Premium Essay

Dna in Humans

In: Business and Management

Submitted By walterc
Words 525
Pages 3
Brett Henson
DNA Assignment
STR is an improvement over PCR because the STR are locations on the chromosome that contain short sequence elements that repeat themselves within the DNA molecule. The strands are significantly shorter than compared to the PCR which means that the STRs are much less susceptible to degradation and are often recovered from bodies or stains that were subject to extreme decomposition. This is an improvement over PCR which is found from blood semen or saliva. Also the longer strands of PCR take a longer time to retrieve a possible answer. The PCR test is considered to be an improvement over the RFLP because of a couple reasons. It takes much less time to complete, a week at most. The test can be performed with a small crime scene sample, which helps investigators who have little physical evidence. The DNA doesn’t have to be recently collected either. The PCR test can still be performed even years or decades after the fact, and still be just as accurate. This is because the PCR method involves copying the available DNA and analyzing only one specific gene. These are all improvements over the RFLP which requires many sample cells from the crime scene. The RFLP needs several strands of hair or large splatters of blood. The cells have to be “fresh”, which means undamaged and recently dead. The test takes anywhere from 3 weeks to three months to complete. Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Each cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria, which are located in the fluid that surrounds the nucleus. Mitochondria are the power plants of the body, providing about 90 percent of the energy that the body needs. Mitochondria DNA testing not been utilized more because of multiple reasons. It is much more rigorous of a testing process. It is more time…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Dna Evidence

...This increased role places greater importance on the ability of victim service providers to understand the potential significance of DNA evidence in their clients’ cases. What Is DNA? DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the building block for the human body; virtually every cell contains DNA. The DNA in people’s blood is the same as the DNA in their saliva, skin tissue, hair, and bone. Importantly, DNA does not change throughout a person’s life. The Value of DNA Evidence DNA is a powerful investigative tool because, with the exception of identical twins, no two people have the same DNA. Therefore, DNA evidence collected from a crime scene can be linked to a suspect or can eliminate a suspect from suspicion. During a sexual assault, for example, biological evidence such as hair, skin cells, semen, or blood can be left on the victim’s body or other parts of the crime scene. Properly collected DNA can be compared with known samples to place a suspect at the scene of the crime. In addition, if no suspect exists, a DNA profile from crime scene evidence can be entered into the FBI’s Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) to identify a suspect anywhere in the United States or to link serial crimes to each other. The effective use of DNA as evidence may also require the collection and analysis of elimination samples to determine the exact source of the DNA. Elimination samples may be taken from anyone who had lawful access to the crime scene and may have left biological material. When......

Words: 332 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Dna Technology

...DNA Technology BIO/240 May 6, 2013 DNA Technology INTRO – LEE DNA Technology: Cloning, Gene Therapy, and Stem Cell Research DNA technology encompasses a wide variety of applications and because of the duplicating nature of DNA, it is easy to see how humans could benefit from its manipulation. One such technology is cloning. Cloning technology comes in three forms: recombinant DNA cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning. Cloning Recombinant DNA cloning consists of transferring DNA fragments from an organism to a self-replicating element, like a bacterial plasmid. The fragments join with the cloning vector and are reproduced with the host cell. This technology is most commonly known for its use in genetically modified foods. DNA fragments that code for better tasting, higher nutrient qualities are spliced into regular plants to produce super foods (US Dept of Energy Genome Program, 2009). Reproductive cloning takes all the genetic information out of a cell and replaces it with DNA from the desired organism. With luck, this cell will begin to divide until it becomes an embryo and can be implanted into a host mother (US Dept of Energy Genome Program, 2009). Gene Therapy and Stem Cell Research Therapeutic cloning is by far the most controversial. This type of cloning produces human embryos for use in research, and usually for the stem cells that can be harvested from these embryos. Stem cells can be used to clone organs and body parts from......

