Free Essay

Disease & Evolution

In: Science

Submitted By soupysoup
Words 2793
Pages 12
Disease and Evolution
The human body has been plagued with diseases since the beginning of time—pathogens like viruses and bacteria have made us privy to Mother Nature. As humans evolve, so do the diseases we are susceptible to. Some diseases that were once rare have become common, others have disappeared and newer, more daunting ones have emerged. Many of these changes have taken place in the wake of important transformations in human civilizations and ecology. It is therefore feasible to propose that diseases succeed and fail in response to humanity's advances. Natural selection is unable to provide us with perfect protection against all pathogens, because they tend to evolve much faster than humans do. E. coli, for example, with its rapid rates of reproduction, has as much opportunity for mutation and selection in one day as humanity gets in a millennium. And our defenses, whether natural or artificial, make for potent selection forces. Pathogens either quickly evolve a counter defense or become extinct. Diseases such as AIDS, Ebola, Polio have shown their wrath and humans have sought to find cures and treatment options. By definition, disease is essentially “a disorder of structure or function that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affect a specific location (not just from a physical injury)” (WHO, 2007). The true boundaries and limitations of disease remain elusive. Healthcare specialists and researchers use “normal” conditions as their basis in order to understand what disease is. By understanding what disease is, one can target and identify the causes of the “abnormal” condition. The truth about diseases is that they are all relative.
The question of how disease came to be remains unanswered though. Diseases are about as old as time—they have always plagued mankind. A vast majority of existing human infectious disease have their origin in other animal species. In order to be successful as a pathogen, there must be a balance of transmissibility and effect on host fitness.
Knowledge of microbial genomes, and the functions they encode, is severely limited. Among 40 phyla of bacteria, for example, most of the available genomic sequences were from only three phyla; sequencing of Archae and Eukaryote genomes has proceeded in a similarly sporadic manner (WHO, 2007). However, pathogens like virus, bacterium, prion, fungus, viroid or parasite are known to cause disease. Bacteria are typically 1- 5µm. In fact, a vast majority of bacteria are considered harmless or beneficial to humans. They are living prokaryotes and cause disease from parasitism or toxin production. Some common examples of bacteria causing disease are Tuberculosis or being exposed to Anthrax. On the other hand, viruses are also big players in the world of disease. Typically only 20-300 nm, they are interestingly the most abundant type of biological entity. They are acellular and cannot replicate on their own. They cause disease by hijacking a cell’s machinery. They have no energy metabolism, do not grow, produce no waste, and do not respond to stimuli—so are they living? That is a hot debate topic in the world of Science. What we do know is that viruses are behind some of the deadliest diseases in our world including Ebola, SARS, HIV/AIDS.
The Ebola Virus and Evolution:
The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has international medical organizations on high alert and people all around the world on the edge. Ebola is normally carried by animals like fruit bats, but occasionally makes the jump to humans. When it becomes apparent in humans, it is fatal, killing more than half of those infected. However, because it is only spread by direct contact with bodily fluids, most of the world need not fear for their lives. An important question to ask though is whether Ebola virus can evolve.
The Ebola virus is experiencing plenty of mutations. Ebola has RNA, not DNA, as its genetic material. When RNA is copied, many more mistakes are made than when DNA is copied. This gives viruses like Ebola a particularly high mutation rate when compared to DNA-based viruses like smallpox or chickenpox — though not as high as the rates at which HIV and the flu accumulate new mutations. This indicates that Ebola's high mutation rate and its rapid rate of replication may cause the virus to evolve quickly (Carol et. al, 2013). Ebola (at least the strains that we are most interested in) now live in humans, which have many physiological differences from bats. The quick pace of evolution in the recent Ebola outbreak may in part reflect the initial stages of the virus' adaptation to humans, as natural selection favors mutations that make the virus more successful in its new host (Gire et. al, 2014). It is difficult to diagnose Ebola infections and hampering the medical community's ability to treat and contain the virus. Such changes could also impact vaccine development and therapies for treating the disease. While Ebola's ongoing evolution is unlikely to lead to an airborne virus, it is likely to lead to other changes that will affect how we fight this deadly outbreak.
