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Chem I Chapter 8

Matching

Match each item with the correct statement below. a. | coordinate covalent bond | d. | single covalent bond | b. | double covalent bond | e. | polar bond | c. | structural formula | f. | hydrogen bond |

____ 1. a depiction of the arrangement of atoms in molecules and polyatomic ions

____ 2. a covalent bond in which only one pair of electrons is shared

____ 3. a covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared

____ 4. a covalent bond in which the shared electron pair comes from only one of the atoms

____ 5. a covalent bond between two atoms of significantly different electronegativities

____ 6. a type of bond that is very important in determining the properties of water and of important biological molecules such as proteins and DNA

Match each item with the correct statement below. a. | network solid | e. | tetrahedral angle | b. | bonding orbital | f. | VSEPR theory | c. | dipole interaction | g. | sigma bond | d. | bond dissociation energy |

____ 7. energy needed to break a single bond between two covalently bonded atoms

____ 8. symmetrical bond along the axis between the two nuclei

____ 9. molecular orbital that can be occupied by two electrons of a covalent bond

____ 10. 109.5

____ 11. shapes adjust so valence-electron pairs are as far apart as possible

____ 12. attraction between polar molecules

____ 13. crystal in which all the atoms are covalently bonded to each other

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 14. What information does a molecular formula provide? a. | the number and kind of atoms that are bonded by the transfer of electrons | b. | the simplest whole-number ratio of atoms that are bonded by the transfer of electrons | c. | information about a molecule’s structure | d. | the number and kind of atoms present in a molecule |

____ 15. What is shown by the structural formula of a molecule or polyatomic ion? a. | the arrangement of bonded atoms | b. | the number of ionic bonds | c. | the number of metallic bonds | d. | the shapes of molecular orbitals |

____ 16. The molecular formula for the compound hydrogen cyanide is HCN. What information does the molecular formula provide about hydrogen cyanide? a. | The formula HCN indicates that a molecule of hydrogen cyanide contains one hydrogen atom, one carbon atom, and one nitrogen atom. | b. | The formula HCN shows that hydrogen cyanide could contain 2 atoms of each element; hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen, as long as there is a one to one ratio. | c. | The formula HCN shows that hydrogen cyanide has a single covalent bond between the hydrogen and carbon atoms and a triple covalent bond between the carbon and nitrogen atoms. | d. | The formula HCN shows that hydrogen cyanide has a single ionic bond between the hydrogen and carbon atoms and a triple ionic bond between the carbon and nitrogen atoms. |

____ 17. How do atoms achieve noble-gas electron configurations in single covalent bonds? a. | One atom completely loses two electrons to the other atom in the bond. | b. | Two atoms share two pairs of electrons. | c. | Two atoms share two electrons. | d. | Two atoms share one electron. |

____ 18. Why do atoms share electrons in covalent bonds? a. | to become ions and attract each other | b. | to attain a noble-gas electron configuration | c. | to become more polar | d. | to increase their atomic numbers |

____ 19. Which of the following elements can form diatomic molecules held together by triple covalent bonds? a. | carbon | b. | oxygen | c. | fluorine | d. | nitrogen |

____ 20. Which noble gas has the same electron configuration as the oxygen in a water molecule? a. | helium | b. | neon | c. | argon | d. | xenon |

____ 21. Which elements can form diatomic molecules joined by a single covalent bond? a. | hydrogen only | b. | halogens only | c. | halogens and members of the oxygen group only | d. | hydrogen and the halogens only |

____ 22. What is the representative unit in a molecular compound? a. | a molecule | b. | an ion | c. | a formula unit | d. | shared electrons |

____ 23. Which of the following electron configurations gives the correct arrangement of the four valence electrons of the carbon atom in the molecule methane (CH)? a. | 2s2p | b. | 2s2p3s | c. | 2s2p3s | d. | 2s2p |

____ 24. Which of the following diatomic molecules is joined by a double covalent bond? a. | | b. | | c. | | d. | |

____ 25. Which molecule has a single covalent bond? a. | CO | b. | Cl | c. | CO | d. | N |

____ 26. The chemical formula of an ionic compound shows a. | how many atoms of each element a molecule contains. | b. | the lowest whole-number ratio between ions in the ionic compound. | c. | which molecules the ionic compound contains. | d. | how the atoms bond. |

____ 27. Once formed, how are coordinate covalent bonds different from other covalent bonds? a. | They are stronger. | b. | They are more ionic in character. | c. | They are weaker. | d. | There is no difference. |

