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Dog Breeds

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Submitted By kateJ
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Pages 51 Chihuahua (Long Coat)
Toy Group: | Toy | | Size: | small | | Lifespan: | 14-18 years | | Exercise: | very little | | Grooming: | moderate | | Trainability: | low | | Watchdog ability: | very high | | Protection ability: | very low | | Area of Origin: | Mexico | | Date of Origin: | 1500’s | | Other Names: | none | | Original Function: | ceremonial | | | | | History | | | This is the oldest breed on the American continent and the smallest breed in the world. Native to Mexico, nonetheless it seems to have been introduced by the Chinese. It was only brought to Europe at the end of the nineteenth century. The Chihuahua is named after the Mexican state of Chihuahua where he was brought to the rest of the world by travelers. This breed is believed to have been sacred to the Pre-Columbian Indian nations. | | Temperament | The Chihuahua is a good companion dog. Courageous, extremely lively, proud and enterprising, it gives and demands affection. Bold and saucy, it moves swiftly to avoid being stepped on. Chihuahuas are strong-willed, intensely loyal and become very attached to their owners, even to the point of jealousy. Chihuahuas generally recognise their own breed, but sometimes disapprove of other breeds. They are very intelligent although a bit stubborn, and are trainable with patience, persistence and practice. | | Upkeep | The Chihuahua is a lively dog that nonetheless can get its exercise running from room to room indoors. It enjoys exploring the yard or going for short walks on a leash and especially enjoys accompanying its owner on outings. The Chihuahua is not an outdoor dog; it hates the cold and seeks out warmth. Care of the long coat entails brushing two to three times a week. | | Official Breed Standard |
An alert and swift moving little dog with a saucy expression. GENERAL APPEARANCE:
Small, dainty and compact with a brisk forceful action. Head and Skull:
A well rounded "Apple Dome" skull with or without molero, cheeks and jaws lean, nose moderately short, slightly pointed. Definite stop. Eyes:
Full, round but not protruding, set well apart, dark or ruby. (Light eyes in light colours permissible). Ears:
Large, set on at an angle of about 45 degrees; this gives breadth between the ears. Mouth:
Level, scissor bite. Neck:
Slightly arched, of medium length. Forequarters:
Shoulders should be well up, lean, sloping into a slightly broadening support above straight forelegs that are set well under, giving free play at the elbows. Body:
Level back, slightly longer than the height at shoulder. Well sprung ribs with deep brisket. Hindquarters:
Muscular with hocks well apart, neither out nor in, well let down. Feet:
Small with toes well split up, but not spread, pads cushioned. Fine pasterns (neither "Hare" nor "Cat" foot). A dainty foot with nails moderately long. Tail:
Medium length carried up or over the back. Preferred furry, flattish in appearance, broadening slightly in the centre and tapering to a point. Coat:
Long, of soft texture (never coarse or harsh to the touch) either flat or slightly wavy. No tight curly coat. There should be feathering on the feet and legs, pants on the hind legs, a large ruff on the neck is desired and preferred, the tail should be long and full as a plume. Colour:
Any colour or mixture of colours. Weight:
Up to 2.7 kg (6 lbs) with 0.9 to 1.8 kg (2-4 lbs) preferable. If two dogs are equally good in type, the more diminutive preferred. Faults:
Cropped tail, broken-down ears. Note:
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum. | |

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog. Chihuahua Description: also known as “Chis” is considered as the smallest breed in the world. This is the oldest breed in the American continent. The name Chihuahua was given to the breed as this breed is ascended from the Mexican state of Chihuahua. This breed was first brought to Europe by the famous explorer Christopher Columbus during 16th century, where it gained its popularity. This breed was used in religious ceremonies and was pet to the upper class. Chihuahua was recognized by AKC (American Kennel Club) in 1904 and now has become one of the most popular breeds in the world. These lively tiny dogs are well known as "Purse Dogs".

Chihuahua has a well rounded and apple in shape head; muzzle is short and slightly pointed; teeth are arranged in a level or scissors bite; ears are large and erect; eyes are large, round, set well apart and usually dark and luminous; legs are short and thin; tail is long and sickle in shape, either curled over the back or to the side. This breed has two types of coat, one is short and other is long. Short coated Chihuahua has a smooth, glossy and close coat placed well over the body. Long coated Chihuahua has a longer smooth coat that either can be flat or slightly curly.

Chis is pleasant little very intelligent breed. This is one of the most popular companion dog and also a good watch dog. This breed is extremely devoted, alert, confident, lively, gentle and fearless. Chihuahuas are generally considered as one-person dogs because they are very much devoted to their owners and suspect everyone else. This may not be a good family pet as it does not get along with younger children easily. Chihuahuas do not accept strangers and bark a lot, which makes them good watch dogs.

Chihuahua is the smallest breed that registered with AKC, due to its small size this is a good choice for city and apartment life. Chihuahuas are known to be temperamental and mostly not friendly towards younger children. This breed is very much devoted to one or two members of the family. It takes some time and patience to train this breed properly. | Chihuahua Care & Grooming:Chihuahuas need a great deal of human attention like petting, touching etc. This is a very active dog so daily walk is very much required to keep him healthy. This breed is an average shedder. The short-coated Chihuahua should be gently brushed occasionally and the long-coated Chihuahua needs to be brushed regularly with a soft bristle brush. This breed should be bathed once or twice in a month, while bathing special care should be taken not to get water into their ears. Otherwise an infection may develop. Their nails should be trimmed regularly. Chihuahuas prefer some small meals to one big meal per day. Chihuahuas are sensitive to cold so proper care should be taken while exposing them to cold weather. | Chihuahua Health Problems:Chihuahua is one of the longest living dog breed which can live up to 16 years or more. They are prone to some health problems like Hypoglycemia and Patellar Luxation, Eye problems, Heart disease and Tooth and gum complaints. Chihuahuas are prone to weak knees, it may create difficulty in walking while they get older. This breed born with a soft spot on the top of the head known as Molera. This spot may not be closed fully so care should be taken as any strong hit on this place can kill him. Chihuahua requires expert veterinary attention in areas like birthing and dental care. |
Coat: smooth, close and glossy
Gain: swift
Living area: any
Hair length: long or short
Exercise need: diary walk Pointer Description:The exact origin of the Pointer is unknown. However, according to the historical evidence, the origin of the breed lies in England and date back to the 17th century. It is thought to be a result of crossbreeding between Bloodhound, Foxhound, Greyhound and Bull Terrier. The dog was first imported to the US in the late 19th century, where it was bred to be skilled at pointing. Pointing was used to guide the hunter towards a potential prey, usually small game like hare. Most of the current Pointers in the US owe their characteristics to a Pointer named Sensation. The breed was first recognized by AKC in 1884.

The Pointer is a large breed with an athletic and agile frame. It has a proportionate head; low set ears with a pointed tip which lie close to the head; large eyes which are round in shape and dark in color; a square but long muzzle; black nose with flared nostrils; taut lips with teeth which meet in scissors bite. Its tail is carried horizontally at the level of the back with a slight upward trend towards the tip. It has long, lean legs with small feet. This breed has a short, dense and glossy coat. The acceptable color of its coat can be liver, lemon, black and orange; either with white or solid-colored.

