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Diseases and Causes

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Color blindness or color vision deficiency is the inability or decreased ability to see color, or perceive color differences, under lighting conditions when color vision is not normally impaired. "Color blind" is a term of art; there is no actual blindness but there is a fault in the development of one or more sets of retinal cones that perceive color in light and transmit that information to the optic nerve

Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseasesthat weaken the musculoskeletal system and hamper locomotion.[1][2] Muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells andtissue.[3]

Blood disorders can lead to poor blood clotting and continuous bleeding. The disorders can result from defects in the blood vessels or from abnormalities in the blood itself, such as in blood clotting factors or in platelets.

Ichthyosis (plural ichthyoses) is a heterogeneous family of at least 28,[1] generalized, mostly genetic skindisorders. All types of ichthyosis have dry, thickened, scaly or flaky skin.[1] In many types there is cracked skin,[2] which is said to resemble the scales on a fish; the word ichthyosis comes from the Ancient Greek ιχθύς (ichthys), meaning "fish.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS), Martin–Bell syndrome, orEscalante's syndrome (more commonly used in South American countries), is a genetic syndrome that is the most commonly known single-gene cause of autism and the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability

Turner syndrome or Ullrich-Turner syndrome (also known as "Gonadal dysgenesis"[1]:550) encompasses several conditions in human females, of which monosomyX (absence of an entire sex chromosome, the Barr body) is most common. It is a chromosomal abnormality in which all or part of one of the sex chromosomes is absent (unaffected humans have 46 chromosomes, of which two are sex chromosomes)

What is a super female ,klinfenter syndrome?
Klinefelter's syndrome, 47XXY or XXY syndrome is a condition caused by a chromosome nondisjunction in males; affected individuals have a pair of X sex chromosomes instead of just one, and are associated with additional risk for some medical... Read More »

Essay iv-22
In general variables from the same group of subjects, & you are trying to determine if there is a relationship (or covariation) between the 2 variables (a similarity between them, not a difference between their means). Theoretically, any 2 quantitative variables can be correlated (for example, midterm scores & number of body piercings!) as long as you have scores on these variables from the same participants; however, it is probably a waste of time to collect & analyze data when there is little reason to think these two variables would be related to each other

50 The metencephalon is a developmentalcategorization of portions of the central nervous system. The metencephalon is composed of the ponsand the cerebellum; contains a portion of the fourth ventricle; and the trigeminal nerve (CN V), abducens nerve (CN VI), facial nerve (CN VII), and a portion of thevestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII).
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from the Greekmesos - middle, and enkephalos - brain[1]) is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.[2]

The inner core of certain organs or body structures, such as the marrow of bone. Also calledmedullary substance.

The cerebellum (Latin for little brain) is a region of thebrain that plays an important role in motor control

The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος = room, chamber) is a midline paired symmetrical structure within thebrains of vertebrates, including humans

The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑπό = under andθάλαμος = room, chamber) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

amygdala; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin, from Greekαμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'almond', 'tonsil', listed in theGray's Anatomy as the nucleus amygdalæ)[1] are almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep within themedial temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

The hippocampus is a major component of the brains ofhumans and other vertebrates

The cerebrum or telencephalon, together with thediencephalon, constitutes the forebrain. The cerebrum is the most anterior (or, in humans, most superior) region of the vertebrate central nervous system.

The corpus callosum (Latin: tough body), also known as the colossal commissure, is a wide, flat bundle of neural fibers beneath the cortex in the eutherian brainat the longitudinal fissure.

51.The frontal lobe is located at the front of the brain and is associated with reasoning, motor skills, higher level cognition, and expressive language. At the back of the frontal lobe, near the central sulcus, lies the motor cortex. This area of the brain receives information from various lobes of the brain and utilizes this information to carry out body movements. Damage to the frontal lobe can lead to changes in sexual habits, socialization and attention as well as increased risk-taking.

• The parietal lobe is located in the middle section of the brain and is associated with processing tactile sensory information such as pressure, touch, and pain. A portion of the brain known as the somatosensory cortex is located in this lobe and is essential to the processing of the body's senses. Damage to the parietal lobe can result in problems with verbal memory, an impaired ability to control eye gaze and problems with language.

• The temporal lobe is located on the bottom section of the brain. This lobe is also the location of the primary auditory cortex, which is important for interpreting sounds and the language we hear. The hippocampus is also located in the temporal lobe, which is why this portion of the brain is also heavily associated with the formation of memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can lead to problems with memory, speech perception and language skills.

• The occipital lobe is located at the back portion of the brain and is associated with interpreting visual stimuli and information. The primary visual cortex, which receives and interprets information from the retinas of the eyes, is located in the occipital lobe. Damage to this lobe can cause visual problems such as difficulty recognizing objects, an inability to identify colors and trouble recognizing words.