During an outbreak, the first individual to be infected with Ebola virus is thought to acquire the infection through direct contact with an animal that harbors the virus. Transmission between humans takes place through direct contact with patient’s body secretions including saliva, blood and semen. A person infected with Ebola virus does not spread the disease until s/he begins to manifest its symptoms; moreover, spread through the air does not take place. The typical course of Ebola virus infection spans over two to three weeks. The initial symptoms of the disease include myalgia, fever and malaise which are interpreted by the patient as ‘a flu-like illness’. As the disease progresses, patients manifest severe bleeding along with coagulation abnormalities. Neutrophilia (elevated neutrophil count), lymphopenia (low lymphocyte count) along with a skin rash and gastrointestinal bleeding are commonly observed in such patients (Suzuki et.al, 1997). The inflammatory response that develops is not protective and in most cases it is exaggerated. Worsening viremia (viral presence in blood) and the resulting liver damage may result in disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) – a disorder which results from over activity of proteins that control blood clotting (Gire et. al, 2014). The integrity of blood vessels is further compromised since the virus directly infects the endothelial cells of blood vessels at this stage. The ultimate outcome of this process is a hypotensive shock that results due to excessive bleeding.
The Ebola (EBO) virus is a member of the family filoviridae which is composed of non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses. There are four known subtypes of Ebola: Zaire, Sudan, Reston, and Ivory Coast (EBO-Z, EBO-S, EBO-R, and EBO-IC, respectively). EBO-Z is the most virulent subtype, with a 77% mortality rate in its most recent positively identified outbreak in Zaire in 1995 (Sanchez et al., 1996). However, not all subtypes are as virulent. EBO-IC is pathogenic in primates, but only caused a single nonfatal human infection. Likewise, EBO-R is only pathogenic in primates.
Virulent strains of Ebola cause a condition known as hemorrhagic fever. Ebola HF is a particularly severe form of HF, the symptoms of which are: high fever, severe hemorrhaging, and shock (Mühlberger et al., 1999). The exact means through which HF is achieved are highly diverse, quite impressive, and poorly understood. Fatal cases of Ebola HF are characterized by upregulation of gamma interferon (IFN-g). As the symptoms progressed massive amounts of IFN-g and secreted FasL were produced, indicating the activation of many cytotoxic (CD8+) T cells and other cytolytic cells (Mühlberger et al., 1999).
The responses of endothelial cells have been shown to be defective during an Ebola infection. Ebola’s effect on endothelial cells is surmised from the ability of Marburg, a related filovirus, to directly infect endothelial cells. Marburg has been clearly shown to replicate in endothelial cells during the infection. At the terminal phase of Marburg HF, shock is caused as a result of direct lysis of endothelial cells by the Marburg virus, massive release of inflammatory mediators by unspecific (phagocytosis) or specific (viral replication) activation of inflammatory cells, and oxidant injury or unspecific immune responses (Schnittler et al., 1993). In order for Ebola to cause infection, it must be capable of entering cells. Ebola fusion peptides have been shown to destabilize lipid vesicles which allows membrane fusion. The fusion protein is a glycoprotein (GP) that is not inert, but causes perturbations of the bilayer that results in membrane fusion. The action is thought to be analogous to the HIV fusion peptide. Ebola not only attacks the immune system by horribly disrupting its signaling pathways and inflammation response, but also destroys the tissues largely responsible for immune function (Carol et. al, 2013). Macrophages, stromal, and dendritic cells swell in the lymphoid tissue. Mitosis and involution of the lymphoid follicle are also blocked. Four to six days after infection, the severest damage is observed the red pulp of the spleen. The walls are completely destroyed and is accompanied by hemorrhaging. The stroma and macrophages have become necrotic. Similarly, in the white pulp and in the lymph follicles of the respiratory and GI tracts, macrophages and stromal cells have become necrotic and lymph tissue exhibits increased lymphoid depletion. Clearly, Ebola has developed many tricks to defeat our immune system.