Words: 1647 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Dna Storage

...DNA DATA STORAGE GOOD OR BAD? Thomas Tyrrell Will Combs With the growth of the amount of data that is now being stored, the idea behind storing that data in DNA is a fascinating one. Companies, governments and universities face an enormous challenge storing the ever-growing flood of digitized information, the videos, books, movies and songs sent over the Internet. Some researchers have looked for answers in biology. In recent years, they have found ways to encode trademarks in cells and store pieces of music in the genetic code of micro-organisms. Many movies have explored the human DNA as both an advantage and a disadvantage. Some might say that storing information in our DNA is a bad thing. But in my opinion the advantages are too great to ignore. This will open up an entirely new world for human evolution. Being able to store personal data in your own DNA will increase security levels to an unprecedented level. And with the flow of information these days the need for this security is at an all time high. The first bits of digital information were stored in DNA in 1988. However, it was impractical, both difficult and expensive. Even as recently as 2012, costs and times for reading and writing were only practical for century-scale archives. The latest development makes storing data on a 50-year timescale feasible, and archives for shorter timescales could become cost effective within a decade. A team of researchers headed by Nick Goldman and Ewan Birney at the......

Words: 885 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Dna Fingerprinting

...Human Awareness Essay Should all people convicted of a crime have their DNA fingerprints stored on a database? A DNA fingerprint is the same for every cell, organ and tissue in an organism. DNA fingerprinting has many uses, some of which include providing the evidence needed to solve criminal investigations, determining genetic relationships and solving paternity disputes. DNA fingerprinting has many benefits in the use of criminal investigations as it can provide the evidence to solve crimes and current mysteries, can free innocent suspects and can also cut out a great deal of investigation time. However, there are also many negative issues involved in the matter, such as privacy concerns, which may lead to discrimination and the mishandling or misinterpretation of the DNA evidence. Currently, there is a database where the DNA from samples collected at crime scenes is sored, although many believe that all people convicted of a crime should have their fingerprint stored on there. This raises the question “should all people convicted of a crime have their DNA fingerprints stored on a database?” As everybody’s DNA is unique, DNA fingerprinting is rapidly becoming the main source for identifying and distinguishing amongst individuals. The structure of DNA is a double helix shape made up of a phosphate sugar backbone, which consists of a sequence of complimentary bases held together by weak hydrogen bonds. A DNA fingerprint is manufactured by first extracting the DNA from......

Words: 1144 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Dna Technology

...DNA Technology DNA research has come a long way since Friedrich Miescher first isolated it in 1869 and the discovery of DNA’s double helix structure by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953. Surely they would have never imagined what scientists can do with human DNA today. Cloning, gene therapy, stem cell research, and genetically modified foods all began with the discovery of DNA and probably would have been unimaginable in anyone’s eyes in the 1800’s. But scientist’s today are manipulating genes and DNA in an effort to prevent disease, cure disease, and feed the world. History was made on July 5, 1996 when Dolly the sheep was born. She was the first mammal to be cloned from adult DNA. By splitting two-cell embryos apart, scientists were able to produce two genetically identical organisms. Cloning is a process of making genetically identical organisms through non-sexual means. There are three types of cloning, DNA cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning. DNA (or molecular) cloning consists of removing a small piece of the DNA strand and uniting it with a plasmid which reproduces itself to create multiple copies of the same DNA code. The copied DNA can then be grown in a suitable host cell where the recombinant vector can then be reproduced along with the host cell DNA. DNA cloning is typically used in biological experiments and technological applications where large scale protein production is needed. (NRC, 2002) Reproductive......

