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Part 1 - Weimar Germany 1918-1929

1) The Treaty of Versailles

▪ Kaiser abdicates November 9th 1918, Armistice (cease-fire) signed November 11th ▪ Treaty of Versailles signed June 1919 ▪ It is a DIKTAT – something forced on to Germany. Allies say that they will carry on the war if Germans do not sign. ▪ For many Germans the defeat in WW1, national humiliation, the Treaty of Versailles, the Weimar constitution & democracy are all linked – helps explain why democracy is weak in Germany ▪ Terms of the Treaty – ▪ Germany has to pay REPARATIONS (fixed in 1921 as £6600 million) ▪ Germany loses all its COLONIES (overseas parts of their empire) ▪ German army limited to 100,000 men with no air force & a small navy with only 6 battleships and no submarines ▪ 13% of Germany is now transferred to neighbouring countries as the map is redrawn ▪ Germany loses land to France (Alsace-Lorraine), Belgium, Poland (Posen & West Prussia) & Denmark ▪ 15% of German coal mines are lost in map changes ▪ Many Germans blame the defeat in the war on “the stab in the back” (DOLCHSTOSS) – i.e. the Socialists / Communists / Jews betrayed Germany & the army was never defeated. This myth makes it harder to accept the Treaty ▪ Treaty weakened democracy in Germany and the German economy ▪ Friedrich Ebert appointed Chancellor in October 1918

2) The Weimar Constitution

▪ A National Assembly was elected to write this new constitution ▪ It met in Weimar because Berlin was not safe – so we call this whole period in German history the WEIMAR REPUBLIC, or WEIMAR GERMANY (or just WEIMAR!) ▪ Constitution ready by August 1919 ▪ Very democratic = everyone over the age of 20 gets the vote (men and women) ▪ Proportional representation is used in elections – so small, extremist parties find it easier to get into the Reichstag ▪ The President is the Head of State and elected every 7 years ▪ The Chancellor is the Head of Government. The Chancellor is chosen by the president but must have more than 50% of the Reichstag supporting him ▪ The Reichstag is the main house of parliament. There are elections every 4 years to choose the members of the Reichstag (Deputies) ▪ Proportional Representation will mean that the Reichstag will have lots of small parties in it – difficult to get strong government. ▪ Article 48 of the Constitution gives the President emergency powers to make laws by decree. ▪ Friedrich Ebert is chosen as 1st President by the National Assembly. ▪ Ebert gets support for the new constitution by giving promises to powerful groups e.g. promises to support the army & head of the army (General Gröner) promises to support the constitution. ▪ Ebert gets support of business leaders by promising their leader (Hugo Stinnes) the government will not try to take over their firms ▪ Ebert promises the trade unions and their leader (Karl Legien) that there will be a maximum 8 hour working day

3) Economic Problems 1918-23

▪ Germany much poorer after Treaty of Versailles – has lost so much land, resources, industrial areas etc ▪ 1923 – Germany refuses to pay its reparations instalment – says it has no money ▪ French occupy the Ruhr region and start to take raw materials and goods as payment ▪ German government orders all German workers to go on strike in the Ruhr ▪ The Ruhr is so important to German economy – German debts & unemployment now get out of control ▪ Inflation now gets out of hand because the government was printing more money to pay for goods ▪ Hyperinflation means that cost of loaf of bread goes from 1 mark in 1919 to 200 marks by 1922 to 100,000,000,000 marks by 1923. ▪ Shortages of everything inside Germany as money becomes worthless ▪ People with savings hit hardest – they lose everything as the money becomes worthless – helps make middle-class people distrust democracy ▪ Sept 1923 – Gustav Stresemann becomes Chancellor. ▪ Stresemann cancels the old mark in November 1923 and has a new currency issued – the Rentenmark ▪ Numbers of Rentenmarks in circulation is controlled strictly and inflation brought under control