Despite Ebola’s surge into the mainstream of virology, little is really known about this pathogen. The animal that serves as the viral reservoir is still unknown. Many species can serve as intermediate hosts, especially non-human primates, but Ebola is pathogenic to them as well. Some feel that the reservoir may be a species of solitary bat or it may be arthropod-borne (Monath, 1999). Bats experimentally infected with Ebola do not die, supporting the bat reservoir theory. Another theory is that filoviruses evolved from plant viruses (WHO, 2007). Traces of non-pathogenic or defective Ebola viral particles have been found in about 3% of the most common species in and around areas of outbreaks, but none of these are capable of starting an infection (Hagmann, 1999). Furthermore, in some human populations the number of Ebola seropositive individuals exceeds 30%. Clearly, non-pathogenic variants occur relatively frequently (Monath, 1999), but then outbreaks start usually from one infection, why? Although we are a long way from discovering all of Ebola’s secrets, our knowledge is already able to reap potential benefits. Because of Ebola GP’s ability to bind to endothelial cells, researchers are able to target therapeutic genes specifically at these cells. One such application could deliver growth factors to stimulate the growth of new blood vessels in place of damaged vessels, treating cardiovascular disease (Wickelgren, 1998).
Confirmation of diagnosis based on signs and symptoms is not a possibility. Therefore, tests like ELISA, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), detection of IgM and IgG antibodies and Immunohistochemistry testing are used at various stages of the disease to confirm the diagnosis. No vaccine for protection against the disease is as yet available. Treatment is mainly supportive, which includes administration of intravenous fluids, maintaining balance of electrolytes, oxygen support, and maintenance of blood pressure and the treatment of secondary infections (Gire et.al, 2014). An antiviral drug named favipiravir was the first to demonstrate improvement in the condition of patients with low levels of Ebola virus in their blood. Ebola infection is associated with an unfavorable prognosis and the mortality rate may be as high as 90%; however, early detection and diagnosis of the disease may bring forth comparatively better outcomes.
Virophages
A striking question that we sought to answer was whether viruses get sick? This question has many implications- one of which being that the ability to “get sick” belongs to what we consider to be biological organisms. This brings up a debatable sub question- can viruses even be classified as organisms? One characteristic that all successful organisms share is that they utilize DNA and have a mechanism to pass this DNA on to a new generation. This characteristic is likewise shared by viruses- though their mechanism for passing on their DNA to create new viruses requires a host. Individuals may argue that the requirement for a host suggests that viruses cannot truly be an organism. To counter this argument, we have observed many other species of multicellular organisms that also require parasitism in order to reproduce. Another characteristic that viruses share with other organisms is the ability to interact with other organisms. Though they are incapable of moving from one location to another without the assistance of some vector, once in contact with a host they are able to interact with the “host environment” in order to begin the process of reproduction. Lastly, our argument concerning the status of viruses as simple organisms includes the fact that they are capable of evolving. We see that they do share many characteristics with other organisms- but is this enough to categorize viruses as organisms themselves? For the sake of discussion, we argue that at the very least, they are simple organisms.
Like organisms, viruses also come in many shapes and sizes. Research has shown that some viruses are so large that smaller viruses are capable of parasitizing them. It has also been suggested that these large viruses may be a sort of “transition” between viruses into more complex organisms like bacteria. For the first time, a group of scientists have discovered a virus that targets other viruses. It is so unique that they have classified it in an entirely new family – the “virophages”. These virophages share similarities with the bacteriophage— viruses that use bacteria as hosts. However, they are viruses that attack other viruses. The virophage Sputnik is a genetic chimera – a mish-mash of different genes from different sources. 13 of its genes have no equivalent in any other known virus, the other 8 genes share similarities to genes from other viruses, bacteria and even more complex cells (The Virophage—the virus eater, 2015. Sputnik has circular, ds DNA 3 genes are integrase complexes. Sputnik does not contain the necessary genes to replicate without co-infecting with mimivirus—it needs the larger virus in order to be a virus. Recent studies of Mimivirus have shown that Sputnik infection is not present when the Mimivirus is bald, so it thought that the fibers on the Mimivirus capsid are involved with adhesion of the virophage and host virus. There is a11% increase in Mimivirus capsid thickness, multiple Mimivirus capsid layers and asymmetric accumulation of capsid fibrils. Co-infection with Sputnik decreases the yield of infectious mimivirus particles by 70% and decreases cell lysis at 24 hours by 13% (The Virophage, 2015). This data indicates that yes, viruses can in fact infect other viruses and cause disease. This fascinating new topic shows the elusiveness and trivial nature of diseases and how they come about.