The Pointer is a loyal and an active breed. It is great with kids as well as other pets, including dogs. However, the breed can be reserved with strangers. It has a tendency to bark when it senses suspicion. However, it is not a very good watchdog or a guard dog. It is primarily a companion breed with a strong sense of smell. It is an obedient breed and thus, easy to train. However, it can get easily bored with repetition and thus, the training schedule must be constantly changed to keep it interested. It does not adapt very well to an indoor environment, and hence, it is not well suited to an apartment lifestyle. | Pointer Care & Grooming:The Pointer is an average shedder. The breed’s short coat is easy to maintain. Brushing once in a week with a firm bristle brush is sufficient to maintain a healthy coat. This breed has a tendency to develop infections of the ear. Thus, ears should be cleaned regularly. Special attention also needs to be paid to the feet which have a tendency to accumulate dust and bacteria.

The Pointer is an active breed which needs a lot of daily exercise. Long walks and jogging more than once a day are vital for physical and mental well being. A lot of time needs to be dedicated to the exercise schedule of the breed. Thus, the Pointer is not suited to families which can’t spare enough time for the dog. | Pointer Health Problems:The Pointer prone to some health issues like skin allergies, hip dysplasia, thyroid disorder and dwarfism. | Whippet Description:The exact origin of the Whippet is unknown. While there are instances of representations of this kind of dog dating back to the ancient times, the first written evidence for this breed dates back to the 17th century. Louis XV owned two of this breed, which is represented in paintings of that time. However, the breed only became popular during the nineteenth century when whippet racing was a national sport in England. This breed is believed to have been created by crossbreeding between the Italian Greyhound and a certain terrier breed. The breed derives its name from the phrase “whip-it”, which translates to “run fast” and is in accordance to the great running speed of the dog. The breed was first recognized by AKC in 1888.

The Whippet is a medium sized breed with an athletic frame and an ability to run at a great speed for long distances. It has a long head; large eyes which are oval in shape in dark brown or black in color; small sized ears which are rose like in shape; a long muzzle which almost tapers towards the end; a small nose which is black or dark blue in color; thin lips with teeth which meet in scissors bite. This breed has a long tail which tapers towards the end and is carried almost between the legs when relaxed. However, it is never carried above the level of the back. The Whippets has long, straight legs which are muscular, with hare like feet. The coat of this breed is characterized by short and smooth hair. However, the coat can be of any color, most common colors are black, white, brindle, red and fawn.

The Whippet is a docile breed with great agility and intelligence. This breed is excellent with kids as well as other dogs. However, caution is advised with smaller pets since it has a tendency to chase and kill smaller animals. This breed is reserved with strangers and thus, it makes for a good watchdog. It is obedient and easy to train. However, it is a sensitive breed which does not respond very well to harsh training methods. It requires a calm and patient approach with variety in training to bring out the best results. The affectionate nature of this breed makes it an excellent companion breed too. The breed is calm and relaxed indoors and thus, suits well to an apartment lifestyle. | Whippet Care & Grooming:The Whippet is an average shedder and is an odorless dog. The short coat of this breed is easy to look after. Its whole body should be rubbed with a damp cloth once in a week. Apart from that occasional brushing with a firm bristle brush and bathing whenever necessary are sufficient to maintain its coat. It is sensitive to cold temperature so proper care should be taken in cold climate.