Words: 640 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Dna Worksheet

...DNA Worksheet Crystal Noel SCI/230 25 April 2014 Frederick Carlisle, MS DNA Worksheet Answer the following in at least 100 words: 1. Describe the structure of DNA. * The structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains the biological instructions of making each creature their own unique species. DNA is made up of chemical blocks called nucleotides. These blocks are made up of three parts: a phosphate group, a sugar group, and one of four types of bases (Adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C)) which is the biological instructions are contained in a strand of DNA (National Human Genome Research Institute, 2012). Each DNA contains instructions to produce protein known as a gene, which size may vary ranging from about 1,000 bases to 1 million bases in bases. DNA is formed in a two-step process in which the enzymes that read the information in a DNA molecules and translated into a messager ribonucleic acid (mRNA). 2. How does an organism’s genotype determine its phenotype? * An organism’s genotype determines its phenotype by the specific alleles which are alternative forms of the same gene that occupies the same location on a chromosome. There are two alleles (one on each chromosome in the pair) resulting one allele from your mother and one allele from your father. These alleles may be the same or may be different. From the different alleles of a gene serves as the same function but produces phenotypes depending on which set of...

Words: 420 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Humans Share 99% of Their Dna with Apes

...Primatology is the study of primates which enables modern day humans to study and understand different primates and their adaption behaviourally and anatomically to the environment (Ember et al. 2011:86). Primatology also allows modern humans to study the behavioural and anatomical features that are distinctly human (Haviland et al. 2012:53). Homo sapiens share more than 98% of their DNA with chimpanzees and slightly less with great apes, although there is such a huge DNA shared we are not the same but there are similarities between the two. The following essay is aimed at discussing the similarities, differences and behavioural differences that are present between Homo sapiens and the present day primates. Primates are very diverse group of animals and possess features which are common within the group (Haviland et al. 2012:53). One of the common characteristics among all primates is the ability to grasp objects due to their opposable thumbs that modern primates have developed in the past year which allows more precise and powerful grip (Ember et al. 2011:88-89). Primates have well developed vision because a large portion of their brains is devoted to vision than smell, which allows than to see things better than humans and all primates give birth to live and developed young which in turn have a longer dependency period on their parents in comparison to other animals (Ember et al. 2011:89). Life expectancy of primates is very high and primates have larger brains compared......

Words: 1352 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Collecting Dna

...Collecting DNA Purpose To collect separate and collect DNA from a source using common household items. Required materials • ½ cup split peas • 1/8 tsp. salt (table variety) • 1 cup cold distilled water • Blender • Mesh strainer with very tiny holes • Bowl or cup • 2 tbsp. liquid detergent • 3-4 test tubes or thin vases • Meat tenderizer or contact lens solution • Rubbing alcohol with at least 70-95% alcohol content • Wooden BBQ skewers • Journal or notebook paper • Digital camera or traditional camera (if available) [pic] Estimated Experiment Time An hour or two at most. [pic] Step-By-Step Procedure • 1. Combine the peas, salt and cold distilled water in your blender. Blend on high for at least 15 seconds but no longer than 25-30. • 2. Assemble your strainer above a bowl or cup and pour the liquid remnants of the peas from the blender through the strainer and into the cup. • 3. Stir in the liquid detergent, being careful not to over mix. Let stand for ten minutes. • 4. Fill your test tubes or thin vases about 1/3 of the way full with the pea mixture. • 5. Sprinkle just a pinch of the meat tenderizer (or just a drop or two of contact lens solution) into each test tube or vase. Stir very gently with a BBQ skewer, being careful not to over stir. • 6. Gently pour the rubbing alcohol into each test tube or vase, making sure you have about the same amount of alcohol as......

Words: 381 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Dna Testing

...DNA profiling (also called DNA testing, DNA typing, or genetic fingerprinting) is a technique employed by forensic scientists to assist in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles. DNA profiles are encrypted sets of numbers that reflect a person's DNA makeup, which can also be used as the person's identifier. DNA profiling should not be confused with full genome sequencing.[1] It is used in, for example, parental testing and criminal investigation. Although 99.9% of human DNA sequences are the same in every person, enough of the DNA is different to distinguish one individual from another, unless they are monozygotic twins.[2] DNA profiling uses repetitive ("repeat") sequences that are highly variable,[2] called variable number tandem repeats (VNTR), particularly short tandem repeats (STR)s. VNTRs loci are very similar between closely related humans, but so variable that unrelated individuals are extremely unlikely to have the same VNTRs. The DNA profiling technique was first reported in 1984[3] by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester in England,[4] and is now the basis of several national DNA databases. Dr. Jeffreys's genetic fingerprinting was made commercially available in 1987, when a chemical company, Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), started a blood-testing centre in England.[5] Contents [hide] 1 DNA profiling process 1.1 RFLP analysis 1.2 PCR analysis 1.3 STR analysis 1.4 AmpFLP ...