References
Carroll, S. A., Towner, J. S., Sealy, T. K., McMullan, L. K., Khristova, M. L., Burt, F. J., ... Nichol, S. T. (2013). Molecular evolution of viruses of the family Filoviridae based on 97 whole-genome sequences. Journal of Virology. 87: 2608-2616.
Gire, S. K., Goba, A., Anderson, K. G., Sealfon, R. S. G., Park, D. J., Kanneh, L., ... Sabeti, P. C. (2014). Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014 outbreak. Science.. 345: 1369-1372.
Suzuki, Y., and Gojobori, T. (1997). The origin and evolution of Ebola and Marburg viruses. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14: 800-806.
Feldmann H, Bugany H, Mahner F, Klenk HD, Drenckhahn D, Schnittler HJ. 1996. Filovirus-induced endothelial leakage triggered by infected Monocytes/Macrophages. Journal of Virology 70(4):2208-2214.
Hagmann M. 1999. On the track of Ebolaís hideout. Science 286:654-655.
Monath TP. 1999. Ecology of Marburg and Ebola viruses: Speculations and directions for future research. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 179(suppl 1):S127-138.
Mühlberger E, Weik M, Volchkov VE, Klenk HD, Becker S. 1999. Comparison of the transcription and replication strategies of Marburg Virus and Ebola Virus by using artificial replication systems. Journal of Virology 73(3):2333-2342.
Sanchez A, Trappier SG, Mahy BWJ, Peters CJ, Nichol ST. 1996. The virion glycoproteins of Ebola viruses are encoded in two reading frames and are expressed through transcriptional editing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 93:3602-3607.
Schnittler HJ, Mahner F, Drenckhahn D, Klenk HD, Feldmann H. 1993. Replication of Marburg virus in human endothelial cells: a possible mechanism for the development of viral hemorrhagic disease. Journal of Clinical Investigations 91:1301-1309.
WHO. 2007 Sept. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever. April 30, 2015.
Wickelgren I. 1998. A method in Ebola’s madness. Science 279:983-984.
Virophage, the virus eater. (n.d.). May 7, 2015.
The virophage – a virus that infects other viruses. (n.d.). May 7, 2015.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Evolution of New and Old Disease