4) Political Problems 1918-23

▪ Huge splits in Weimar Germany between LEFT-WING & RIGHT-WING. ▪ Left-wing people / parties want more equality / change in society. Main left-wing parties = the Communists (KPD), & Socialists (SPD). ▪ Right-wing parties / people want to protect traditions of the country. Main right-wing parties in Germany in the 1920s = the People’s Party (DVP) and the National Party (DNVP). After 1928 the Nazis become more and more important (NSDAP) ▪ In between these parties you have the Democratic Party (DDP) and the Centre Party (ZP) ▪ Some of these parties want to end democracy / voting / elections. They are the Communists (KPD), National Party (DNVP) and the Nazis (NSDAP) ▪ The right-wing parties tend to want (a) strong government (b) family values (c) strong army / nation state (d) to support businesses / capitalism ▪ The left-wing parties tend to (a) want to change society to make it fairer (b) give power to the workers (c) end capitalism / private ownership of businesses (d) want to see co-operation between nations (e.g. in the League of Nations) ▪ Parties in the 1920s have their own private armies to protect themselves from the supporters of other parties – e.g. the KPD has the Red Front Fighters, the Nazis have the SA ▪ Huge amounts of political violence in this period. 1919-22 there are 376 political murders, mostly left-wing people being killed by right-wing extremists. E.g. the murder of Matthias Erzberger (he was one of the people who signed the surrender in 1918), Walther Rathenau (the Foreign Minister in 1922). ▪ Many attempts to overthrow the government ▪ Most important one from the left is by the Spartacist League. ▪ Spartacists want a Communist revolution like in USSR ▪ Spartacists led by Rosa Luxemburg & Karl Liebknecht. ▪ Jan 1919 – 100,000 Spartacists start to take over central Berlin ▪ Chancellor Ebert calls in FREIKORPS – groups of extreme right-wing ex-soldiers who hate Communists. ▪ 1000s killed including Luxemburg and Liebknecht. ▪ Most important right-wing attempt to take over = the KAPP PUTSCH ▪ 1920 – 5000 right-wing extremists led by Dr Wolfgang Kapp march into Berlin to grab control of the government and overthrow democracy ▪ Army refuses to act – government has to leave city ▪ A general strike by the workers of Berlin (organised by the KPD & SPD) forces Kapp to give up – transport, water supplies & gas supplies all cut off ▪ Another right-wing attempt to take over is the 1923 MUNICH PUTSCH by the Nazis (see later) ▪ After 1923 political violence dies down – but 1919-23 the government is very weak in the face of extremist violence

5) The Stresemann Era 1924-1929

▪ Gustav Stresemann is Chancellor from August 1923 to 1924, and then Foreign Minister 1924-1929 ▪ 1925 – President Ebert dies. Paul von Hindenburg is elected President. Hindenburg was a WW1 war hero and a supporter of the Kaiser who did not believe in democracy. His election is a sign that Germans are not enthusiastic for democracy yet. ▪ He was the most talented & successful Weimar politician and supported by moderate parties on the left and right ▪ As Chancellor he ended hyperinflation by bringing in the new currency & persuading the French to leave the Ruhr ▪ As Foreign Minister he agreed the DAWES PLAN, YOUNG PLAN, LOCARNO PACT & German entry into the LEAGUE OF NATIONS ▪ DAWES PLAN – 1924 – German reparation payments are reduced & loans from American banks to boost the German economy are arranged ▪ 1923-1928 – unemployment drops, industrial output doubles (i.e. the amount of stuff Germany made in factories) – Germany is doing very well ▪ YOUNG PLAN – 1929 – The overall reparations bill is reduced and the date for final repayment is put back – so the annual bill is reduced again to only £50 million a year ▪ This would have been very good for Germany – allow them to cut taxes – but the Great Depression was just around the corner so it didn’t have much effect ▪ LOCARNO PACT – 1925 – an agreement signed with the Western European countries. Germany agrees that it will never try and change its western borders (which were forced on it in the Treaty of Versailles) ▪ Last Allied soldiers pull back out of Germany because of this ▪ Germany is saying that they will not fight a war in the future to get back land like Alsace-Lorraine ▪ Germany now seen as a ‘normal’ country by Britain and France ▪ LEAGUE OF NATIONS – Germany allowed to join in 1926 – Germany now seen as a ‘normal’ country ▪ KELLOG-BRIAND PACT (1928) – an international agreement which Germany signed – a agreement that countries which sign will not use war to achieve their aims in the future. Nice idea – but arguably didn’t work out very successfully ▪ Stresemann won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1926 ▪ Stresemann died in Oct 1929 suddenly – he had restored German economic stability and given Germany respect in foreign affairs – but he died just before the Great Depression – maybe he could have found a way to preserve democracy in Germany if he had lived?