____ 28. When H forms a bond with HO to form the hydronium ion HO, this bond is called a coordinate covalent bond because a. | both bonding electrons come from the oxygen atom. | b. | it forms an especially strong bond. | c. | the electrons are equally shared. | d. | the oxygen no longer has eight valence electrons. |

____ 29. Which of the following bonds is the least reactive? a. | C—C | b. | H—H | c. | O—H | d. | H—Cl |

____ 30. How many valid electron dot formulas—having the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion—can be written when a resonance structure occurs? a. | 0 | b. | 1 only | c. | 2 only | d. | 2 or more |

____ 31. In which of the following compounds is the octet expanded to include 12 electrons? a. | HS | b. | PCl | c. | PCl | d. | SF |

____ 32. A resonance structure, like the one above, represents a. | a difference in energy. | b. | electron pairs resonating back and forth between the extremes of the two structures. | c. | a difference in bond length, one shorter than the other. | d. | a hybrid of the extremes represented by the resonance forms. |

____ 33. Molecular orbital theory is based upon which of the following models of the atom? a. | classical mechanical model | b. | Bohr model | c. | quantum mechanical model | d. | Democritus’s model |

____ 34. A bond that is not symmetrical along the axis between two atomic nuclei is a(n) ____. a. | alpha bond | b. | sigma bond | c. | pi bond | d. | beta bond |

____ 35. A pair of molecular orbitals is formed by the a. | splitting of a single atomic orbital. | b. | reproduction of a single atomic orbital. | c. | overlap of two atomic orbitals from the same atom. | d. | overlap of two atomic orbitals from different atoms. |

____ 36. The side-by-side overlap of p orbitals produces what kind of bond? a. | alpha bond | b. | beta bond | c. | pi bond | d. | sigma bond |

____ 37. Where are the electrons most probably located in a molecular bonding orbital? a. | anywhere in the orbital | b. | between the two atomic nuclei | c. | in stationary positions between the two atomic nuclei | d. | in circular orbits around each nucleus |

____ 38. Sigma bonds are formed as a result of the overlapping of which type(s) of atomic orbital(s)? a. | s only | b. | p only | c. | d only | d. | s and p |

____ 39. Which of the following bond types is normally the weakest? a. | sigma bond formed by the overlap of two s orbitals | b. | sigma bond formed by the overlap of two p orbitals | c. | sigma bond formed by the overlap of one s and one p orbital | d. | pi bond formed by the overlap of two p orbitals |

____ 40. According to VSEPR theory, molecules adjust their shapes to keep which of the following as far apart as possible? a. | pairs of valence electrons | b. | inner shell electrons | c. | mobile electrons | d. | the electrons closest to the nuclei |

____ 41. The shape of the methane molecule is ____. a. | tetrahedral | b. | square | c. | four-cornered | d. | planar |

____ 42. What causes water molecules to have a bent shape, according to VSEPR theory? a. | repulsive forces between unshared pairs of electrons | b. | interaction between the fixed orbitals of the unshared pairs of oxygen | c. | ionic attraction and repulsion | d. | the unusual location of the free electrons |

____ 43. Which of the following theories provides information concerning both molecular shape and molecular bonding? a. | molecular orbital theory | b. | VSEPR theory | c. | orbital hybridization theory | d. | Bohr atomic theory |

____ 44. Experimental evidence suggests that the H—C—H bond angles in ethene, CH, are ____. a. | 90 | b. | 109.5 | c. | 120 | d. | 180 |

____ 45. What type of hybrid orbital exists in the methane molecule? a. | sp | b. | sp | c. | sp | d. | spd |

____ 46. What is the shape of a molecule with a triple bond? a. | tetrahedral | b. | pyramidal | c. | bent | d. | linear |

____ 47. What type of hybridization occurs in the orbitals of a carbon atom participating in a triple bond with another carbon atom? a. | | b. | | c. | | d. | |

____ 48. How many pi bonds are formed when sp hybridization occurs in ethene, CH? a. | 0 | b. | 1 | c. | 2 | d. | 3 |

____ 49. Which of the following atoms acquires the most negative charge in a covalent bond with hydrogen? a. | C | b. | Na | c. | O | d. | S |

____ 50. A bond formed between a silicon atom and an oxygen atom is likely to be ____. a. | ionic | b. | coordinate covalent | c. | polar covalent | d. | nonpolar covalent |