...Evolution of New and Old Communicable Diseases According to Gordis (2004), epidemiology is defined as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states and event of diseases in specified populations and the application of this study to control of health problems”. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is contagious and potentially life threatening form of pneumonia which was first detected in February 2003 in Asia and it spread to various countries in Europe, North America and South America before it was declared as SARS 2003 global outbreak (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004). SARS is an acute respiratory tract illness caused by an infectious virus transmitted from person to person. Various pathogens that cause acute respiratory diseases are respiratory syncytical virus, parainfluenza virus, influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (WHO, 2007). In 2003, various scientists across the world started investigating the virus with the help of electron microscopy and virus discovery microarrays. The new coronavirus was inoculated in monkeys which caused interstitial pneumonia similar to SARS (Holmes, 2003). This newly identified acute viral respiratory syndrome caused by a novel coronavirus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with genome containing nucleocapsid protein, membrane proteins and spike protein which forms the typical “coronavirus” structure (Lashley & Durham, 2007). Spreading...

Words: 1702 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Patterns of Evolution

...Patterns of Evolution Dawn Austin SCI/230 January 28, 2011 Mrs. Sara Young Humans shape their environment in ways that other organisms cannot. Are humans subject to the same pressures of natural selection as other organisms? Why or why not? Yes, Humans are subject to the same pressures of natural selection like all other organisms. According to an article I was reading, the fact is that change in gene pool over time in all species is completely avoidable. Eyre-Walker and Keightley claimed that in 1999 that humans have had an average 4.2 amino acid altering mutations every generation since humans separated from the chimpanzees (physicpost.com, 2003). Provide an example of convergent and divergent evolution, adaptive radiation, and co-evolution. Adaptation radiation is an example of divergent evolution. Divergent evolution is the process of two or more related species becoming more dissimilar. An example of divergent evolution is; the red fox and kit fox, the red fox lives in forest and farm lands where its red color helps it blend in with surrounding trees. The kit fox lives in the plains and in the desert where their environment is sandy and their color help conceal them from prey and predators. The ears of the kit fox are larger from the red fox. The kit fox ears are an adaptation to its desert environment. The enlarged surface area of its ears help the fox get rid of excess body heat. The red fox and the kit fox have similarities that suggest that they had......

Words: 467 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Creationism vs. Evolution

...Creationism VS. Evolution “Why evolution should be taught in public schools” by Laura H. Kahn discusses how evolution being taught in the public school system is essential to our future in science and medicine. Kahn discusses how the theory of evolution has come to be over the many years of research and experimentation by many famous scientists, she also talks about the uphill battle it has been for the theory of evolution to be taught in the public school system because “certain segments of society insist that religious doctrine, masquerading as science, be taught instead. Laura presents her audience with the facts that in the nineteenth century theory of spontaneous generation, the theory that proposed that life could emerge from nonliving material, was the main theory of evolution back then. How ever a French chemist, Louis Pasteur, would try to disprove the theory through his discovery that yeasts were responsible for making wine palatable and bacteria was responsible for turning wine bad. He also discovered through the use of silkworms that microbes caused their illness and death. She states that Pasteur saw the connection between microbes, fermentation, putrefaction, and disease. She claims that his biggest challenge however was to try to convince the scientific community to accept is idea. She backs up her statement with bringing to our attention that at the same time Pasteur was pushing his theory a scientist by the name of Felix-Archimede claimed he had......

Words: 852 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Sotry of the Human Body Synthesis Paper

...the book start with the evolution of the human body from the lands of Africa to the present day. The findings of bones that date back millions of years displays the evidence of such evolution. The findings support the theories the changes the human body went through in order to adapt to its surroundings and the initial transition into a bipedalism species. Adaptation and Transitioning When reading into the adaptations you can recognize the necessity of these major transformations that contributed to the major adaptations in the body such as the beginning of bipedalism, the shift to a non-fruit based diet as the rise of the hunter/gatherer emerged with the adaptation of a more athletic abilities; the development of larger brains and more noticeable cultural beliefs and rituals. Revolution1 The major variations that are effecting our current society originated from the Agricultural and Industrial revolutions. The modifications to our diets play a huge role in the presence of chronic illness in the world. Post Paleolithic World. Our bodies are not entirely adaptable to the world we live in, we can recognize this with the growing incidences of obesity and disease like type-2 diabetes. Diseases. Although the body has adapted to the many changes of the environment, cultural and biologically evolution continues while the rapid spread of diseases whether infectious or not plague of society as well as boggles our minds on the true origin of these disease. What can we do?......

Words: 395 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Microbiology

...-Some professions of microbiology are: Geomicrobiologist (earth), marine microbiologist, medical technologist (pathogenic microbes and diseases), nurse epidemiologist and astrobiologist. 1.2 Prokaryotic- simple cells that lack a nucleus (referring it as karyon) found 3.5 billion years ago. Eukaryotes- more complex, contain a nucleus and other complex internal structures found 1.8 billion years ago. (the early eukaryotes probably similar to algae and protozoa, started lines of evolution that eventually gave rise to fungi, plants and multicellular animas such as worms and insects) organelles= are structure in cells that are bound by one or more membranes. ex. mitochondria. All prokaryotes are microorganisms and include the bacteria and archaeons. Only some eukaryotes are microorganisms primarily: algae, protozoa, and yeasts (types of fungi) and certain animals such as arthropods and worms. Evolution timeline picture: Earth, prokaryotes, eukaryotes, reptiles, cockroaches, mammals and then humans. -Microbial dimensions: nanometers, micrometers and millimeters. smallest are viruses measuring around 10nm and not much bigger that an large molecule, to protozoans measuring up to 4mm and visible to the naked eye. TAKE NOTE: Viruses are considered one type o microbe because they are microscopic and can cause infection and disease, but they are not cells. consider parasitic. Viruses are much simpler than cells, small amount of hereditary material wrapped up into a...

