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Distributive Justice

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Abstract: The core value of a harmonious society is justice.In the construction of our harmonious socialist society,all kinds of western political theories can be used for references in our critical review;for example,the communitarian view of justice in contemporary western countries can provide us with some enlightenment.We may trace the theoretical origin of the communitarian view of justice to ancient Greeks.From ancient Greek to modern times,many philosophers studied community,among whom Aristotle and Hegel have exerted the greatest influence upon the communitarian view of justice.The practicing and widely spreading of liberalism in political and social areas caused negative effects in the western society,such as the flooding of extreme individualism,the absence of virtue,the weakening of state functions,which together constitute the very social background of the communitarian view of justice.The communitarian view of justice is based on community and insists that any individual cannot exist outside a certain community, an individual’s identity and attributes are determined by his society, and are thus social products.Social values and ends exist before the self,and determines any particular.These values and ends are not apriori,but are formed by history and culture.The axiological foundation of communitarianism is the priority of good over right,i.e., the priority of common goods over individual rights.Communitarians place stress on public goods,and hold that individuals’ ability of free choice and rights thereon cannot separate from their communities.Justice is essentially the common sense of the common good or public goods of a certain community.The common good is largely the common targets,common value norms and common interests of a community in the whole.As far as the just distributive principle is concerned,communitarians disagree among themselves.Alasdair MacIntyre insists on the principle of deserving, whereas Michael Walzer and David Miller advocate respectively a kind of pluralism in distributive

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