6) 1929-1932 – Years of Economic Crisis

▪ Wall Street Crash – October 1929 – kick starts the Great Depression ▪ Banks in America and Germany run out of money and start demanding that loans be repaid – many German businesses cannot afford to repay and have to sack workers or close ▪ Unemployment starts to rise – 1.3 million in 1929, 6 million by January 1933 ▪ Middle class losing savings, homes and businesses ▪ Working class becoming poverty-stricken ▪ Chancellor during 1930-32 is Heinrich Brüning. All he can think to do is cut unemployment benefits to try and save money. Pushes millions into deeper poverty. ▪ The parties in the Reichstag cannot co-operate and Brüning can only rule by using the President’s emergency powers to make new laws – rule by decree ▪ Political violence on the streets starts to rise

Part 2 – Hitler and the Rise of the Nazi Party 1918-1933

1) Adolf Hitler – Early Life

▪ Born in Austria, parents died when he was young, becomes unemployed & homeless in Vienna ▪ Believed he was destined for greatness ▪ Outbreak of WW1 gives him a purpose in life and he joins the German army in 1914 ▪ Brave soldier – wins Iron Cross ▪ Sees armistice in 1918 as a betrayal of German army ▪ Believes Germany has been stabbed in the back by Jews and Communists ▪ Joins the German Workers’ Party (a small group of right-wing extremists) in 1919

2) The Birth of the Nazi party 1919-23

▪ Hitler is put in charge of propaganda & ideas of German Workers’ Party ▪ 1920 the party is renamed the NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS’ PARTY – or NAZIS ▪ 1920 – the party puts forward its Twenty Five Point Programme – a summary of its ideas ▪ This includes – abolishing Treaty of Versailles, uniting Germany & Austria, nationalising large businesses, increased pensions, a stronger German army & government, exclusion of Jews from German life ▪ The ideas are a mixture of NATIONALISM, SOCIALISM & RACISM. ▪ 1921 Hitler replaces the original leader (Anton Drexler) ▪ His great talent is being able to stir up the emotions of a crowd when speaking ▪ The SA (Sturmabteilung) – also known as Brownshirts or Stormtroopers – is set up in 1921 to protect party meetings ▪ By 1923 the Nazis are the biggest extremist right-wing group in the south of Germany ▪ November 1923 – Hitler leads an attempt to overthrow the Weimar government ▪ He thinks the government needs to be replaced because of hyperinflation and the Ruhr crisis. ▪ Hitler thinks he has promises of support from the leading Bavarian politician Gustav von Kahr (who is effectively running Bavaria) – but von Kahr lets him down in the end ▪ Hitler plans to grab control in Munich, then lead a march on Berlin to put war hero Erich von Ludendorff in power as Chancellor ▪ Hitler announces the start of the uprising in a Munich beer hall during a political meeting on November 8th ▪ On November 9th the Nazis march into the centre of Bavaria but the police turn out to stop them – 16 Nazis shot dead in gun battle ▪ Hitler charged with treason ▪ His trial is a joke because the judge is sympathetic to the Nazis ▪ Hitler uses the trial to become a national figure through the reporting of his patriotic speeches ▪ He is sentenced to five years (should have got life) ▪ He serves 9 months before release in prison at Landsberg Castle ▪ Uses his time in prison to write Mein Kampf (his book explaining his views and life story)

3) The Nazi Party 1924-29

▪ Hitler now focuses on winning power through elections – realises that revolution will not work ▪ The Nazi party becomes much more organised & sets up local party organisations across Germany ▪ Hitler chooses people who are efficient administrators – e.g. Philipp Bouhler as secretary ▪ Hitler Youth set up ▪ Results from elections show they are not going anywhere in this period – 12 seats in the Reichstag won in 1928 ▪ This was the period when Weimar Germany was at its most stable – Nazis do not have much appeal ▪ SS set up in 1925 as Hitler’s personal bodyguard ▪ Joseph Goebbels put in charge of propaganda – a genius at producing this ▪ They only have the support of less than 3% of Germans ▪ Nazi voters tend to be peasant farmers and shopkeepers / small business people – groups not sharing in Weimar prosperity ▪ He gets support (and money) from some important companies / businessmen– e.g. Thyssen, Krupp & Bosch ▪ Uses modern technology – radio, films & gramophone records to get their message across ▪ Create image of strength & unity through RALLIES