Words: 1201 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Abstract

...Abstract Understanding evolution helps us solve biological problems that impact our lives. There are excellent examples of this in the field of medicine. To stay one step ahead of pathogenic diseases, researchers must understand the evolutionary patterns of disease-causing organisms. To control hereditary diseases in people, researchers study the evolutionary histories of the disease-causing genes. In these ways, knowledge of evolution can improve the quality of human life. Evolution played an important role not only for the present day humans but all living things today. As you all know, we didn’t just evolve out of nothing, we all have an ancestor whose ancestor’s ancestor is our ancestor and so on. When we can’t go back any further because of the given facts, we know that was every organism’s common ancestor. To understand the importance of evolution, we must gather some understanding of the meaning of evolution. Here is biological evolution defined by one of the most respected evolutionary biologists, Douglas Futuyma. "In the broadest sense, evolution is merely change, and so is all-pervasive; galaxies, languages, and political systems all evolve. Biological evolution ... is change in the properties of populations of organisms that transcend the lifetime of a single individual. The ontogeny of an individual is not considered evolution; individual organisms do not evolve. The changes in populations that are considered evolutionary are those that are inheritable via......

Words: 1438 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Change & Scientific Understanding

...Change & Scientific Understanding Evolution How our understanding of evolution has changed over time. Our scientific understanding has changed over time. • Early cultures explained the natural world through myth, ritual, and tradition. • Initial attempts at science included the establishment of a uniform calendar or efforts to curb disease through non-supernatural elements. • Simple observation and mathematical understanding (ie. Pythagoras) created concise reasoning on why things happened it wasn’t just about the whims of a god anymore. Early evolutionary thought… • Aristotle suggests a type of evolution, in that in all things there is a constant desire to move from the lower realms to the • Jean-Baptiste higher, from the ordinary to the divine. Lamarck proposed • Charles Darwin’s grandfather a theory of acquired Erasmus suggests we are all characteristics, that derived from a common would inherently be ancestor. He further suggests provided to the the use or disuse of parts of descendent as a our bodies contribute to their continued effort to selection in our descendants. adapt to the environment. Scientific discoveries helped to define Evolution. • Charles Darwin proposes “natural selection” in his theory of evolution by observation in the Galapagos Islands. • Darwin’s theory is further aided by molecular biology, which states that there are complex processes of change occuring at the cellular level - constantly......

Words: 481 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Self Test for Operation

...Holistic Hopeful In 2050, there will be more than 2 billion seniors have one or more chronic diseases At least 80% of seniors Chronic diseases cause 60% of deaths… 75% of healthcare costs …and add up to 22 million children under 5 are overweight diseases preventable by vaccines 2 million people die each year from Nearly 1 in 5 child deaths is caused by diarrhea kill thousands of people every day Mosquito-borne diseases hospital-acquired infections 100,000 patients die each year from causes more than 250,000 deaths each year Seasonal flu Medical Model A leap in the evolution of healthcare enabling care providers to deliver the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. 1: IT-enabled Personalized Healthcare 2: Adoption of Electronic Medical Records 3: Disease-Centric to Prevention-Centric NOW CONSUMER CONSUMER FACILITY CONSUMER CONSUMER FUTURE CONSUMER The Digital Hospital Paperless Wireless Long-distance robotic surgery Vivid 7 Cardiovascular Ultrasound System Real time. Real solutions. Real value. VSCAN Pocket-sized, ultra-smart ultrasound Provide an immediate look inside the body Through the Adventure Series, the hospital is working to create fun, soothing care environments for child patients. Medical Model A leap in the evolution of healthcare enabling care providers to deliver the right treatment to the right patient at the......