It requires a lot of exercise and variety in exercise. Hence, a long daily walk should be supplemented with sprints and jogs in an open area. However, it has a tendency to chase small animals and thus, should not be let off the leash when out in the open. | Whippet Health Problems:The Whippet is generally a very healthy breed. However, it prone to some health issues like liver and skin problem. |
The Pumi is an ancient breed developed in a time before written records were kept of dog breeding, so very little is known for sure about its ancestry. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that it was developed by breeders who were solely interested in a dog’s working ability rather than keeping pedigrees. However, among modern historians there is general agreement as to the story of the dog’s origin. In 895 A.D., the Magyar people settled in the Carpathian Basin under the leadership of King Arpad. Although it is unclear exactly where their original homeland was, linguistic and historical evidence suggest that it was somewhere in modern day Russia, most likely between Finland and the Ural Mountains. The Magyars founded the Kingdom of Hungary which, despite a few periods of foreign occupation, has existed till the present day. The Magyars were accompanied by several breeds of dog, although there is some dispute as to which ones. It is almost universally agreed that they brought the Kuvasz, Magyar Agar, and Vizsla, as all three breeds are documented in the earliest Magyar historical and archaeological records. Many others believe that they also brought the very similar Komondor and Puli as well, both of which are famous for their corded coats. However, records verifying the existence of the Komondor and Puli in the region do not begin until several centuries later, and there is a growing acceptance that these breeds may have actually arrived in Hungary with the Cumans in the 1200’s. The Cumans were originally a Turko-Mongolic tribe living in China, but were pushed across the steppes by subsequent barbarian hordes eventually finding asylum in Hungary. No matter who brought the Puli and Komondor to Hungary, there is essentially no evidence to suggest how these breeds were developed. They appear most similar to the ancient Italian Bergamasco, which was itself supposedly introduced to the Alpine Valleys from Persia or Eastern Europe. The existence of these three breeds may indicate that at one point a variety of corded-coat livestock herding and guarding breeds could be found in the Steppes. It has also been suggested that the Puli and/or Komondor were developed from the Tibetan Spaniel, and various types of Owtcharka, massive livestock guardian breeds native to the Caucasus Mountains; or the Aftscharka, the feared war dog of the Huns. However and whenever the Puli was developed, the breed was present in Hungary since either the 800’s or the 1200’s. The Puli became the primary sheep herding dog of the Magyar people, responsible for keeping flocks together, moving them wherever they needed to go, and chasing down and rounding up those sheep which strayed. In other countries, the large number of predatory animals that existed at the time necessitated that sheepherding dogs also be capable of protecting their flocks from wolves, bears, and human marauders. This was unnecessary in Hungary, here the massive Komondor and Kuvasz were tasked with defending the flocks while herding duties fell to the smaller Puli; working in concert with each other, the breeds were allowed to specialize. As a result the Puli shrunk in size, one reason being that smaller dogs are more affordable to keep, and the more dogs a farmer can keep the greater the number of sheep he can raise; and because smaller dogs typically have more agility and stamina allowing them to work tirelessly while avoiding injury from recalcitrant stock. For many centuries, Hungarian dog populations were relatively isolated. This isolation was exaggerated in 1541, when Hungary was divided into three portions, two of which were controlled by the Islamic Ottoman Empire. Over the next several centuries, the newly formed Austro-Hungarian Empire retook Hungary piece by piece. As a result of Austrian influence, Hungary was opened up to the rest of Europe to a greater extent than ever before. New trade routes and greater economic security meant that Magyar farmers were able to import herding breeds from all over Europe and a number of new breeds began to appear in Hungary. The Magyars preferred to cross these newly introduced dogs to the existing Puli rather than keep them pure. Why this was preferred is unclear. Perhaps not enough dogs arrived to establish healthy breeding populations, or perhaps Magyar farmers just preferred working with their faithful Pulik. It has long been a matter of debate as to which breeds arrived, and the full truth will likely never be known. However, most of the dogs probably arrived from German-speaking lands, with others imported from France, Italy, and possibly Spain and England as well. From these crosses, two distinct varieties emerged; the Mudi and the Pumi. The Mudi is obviously Spitz-like, and it is almost universally agreed that that breed is the result of crossing Pulik with German Spitzen, and perhaps a few other breeds such as the German Pinscher and the ancestors of the German Shepherd Dog. The Pumi is somewhat more of a mystery as it does not closely resemble any other herding breeds. It is likely that the Pumi is not a simple cross between the Puli and another breed, but rather Pulik crossed with several, perhaps dozens of other dogs. The most commonly suggested breeds that may have gone into the ancestry of the Pumi are Rough-Coated British Terriers, the Germano-Dutch Keeshond, the German Wolfspitz, the Pomeranian, the ancestors of the German, Dutch, and Belgian Shepherd Dogs, and the French Briard. Although less commonly mentioned, other breeds which may have been used include the Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier, the Beauceron, and various breeds of Griffon. In the opinion of this author, the most likely breeds are actually the Schnauzer and the Poodle. Both of these dogs were very common throughout German-speaking lands, both have very similar coats to the Pumi, and both were traditionally used as farm dogs. In fact, there was once a variety of Poodle known as the Sheep Poedel. It is unclear exactly when the Pumi was developed, and in fact the process probably was not a single event but rather a decades long series of crosses. The breed may have begun to appear in the 1600’s, but certainly did in the 1700’s. Beginning in 1760, Merino Sheep were imported into Hungary transforming the Hungarian sheep herding industry, much as it would that of Australia and New Zealand 50 years later. The Pumi was traditionally associated with the Merino Sheep, and it may have been bred with Spanish herding dogs such as the Pyrenean Sheepdog, Basque Sheepdog, and Catalonian Sheepdog, that almost certainly accompanied the first imported Merino Sheep. The first written use of the word Pumi appears in 1801. The word was used to describe sheepdogs in general, implying that Pumik were already well-established at that point. Throughout the 18th and 19th Centuries, Hungarian farmers did not clearly distinguish between the Mudi, Pumi, and Puli, and all were regularly interbred. Although the three names usually implied the specific variety, all could be used to describe any sheepdog. Like the Puli, the Pumi worked in concert with the Komondor and the Kuvasz, although by the time that the Pumi was developed the role of the Kuvasz had primarily shifted to use as an urban personal protection dog rather than a livestock guardian. The Pumi was responsible for most of the same tasks as its predecessor the Puli, such as herding, driving, and property protection. Pumi were primarily responsible for working with sheep, but also worked with cattle, pigs, and other livestock. The Pumi was also apparently a very common and proficient ratter, able to quickly and thoroughly rid a farm of rodents. This tendency may be strong evidence of Terrier or Schnauzer ancestry. Unusually for a herding dog, the Pumi was also used for hunting. The Pumi’s specialty was wild boar, among the most dangerous of all European game. Over the ensuing decades, the Pumi gradually became a more common sight in towns and more densely populated areas while the Puli was more limited to remote areas. In the late 1800’s, there was a resurgence of Hungarian nationalism, and the ancient Puli became favored by a number of canine organizations and was promoted in status to work as a police dog and companion animal as well as a herding dog. In the 1900’s, the Hungarian veterinarian Emil Raitsis sought to standardize all three breeds of Hungarian herding dog, and worked to separate the Mudi, Pumi, and Puli from each other. Organized breeding efforts were initiated, which continued despite the loss of nearly two-thirds of Hungarian territory after World War I. By 1921, a separate written standard was created specifically for the Pumi, and by 1923 Pumik were beginning to appear in dog shows. The Puli’s unique appearance made it the far more popular breed in dog shows, and also attracted it a great deal of international attention. The Pumi, on the other hand, remained almost entirely a working dog and was essentially unknown outside of Hungary. Because Pumi were primarily working dogs, and their breeders were almost entirely interested in working ability, the standard was kept somewhat looser than was the case with other breeds. Until recently, there actually existed a means to register a Pumi of completely unknown parentage that had been bred as a working dog and met breed standards, known as a Class B Registration or a Class B Pedigree. As a small working dog, found primarily in small towns and rural areas, the Pumi was not as affected by the devastation of World War II as the Komondor, Puli, Kuvasz, and Vizsla. Because it was both a useful working dog and not quite as associated with Hungarian nationalism as those other breeds, the Pumi also did not suffer as much as a result of Communist occupation. In 1966, the Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI) granted full recognition to the Pumi. Seven years later, some of the first Pumik known to leave Hungary were imported into Finland. Throughout the 1980’s and 1990’s, Pumik began to arrive in other European countries such as Sweden, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. In the early 1990’s, the first Pumik were imported to the United States. The breed was imported primarily by those looking for a rare and unique pet, but some were imported by farmers and ranchers looking for a working herding dog. In 1996, the United Kennel Club (UKC) became the first of two major United States kennel clubs to grant full recognition to the Pumi as a member of the Herding Dog Group. The UKC did not create its own standard, but only slightly altered the FCI standard. Pumi numbers in the United States continued to grow slowly as a result of breeding and imports, and the Hungarian Pumi Club of America (HPCA) was