Words: 8205 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay


...Biochemistry GRT 1 DNA/RNA Katharine K WGU Biochemistry GRT 1 DNA/RNA A. DNA Replication B. The Role of the Ligase Enzyme in the replication of DNA C. The Role of mRNA D. Death Cap Mushrooms The Death Cap Mushroom is an extremely toxic mushroom that is responsible for the majority of the mushroom poisoning deaths in the world. This fungi is also known as Amanita phalloides and is mainly found in Europe. It is found growing on the ground in woodlands and mountains. This particular fungi contains two types of toxins, both are “ring-shaped peptides.” These toxins are amatoxins and phallotoxins and they target mainly the liver of the human body when ingested. RNA polymerase II is an essential enzyme in helpingour bodies produce messenger RNA (mRNA) as well as other RNA’s. The virulent function of the mushroom acts by stopping the movement of RNA polymerase II, transcription does not occur and therefore it does not produce mRNA. The amatoxin impedes RNA polymerase at both the initiation and the elongation phase. The translation phase will not happen now due to there being no mRNA available to make proteins. Protein synthesis cannot happen, cell metabolism stops and so the cell dies. After human consumption of the mushroom, it initially can cause nausea and vomiting, but soon it affects the liver. The liver is the first organ to be damaged then the kidneys. Electrolyte imbalances begin and there would be no proteins like collagen to help with cell......

Words: 336 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Dna Extraction

...LAB#11 DNA EXTRACTION & KARYOTYPING ________________________________________________ Objectives: After completing this exercise, you should be able to: 1. Develop an understanding of the structure and properties of DNA, based on observation and manipulations 2. Understand some implications of DNA technology 3. Extract DNA from an onion to understand that all cells contain DNA Introduction/Purpose: DNA is too small to see under a regular microscope, so then how can it be studied? DNA is a large chemical molecule found in all living things, so it should be possible to extract it from cells or tissue. All we need to do is disrupt the cell’s plasma membrane and nuclear envelope, make the DNA clump together. DNA extraction is possible. Plant material is easy to use and DNA extractions from onion, bananas, liver, or wheat germ are common classroom activities or demonstrations. Plants used in agriculture and horticulture are often artificially selected for their large flowers and fruits. Strawberries are no exception. A reason for the size of today’s large supermarket strawberries is the octaploid nature of their cells. With eight sets of chromosomes, they have plenty of DNA for classroom extraction. The fruit is homogenized with a detergent to prepare a filtrate. The detergent emulsifies and forms complexes with the lipids and proteins of the plasma membrane this causes them to precipitate out of the solution. The mixture is then filtered through......

Words: 1173 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Dna Sequence

...INDEX 1.To retrieve the protein or DNA sequence in FASTA format from the NCBI database and analyze the obtained data. 2.For a given protein sequences find the function ,structural relevance and annotation studies by using Uniprot/Uniprot KB. 3.For a given protein, find the protein PDB code ,release date , resolution ,Classification and pub med citation from PDB Structure data base. 4.Find the disease pathway ,drug target enzymes and drug molecules used for a given disease by using KEGG database. 5.For a given protein/enzyme find its EC number ,its location and Km, K cat/Km values by using BRENDA/KEGG database. 6.Find the pair wise sequence alignment for a given protein/DNA sequence by using Dot matrix method Dot helix and comment on the results inverted repeats ,palindromes. 7.For a given Protein sequence find the homolog sequences and Study the obtained output critical statistical parameters, the % identity, %similarity ,p ,E-value by using BLAST. 8.For a given Protein/DNA sequence find the pblast ,nblast ,psi blast ,phi blast ,blast, tbalstn and analyze the obtained results obtained results for each blast method. 9.For a given Protein sequence find the pair wise sequence alignment by using the FASTA algorithm and compare the results obtained with those from other methods. 10.Find the optimal alignment for the given protein sequence by using Dynamic programming –LALIGN method. 11.For a given FASTA sequence find the multiple sequence alignment by using the Clustal...