Words: 669 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Hello

... ! Priscilla Wong! Anth 300/Tues-Thurs/9:00! ! Why Students Should Learn Evolution ! Brian J. Alters Sandra M. Alters! ! ! THEME: The authors think that evolution is a unifying theory in the biological and other sciences that explains the context and framework to understand. The authors advocate why students should learn about it.! ! ! ! l.! ! ll.! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! lll. ! ! Introduction ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! A. Many parents of students have created issues for science professors to ! question whether or not to teach evolution in the classroom. !! B. Without evolution there would be a disappearance of all the facts that are put together as a whole, it is the fundamental framework of a unifying ! theory.! C. Evolution helps discover all the mysteries throughout our history and ! explains relationships between these species.! D. There are many questions as to why we study biology such as how !! organisms work, how we breathe, how fish swim, or how leopard frogs ! produce thousands of eggs at one time, but evolution truly explains the ! background of how these things occur. ! E. Evolution is such an inducing subject because it broadens the categories ! of applied sciences, philosophy, psychology, literature, and the arts. ! Why is evolution a unifying theory?! ! ! ! ! ! ! A. When evolution takes place, when a population of species change they ! end up favoring their......

Words: 694 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Resistant Bacteria

...that we have learned about in the current module. Some potential organisms to focus on in your discussion are Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas or Bacillus. Many bacteria species are naturally unaffected by anti-microbial agents such as biocides and disinfectants. Microbial evolution has occurred for millions of years outpacing the diversity of all other taxa. It is therefore very difficult to effectively control the spread of infectious diseases because the pathogens themselves are able to mutate into other more resistant organisms rendering antimicrobial treatment useless. “Bacterial and archaeal species do not reproduce sexually. They increase their genetic diversity by horizontal (lateral) gene transfer (HGT). During HGT, genetic information from a donor organism is transferred to a recipient, creating a new genotype.” (Willey, Sherwood, & Woolverton, 2014, p. 10). So we therefore see different mechanisms for genetic transfer: either between differeing microbial species or intergenerational - between the same species. HGT also means that the evolution of microbial species result in a myriad of new species with a diverse gene pool and according to Willey, Sherwood, & Woolverton, (2014), leading to the evolution of species with antibiotic resistance, new virulence properties, and novel metabolic capabilities (p. 10). The same is true for disinfectants and other germicides which are used extensively in the homes and healthcare settings. Research has shown that Pseudomonas......

Words: 442 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Apes Unit 3 Info

...Ramanuja Sreenivasan Pd. 3 Evolution 1. Species diversity refers to the variety of different living things. Genetic diversity refers to the variations between individuals of a species — characteristics passed down from parents to their offspring. Ecosystem diversity refers to the great variety of abiotic and biotic things in the environment. They are important for stability and withstanding environmental affects like disease. 2. Humans affect biodiversity by over hunting/fishing, deforestation, climate change, pollution, and invasive species. 3. Natural Selection drives evolution. 4. Reproduce/Procreate 5. Mutation can be helpful by aiding in survival. For example a caterpillar looking like the leaf it is resting on. It can also be hurtful mutation like sickle-cell anemia. 6. Large gene pool so it can withstand disease and other things that could cause the species death. 7. Natural selection 8. Macroevolution is long-term evolution that can cause extinction or specialization/development in a species. Microevolution is short-term evolution that primarily impact small-scale changes like change in phenotypic ratios. 9. Speciation is when a new species can arise when members of a population become isolated for a long period of time. Geographic isolation is when species are separated from exchanging genes with other organisms of the same species and start to specialize within their own environment. Reproductive isolation occurs when two......