4) The Rise of the Nazis 1929-32

▪ Wall St Crash in 1929 begins Great Depression and rise of unemployment ▪ Hitler says only Nazis can provide firm leadership & jobs for Germany & blames Versailles treaty for much of Germany’s problems ▪ The 25 Points are a very attractive message to people suffering in the Depression ▪ As unemployment rises, so does Nazi vote ▪ Nazis get 107 seats in Reichstag in 1930 and almost 200 in November 1932 making them largest party in Reichstag (but not in the majority yet) ▪ Nazis keep their promises vague in elections – their message is very simple & clear and their propaganda very effective ▪ The uniforms and sense of order / unity is very appealing in time of crisis ▪ The SA fight street battles with the Communists ▪ By 1930 there are 400,000 SA men ▪ Middle-class Germans are terrified of a Communist revolution & see the Nazis as the only people willing to fight to stop this ▪ Nazis set up soup kitchens and shelters for the unemployed & homeless ▪ Promise work and bread to the working class ▪ Nazis have dropped their policies of nationalising industries to show big business that they can be trusted – Hitler continues to get support from some leading industrialists / business people who give money and help ▪ Newspaper tycoon Alfred Hugenberg gives support and allows Nazi propaganda into his newspapers ▪ Hitler runs for President in 1932 and gets 13 million votes when Hindenburg is re-elected with 19 million ▪ Hitler’s speeches are a huge draw with German public – he poses as the strong modern leader Germany needs ▪ Many people think democracy can not solve Germany’s economic problems and Hitler appeals to this ▪ Many traditional-minded people are disgusted by the culture of Weimar Germany – modern art, sexually explicit books and shows etc – and Hitler appeals to these people with his message ▪ A vote for Hitler is usually a vote against something (democracy / communism / Weimar culture) – NEGATIVE COHESION ▪ Support for Nazis cuts across all classes and areas but is less strong amongst working class – who are more likely to vote SPD or KPD. ▪ Hitler has big appeal to women

Part 3 – The Nazi Dictatorship 1933-1939

1) The Nazi Seizure of Power

▪ July 1932 – Nazis are strongest party in Reichstag with 230 seats ▪ Franz von Papen becomes new Chancellor when Chancellor Brϋning is forced out in April 1932 ▪ November 1932 – Nazi vote falls – they are still strongest party but their vote seems to be slipping away now ▪ Von Papen loses support of the Reichstag and has to resign in November 1932 ▪ Hindenburg does not want Hitler as Chancellor but his preferred man (Kurt von Schleicher) does not have enough support in the Reichstag ▪ January 1933 – Franz von Papen (who hates Schleicher) arranges a deal between President Hindenburg and Hitler ▪ Hitler will get to be Chancellor but with limited powers. Papen will be Vice-Chancellor and pick all but 2 of the government ministers ▪ Hitler uses one of his choices to make his right-hand man at the time (Hermann Goering) into the Prussian Minister of the Interior – giving a leading Nazi control over most of the police in Germany

2) The Creation of the Nazi Dictatorship – Part 1

▪ Hitler organises a new election to be held in March 1933 to try and get the new government a majority in the Reichstag ▪ Nazis intimidate and attack their enemies with the police doing nothing to prevent this ▪ 27th February – the Reichstag building is set on fire by a Dutch communist called Marinus van der Lubbe ▪ The Nazis see this as a sign that the Communists are about to launch a revolution ▪ Hindenburg gives permission for Communists to be locked up without trial – using the emergency powers of the President under article 48 of the constitution ▪ All communist newspapers banned under emergency powers ▪ Mass arrests of Communists and others ▪ 70 people die in violence during the election campaign ▪ March 5th – Nazis and Nazi-supporting parties win 52% of the vote ▪ 24th March – the new Reichstag (with Communists excluded) passes the Enabling Act – a law that gives Hitler the right to rule by decree (i.e. to make new laws just by announcing them) ▪ April 1933 – Civil service, schools and legal system sees the removal of all Jews, Socialists and Communists ▪ May 1933 – all independent trade unions banned – all workers now have to belong to the Nazi controlled DAF (German Labour Front) ▪ July 1933 – all other political parties are banned ▪ January 1934 – all local governments (the 18 Länder / States) in Germany are taken over by the Nazis – their governors are appointed by Hitler from now on.