founded to promote and protect the breed in the United States. The HPCA’s primary goal was to get the Pumi full recognition with the American Kennel Club. To a great extent their efforts paid off and in 2004, the breed was accepted into the AKC’s Foundation Stock Service Program (AKC-FSS), the first step towards full recognition with that organization and the HPCA was selected as the breed’s official AKC parent club. In 2011, the Pumi took the next step towards full recognition when the breed officially entered the Miscellaneous Class. Pumik are now able to compete in almost every AKC event that a full member of the Herding Group is allowed to, but not conformation events. Within the next few years, the Pumi will likely become a full member of the Herding Group. In Hungary, the Pumi is a relatively common sight, and is perhaps the most common working herding dog in that country. Outside of Hungary, the breed is probably most popular in Finland and Sweden, where it is one of the most popular agility dogs, regularly competing for championships at the highest levels. In the United States, Pumik most Puli are primarily show dogs and companion animals, although a number of them also compete in agility and obedience trials. A few American Pumik are working herding dogs, but it does not seem that it will become especially popular as a working dog. The breed remains rare in the United States but numbers are growing, and it is hoped that the Pumi will eventually become well-established there. Appearance: The Pumi possesses a very distinctive appearance, and looks like a rustic, sheep herding, Terrier or Schnauzer. The Pumi is a small to medium-sized dog. Males stand an average of 16 to 18½ inches tall at the shoulder and weigh between 22 to 33 pounds. Females stand an average of 15 to 17½ inches tall at the shoulder and weigh between 17 and 28 pounds. The Pumi has a very square build, and should be almost exactly as long from chest to rump as it is tall from floor to shoulder. Many Pumik have front legs that are noticeably longer than their back legs, resulting in a downwards sloping back. Much of the Pumi’s body is obscured by its coat, but underneath is a very athletic and muscular dog. Pumik tend to be on the lean side, but should never appear thin or fragile. The Pumi’s chest is relatively but not exceptionally deep. The tail of the Pumi is of medium length and usually held high and in a circle over the back. The head and face of the Pumi look somewhat on the smallish side for the body of the dog, but this is more the result of the hair looking so big than anything else. The head of this breed is relatively flat but slightly domed, and transitions fairly smoothly into the muzzle. The moderately sized muzzle is roughly one-half the length of the skull, but is somewhat wide. The muzzle tapers slightly towards the end and ends in a blunt, black nose. The average-sized, round eyes are dark brown in color, and should never be obscured by coat. The ears are v-shaped and set high on the head. The ears stand straight erect, but the top third folds down and forwards, giving the breed unique and expressive ears. Some Pumik are born with fully erect ears, fully folding ears, or even mismatched ears. These dogs are ineligible in the show ring but make equally acceptable working dogs and companion animals. The overall expression of most Pumik is lively, intelligent, intense, and vaguely predatory. The coat of the Pumi is what primarily distinguishes the breed from other Hungarian herding dogs. According to the UKC/FCI standard, “The wavy or curly coat is one and one half to three inches long. The coat is always tufted and shaggy, never smooth nor corded. It is dense and double, with a strong, but not coarse, topcoat and a soft under coat. There is wiry hair, of medium length, on the ears that grows upward. The eyes and foreface are free of long hair. The body coat should be prepared by hand. Scissoring of the face and legs is allowed, but the entire body coat should not be trimmed with scissors.” The Pumi also has thick and longer wiry hair on its tail that stands straight off, and facial hair that often forms a small beard and mustache. Pumik are solidly colored dogs which may be found in black, white, grey, and fawn. Fawn dogs may range in color pale cream to red. Many, but not all, Pumi have a small white mark on their chests that should not exceed one inch in width at the widest and/or white lines on their toes. Any color may have black, white, or grey hairs interspersed throughout their coats as long as they do not alter the solid color appearance. Grey Pumik are born black and then fade with age. Occasionally differently coated or colored Pumik are born, such dogs are ineligible in the show ring and should not be bred but otherwise make equally acceptable pets or working dogs. Temperament: The Pumi has a temperament typical of a herding breed, but is often somewhat more strong-tempered than other members of that group. The Pumi is very devoted to its family, with whom it forms very strong bonds. In general Pumik want to be around their families at all times, and can suffer from separation anxiety. The Pumi can be kept outside in temperate climates, but would prefer to live indoors where it can be with its family. This breed is generally quite affectionate with its family, but are not always fawningly so. Pumik tend to be slightly more challenging and dominant than many other herding dogs and may not be the ideal choice for a first time dog owner. Bred not only as a herding breed but also as a protection animal, the Pumi is naturally suspicious of strangers. This dog does not enjoy being in the presence of new people, making socialization extremely important. Proper socialization will turn most Pumik into accepting and polite (if loud) dogs, although they will probably always remain aloof and uninterested. Pumik that have not been introduced to a large number of people from a young age do not learn how to properly distinguish the good people from the bad, and their protective instincts take over. This breed has a tendency towards shyness and suspicion, either of which can occasionally lead to aggression. Highly alert, protective, and extremely vocal, Pumik make excellent watchdogs that will always (and sometimes excessively) alert their owners to the approach of a visitor. Although quite small, the Pumi also makes a very effective guard dog that will challenge uninvited intruders and even use force to drive them away if the dog deems it necessary. Pumik have a generally good reputation with children. Breed members that have been raised with children are generally very fond of them, and are often quite playful and protective. Although generally tolerant, most Pumik are not willing to take the amount of rough play that a breed such as a Labrador Retriever or American Pit Bull Terrier would which may cause some problems. As is the case with all breeds, a Pumi that has not been socialized with children may be somewhat unpredictable with them. All Pumik, no matter how well trained, have a strong urge to chase running animals and to bark at them and nip at their heels. This urge can be mostly controlled with training, but it cannot be eliminated entirely. Pumi have a mixed reputation with other animals. This breed is not known for having major issues with other dogs, but some individual breed members do. Pumi are generally very accepting and fond of dogs that they know well, but are considerably less so with strange dogs. All forms of dog aggression are seen in Pumik, but the breed is most susceptible to dominance, territorial, and same-sex aggression. Careful and regular socialization from a young age is very important for a Pumi’s adult interactions with other dogs. Although bred as a herding dog, the Pumi was also used as a ratter. This breed has a fairly high prey drive, and many are driven to pursue and occasionally attack small animals. Most Pumik can be socialized to accept any animal cat-sized or larger, but some are never entirely trustworthy around them. The Pumi is an extremely trainable dog. This breed is both highly intelligent and very motivated to please. Pumik can probably be trained to do anything that any breed could with the exception of tasks that require immense strength, and this breed excels at the highest levels of virtually every canine competition. It is generally agreed that the Pumi is very easy to train and learns both very quickly and very well. However, Pumik can cause training difficulties. This dog is more dominant and challenging than most other herding dogs, and a Pumi will probably not obey someone that they see as lower than themselves on the pecking order. For that reason it is imperative that Pumi owners maintain a position of dominance at all times. Additionally, this highly intelligent breed bores quickly, and may refuse to perform repetitive tasks after a certain amount of time. The Pumi is a highly energetic dog, and has very high exercise requirement. This is a breed that needs a substantial amount of vigorous daily exercise, an hour at the very minimum but preferably more. Although some Pumik would be satisfied with a long daily walk, most greatly prefer to run, and this breed makes an excellent jogging companion. Pumik do best when provided a regular opportunity to run freely in a safely enclosed area, and it is almost impossible to keep this dog in an apartment or even a close-quarters suburb (although it has been done successfully). Working dogs through and through, Pumik are extremely intelligent and driven, and most absolutely crave a job that stimulates their minds such as herding, competitive obedience, or agility. The truth is that the average family is probably going to be very hard pressed to meet the needs of a Pumi, but it is absolutely imperative that Pumi owners provide the exercise and stimulation that they require; otherwise this breed will almost certainly develop behavioral issues such as destructiveness, excessive barking, hyper activity, extreme excitability, nervousness, and aggression. The high energy level of the Pumi actually is extremely desirable to many owners. Those looking for a obedience, agility, flyball, or Frisbee dog will probably be delighted by a Pumi, and this breed is hardy and capable enough to go on virtually any adventure no matter how extreme. Potential Pumi owners need to be aware of one breed trait. Pumik are some of the most vocal of all dogs. This breed herds primarily with its voice, and Pumik work by barking repeatedly at the animals that they are attempting to move around. As a result, they bark a great deal, almost constantly. Training and stimulation can greatly reduce a Pumi’s barking, but even the least vocal Pumi barks much more than most other dogs. Pumik that are untrained or bored often bark virtually non-stop for hours at a time and this breed can certainly result in noise complaints. Grooming Requirements: The Pumi has substantial coat care requirements, but not extreme ones. This breed needs a regular and thorough brushing, and potential mats must be carefully brushed out before they develop. Most Pumik also need