PET scan

A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that uses a radioactive substance called a tracer to look for disease in the body.

The CAT scan tends to be completely painless, though it may require people to lie still for a period of time. Depending on the area for which one is having a CAT scan, the patient may have to fast for four to six hours prior to the scan. This is particularly the case if one is having an abdominal/pelvic scan. In this case, one may also be asked to drinkbarium, a substance that shows up on the scan to identify any trouble or blockages in the intestines.

An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan is a imaging test that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the body. It does not use radiation (x-rays).

Pituitary gland
53. A small organ at the base of the brain, the pituitary gland is a very powerful component of the endocrine system. Not much bigger than a pea, the pituitary gland secretes and produces many different hormones that not only regulate important biochemical processes, but also govern the behavior of other glands.

hormone • Prolactin -- The primary functions of prolactin are to stimulate the production of breast milk following childbirth and to regulate sex hormone levels in both men and women. • Growth hormone (GH) -- This hormone produced by the pituitary gland promotes growth in children. Too much growth hormone in children can create a condition known as acromegaly or gigantism. In adults, growth hormone helps to maintain muscle and bone mass as well regulate fat distribution. • Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) -- This hormone stimulates production of the “stress hormone”, cortisol, produced by the adrenal glands and is responsible for maintaining optimal blood pressure and glucose levels. • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) -- This hormone governs vital processes and systems, such as energy, growth, metabolism and the nervous system by stimulating the thyroid gland. Variations in these levels could be the result of thyroid problems such as an overactive thyroid or an underactive thyroid. (You can learn more about each of those at our Thyroid Problemspage. • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) -- Also known as vasopressin, this hormone’s function is to regulate the balance of water in the body. When levels of antidiuretic hormone are not where they should be, it can lead to conditions such as diabetes insipidus and syndrome of inappropriate ADH, both of which affect the kidneys. • Luteinizing hormone (LH) -- This hormone regulates levels of testosterone by the testes and estrogen by the ovaries in men and women, respectively. • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) -- Working with luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone promotes normal functioning of the ovaries and testes by regulating sperm production and ovulation in men and women, respectively.

Adrenal medulla-adrenalin -noradrenalin adrenalin cortex-carticosteroids

he adrenal gland functions as a part of the endocrine system and releases hormones within the body

hormone of thyroid- thyroxine, iodine, triiodothyronine,, thyronamine, iodothyronamine, thyroglobulin
Thyroid gland: A gland that makes and stores hormones that help regulate the heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and the rate at which food is converted into energy. Thyroid hormones are essential for the function of every cell in the body. They help regulate growth and the rate of chemical reactions (metabolism) in the body. Thyroid hormones also help children grow and develop.

harmone of parathyroi polypeptided- amino acids. calcitonin

Parathyroid gland: A gland that regulates calcium, located behind the thyroid gland in the neck. The parathyroid gland secretes a hormone called parathormone (or parathyrin) that is critical to calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Although the number of parathyroid glands can vary, most people have four, one above the other on each side. They are plastered against the back of the thyroid and therefore at risk for being accidentally removed during thyroidectomy.

the hormones of pancreas insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin.

The pancreas is a small organ, approximately six inches long, located in the upper abdomen, and adjacent to the small intestine. It lies toward your back. Because it is so deep within your body, doctors have difficulty diagnosing disease in the pancreas.

hormones , estrogen and progesterone; testosterone and androsterone .

The function of gonads is to produce the gametes in both males and females (the sex cells). They also produce hormones in both males and females which show secondary sexual characteristics (cracking of voice in males etc.). The gonads in males are the testis and in females are the ovaries

54. define of sensation a mental condition or physical feeling resulting from stimulation of a sense organ or from internal bodily change,as cold or pain.

Kinds of sensation-


a device that aids the eye in aiming or in finding the direction of an object


Hearing (sense), the sense by which sound is perceived


Taste (also called smatch or gustation; adjectival form:gustatory) is one of the traditional five senses. It refers to the ability to detect the flavor of substances such as food, certain minerals, poisons, etc.


Odor, the percept resultant from the sense of smell. The environmental stimulus which gives rise to a 'smell' which is made up of numerous monomolecular odorants


to give a slight tap or pat to with the hand, finger, etc.;strike or hit gently or lightly.

61. Perception is the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world.

Extrasensory perception (ESP) involves reception of information not gained through the recognized physicalsenses but sensed with the mind

Consciousness is a term that refers to the relationship between the mind and the world with which it interacts

Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (German: Gestalt - "essence or shape of an entity's complete form") is a theory of mind and brain of the Berlin School; the operational principle of gestalt psychology is that the brain is holistic, parallel, and analog, with self-organizing tendencies

Sleep is a naturally recurring state characterized by reduced or absentconsciousness, relatively suspended sensory activity, and inactivity of nearly all voluntary muscles.[

Dreams are successions of images,ideas, emotions, and sensations that occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep

Depressant is a chemical agent that diminishes the function or activity of a specific part of the body (see also sedative).

