Premium Essay

Dispositional, Biological and Evolutionary Theories Paper

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By dianapamella
Words 1065
Pages 5
Dispositional, Biological and Evolutionary Theories Paper
Diana P. Sanchez
PSY/405
September 03, 2014
Sharon Friedman

Dispositional, Biological and Evolutionary Theories Paper Personality theories have evolved tremendously in the psychology field. There’s a wide variety of personality theories that have been created over the years. The theorists responsible for their creation have all mainly gathered and altered information from previous theorists and made changes to them; indicating that characteristics of any individual can affect the ideas behind their work (Feist, Feist, & Roberts, 2013). The comparison between the theories (dispositional, biological and evolutionary), comes to show that theirs many similarities and differences between them; as well as weaknesses to them, and strengths. As further research studies into the definition of human behavior, theorists created tests such as the big five test.
Comparison
Dispositional personality theory, defines the identity of traits and types of characteristics that help determine one’s personality (Feist, Feist, & Roberts, 2013). This theory doesn’t eliminate the use of sub-conscious, but its main focus is on the individual and its conscious thoughts as the center point of personality. It comes to prove the free-will of humans, as well as the possibility of human’s ability to determine their future. The theorist’s responsible for this personality theory, are: Gordon Allport (1897-1967), and Robert McCrae, working alongside Paul Costa Jr. (Feist, Feist, & Roberts, 2013). As oppose to these theorist, many theorist prior to them, had given thought to the idea of subconscious thoughts being the motivation for human behavior and personality, but did not further any more research. Biological psychology theories are mostly based on facts and science; personality and behavior are affected by...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

How Well Do People Know Why They Do the Things They Do

..._____________________________________________________________________ Human beings are cognitively advanced, yet it is still surprising that much of what we do we cannot explain. Humans are amongst few mammals capable of the self-recognition necessary for self-awareness which enables conscious manipulation in behaviour (Gallup, G. G., 1982). Understanding the behaviour of others and ourselves is increasingly complex since behaviour is attributed to fluctuating mental states (emotions, desires, feelings). Many papers have begun to cover the theory how people understand the causes of behaviour through attribution and self-concept (Kelley, H. H.1973);(Heider, F. 1958);(Markus, H., & Wurf, E, 1987). But conflicting papers have given rise to the argument of error in attributions, experience distortion and group-think to consider the other face of the coin- that people may not know quite so well why they do the things they do (Heider, 1958);(Kurzban & Aktipis, 2007);(Sherif, 1936) “Theory of the mind”/“mentalizing” is a process which we naturally engage with on a daily basis. It identifies that other people have mental states different to our own (Schacter, 2009). The recognition of mental state (e.g. noticing your partner is unhappy) is something which adults naturally perceive. This skill is essential for social interaction and is observable in infants as young as 18 months (Frith, C. D., & Frith, U, 1999);(U. & C.D. Frith, 2003). From the age of 4-6......

Words: 2301 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Origin of Baptist

...time that strongly influences one's expectations, self-perceptions, values, and attitudes. It also predicts human reactions to other people, problems, and stress.[1][2] There is still no universal consensus on the definition of "personality" in psychology. Gordon Allport (1937) described two major ways to study personality: the nomothetic and the idiographic. Nomothetic psychology seeks general laws that can be applied to many different people, such as the principle of self-actualization or the trait of extraversion. Idiographic psychology is an attempt to understand the unique aspects of a particular individual. The study of personality has a broad and varied history in psychology with an abundance of theoretical traditions. The major theories include...

Words: 12161 - Pages: 49

Premium Essay

Abnormal Psychology

...psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder. * Although many behaviors could be considered as abnormal, this branch of psychology generally deals with behavior in a clinical context. * There is a long history of attempts to understand and control behavior deemed to be aberrant or deviant (statistically, morally or in some other sense), and there is often cultural variation in the approach taken. * The field of abnormal psychology identifies multiple causes for different conditions, employing diverse theories from the general field of psychology and elsewhere, and much still hinges on what exactly is meant by "abnormal". * There has traditionally been a divide between psychological and biological explanations, reflecting a philosophical dualism in regards to the mind body problem. * There have also been different approaches in trying to classify mental disorders. * Abnormal includes three different categories, they are: * subnormal * supernormal * paranormal * The science of abnormal psychology studies two types of behaviors: adaptive and maladaptive behaviors. * Behaviors that are maladaptive suggest that some problem(s) exist, and can also imply that the individual is vulnerable and cannot cope with environmental stress, which is leading them to have problems functioning in......