3) The Creation of the Nazi Dictatorship – Part 2

▪ Ernst Röhm is head of SA ▪ Röhm wanted to see the Nazi system to become more socialist – he hated Hitler’s links to rich businesspeople and wanted the state to nationalise big businesses ▪ SA now 3 million strong in 1934 ▪ Röhm wants to see the army merged into the SA ▪ The army officers tend to be nobles and are horrified by the suggestion that they should become part of the working-class, thuggish SA ▪ The SS (led by Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich) want to destroy the SA power too. ▪ SS leaders and army officers tell Hitler that Röhm wants to grab power ▪ 30 June 1934 Hitler orders arrest of Röhm & other SA leaders ▪ Around 400 people are shot without trial during the Night of the Long Knives – including Röhm, von Kahr and von Schleicher ▪ Hitler is removing any possible threat to him and sending out a message that no disloyalty will be tolerated ▪ Death of President Hindenburg in August 1934 means that there is no limit on Hitler’s power ▪ Hitler now has the combined power of the President and the Chancellor and uses the title of Fϋhrer (Leader) ▪ Every soldier now has to swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler

4) The Terror State / Opposition

▪ Nazi Germany is a Police State – the police are used to control the lives of everyone (not just criminals) ▪ SS (Schutzstaffel) become more and more powerful after Night of the Long Knives – they carried out the murders for Hitler ▪ Led by Heinrich Himmler ▪ SS takes control of all of the police ▪ SS runs the concentration camps (the Death’s Head Units of the SS) ▪ SS only take Aryan men – i.e. those people who are supposed to be racially pure ▪ GESTAPO = the secret police ▪ Gestapo rely on informers – ordinary members of the public giving them information ▪ They arrest people who act against / speak against the Nazis ▪ Concentration Camps – first one set up in 1933 at Dachau ▪ Camps are for political prisoners at first and later for criminals ▪ Prisoners at mercy of guards ▪ By 1939 there are about 20,000 people in concentration camps and 150,000 in prisons (for political crimes) ▪ Concentration camps are NOT death camps – there are no death camps in the period you are studying ▪ Law courts – all lawyers who are opponents of the Nazis lose their jobs in 1933 ▪ All judges have to be members of the National Socialist League for the Maintenance of the Law ▪ The People’s Court is set up to hear treason cases ▪ Hitler intervenes in cases to increase punishments whenever he feels like it ▪ Catholic Church signs an agreement with the Nazis – the CONCORDAT in 1933 ▪ This supposedly says that Catholics will not be mistreated by Nazis if they stay out of German politics ▪ Catholic priests are harassed by Nazis, Catholic schools closed and Catholic youth groups banned ▪ Pope criticises Nazis in 1937, criticising their regime ▪ Protestant churches are smaller than the Catholic Church and divided. ▪ They are merged into one church – the German Christian Movement ▪ This is under the control of Ludwig Mϋller – a Nazi bishop ▪ Some Protestant ministers still speak out against the Nazis and end up in concentration camps e.g. Martin Niemöller ▪ Religion is hated by Hitler because it is a rival for people’s loyalty