Words: 527 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Economic Terms and Health Care

...questions are in relation to healthcare economics. The meaning of health economics is the science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of good and services, or material welfare in healthcare. Because healthcare is always evolving there are some factors that have to do with the change, and those are types of medical care and technological developments in the industry. An example in the change in medical care is the quality. Now a day, people can be treated for any type of disease and as long as their insurance covers the specific service then they have a higher chance of being cured. In addition machines we have in clinics and hospitals also increase also affect health economics because most organizations always want to have the latest technology so their quality of healthcare maintains at a high level, however having this also increases their expenses. This paper will further on discuss evaluating the history of healthcare economics and its evolution along with how cash flows within the economic system Health care insurance is something that healthcare economics is based off of. Before when health care was as big issue and an actual business, people would use their own personal money to pay for treatments, services and other healthcare operations. Now a day, insurances pick up the bulk of the services and the consumer pays a copay or co-insurance, this is why cash flow in health care evolves around insurance. The flow of funds is a way of......

Words: 816 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Quality of Life of a Person with Parkinson's Disease

...of life of a person with Parkinson’s disease and the relationship between the time of evolution and the severity of the disease Fabiana Magalhães Navarro-Peternella1 Sonia Silva Marcon2 Parkinson’s disease can cause disability and decrease the quality of life in its sufferers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life of a group of people with Parkinson’s disease and whether a relationship exists between time of evolution and severity of the disease. Secondary analysis was carried out on transversal data collected from 40 individuals with Parkinson’s disease registered in the Parkinson’s Association of Maringá, in MaringáPR-Brazil. Measures: three instruments were applied: a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Hoenh and Yahr Scale and the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). According to PDQ-39, men referred to a lower quality of life, although, statistically, there was no significant difference between the two genders. Differences were only observed in the dimensions of “activities of daily living” and “social support”, in which men presented higher impairment, and “emotions” and “bodily discomfort”, where women showed higher impairment. Furthermore, severity of disease tended to lead to a perception of lower quality of life regarding the dimensions of “activities of daily living” and “cognition”, which is relevant to improve clinical guidance and intervention. Descriptors: Parkinson’s Disease; Chronic Disease; Quality of Life. 1 2 MSc,......

Words: 1824 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Creation vs Evolution

...Creationism vs. Evolution It is an interesting phenomenon to me when I think of how public schools are mandated to teach evolution in their classrooms and not creationism. It not only seems discriminatory to one view of thinking but when compared scientifically, the theory of creation seems to offer far more logic than its counterpart. Here are some of the basic views for each category: Evolution • Life forms came about from a big bang • Creatures are ever evolving beings • Man evolved from an ape Creationism • A higher being, (God) created all life forms • Mankind was made in the image of God • God sustains all life forms. From the time I was in kindergarten I have always heard compelling arguments about the pros and cons of each belief but it was not until I took a class in Human Anatomy and Physiology, (A&P) that I was truly able to confirm that we are complex creatures made and sustained by a higher being. When one considers how organs work in perfect harmony with each other, maintaining a state of equilibrium, it is mind boggling. I will attempt to portray why I believe the theory of Creationism makes more sense than the theory of Evolution. One of the many studies I embraced in my A&P class was the contraction of a muscle. Sounds like a simple, non-complex activity right? That is until you find out what actions have to take place in order for a contraction to take place. The first activity that has to take place in order for a muscle to......

Words: 608 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Effects of Disease on the Health Care Industry: Cardiovascular Disease

...Effects of Disease on the Health Care Industry: Cardiovascular disease HCS/245 Patricia Talbert Due: 03/16/2015 University of Phoenix Material Effects of Disease on the Health Care Industry: Cardiovascular Health Complete the table below for 2 diseases that you have chosen that affects cardiovascular health. In each box, you are required to list 3-5 bulleted statements regarding the heading of that box. Cite your sources using APA format. This section is due in Week Three. |Chosen Cardiovascular Disease |Treatment Modalities |Cultural Beliefs/Practices |Epidemiological Statistics |Available Consumer Resources |Impact on Society | |or Disorder | |Affecting this Disease | |(ex. financing, information, support) | | |Coronary Artery Disease |Quitting smoking and avoiding |Heart disease is a man's disease. |Cardiovascular diseases cause |The CDC addresses heart disease. Great |According to the Centers for Disease | | |secondhand smoke. |(MYTH) |nearly one-third of all deaths |source for researching information. |Control and Prevention, heart disease | | | | ...

Words: 817 - Pages: 4