Words: 5375 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Philosophy and Design

...transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Printed on acid-free paper. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 springer.com Contents List of Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design in Engineering and Architecture: Towards an Integrated Philosophical Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peter Kroes, Andrew Light, Steven A. Moore, and Pieter E. Vermaas Part I Engineering Design ix 1 Design, Use, and the Physical and Intentional Aspects of Technical Artifacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maarten Franssen Designing is the Construction of Use Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wybo Houkes The Designer Fallacy and Technological Imagination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Don Ihde Technological Design as an Evolutionary Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Philip Brey Deciding on Ethical Issues in Engineering Design . . . . . . . . ....

Words: 165744 - Pages: 663

Premium Essay

Introduction to Psychology

...TPS 101: INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY TPS 101 serves as the beginning course in psychology; as such, it is broad in scope. The course will introduce students to the history of psychology, and current paradigms and theories. We will cover neuroscience, sensation, perception, memory, and language, stress and health psychology, personality and social psychology, intelligence, and developmental psychology. Because of time limitations, none of these topics can be covered in great depth. The reference textbooks and the material presented in class will serve as the primary sources for the material to be covered. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGY Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes. It is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behaviour. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including problems of individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness. It is largely concerned with humans, although the behaviour and mental processes of animals can also be part of psychology research, either as a subject in its own right (e.g. animal cognition and ethnology), or somewhat more controversially, as a way of gaining an insight into human psychology by means of comparison (including comparative psychology). Origins of the psychology Near the end of 19th century things started drawing together. Questions raised by philosophers were......

Words: 84844 - Pages: 340

Free Essay

Mirror Neurons

...Spring 12 Mirror Neurons In Motor and Social Acts The authors who ushered in what might be considered the most critical finding of 21st century neuroscience to date—the discovery of mirror neurons (MNs)—contend that MNs underlie simulation theories of action understanding and mindreading (Gallese & Goldman, 1998); Gallese et al., (2004). The mechanism that allows mirroring of action is referred to as the ‘direct-matching hypothesis,’ (Rizzolatti et al., 2001), and the claim is based on the response properties of MNs in monkeys. The discovery of MNs is important in that if the implications of their function are properly understood, it lays a foundation for explanations of not only understanding of action and other minds (Gallese, 2003), but for other big questions, such as the evolution of language (Rizzolatti & Arbib, 1998). The concern of this paper is MN function as a feature at the core of the stronger claims. Alternative theorists challenge the characterization of the MN role as ‘mirroring’ action, as their findings show that mirroring cannot be direct and must rely on an interpretation of the observed action. They claim: a) MNs do not simulate with enough precision to be referred to as ‘mirroring,’ in which they are said to simulate an agent’s motor program onto the very same motor repertoire of an observer not performing the act; b) mirror neuron activation is predictive of action, not replicative; and c) the function of these neurons supports a model that is......

Words: 4877 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Psy/201

...Chapter Overview 12.1 The Beginnings of Development What Is Development? Prenatal Development The Newborn CONCEPT LEARNING CHECK 12.1 Before and Preoperational Stage Concrete Operational Stage Formal Operational Stage Challenges to Piaget’s Stage Theory Social Development The Power of Touch Attachment Theory Disruption of Attachment Family Relationships Peers After Birth 12.2 Infancy and Childhood Physical Development Cognitive Development Piaget’s Stage Theory Sensorimotor Stage CONCEPT LEARNING CHECK 12.2 Stages of Cognitive Development 12 Learning Objectives Development Throughout the Life Span 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 Describe the development of the field and explain the prenatal and newborn stages of human development. Discuss physical development in infants and newborns. Examine Piaget’s stage theory in relation to early cognitive development. Illustrate the importance of attachment in psychosocial development. Discuss the impact of sexual development in adolescence and changes in moral reasoning in adolescents and young adults. Examine the life stages within Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. Illustrate the physical, cognitive, and social aspects of aging. Describe the multiple influences of nature and nurture in human development. 12.3 Adolescence and Young Adulthood Physical Development Cognitive Development Social Development Cognitive Development Social Development Continuity or Change Relationships Ages and...