5) Propaganda

▪ Joseph Goebbels is Minister of People’s Enlightenment and Propaganda – in charge of all propaganda ▪ Newspapers told what to write by daily briefings from the Propaganda ministry ▪ All disloyal or Jewish journalists sacked in 1933 ▪ Sales of newspapers drop 10% because people find them so boring and unconvincing ▪ Universities – 3000 professors / lecturers lose jobs in 1930s ▪ Research has to follow Nazi teachings ▪ All artists have to be member of the Reich Chamber of Culture or are not allowed to publish / show work / perform ▪ Books by Jews or Communists are publicly burned in 1933 ▪ Music – Jazz is banned (it is African-American in its origin). Works by Jewish composers are banned (e.g. Mendelssohn). ▪ Wagner, Beethoven, Bach and traditional German folk music is promoted. ▪ Modern art in paintings / sculpture is described as Jewish and disgusting ▪ Plays / films have to reflect Nazi propaganda ▪ Posters pushing Nazi propaganda are everywhere in towns ▪ Rallies are used to show strength and unity of the Nazi movement – esp. the huge annual rally at Nuremberg ▪ All radio stations are under Nazi control ▪ Cheap mass produced radios are made so everyone can afford them and there are loudspeakers in the streets and workplaces so everyone can hear Hitler’s speeches ▪ All cinema films have propaganda newsreel in front of them ▪ All films have to be approved by Goebbels ▪ Lots of obvious propaganda films made – e.g. Hitlerjunge Quex ▪ Sport – used to put across the message that the Germans are superior to other nations ▪ 1936 Berlin Olympics is showcase for Germany ▪ Germany wins 3 gold medals and comes top of the medal tables – seen as proof of Aryan superiority ▪ Star of the show is a black American athlete called Jesse Owens – he wins 4 golds and is a serious embarrassment to the Nazis ▪ All propaganda is there to show Hitler as the god-like genius who is Germany’s father figure

Part 4 – Nazi Domestic Policies 1933-1939

1) Education & the Young

▪ Schools are taken over and all opponents of the Nazis who are teachers lose their jobs ▪ Teachers have to join the Nazi Teachers’ League ▪ School subjects are used as propaganda – e.g. History lessons on the role of the Jew in German History, maths problems that are about military issues ▪ Mein Kampf is a compulsory school book (Hitler’s autobiography) ▪ Education for boys and girls is heavy on PE ▪ Education for boys aims to turn them into soldiers, for girls it aims to turn them into mothers ▪ Youth groups for both boys and girls are compulsory but many teenagers refuse to go ▪ Boys join the Pimpfen aged 6 and the Hitler Youth aged 14 ▪ Lots of outdoor activities, training with weapons and Nazi propaganda ▪ Girls join the BDM – the League of German Girls – again, lots of physical exercise and outdoor activities ▪ Some teenagers rebel and join anti-Hitler Youth gangs (the Edelweiss Pirates) ▪ Some join the Swing Movement – a youth subculture that involves listening to Jazz / swing records, growing hair long and wearing tweed (copying the fashions of the English upper class)

2) Women in Nazi Germany

▪ Nazi Germany is very male dominated with traditional views on the role of women as mothers and wives. ▪ Getting women to go back to being housewives seen as way to free up jobs for men. ▪ But after 1937 there were shortages of workers so women began to take more factory work. ▪ Falling birth-rate in Germany in 1920s and early 1930s – Hitler sees increasing population as necessary for a strong Germany ▪ Women encouraged to not smoke, wear short skirts or make up. ▪ Ideal woman is blond, athletic with child-bearing hips. ▪ Medals for women with four or more children. 4 kids gets a woman a Bronze Motherhood Cross, 6 gets Silver, 8 gets Gold. Hitler Youth ordered to salute women with the medals. ▪ Loans of 1000 marks for newly weds if woman agrees not to take a job – they can pay back the money or through having kids. 4 kids means the debt to the state is repaid. ▪ Abortion is illegal and so is contraception. ▪ Birth-rate rises – 15 per 1000 in 1933, 20 per 1000 in 1939. ▪ Married professional women sacked after 1933 – doctors, lawyers etc. ▪ V. few prominent women in Nazi Germany. Leni Riefenstahl was film-maker, Gertrude Scholz-Klink was head of Nazi Women’s Bureau (women’s section of Party), Magda Goebbels was the closest thing to a ‘first lady’ and had 6 children, Eva Braun was hidden from public view as Hitler’s girlfriend. ▪ Most famous slogan associated with the Nazis and addressed to women is “Kinder, Kirche, Küche” –Children, Church and Kitchen. ▪ Lebensborn programme offers nurseries and support for single mums who have a baby with an Aryan SS man

