophies (p. 65), and conditions that affect CNS motor neurons, such as spinal cord injuries (p. 75), demyelination disorders (p. 72), or multiple sclerosis (pp. 72, 82). 3.......

Words: 6301 - Pages: 26

Free Essay

Paper

...Instructions: 1. Download and Save this file with your name in the file name. (ex: Skeletal System Case Study-CharlieBrown) 2. Type your name in the header of this document. 3. Read the following case study. 4. Answer all the questions that follow by typing in your answer directly underneath each question. Be sure to answer each question completely. 5. When you finish, be sure to save the entire document for submission to your instructor. 6. Submit your document by the due date listed in your syllabus. Submission should be through the ASUN Portal. Upload your completed document—make sure the file you upload and mark as final has your answers typed in it! Note: You must UPLOAD the document and MARK AS FINAL for it to be properly “turned in” through the Portal. 7. Participate in the Class Discussions of this Case Study—this will be completed on the Discussion Forums page within the ASUN Portal. 8. Email me if you have any questions. The Skeletal System - Aging and Disease The skeletal system is required for nearly every body movement. It also supports the body at rest, protects vital organs, and produces blood cells. However, like any other system, it is susceptible to disease. Different diseases become more (or less) likely as the body ages. A few common diseases include scoliosis, arthritis, and osteoporosis Scoliosis Scoliosis is defined as an “s” or “c” shaped spinal curvature. It is most often diagnosed during adolescence...

Words: 924 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Physical Disabilities

...28, 2013 Physical Disabilities * A condition that incapacitates the skeletal, muscular and/or neurological systems of the body to some degree. * It has no concurrent mental disability * Children with disabilities prefer to use the term “Physically Challenged” According to IDEA… * People who experience physical disabilities are considered as “Orthopedically Impaired” (Having a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.) Two Groups of Disabilities 1. Neuromotor Impairments 2. Muscular or Skeletal Conditions Neuromotor Impairments * These are conditions caused by damage to the CNS (the brain and the spinal cord) * Problem: Neurological messages sent to them are faulty or interrupted. Different Kinds of Neuromotor Impairments A. Seizure Disorders B. Cerebral Palsy Muscular/skeletal conditions (Musculoskeletal Conditions) * Conditions affecting muscles or bones and resulting in limited functioning. * Individuals with these conditions usually have trouble controlling their movements. * Most children with musculoskeletal conditions have normal intellectual abilities. (Batshaw&Perret,1992). * They do not necessarily encounter academic difficulties, but their physical limitations and social and emotional adjustment can create educational problems. Types of Muscular/Skeletal Conditions * Polio * Muscular Dystrophy * Hare Lip *......

Words: 911 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Cell Development

...Plasma membrane: The plasma membrane controls how substances move in and out of the cell. The cell membrane contains phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates. These are arranged in a fluid mosaic structure. Cytoplasm: The cytoplasm is everything that is outside the nucleus and inside of the cell membrane. The fibre network helps maintain its shape and gives it support. Nucleus: Nucleus contains the DNA and is like a brain Ribosome: Ribosomes contain and give out the protein. They connect to each other to build a long chain. Endoplasmic reticulum: Endoplasmic reticulum is the network that is inside the cytoplasm of cells involved in transporting things to and from the cell. Mitochondria: Mitochondria convert energy into different forms that the cells can use. Mitochondria’s are found in the cytoplasm. Centrosome: Centrosomes are found near the nucleus in most cells. They consist of centriole which is surrounded by a centrosphere. The two parts move to opposite poles. This then divides the cell. The information I got my definitions from are http://www.cellsalive.com/ & http://www.williamsclass.com/SeventhScienceWork/CellTheoryParts.htm and http://www.biologyjunction.com/cell_functions.htm Epithelial tissue is one of four types of tissues in a body. Epithelial makes up many parts of the body. For example the skin, it also lines the inside of the body and cavities. Epithelial tissue can be divided up into two basic types. The first type is the...