Words: 34557 - Pages: 139

Free Essay

Wjec Py2 as Core Studies

...Core study 1 Asch 1955 : Aims and Context Summarise the aims and context of Asch’s 1955) research opinions and social pressure An individual is said to conform if they chose to study a course of action that is favoured by the majority or that is considered socially acceptable .When an individual is influenced by how the majority of people think this is considered socially acceptable Conformity is a form of social influence that results from exposure to the majority position , the tendency for people to adopt the behaviour, attitudes and values of other members of a reference groups, This was a study of conformity in an ambiguous situation ‘unclear’. Jenness asked students to guess how many beans there were in a jar,they were then asked to discuss in groups. Lastly they were asked to give their estimates again, individuals estimates tended to converge to the group norm.It seems reasonable that when in an ambiguous situation (were the answer isn't obvious ) we look to others to get some ideas about behaviour . Jenness's research is limited as he specifically asked participants to produce a group estimate rather than just observing if they would produce group estimates. Sherif conducted a similar investigation into responses to an ambiguous stimulus using the auto kinetic effect ( this is where a stationary spot of light projected on to a screen appears to move) Sherif told participants he was going to move the light , he asked the pp’s to estimate by how far the......

Words: 19710 - Pages: 79

Premium Essay

Design Abstracts

...Design + Culture: New Directions for Interior Design Scholarship and Pedagogy Date: March 15-16, 2015 Fort Worth, Texas Guest Editor: Tasoulla Hadjiyanni Associate Professor, Interior Design University of Minnesota Title: Design as a malleable structure: Reframing the conceptual understanding of design and culture through George Kubler’s morphological approach to the history of things Author: Joori Suh, Assistant Professor, Interior Design Department, Iowa State University Under the banner of globalization and internationalization, what actually happens in design? Has today’s blended culture lost the identity unique to the context? What should be the interior design educator’s attitude toward teaching design and culture in the current age? We encounter dilemmas in global design, the results of which are sometimes almost identical regardless of unique settings because of our tendency to grasp design as a whole with respect to particular style or trend without fully apprehending the core and the deviation. Perceiving the entire design project as a mere symbolic expression also hinders our true understanding of design and culture. In this article, I attempt to answer fundamental questions regarding the complex, innate relationship between design and culture and suggest restructuring a conceptual framework applicable to related research and education that effectively reveals the multi faceted characteristics of design and culture in the present age. From the perspective of......

Words: 9501 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

The Case of Mike and Marty Scanlon

...Study Guide Essentials of Psychology By Robert G. Turner Jr., Ph.D. About the Author Robert G. Turner Jr., Ph.D. has more than 20 years of teaching and education-related experience. He has taught seventh-grade science, worked as a curriculum developer for the Upward Bound Program, and taught sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and honors seminars at the university level. As a professional writer, he has written nonfiction books, journal and magazine articles, novels, and stage plays. Contents Contents INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS LESSON ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 1: PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF THE MIND LESSON 2: THE MIND AT WORK LESSON 3: MOTIVATION, EMOTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERSONALITY RESEARCH PROJECT LESSON 4: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS LESSON 5: PSYCHOLOGY FOR TWO OR MORE CASE STUDIES SELF-CHECK ANSWERS 1 7 9 43 75 117 127 147 167 171 iii YOUR COURSE Instructions Instructions Welcome to your course, Essentials of Psychology. You’re entering a course of study designed to help you better understand yourself and others. For that reason, you can think of this course as practical. It should be of use to you in living your life and reaching the goals you set for yourself. You’ll use two main resources for your course work: this study guide and your textbook, Psychology and Your Life, by Robert S. Feldman. OBJECTIVES When you complete this course, you’ll be able to ■ Describe the science and methodologies of psychology in the context of its...

Words: 49230 - Pages: 197

Premium Essay

Change Management

...Implications af Kurt Lewin Model....................................................................... 12 Some Basic Concepts and Definitions ................................................................. 15 Transactional Vs. Transformational Leadership .................................................. 18 Theories of Change in Organisations................................................................... 21 Life Cycle Theory ................................................................................................ 22 Teleological Theories of Change ......................................................................... 25 Dialectical Theories of Change............................................................................ 27 A Dialectical Approach to Organisational Strategy and Planning ....................... 29 Limitation of Dialectics; DA and DI.................................................................... 31 Theories of Change in Organisations................................................................... 33 Application of Evolutionary Theory .................................................................... 35 Further Application of Evolutionary Theories..................................................... 36 Greiner’s Model of Organisational Evolution and Revolution...