3) The Economy / Living Standards

▪ A scheme is set up called KDF (Strength through Joy). It allows workers to get cheap tickets to cinemas, theatres etc, or cheap holidays, or to save for a cheap VW Beetle car. KDF was very popular. ▪ All non-Nazi trade unions are closed down. Every worker is now a member of the DAF, the German Labour Front. ▪ Wages are low; people have KDF and DAF contributions taken from their pay packets. ▪ The working week went from an average 43 hours in 1933 to 47 hours in 1939. ▪ Unemployed workers are given work through the RAD (National Labour Service) – the pay here is very low and people are treated very harshly ▪ In 1937 the average worker (compared to 1927) ate less meat, milk, cheese, white bread, fruit and sugar and drank less beer. They ate more rye bread and potatoes. ▪ All 18-25 year old men had to do 6 months labour service – low paid manual labour. This was like conscription – which they also had to do. ▪ The Nazis made an effort to get cheap canteens and cleaner conditions in factories through the Beauty of Labour scheme. ▪ Public Works to create jobs building roads, railways, houses and public buildings like the new Reich Chancellery (the offices in Berlin where Hitler worked from). Reduces unemployment but pay is very low. ▪ 7000 miles of Autobahns built by 1939 ▪ After 1935 conscription is introduced – every man has to do a year of army service – reduces unemployment. ▪ After 1936 there is a 4 Year Economic Plan to get Germany ready for war, building up weapons factories. ▪ Spending on the military goes from 3.5 billion marks in 1933 to 26 billion in 1939 ▪ German army goes from 100,000 men in 1933 to 900,000 in 1939 ▪ Unemployment is virtually gone by 1938. Only ½ million unemployed in 1938 (down from 6 million in 1932) but this figure does not include women or Jews who were sacked.

4) Treatment of the Jews / Ethnic Minorities

▪ The Germans are believed by Nazis to be the MASTERRACE (Herrenvolk) ▪ They are supposed to be ARYAN – tall, blond, blue-eyed Northern European people who the Nazis believe are the superior type of human being ▪ All non-Aryans are inferior – especially the UNTERMENSCHEN – ‘subhuman’ people – Nazis would include Africans, Gypsies and Jews in this list. ▪ Early measures against the Jews (1933-1935) include shop boycotts (1933), banning them from government jobs (1933) & restaurants (1935) ▪ Nuremberg Laws (Sept 1935) – take away the Jews’ identity as German citizens. ▪ Also in the Nuremberg Laws – banned Jews and Germans from marrying or even having sex with one another ▪ After 1938 – persecution intensifies. They have to carry ID cards, Jewish doctors can not treat Germans, all Jewish property has to be registered with the government ▪ Nov 1938 – Kristallnacht – mass attack on Jewish community in Germany ▪ Sparked by murder of a German diplomat in Paris by a Jewish refugee – Herschel Grynszpan ▪ Idea for the attack is suggested by Goebbels ▪ SA / SS / police all involved ▪ Around 100 Jews killed on the night, 20,000 taken to concentration camps ▪ 191 synagogues burned down, thousands of homes and businesses destroyed ▪ Jews of Germany made to pay a 1 billion mark punishment fine for the murder in Paris ▪ Jews banned from schools or from running businesses after Kristallnacht ▪ April 1939 Jews moved to particular parts of cities / towns – ghettos ▪ BUT – THERE ARE NO DEATH CAMPS OR MASS KILLING OF JEWS IN GERMANY DURING THE PERIOD YOU STUDY. AUSCHWITZ WAS BUILT AFTER 1939 WHEN WW2 WAS IN PROGRESS ▪ Gypsies also persecuted ▪ 30,000 Gypsies in Germany ▪ They were covered by the Nuremburg Laws in the same way ▪ They were moved to ghettos in 1939 ▪ Homosexuals are persecuted – homosexual acts are illegal and will get you sent to a concentration camp ▪ 60% of homosexual prisoners in camps never survive their sentence because of mistreatment ▪ Camps also used to lock up ASOCIALS – i.e. people who were prostitutes, career criminals, beggars – or pacifists, Jehovah’s Witnesses etc ▪ 1933 – a law is passed allowing people to be forcibly STERILISED – 700,000 people sterilised in Nazi Germany, usually people who were disabled ▪ 1939 – EUTHANASIA programme begins – disabled children being killed by lethal injection or starvation

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