Words: 2349 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Dna and the Cell

...Alane Thompson Biology 101 Dr. Ferdinand The cell is the basic unit of life for all living things, while the DNA is the design for all passed down characteristics in living things. Both the cell and DNA have been studied and linked to the evolution process. From the beginning of the eukaryote cell unto the prokaryote cell there has been changes and the same goes for DNA. Changes in DNA sequences has contributed to different yet similar species over great periods of time. The cell which first existed in its prokaryote form of bacteria can be divided into two domains, domain Bacteria and domain Archaea. Prokaryotes are organism with a single cell and does not have a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. There are no organelles within the prokaryote cell and it reproduces on its own. This cell can reproduce two daughter cells out of one parent cell by cloning itself. This is done by asexual reproduction or as spores and can multiply into billions of cells without the assistance of other cells. Cells produced by binary fission produce two separate cells and cells produced as spores produce more than two cells at a time. These types of reproduction does transfer genes but they are not replicated between the cells it produces. Each new cell now have the growth potential of the original cell. The Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than the eukaryotic cell (which will be discussed further along) and have great diversity. This cell (prokaryotic) preexisted long......

Words: 1086 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Dna Mutation

...DNA Mutations- The Consequences Introduction Deoxyribonucleic acid, which is more commonly known as DNA, is the hereditary material in almost all organisms. Its purpose is to store and retain the genetic information needed to be able to construct as well as maintain an organism such as a human being. Due to this people like to say that it is seen as the blueprint of life, as it contains the instructions for everything a part of you, such as eye color, height, hair type and several more. It truly controls the development of a living organism making each and every one unique in their own manner; it is also able to pass down information as well. Deoxyribonucleic acid is typically found in the cell nucleus, and due to this it is given the name nuclear DNA, it can also be located in the mitochondria and be called mitochondrial DNA. The main components of DNA are: a phosphate group, 5 carbon sugar and a nitrogenous base. The four nitrogenous bases are adenine, guanine, thymine, as well as cytosine. The order and sequences of these bases determine information to help build as well as maintain an organism or to allow for different information to be transmitted from one and another. Each of the bases is attached to sugar and phosphate molecules which are held together by phosphodiesterase bonds. Together they form what is called a nucleotide. Nucleotides are arranged in two long strands, these strands form something known as a double helix. By doing so it allows for more DNA...

Words: 2345 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Structure of Dna

...Structure of DNA DNA Structure and replication can be described as the molecule of inheritance. There are many complex issues to its structure and forms of inheritance. One scientist researched the structure of DNA at a time during the 19th century when there was no knowledge of DNA’s role in heredity. By the 1950s a series of discoveries convinced the scientific community that DNA acts as the hereditary material.       To describe DNA would be like a blueprint found in every cell in all living organism. Living organisms are made of cells. Every cell has a nucleus, and chromosomes. Human beings have 46 chromosomes that are paired into 23 chromosomes that contain hundreds of genes. The genes contain the formula for proteins that make most of the body. The structural proteins form various essential parts of the body such as skin, hair, and muscle. These chromosomes can be described as a twisted ladder held together by a backbone that is made up of sugar phosphate. Long coils of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) store all the information that the body needs such as the physical features of how one will look and their everyday functions. The DNA is a thread formed by two strands, twisted together to form a Double Helix. The Double Helix looks......

Words: 787 - Pages: 4