an occasional trimming. Owners may choose to do this themselves, but many choose to have their dogs professionally groomed. Keeping a Pumi in show coat requires extra work and some specialized training, which most Pumi breeders will be able to provide. Health Issues: Because so few Pumik live outside of Hungary, health information about the breed is fairly sparse. However, this breed seems to be in relatively good health, especially compared to most modern breeds. The Pumi was almost exclusively bred as a working dog until the 1970’s, and any genetic defects would have been quickly eliminated from breeding lines. The Pumi appears to have a long life expectancy for a breed of this size, between 12 and 14 years, and it is not unheard of for a Pumi to reach the age of 19. This does not mean that the Pumi is immune from genetically inherited disorders, but it does mean that the breed seems to suffer from fewer of them and at lower rates than many other dogs. The most common health problem found in Pumik appears to be hip dysplasia. Hip dysplasia is caused by a malformation of the hip joint. This malformation causes the leg bone to connect to the hip improperly, which is exaggerated when the dog is in motion. Symptoms develop as the dog ages, including discomfort, pain, arthritis, difficulty moving, and even lameness in extreme cases. Hip dysplasia is caused by genetics, but the timing and severity of its onset may be influenced by environmental factors. There are no universally accepted cures for hip dysplasia, although there are treatments available for most of its symptoms, most of which are long-term and expensive. A very similar but rarer condition also affects the elbows of dogs, known as elbow dysplasia. Recently, American Pumi breeders have discovered that their dogs may contain the gene for degenerative myelopathy, or DM. DM is very similar to ALS in humans, and is caused by the degeneration of the spinal cord, resulting in nerve and movement malfunction. Usually first appearing between the age of 7 and 14, the first symptom of DM is most commonly the loss of coordination in the hind limbs. Over time other symptoms develop, including discomfort, pain, arthritis, difficulty walking, paralysis, and incontinence. The rate of progression is highly variable, with some dogs being completely paralyzed in a matter of two or three months and others living relatively comfortably for more than three years. There is no cure for DM nor is there a treatment that will slow its progression. The inevitable result of DM is euthanasia, but when that becomes necessary varies tremendously between dogs. Luckily, there is a genetic test for DM and Pumi breeders are beginning to test their dogs in an attempt to eliminate the condition from breeding lines. Because skeletal and visual problems are known to occur in Pumik (especially hip dysplasia), it is highly advisable for owners to have their pets tested by both the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) and the Canine Eye Registration Foundation (CERF). The OFA and CERF perform genetic and other tests to identify potential health defects before they show up. This is especially valuable in the detection of conditions that do not show up until the dog has reached an advanced age, making it especially important for anyone considering breeding their dog to have it tested to prevent the spread of potential genetic conditions to its offspring. Pumi
Utility Group: | Working | | Size: | medium | | Lifespan: | 12-14 years | | Exercise: | medium | | Grooming: | medium | | Trainability: | high | | Watchdog ability: | very high | | Protection ability: | very high | | Area of Origin: | Hungary | | Date of Origin: | 17th & 18th centuries | | Other Names: | Hungarian Pumi | | Original Function: | Cattle & sheep herding | | | | | History | | | The Pumi, developed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, was bred from prick-ear sheepdogs imported from France and Germany and crossed with the Puli. For many years, the Pumi and the Puli were not considered separate breeds. It was not until around 1920 that the Pumi was officially recognised as a breed separate from the Puli and the standard was written for the breed. The Pumi is considered the town dog in Hungary, while the Puli remains on the high plains. | | Temperament | his high-spirited, energetic dog is remarkably daring. Suspicious of strangers, he barks at even the most innocent sound. This is an intelligent breed that is not difficult to train. They are smart enough to grasp what you want quickly. It is affectionate with its master and when at home surrounded by familiar faces, it is a happy, cheerful fellow. Shy and rather mistrustful of strangers. A superb watchdog, the Pumi uses its voice liberally and consistently. If you are surrounded by neighbours where you live, it is sensible to teach the dog that after a couple of barks it must be quiet. A well brought up and socialized Pumi will get along with children as long as they do not pester it. This breed can be dog-aggressive and has a tendency to wander. | | Upkeep | The coat of the Pumi is easy to groom. The braided, medium-length coat does not mat easily. An occasional combing and brushing will keep it looking nice. This breed needs a lot if exercise. They are outdoor dogs and will be at its best living on a farm where it will find enough work to do for itself, such as guarding the entrance and keeping the livestock together. They can sleep and live outdoors but also like to be near their family and master. If it is to live in an urban environment then you must find replacement activities to keep it occupied. The Pumi will enjoy playing catch, chasing Frisbees, and will excel in agility skills classes. | Official Breed Standard |
F.C.I. Standard No 56 dated 5th July 1966BRIEF HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
The Pumi came into being during the 17th to 18th century in Hungary by crossbreeding the primitive Puli with imported German and French dogs of Terrier type with prick ears. It has been recognised as an independent breed since the beginning of the 20th century. GENERAL APPEARANCE:
The Pumi is a cheerful, medium sized herding dog of Terrier type. His Terrier character is most obvious in his head. The foreface is elongated and the upper third of the otherwise prick ears is bending forward. The conformation is square. Because of his constant alertness, his neck carriage is higher than normal. The wavy coat of medium length forms curls. The Pumi can have various colours but must always be of one solid colour. CHARACTERISTICS
The Pumi is a herding dog of Terrier type. Also suitable for herding larger types of animals. His scenting ability is well developed. Has excellently proved his worth when combating wild beasts of prey or rodents. Excellent house pet and can definitely be kept indoors. Needs plenty of exercise. Is an excellent companion and sporting dog. BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT his rather lively herding dog has a restless temperament. Extremely bold and a little suspicious towards strangers. As a result of his sensible behaviour, his liveliness and his expressiveness, he attracts attention always and everywhere. The Pumi is rather noisy. His whole appearance embodies thirst for action and because of his restlessness and activity, all parts of his body are constantly on the move. He is always active and ready for duty. A shy or phlegmatic behaviour is untypical of the breed. HEAD AND SKULL
The head is relatively long and narrow. The shape of the head is characterised by the elongated muzzle. The top of the head is relatively broad and domed. The long forehead is only slightly domed and flat seen from the side. The superciliary ridges are moderately developed. The stop is barely perceptible, the forehead running an almost straight line between the eyebrows towards the bridge of the nose. The nose is narrow and bluntly cut-off. Always black in all coat colours. The bridge of the nose is straight. The elongated facial region tapers towards the nose but is never pointed. The cheeks are well muscled. The lips are tight fitting to the teeth and dark pigmented. EYES
Set moderately wide apart and slightly oblique. Medium sized, oval, dark brown slit-eyes. The expression is lively and intelligent. The eyelids are tight and close fitting to the eyeballs and well pigmented. EARS
The upright ears are set on high, the upper third of the ears bending forward. The medium sized, even ears show a reverse V- shape. They show alert reactions to all stimulations. MOUTH
Strong jaws. The strong, well-developed teeth are white. A regular, complete scissor bite according to the dentition formula. NECK
Of medium length, a little arched, well muscled and forming an angle of 50 to 55 degrees to the horizontal. The skin at the throat is tight, dry and without folds. FOREQUARTERS
The front legs, placed under the fore-chest, support the body like pillars. They are vertical, parallel and not too wide apart. The shoulder blade is long and a little steep. The angle to the horizontal is 55 degrees. The points of the shoulder blades are placed vertically above the deepest point of the brisket. The upper arm is short and well muscled. The shoulder blade and the upper arm form an angle of 100 to 110 degrees. The elbows are close fitting to the body. The forearm is long and gaunt and the pastern is steep. BODY
The Pumi has well-developed muscles that are dry, exceptionally taut and tough. The breed is particularly lean and of harmonious appearance. The topline is straight and the withers pronounced, long and sloping towards the rear. The back is short, straight and taut. The loins are short, firmly coupled and straight. The croup is short, slightly sloping and of medium length. The fore-chest is straight, not broad and rather deep. The ribs are slightly arched and rather flat. The brisket is deep, long and reaches to the elbow. The belly is tight and tucked up towards the rear. HINDQUARTERS
The hind legs are very strong. Seen from the side, they are somewhat extended beyond the rear. Seen from behind, the legs are parallel, straight, standing neither too narrow nor too wide apart. The upper thigh is muscular, long and sloping to the rear. The stifle is on the same level as the elbows. The lower thigh is long and dry. The hock is lean with clean outlines and the metatarsus is short and steep. FEET
The forefeet are rounded cat feet with well-knit toes. The pads are springy. The nails are strong, black or slate grey. The hind feet are like the forefeet. Dewclaws are not desired. TAIL
The high set tail forms a wide circle above the croup. The hair on the underside of the tail is 7 to 12 cm long, wiry, standing apart and with little undercoat. Customarily docked to two thirds of its length. GAIT/MOVEMENT
Quite lively and spirited. The stride is short, energetic, dynamic and harmonious. The posture is bold and proud. The trot is light-footed and harmonious. The dog puts his hind feet exactly into the footprints of the forefeet. COAT
The skin is without folds and strongly pigmented. The areas of bare skin are black or slate grey.