Words: 3867 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Scoliosis

...common disorder can develop at the beginning of puberty during childhood stages and can progress to more serious problem as the child grows. According to Medline Plus, scoliosis can be legally defined as being a sideways or lateral or “S” shaped curve of the spine also known as your backbone that is part of the skeletal system whose cause is unknown (Mayo Clinic). It is a spinal disorder that can be affected by any individual’s growth process at any given point during the first twenty years of life. The spine can be developed and identified between two different structures. Structural means it is associated with neuromuscular disorder, congenital, or idiopathic or nonstructural as in a spine that is structured normally but with a lateral curvature. Both structures can only be determined by the seriousness of the deformity of the spine, location, direction, and even the cause as to what provoked the spine from becoming more abnormal than it should be (Larson 392). The spine can be characterized by twenty-six bones that associated with ligaments, tendons, and muscles that emerge from the skull and extend down to the lower back. A spine is developed to be able to help support the back of the body which supports movement. Ultimately, scoliosis can affect the skeletal, nervous, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems (Mayo Clinic). The human body is an incredible and complex structure that must be able to effectively maintain homeostasis (Martini, et. Al. 12). Each body system......

Words: 1526 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Hcs/212 Week Four Health Care Terms Worksheet

... |Definition |Use the term in a sentence as it applies to the health care | | | |industry. | |Digestive System |Body system responsible for digestion, |Antacids are often used to treat issues with the digestive | | |absorption, and ingestion of foods to |system. | | |supply the body with nutrients. | | |Obesity |Characterized by the excessive amount of |The prevalence of obesity is rising in the united states | | |body fat that has accumulated to the point|causing a rise in health complications. | | |of potential health complications. | | |Circulatory System |The system that moves blood through the |The circulatory system contains cells that aid in fighting | | |body. Consists of the heart, capillaries |infection. | | |and blood. | ...

Words: 335 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Musculr Dystrophy

... Muscular dystrophy (MD) refers to a group of more than 30 genetic diseases that cause progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles used during voluntary movement. The word dystrophy is derived from the Greek dys, which means "difficult" or "faulty," and troph, or "nourish." These disorders vary in age of onset, severity, and pattern of affected muscles. All forms of MD grow worse as muscles progressively degenerate and weaken. Many patients eventually lose the ability to walk (“National Institute,” 2011). Some types of MD also affect the heart, gastrointestinal system, endocrine glands, spine, eyes, brain, and other organs. Respiratory and cardiac diseases may occur, and some patients may develop a swallowing disorder. MD is not contagious and cannot be brought on by injury or activity (“National Institute,” 2011). Method(s) of diagnosis Muscular dystrophies are diagnosed through both the patient’s medical history and a complete family history to determine if the muscle disease is secondary to a disease affecting other tissues or organs or is an inherited condition. It is also important to rule out any muscle weakness resulting from prior surgery, exposure to toxins, current medications that may affect the patient's functional status, and any acquired muscle diseases. Thorough clinical and neurological exams can rule out disorders of the central and/or peripheral nervous systems, identify any patterns of muscle weakness and atrophy, test reflex......

Words: 3859 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Human Anatomy

...applies to the health care industry. Digestive System Digestive system refers to the group of organs that break down food and absorb the nutrients used by the body for fuel and to excrete waste products. Smokeless tobacco products allow tobacco to be absorbed by the digestive system or thorough mucous membranes. Obesity Obesity is the condition of being more overweight than what is considered average or healthy. Researchers have identified an enzyme that could hold the key to reducing obesity. Circulatory System Circulatory system refers to the system that moves blood, oxygen and nutrients through the body. Quitting smoking significantly lowers the risk of problems with the heart and the circulatory system. Hypertension Hypertension also known as high blood pressure is when the blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg (millimeters of mercury) or above most of the time. Pulmonary hypertension refers to high blood pressure in the arteries taking blood from the heart to the lungs. Immune System Immune system refers to the body’s defense against infectious organism. Scientist have been working for years to find ways to boost the immune systems ability to fight cancer. Cardiac Disease Cardiac disease also known as heart disease refers to disease concerning the heart. Exercise has been shown to help the heart, whereas a lazy lifestyle can be a major risk factor for cardiac disease. Respiratory System Respiratory system refers to the system by which oxygen is taken into the body and......