Words: 62404 - Pages: 250

Premium Essay

Damsel

...2014-2015 Undergraduate Academic Calendar and Course Catalogue Published June 2014 The information contained within this document was accurate at the time of publication indicated above and is subject to change. Please consult your faculty or the Registrar’s office if you require clarification regarding the contents of this document. Note: Program map information located in the faculty sections of this document are relevant to students beginning their studies in 2014-2015, students commencing their UOIT studies during a different academic year should consult their faculty to ensure they are following the correct program map. i Message from President Tim McTiernan I am delighted to welcome you to the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), one of Canada’s most modern and dynamic university communities. We are a university that lives by three words: challenge, innovate and connect. You have chosen a university known for how it helps students meet the challenges of the future. We have created a leading-edge, technology-enriched learning environment. We have invested in state-of-the-art research and teaching facilities. We have developed industry-ready programs that align with the university’s visionary research portfolio. UOIT is known for its innovative approaches to learning. In many cases, our undergraduate and graduate students are working alongside their professors on research projects and gaining valuable hands-on learning, which we believe is......

Words: 195394 - Pages: 782

Premium Essay

The Social

...animal Books by Elliot Aronson Theories of Cognitive Consistency (with R. Abelson et al.), 1968 Voices of Modern Psychology, 1969 The Social Animal, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1995, 1999, 2004; (with J. Aronson), 2008 Readings About the Social Animal, 1973, 1977, 1981, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1995, 1999, 2004; (with J. Aronson), 2008 Social Psychology (with R. Helmreich), 1973 Research Methods in Social Psychology (with J. M. Carlsmith & P. Ellsworth), 1976 The Jigsaw Classroom (with C. Stephan et al.), 1978 Burnout: From Tedium to Personal Growth (with A. Pines & D. Kafry), 1981 Energy Use: The Human Dimension (with P. C. Stern), 1984 The Handbook of Social Psychology (with G. Lindzey), 3rd ed., 1985 Career Burnout (with A. Pines), 1988 Methods of Research in Social Psychology (with P. Ellsworth, J. M. Carlsmith, & M. H. Gonzales), 1990 Age of Propaganda (with A. R. Pratkanis), 1992, 2000 Social Psychology, Vols. 1–3 (with A. R. Pratkanis), 1992 Social Psychology: The Heart and the Mind (with T. D. Wilson & R. M. Akert), 1994 Cooperation in the Classroom: The Jigsaw Method (with S. Patnoe), 1997 Nobody Left to Hate: Teaching Compassion After Columbine, 2000 Social Psychology: An Introduction (with T. D. Wilson & R. M. Akert), 2002, 2005, 2007 The Adventures of Ruthie and a Little Boy Named Grandpa (with R. Aronson), 2006 Mistakes Were Made (But Not By Me) (with C. Tavris), 2007 Books by Joshua Aronson Improving Academic Achievement, 2002 The Social Animal To...

Words: 208005 - Pages: 833

Free Essay

Psychoanalytic Personality Assessment

...e eBook Collection This is a Protected PDF document. Please enter your user name and password to unlock the text. User Name: Password: Unlock Remember my user name and password. If you are experiencing problems unlocking this document or you have questions regarding Protectedpdf files please contact a Technical Support representative: In the United States: 1-877-832-4867 In Canada: 1-800-859-3682 Outside the U.S. and Canada: 1-602-387-2222 Email: technicalsupport@apollogrp.edu. This document is published by:Apollo Group, Inc. ISBN 1-256-49231-0 joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka jokaGlossary joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka......

Words: 153006 - Pages: 613

Premium Essay

Negotiation

...Edited by miche le j. ge lfand and jeanne m. brett Stanford Business Books An imprint of Stanford University Press Stanford, California 2004 C Stanford University Press Stanford, California C 2004 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford, Jr., University. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system without the prior written permission of Stanford University Press. Printed in the United States of America on acid-free, archival-quality paper Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The handbook of negotiation and culture / edited by Michele J. Gelfand and Jeanne M. Brett. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn 0-8047-4586-2 (cloth : alk. paper) 1. Negotiation. 2. Conflict management. 3. Negotiation—Cross-cultural studies. 4. Conflict management—Cross-cultural studies. I. Gelfand, Michele J. II. Brett, Jeanne M. bf637.n4 h365 2004 302.3—dc22 2003025169 Typeset by TechBooks in 10.5/12 Bembo Original printing 2004 Last figure below indicates year of this printing: 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 Contents List of Tables and Figures Foreword Preface xi xv ix part one. basic psychological processes Introduction 3 1. The Evolution of Cognition and Biases in Negotiation Research: An Examination of Cognition, Social Perception, Motivation, and Emotion 7 Leigh......

Words: 186303 - Pages: 746