Stimulants (also referred to as psychostimulants) arepsychoactive drugs which induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical function or both

The term narcotic (pronunciation: /nɑrˈkɑːtɨk/, from Greeknarkō, “Ι benumb”) originally referred medically to anypsychoactive compound with any sleep-inducing propertie

Hallucinogen: A drug that causes hallucinations (profound distortions in a person's perceptions of reality). Under the influence of hallucinogens, people see images, hear sounds, and feel sensations that seem real but do not exist. Some hallucinogens also produce rapid, intense emotional swings.

Marijuana: A very common street and recreational drug that comes from the marijuana plant.
63. 1. Blivet example-
2. Bezold Effect example-
3. Café Wall Illusion example-
4. The Chubb Illusion example-
5. Ebbinghaus Illusion
6. Fraser Spiral Illusion
7. Hermann Grid Illusion
8. Hering Illusion
9. Impossible Cube Illusion
10. Isometric Illusion
11. Jastrow Illusion
12. Kanizsa Triangle
13. Lilac Chaser
14. Motion Illusion
15. Necker Cube
17. Poggendorff Illusion
18. Adelson’s Checker Shadow Illusion
19. White Illusion
20. Zöllner Illusion

64.Telepathy (from the Greek τηλε, tele meaning "distant" and πάθη, pathe meaning "affliction, experience"),[2] is the induction of mental states from one mind to another. The term was coined in 1882 by the classical scholarFredric W. H. Myers, a founder of the Society for Psychical Research,[1] and has remained more popular than the more-correct expression thought-transference

clairvoyance Having the supposed power to see objects or events that cannot be perceived by the senses.

precognition knowledge of a future event or situation, especially through extrasensory means.

psychokinesis (from the Greek ψυχή, "psyche", meaningmind, soul, heart, or breath; and κίνησις, "kinesis", meaning motion, movement; literally "mind-movement"),[1][2] also referred to as telekinesis[3] (Greek τῆλε + κίνησις, literally "distant-movement") with respect to strictly describing movement of matter, sometimes abbreviated PK and TK respectively, is a term coined by publisher Henry Holt[4] to refer to the direct influence of mind on aphysical system that cannot be entirely accounted for by the mediation of any known physical energy(i.e. moving objects with the mind).[5] Examples of psychokinesis could include distorting or moving an object,[6] and influencing the output of a random number generator.
insomnia inability to obtain sufficient sleep, especially when chronic;difficulty in falling or staying asleep; sleeplessness.

Sleep apnea: The temporary stoppage of breathing during sleep, often resulting in daytime sleepiness. Apnea is a Greek word that means "want of breath."

Cataplexy: A debilitating medical condition in which a person suddenly feels weak and collapses at moments of strong emotion such as laughter, anger, fear or surprise. In so collapsing, people with cataplexy may injure themselves

Nightmares are of course, common to those of us who have experienced trauma. One definition of nightmares, is this; "They are dream experiences of a frightening nature, occurring usually in the second half of the night, in a REM sleep stage, and ending with our waking up with a start." Night terrors are very different from nightmares. "The night terror is usually an event of the early part of the night when most stage 4 is present, while the nightmare can take place in any REM period."


SPAR is a method for improving memory. It can help you with the need of remembering something for long term usage. SPAR includes four segments


A term referring to the process of taking individual units of information (chunks) and grouping them into larger units. Probably the most common example of chunking occurs in phone numbers. For example, a phone number sequence of 4-7-1-1-3-2-4 would be chunked into 471-1324. Chunking is often a useful tool when memorizing large amounts of information. By separating disparate individual elements into larger blocks, information becomes easier to retain and recall.

Mnemonic device

Relating to, assisting, or intended to assist the memory.

A device, such as a formula or rhyme, used as an aid in remembering.

2. A drug, hormone, or other chemical substance having sedative or narcotic effects similar to those containing opium or its derivatives: a natural brain opiate. Also called opioid.

Eefects- The behavioral effects of morphine and heroin in different species or strains of animals are considered. In particular, a number of behavioral, neurophysiological, and biochemical correlates of the opiates in different inbred strains of mice are cited

Antidepressant: Anything, and especially a drug, used to prevent or treat depression.

. Behavioral side effects may indicate that the antidepressant is not having its desired effect, warns the Helpguide website; therefore, all behavioral side effects should be reported to a doctor as soon as possible.

Marijuana: A very common street and recreational drug that comes from the marijuana plant

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