Words: 453 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Skeletal System

...The Skeletal System The Skeletal System is a very important part of your body and without it you would be a huge blob of skin and organs and tissues. It would actually be pretty gross. Without your bones you wouldn’t be able to walk, or write, or talk, or anything else. When you are born, you have about 300 bones made of mostly cartilage. Cartilage is a soft "mushy" substance that acts as a pad. As you reach adulthood the cartilage turns to bone, and some of your baby bones join together to form larger bones. By adulthood the average human being will have 206 bones in their body. The bones in your body do more than just stand you up and keep you looking good. God made the skeletal system, the network of bones inside of you, to do lots of other important things. Besides keeping you from flopping around like an octopus on the ground, let’s see what else your bones can do. The skeletal system has a few functions. One of the functions, and probably the most obvious is support. Your bones are well designed for bearing the weight of the body, cartilage provides firm but flexible support for structures such as the ears and nose, and ligaments hold the bones together. The second function is protection. Bone, as we all know, is hard, so it protects the organs it surrounds. The skull protects the brain, the ribcage protects several organs such as the heart and lungs. Our vertebral column protects our spinal cord. Our spinal cord is actually just as delicate as our brain, but in......

Words: 1186 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

10 Neurotransmitters

...mood and thought processes  Controls ability to focus, concentrate, and remember things  The Mind Body Connection  The chemistry of our bodies can alter, and be altered by our every thought and feeling. Our bodies and our minds are truly interconnected, the health of one depends on the health of the other. Neurotransmitter Imbalances: Disrupted communication between the brain and the body can have serious effects to ones health both physically and mentally. Depression, anxiety and other mood disorders are thought to be directly related to imbalances with neurotransmitters. The four major neurotransmitters that regulate mood are Serotonin, Dopamine, GABA and Norepinephrine. The Inhibitory System is the brains braking system, it prevents the signal from continuing. The inhibitory system slows things down. Serotonin and GABA are examples of inhibitory neurotransmitters. GABA (Gamma amino butyric acid) GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system....

Words: 1201 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Myopathy

...……………………………………SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS 8. ……………………………..……..PREVENTION 9. ……………………………..……..TREATMENT 10. …………………………..………..BIBLIOGRAPHY Abstract In this assignment, the disease of Myopathy is taken into examination. Myopathy refers to any disease that affects muscle tissue. Myopathy can be the result of either inherited or acquired causes. The medical services primarily consist of physical therapy, different kinds of drug therapy, bracing for support, therapeutic massages, and surgery. With supported facts and data, one can understand various topics of this disease and apply what they’ve learned in their everyday life. Through careful and proper research, an analysis of this muscular disease had been made. In this examination of Myopathy, the audience is to learn about the many types of Myopathy, the causes, and preventative measure, as well as statistical data to support the findings. Knowing the symptoms, physiological details, and treatments of this disease will not only help people gain a better understanding of what Myopathy really is, but it will allow them to want to promote a more health conscious lifestyle and want to do whatever it takes to prevent and be more precautious of this painful disease. Introduction Myopathy develops as the result of either inherited (congenital or genetic) disorders or acquired conditions of the muscles. There are four different types of myopathy. They are Inherited myopathy, Endocrine myopathy, Inflammatory myopathy, and......

Words: 1331 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Skeletal System

...ANATOMY: Skeletal System is comprised of 206 individual bones in an adult human. The bones of Skeletal System are divided into two type i.e. * Axial Skeleton * Appendicular Skeleton   Axial skeleton of the body contains 80 bones in the following regions. * Skull: Except for Mandible (lower jaw) it has 22 bones fused together. * Hyoid: It is the only bone not forming a joint with any other bone. It lies inferior to the Mandible. * Auditory Ossicles: Malleus, Incus and Stapes (bones of middle ear) are altogether known as Auditory Ossicles. These are smallest bones found inside the cavity of Temporal Bone * Ribs: There 12 pair of ribs together with sternum forming Ribcage. * Sternum: It is a thin knife shape bone situated along anterior side of Thoracic Region. * Vertebral Column: It is comprised of 26 vertebrae and are named by regions Cervical (7 bones), Thoracic (12 bones), Lumbar (5 bones), Sacrum (5 bones) and Coccyx (4 bones).   Appendicular skeleton is comprised of 126 bones in the following regions. * Upper limbs contains bones of the upper arm. * Lower Limbs contains bones like Tibia and Fibula of Lower Leg and bones of feet. * Pelvic Girdle is formed of right and left Hip Bones * Pectoral Girdle consists of Left and Right Clavicles and Left and Right Scapulae.   Occupying the 30% to 40% of body mass is comprised of non-living bone matrix and small bone cells. These bones cells allow following functions. *......