The wavy, curly, coat forms tufts and is never smooth or corded. The coat has an average length of 4 to 7 cm growing to smaller or larger tufts. It is elastic, shaggy and dense. It consists of a strong, but not coarse, topcoat and a soft undercoat. The dense, wiry protective hairs of medium length on the ears grow upwards. The eyes and the foreface are free of long hair. The desired coat preparation is achieved by hand trimming. Smaller corrections, done with scissors on head and legs, are possible. Preparing the entire coat with scissors is not desirable. COLOUR * Grey in various shades (normally, the colour at birth is black, turning grey with time) * Black * Fawn. Primary colours: red, yellow, cream (a trace of black or grey and a distinct mask are desirable) * A white mark on the chest less than 3 cm in diameter and/or a white line on the toes are not faulty. * WhiteThe coat colour must always be intense and solid. SIZE AND WEIGHT Height
Dogs: 41 to 47 cm; Ideal height: 43 to 45 cm.
Bitches: 38 to 44 cm; Ideal height: 40 to 42 cm. Weight
Dogs: 10 to 15 kg; Ideal weight: 12 to 13 kg.
Bitches: 8 to 13 kg; Ideal weight: 10 to 11 kg. Important Proportions * The body length is equal to the height at the withers. * The depth of the brisket is slightly less than half of the height at the withers. * The length of the muzzle is slightly less than half of the total length of the head. * The length of the neck is equal to the length of the head and is 45% of the height at the withers.FAULTS
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in the exact proportions to its degree. VERY SERIOUS FAULTS * Round, Puli-like head. Foreface shorter than 40% of the total length of the head * Strongly defined stop. * One or more missing teeth (incisors, canines, premolars 2-4, molars 1-2). More than 2 missing PM1. The M3 are disregarded. * Over or undershot mouth, wry mouth. * Completely upright prick ears. Ears pendant from base or carried unevenly. * Short smooth coat. Long, very matted, sticking out or dull coat. * Chocolate coloured or multi coloured coat. All uniform, clearly defined patches (i.e. tan markings, mantle forming marking). * Size deviating from the height limits given by the standard.NB:
Male animals must have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum. | |

