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Dna Testing

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DNA profiling (also called DNA testing, DNA typing, or genetic fingerprinting) is a technique employed by forensic scientists to assist in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles. DNA profiles are encrypted sets of numbers that reflect a person's DNA makeup, which can also be used as the person's identifier. DNA profiling should not be confused with full genome sequencing.[1] It is used in, for example, parental testing and criminal investigation.

Although 99.9% of human DNA sequences are the same in every person, enough of the DNA is different to distinguish one individual from another, unless they are monozygotic twins.[2] DNA profiling uses repetitive ("repeat") sequences that are highly variable,[2] called variable number tandem repeats (VNTR), particularly short tandem repeats (STR)s. VNTRs loci are very similar between closely related humans, but so variable that unrelated individuals are extremely unlikely to have the same VNTRs.

The DNA profiling technique was first reported in 1984[3] by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester in England,[4] and is now the basis of several national DNA databases. Dr. Jeffreys's genetic fingerprinting was made commercially available in 1987, when a chemical company, Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), started a blood-testing centre in England.[5]

1 DNA profiling process 1.1 RFLP analysis 1.2 PCR analysis 1.3 STR analysis 1.4 AmpFLP 1.5 DNA family relationship analysis 1.6 Y-chromosome analysis 1.7 Mitochondrial analysis 2 DNA databases 3 Considerations when evaluating DNA evidence 3.1 Evidence of genetic relationship 4 Fake DNA evidence 5 DNA evidence as evidence in criminal trials 5.1 Familial DNA searching 5.2 Partial DNA Matches 5.3…...

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