Words: 947 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Huntington's Disease

...Cellular Pathophysiology Huntington’s disease causes many changes in the immune system and the inflammatory response. According to Ellrich, Reick, Saft and Linker (2013), “increased inflammation in HD might be the response to neuronal death induced by mhtt toxicity” (para. 10). The immune system initiates the inflammatory response that is seen in Huntington’s disease. The exact impact of the innate and adaptive immune system is unknown in Huntington’s disease (Ellrichmann, Reick, Saft and Linker, 2013). It has been proven that the immune system, inflammatory response and stress provide more harm to the body than good. Eventually those diagnosed with Huntington’s disease end up succumbing to an illness that is contracted from a failing immune system (Mayo Clinic, 2014). Huntington’s disease is an autosomal dominant inherited disease that causes cell loss (Revilla, 2014). According to Raymond et al. (2011), cell loss occurs in the striatum, cortex, globus pallidus, thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and the cerebellum. The exact mechanism of cellular death is still unknown in Huntington’s disease. According to Revilla (2014), “Several mechanisms of neuronal cell death have been proposed for HD, including excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, impaired energy metabolism, and apoptosis”. Systemic Dysfunction Huntington’s disease not only affects the brain but the entire human body. According to Zielonka et al. (2014), “patients experience a wide......

Words: 752 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Body Systems Preparation

...Body Systems Preparation Part III In the reading from the book, Human Body Systems, team A will give a brief overview of the skeletal, muscular, encoring and male and female reproductive systems and explain what we did or did not already know, what we found interesting and why, as well as what we learned from this week that can help team A with week five presentation. In chapter eleven, on the skeletal system, the human skeleton consists of 206 bones and provides support to our bodies. After reading this chapter team A learned about rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a disorder of the skeletal system. The most interesting finding about rheumatoid arthritis is that it is not a disease that results from wear and tear; rheumatoid arthritis is the result of an autoimmune disease. This is extremely interesting to Angelina because she would like to continue her education to help treat patients. Anyone can be affected by this disease at any given time and learning about it can help her understand the symptoms. The endocrine system consists of small glands that are strategically place throughout the body. These glands produce and release chemical substances called hormones. Hormone is a chemical that travels through the blood to cause effect in other areas of body function. What is interesting about hormones is that these chemicals affect five different areas of the body, homeostasis, growth and development, reproduction, energy production and behavior (Chiras,......

Words: 753 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

How Will the World End

...Cri du Chat Cri du chat syndrome is a rare genetic disorder which approximately affects 1 in 20,000 to 50,000 live births. The disease does not depend on ethnic backgrounds, but is most common in the case of women. The disorder gets its name from the typical cry of babies born with this syndrome. The baby sounds like a kitten, because of problems with the nervous system and larynx. The good news is that about 1/3 of kids recover by the age of 2. Negative aspects of this disease may be: * Feeding problems, because they can't suck and swallow well * Low weight at birth and poor evolution * Motor, cognitive, and speech delays * Behavioral problems such as aggression, hyperactivity, and repetitive movements * Uncommon facial traits that can change in time * What is Cri-du-Chat syndrome? The name of this syndrome is French for "cry of the cat," referring to the distinctive cry of children with this disorder. The cry is caused by abnormal larynx development, one of the many symptoms associated with this disorder. It usually becomes less noticeable as the baby gets older, making it difficult for doctors to diagnose cri-du-chat after age two. Cri-du-chat is caused by a deletion (the length of which may vary) on the short arm of chromosome 5. Multiple genes are missing as a result of this deletion, and each may contribute to the symptoms of the disorder. One of the deleted genes known to be involved is TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase). This gene......

Words: 1813 - Pages: 8