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog. Jack Russell Terrier
Terrier Group: | Terrier | | Size: | small | | Lifespan: | 13-15 years | | Exercise: | high | | Grooming: | low | | Trainability: | moderate | | Watchdog ability: | very high | | Protection ability: | low | | Area of Origin: | England | | Date of Origin: | 1800’s | | Other Names: | Parson Jack Russell Terrier | | Original Function: | Fox bolting | | | | | History | | | The Jack Russell Terrier was developed in 19th century England by a clergyman named John Russell. This feisty little terrier was used to hunt small game, particularly fox, by digging the quarry out of its den. The energetic and playful Jack Russell makes a good family companion. Some of the Jack Russell's talents include: hunting, tracking, agility, and performing tricks. | | Temperament | This is a dog that thrives on action and adventure. In the process, it often finds itself in the middle of trouble. It is a true hunter at heart and will explore, wander, chase and dig when it gets a chance. It is very playful and intelligent. It gets along well with children and strangers. It can be scrappy with strange dogs, but is better than many terriers. It does well with horses, but it may chase cats and is not good with rodents. It may tend to bark and dig. It makes an ideal companion for an active person with a good sense of humor who wants a lot of entertainment-and mischief-in one dog. | | Upkeep | The Jack Russell needs a lot of mental and physical stimulation every day. It is not a dog that can sit around inside. It needs a long walk or strenuous game every day, plus a short training session. It enjoys the chance to explore on its own, but it must do so only in a safe area because it tends to go off in search of trouble, and some go down holes and must be dug out! It can live outdoors in temperate climates. It does best when allowed access to a house and yard, and it is not a good apartment dog. Coat care for the smooth type consists only of weekly brushing to remove dead hair; for the broken coat it also consists of occasional hand stripping. | | Official Breed Standard |
A strong, active, lithe working Terrier of great character with flexible body of medium length. His smart movement matches his keen expression. Tail docking is optional and the coat may be smooth, rough or broken. CHARACTERISTICS:
A lively, alert and active Terrier with a keen intelligent expression. Temperament:
Bold and fearless, friendly but quietly confident. Head and Skull:
The skull should be flat and of moderate width gradually decreasing in width to the eyes and tapering to a wide muzzle with very strong jaws. There should be a well defined stop but not over pronounced. The length from the stop to the nose should be slightly shorter than from the stop to the occiput with the cheek muscles well developed. The nose should be black. Eyes:
Small dark and with keen expression. MUST not be prominent and eyelids should fit closely. The eyelid rims should be pigmented black. Almond shape. Ears:
Button or dropped of good texture and great mobility. Mouth:
Deep wide and powerful jaws with tight-fitting pigmented lips and strong teeth closing to a scissor bite. Neck:
Strong and clean allowing head to be carried with poise. Forequarters:
Shoulders well sloped back and not heavily loaded with muscle. Forelegs straight in bone from the shoulder to the toes whether viewed from the front or the side and with sufficient length of upper arm to ensure elbows are set under the body, with sternum clearly in front of shoulder blades. Body:
Chest deep rather than wide, with good clearance and the brisket located at the height mid-way between the ground and the withers. The body should be proportioned marginally longer than tall, measuring slightly longer from the withers to the root of the tail than from the withers to the ground. Back level. Ribs should be well sprung from the spine, flattening on the sides so that the girth behind the elbows can be spanned by two hands - about 40 cm to 43 cm. The loins should be short, strong and deeply muscled. Hindquarters:
Strong and muscular, balanced in proportion to the shoulder, hind legs parallel when viewed from behind while in free standing position. Stifles well angulated and hocks low set. Feet:
Round, hard, padded, not large, toes moderately arched, turned neither in or out. Tail:
May droop at rest. When moving should be erect and if docked the tip should be on the same level as ears. Gait/Movement:
True, free and springy. Coat:
May be smooth, broken or rough. Must be weather-proof, preferably unaltered. Colour:
White MUST predominate with black, tan or brown markings. Size:
Ideal is 25 cm (10") to 30 cm (12") in height with the weight in kgs being equivalent of 1 kg to each 5 cm in height, ie a 25 cm high dog should weigh approximately 5 kgs and a 30 cm high dog should weigh 6 kgs. Faults:
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree. However, the following weaknesses should be particularly penalised:
(a) Lack of true Terrier characteristics.
(b) Lack of balance, ie over exaggeration of any points.
(c) Sluggish or unsound movement.
(d) Faulty mouth. Note:
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum. | |

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and Description | The Jack Russell is a sturdy, tough terrier, very much on its toes all the time. The body length must be in proportion to the height, and it should present a compact, balanced image, always being in solid, hard condition. The head should be well balanced and in proportion to the body. The skull should be flat, of moderate width at the ears, narrowing to the eyes. The stop, which is the transition area from backskull to muzzle, should be defined, but not over-pronounced. The length of the muzzle from the nose to the stop should be slightly shorter than the distance from the stop to the occiput. The nose should be black. The jaw should be powerful and well boned with strongly muscled cheeks. Eyes should be almond shaped, dark in color and full of life and intelligence. The small V-shaped, drop ears are carried forward, close to the head and are of moderate thickness. It has strong teeth, with the upper ones slightly overlapping the lower. Two bites are acceptable; level and scissor, with scissor being preferred. The neck is clean and muscular, of good length, gradually widening at the shoulders. The shoulders should be sloping and well laid back, fine at points and clearly cut at the withers. Forelegs should be strong and straight boned with joints in correct alignment. Elbows hang perpendicular to the body and work free of the sides. The chest should be shallow, narrow and the front legs not too widely apart, giving an athletic, rather than heavily chested appearance. As a guide only, the chest should be small enough to be easily spanned behind the shoulders, by average sized hands, when the terrier is in a fit, working condition. The back should be strong, straight and, in comparison to the height of the terrier, give a balanced image. The loin should be slightly arched. The hindquarters should be strong and muscular, well put together with good angulation and bend of stifle, giving plenty of drive and propulsion. Looking from behind, the hocks must be straight. The feet are round, hard padded, wide, of cat-like appearance, neither turning in nor out. The tail should be set rather high, carried gaily and in proportion to body length, usually about four inches long, providing a good hand-hold. The coat is smooth, without being so sparse as not to provide a certain amount of protection from the elements and undergrowth. Rough or broken coated, without being woolly. Colors: white should predominate (i.e., must be more than 51% white) with tan, black or brown markings. Brindle markings and black and tan coloring occur within the breed but are rare. Gait: movement should be free, lively, well-coordinated with straight action in front and behind. Old scars or injuries, the result of work or accident, should not be allowed to prejudice a terrier's chance in the show ring unless they interfere with its movement or with its utility for work or stud. An Irish-type called Jack Russell Shortys has shorter legs than the English-type. | Temperament | The Jack Russell Terrier is a cheerful, merry, devoted and loving dog. It is spirited and obedient, yet absolutely fearless. Careful and amusing, he enjoys games and playing with toys. Stable Jacks are friendly and generally kind to children. Children should be taught not to tease or hit the dog. They are intelligent, and if you let them take an inch, they can become willful and determined to take a mile. It is paramount that you are this dog’s pack leader. He needs to be given rules to follow, and limitations as to what he is and is not allowed to do. Do not let this little dog fall into Small Dog Syndrome, where he believes he is pack leader to all humans. This is where varying degrees of behavior problems will arise, including, but not limited to guarding, snapping, separation anxiety, and obsessive barking. They are highly trainable and able to perform impressive tricks. They have been used on TV and in the movies. However, if you do not show authority toward the dog, it can be difficult to train. This breed needs a firm, experienced trainer. Jacks that have been allowed to take over can be aggressive with other dogs. Some have killed or been killed in dog fights. Be sure to socialize the Jack. It has strong hunting instincts (stronger than your average terrier) and should not be trusted with other small animals. This hunting dog likes to chase, explore, bark and dig. Only let it off lead if it is well trained or in a safe area. Will get restless and destructive if it does not receive enough exercise and activities to occupy its keen mind. Jack Russells climb, which means they can climb over a fence; they also jump. A Jack that stands 12 inches high can easily jump five feet. JRTs are not the breed for an inexperienced dog owner. The owner needs to be as strong-willed as the dog is, or this little guy will take over. With the right owner the Jack can really excel, but is not recommended for those who do not understand what it means to be a dog’s true pack leader. Jacks that are mentally stable, with all of their canine instincts met, will not display these negative behaviors. They are not traits of the Jack Russell, but rather human brought-on behaviors, which are a result of inefficient leadership, along with a lack of mental and physical stimulation. They will thrive with a job to do. The Jack Russell Terrier must present a lively, active and alert appearance. It should impress with its fearless and happy disposition. It should be remembered that the Jack Russell is a working terrier and should retain these instincts. Nervousness, cowardice or over-aggressiveness should be discouraged and it should always appear confident. | Height, Weight | Height: 10 - 15 inches (25 - 38 cm)
Weight: 14 - 18 pounds (6 - 8 kg) | Health Problems | Some are prone to dislocation of the kneecaps, inherited eye diseases, deafness and Legg Perthes—a disease of the hip joints of small dog breeds. Prone to mast cell tumors. | Living Conditions | The Jack Russell Terrier will do okay in an apartment if it is sufficiently exercised. It is very active indoors and will do best with at least an average-sized yard. | Exercise | The Jack Russell Terrier is a pleasant companion when it is sufficiently exercised; however if it does not get enough, it may become a nuisance. It needs to be taken on a long, daily, brisk walk. In addition, he will be in his glory with space to run, hunt and play.If the Jack is left alone during the day, be it in an apartment or a house, it should be well exercised before the human leaves for work by taking it on a long pack walk or jog, and then taken out again when returning home. | Life Expectancy | About 15 or more years. | Grooming | All coat types are easy to groom. Comb and brush regularly with a firm bristle brush, and bathe only when necessary. To show, owners must strip the coat. Like the rough coat, the broken coated Jack needs to be stripped out also. | Origin | The breed was named after a clergyman named Rev. John Russell. It was used as a small game hunting dog particularly for red fox, digging the quarry out of its den in the mid-1800s. On English hunts, the dogs needed to be long-legged enough to keep up with the hounds. Breeders had emphasized its working ability, so the standard was very broad, allowing a wide range of accepted body types. Not happy with this wide variety of working type Jacks, as of April 1, 2003 the Jack Russell Terrier Association of America was changed to the Parson Russell Terrier Association of America. The working types remained Jack Russells while the American show types became known as the Parson Russell Terrier. Some of the Jack Russell's talents include: hunting, tracking, agility and performing tricks. | Group | Terrier | Recognition | JRTCA, FCI, UKC, KCGB, NZKC, CET, ANKC, IKC, CKC, NKC, APRI, ACR, DRA, NAPR, ACA FCI, ANKC, and IKC recognize the shorts as Jack Russell Terriers and the UKC recognize the shorts as Russell Terriers. The Parsons are the long-legged Jack Russell Terriers named officially Parson Russell Terriers. The Jack Russell Terrier and the Russell Terrier are the same breed, but are entirely a separate breed from the Parson Russell Terrier.The Irish Kennel Club has recognized the Jack Russell Terrier in Ireland, adopting the FCI standard for the breed. At one time the AKC recognized the Jack Russell Terrier, however as of April 1, 2003 they changed the name to Parson Russell Terrier. The breed split into two breeds and now the Jack Russell Terrier and Parson Russell Terrier are considered two different breeds. The Parson's name change is in great part to a lawsuit from the JRTCA to the AKC, when the breed was first allowed registration. In addition AKC, like the UKC, now recognizes what they call the Russell Terrier, which has shorter legs than the Parson Russell Terrier. | Breed Specific - Jack Russell
Height: 25cm - 38cm
Weight: 6kg - 8kg
Life expectancy: 15+ years
Description: A small sturdy breed, the Jack Russell Terrier has a smooth white coat with markings in a range of other colours like tan, black or brown.
Temperament: Cheerful, loving, devoted, obedient and spirited, a Jack Russell loves games and toys, and are pretty good with children. This breed likes to climb and jump.
Health problems: Some Jack Russells are prone to kneecap dislocation, inherited eye diseases, deafness, Legg Perthes and mast cell tumours.
Exercise: If a Jack Russell doesn't get enough exercise it may become annoying. Daily brisk walks are good, plus it likes to run, hunt and play.
Grooming: Regularly brush the coat to keep it well-groomed.
Living conditions: An apartment is fine as long as this breed gets a lot of exercise. It is very active indoors.
Origin: This dog was named after a clergyman named Reverend John Russell. Jack Russell Terriers Filed under Dog Breed Index
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At a glance
Jack Russell Terriers belong to the working terrier group. They are popular household companions that are energetic, dedicated, determined and playful.
Similar to the Parson Russell Terrier, this breed also originated in England and stands 13 to 14 inches at the withers, weighs 13 to 17 lbs, and lives up to18 years.
* Names – Jack Russell, Jack * Group – AKC: Terrier Group; KC: Terriers * Size – small * Life expectancy – 11 to 18 years; average of 15 years * Cost of ownership – low * Ease of ownership – medium * Aggressive tendency – high * Amount of Exercise – high * Amount of Grooming – low * Ease of Training – low * Obedience level – medium * Suitable for Children – medium * Amount of Care Required – high * Susceptibility to Health Problems – low
Jack Russell Terriers are short, compact-looking and wiry. The smooth, broken or rough coat varieties are mainly white in color and have black and/or tan markings. All coat types feature dense double coats that are neither silky (in the case of smooth coats) nor woolly (in the case of rough coats). The head should be of moderate width at the ears, narrowing to the eyes, and slightly flat between the ears. The well-defined jaw has a scissor bite and straight teeth. Almond-shaped, soulful eyes exude a fearless and insatiable intelligence. Their small V-shaped ears are of moderate thickness and are carried forward on the head. The docked or undocked tail should be held high and gaily carried.
* Dog – 14 lbs to18 lbs * Bitch – 14 lbs to 18 lbs
* Dog – 10 in. to15 in. * Bitch – 10 in. to15 in.
AKCs Parson RT calls for 14in.for dogs & 13 for bitches
* Color – predominantly white with tan, black, or brown markings * Coat – The Jack Russell Terrier’s dense double-coat comes in three varieties: smooth, rough, and broken (the outer-coat has different lengths or the dog has longer hair on specific parts of the body). * Shedding – high * Allergies – low * Causes Allergies – medium; barks frequently, which means the dog emits excessive saliva and dander
Jack Russell’s possess great energy and tenacity; attitude that makes them seem larger than their size. These little terriers are very social, as shown by their permanent inquisitive facial expression. These vocal dogs are ready to take off at any moment and will get into trouble without worrying about the ferocity or size of their “enemy”. * Separation Anxiety – high * Barking tendency – high * Aggressive tendency – high * Compatibility with other animals – low, especially with cats, mice or birds * Suitable for children – medium * Watchdog suitability – high
The Jack Russell Terrier is a loyal little bundle of energy. He can be feisty but is capable of obedience, as long as he is commanded by an experienced dog owner. These dogs can also be very entertaining with their antics. The Jack Russell is very intelligent and willful, and will want to have his way all the time if not put in his place. This breed must be socialized and undergo obedience classes while he is still a puppy. Jacks can be quite destructive and are not always compatible with other dogs or other pets, such as cats and especially rodents. Their natural instinct is to hunt and explore and they will chase anything if given the chance.
The Jack Russell Terrier can be stubborn. A Jack owner will need to be persistent with their teaching and provide the dog with a lot of firm and consistent guidance to keep them focused. It is crucial that the terrier understands that their pack leader is their human companion or they will be difficult to control. The best tools for successful training are early socialization and teaching basic obedience. The Jack Russell excels at hunting, tracking, and agility. * Obedience – medium
Exercise required
The Jack Russell Terrier thrives on exercise. They are very active indoors and require constant stimulation. Boredom will simply make them restless, which explains most of a Jack Russell’s destructive behavior. They enjoy long walks and vigorous play sessions daily. * Energy – high * Amount required – about 30 minutes twice daily
The Jack Russell Terrier is a low maintenance dog, requiring minimal grooming. A firm bristle brush does the job well. Bathe the dog only when needed. Take time to trim their nails on a regular basis. Be careful that you do not overfeed this breed, as obesity is a risk factor.
Feeding a Jack Russell is not too expensive, as these dogs do not require large quantities of food. They should be fed a high quality dog kibble recommended by the breeder or veterinarian. In the event you want to stop your dog from becoming too hyper, consult your veterinarian about providing a lower protein diet.
All coat types are easy to groom. Brush regularly with a firm bristle brush and bathe only when necessary. Owners intending to enter dogs in show competitions must strip the coat. Both the rough and broken coats need to be stripped. All three varieties shed year-round. The smooth coat sheds the most. * Ease of grooming – high * Amount of grooming – low
Breeding is a risky business that is not as straightforward as it appears. Aside from many hours of hard work, it can be heartbreaking, as puppies or the mother can be lost. Furthermore, it is rarely profitable. If you talk to experienced breeders, they will tell you that it can be quite the struggle. If you’ve ever read a book on Canine Reproduction, you’ll notice that most of the pages are about what can go wrong while there are only a few pages regarding what it’s like if everything goes well. Thus, the risks are very real, and even if everything runs smoothly initially, there are defects that can show up later, causing the eventual death of the puppies. On the other hand, there’s also the minor defects that will not necessarily affect the puppy’s chance for a happy life, but will cause a financial loss to the breeder, as a refund or replacement will need to be given to the buyer.
To put things into further perspective, a zealous breeder of working Jacks will want to achieve a terrier standard of the Under 12 ½ inch category. Nevertheless, planning every detail cannot be overemphasized when it comes to starting out with a litter, since any overlooked undesirable defect or trait can mean the ruin of your litter plans. Thus, there is more to breeding than meets the eye, so don’t make assumptions and find out the facts. * Litter size – average of 6; range from 5 to 8 * Puppy cost – starts at $200 or £500 – £800
The Jack Russell Terrier is generally considered a healthy breed but is susceptible to certain hereditary health problems, such as cataracts. They have a substantial appetite and can be easily over-fed and become overweight. * Life expectancy – average of 15 years; range of 11 to 18 Years * Susceptibility to illness – low * Common health problems – Some of the more known health concerns of Jack Russells are congenital deafness, joint problems, Von Willebrand’s Disease, and hereditary cataracts.
The Jack Russell Terrier requires an extraordinary amount of human attention. This dog should not be left alone for too long, so working families will need to find ways to provide the dog with company when people are away at work and/or school. Jacks need plenty of exercise or they can become hyper and destructive. They often love the attention of visitors and will insist on being entertained and petted. Be prepared to find lots of hair; Jack Russells shed all year round.
When all is said a done, what you get with this breed is a high-energy, skilled watchdog that is easy to groom, fun to play with, amusing to watch and a challenge to train, but a true loveable companion. * Living conditions – Jack Russells can adapt to apartment living as long as they are sufficiently exercised. They are not compatible with pets of the rodent variety and only some tolerate cats. This dog is best suited to an average size yard that is securely fenced. * Good with Children – They get along with older, well-behaved, considerate children. They are not recommended for children under eight years of age.
A clergyman in 19th century England by the name of Jack Russell developed the first terrier to aid him in his hunting past time. These terriers were very lively and their natural hunting instinct has never left them, as even today they would not think twice about going into a burrow to chase small game. Jack Russells continue to be very fond of playing, and many are in their element when hunting, tracking or performing tricks. * County or origin – England * AKA KC name and group: Terrier * JRTCA, FCI, UKC, KCGB, NZKC, CET, ANKC, IKC, CKC, NKC, APRI, ACR

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