____ 51. Which of the following covalent bonds is the most polar? a. | H—F | b. | H—C | c. | H—H | d. | H—N |

____ 52. When placed between oppositely charged metal plates, the region of a water molecule attracted to the negative plate is the ____. a. | hydrogen region of the molecule | b. | geometric center of the molecule | c. | H—O—H plane of the molecule | d. | oxygen region of the molecule |

____ 53. What is thought to cause the dispersion forces? a. | attraction between ions | b. | motion of electrons | c. | sharing of electron pairs | d. | differences in electronegativity |

____ 54. Which of the forces of molecular attraction is the weakest? a. | dipole interaction | b. | dispersion | c. | hydrogen bond | d. | single covalent bond |

____ 55. What causes dipole interactions? a. | sharing of electron pairs | b. | attraction between polar molecules | c. | bonding of a covalently bonded hydrogen to an unshared electron pair | d. | attraction between ions |

____ 56. What are the weakest attractions between molecules? a. | ionic forces | b. | Van der Waals forces | c. | covalent forces | d. | hydrogen forces |

____ 57. What causes hydrogen bonding? a. | attraction between ions | b. | motion of electrons | c. | sharing of electron pairs | d. | bonding of a covalently bonded hydrogen atom with an unshared electron pair |

____ 58. Why is hydrogen bonding only possible with hydrogen? a. | Hydrogen’s nucleus is electron deficient when it bonds with an electronegative atom. | b. | Hydrogen is the only atom that is the same size as an oxygen atom. | c. | Hydrogen is the most electronegative element. | d. | Hydrogen tends to form covalent bonds. |

____ 59. Which type of solid has the highest melting point? a. | ionic solid | b. | network solid | c. | metal | d. | nonmetallic solid |

____ 60. What is required in order to melt a network solid? a. | breaking Van der Waals bonds | b. | breaking ionic bonds | c. | breaking hydrogen bonds | d. | breaking covalent bonds |

Numeric Response

61. How many valence electrons does an iodine atom have?

62. What is the total number of covalent bonds normally associated with a single carbon atom in a compound?

63. How many electrons are shared in a single covalent bond?

64. How many electrons does a nitrogen atom need to gain in order to attain a noble-gas electron configuration?

65. How many unshared pairs of electrons does the nitrogen atom in ammonia possess?

66. How many electrons does carbon need to gain in order to obtain a noble-gas electron configuration?

67. How many electrons are shared in a double covalent bond?

68. How many covalent bonds are in a covalently bonded molecule containing 1 phosphorus atom and 3 chlorine atoms?

69.
How many unshared pairs of electrons are in a molecule of hydrogen iodide?

70. What is the bond angle in a water molecule?

Essay

71. What is bond dissociation energy, and how does it affect carbon compounds?

72. Can some atoms exceed the limits of the octet rule in bonding? If so, give an example.

73. Indicate how bonding is explained in terms of molecular orbitals.

74. Explain a pi bond and a sigma bond. Which of these bond types tends to be the weaker? Why?

75. Explain what is meant by VSEPR theory. Give an example of how VSEPR theory can be applied to predict the shape of a molecule.

76. Explain what is meant by orbital hybridization. Give an example of a molecule in which orbital hybridization occurs.

77. Choose a molecule which displays an exception to the octet rule and illustrate clearly, using Lewis dot structures, why it is considered an exception. Discuss whether resonance structures can account for its stability.

78. What determines the degree of polarity in a bond? Distinguish between nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, and ionic bonds in terms of relative polarity.

79. What are dispersion forces? How is the strength of dispersion forces related to the number of electrons in a molecule? Give an example of molecules that are attracted to each other by dispersion forces.

80. Describe a network solid and give two examples. Chem I Chapter 8 Answer Section

MATCHING

1. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 227 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

2. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 226 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

3. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 230 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

4. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 231 OBJ: 8.2.2 Describe how coordinate covalent bonds are different from other covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

5. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 248 OBJ: 8.4.1 Describe how electronegativity values determine the charge distribution in a polar molecule. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

6. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 250 OBJ: 8.4.2 Evaluate the strengths of intermolecular attractions compared with the strengths of ionic and covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

7. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 236 OBJ: 8.2.4 Explain how the strength of a covalent bond is related to its bond dissociation energy. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

8. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 238 OBJ: 8.3.1 Describe the relationship between atomic and molecular orbitals. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: knowledge

9. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 238 OBJ: 8.3.1 Describe the relationship between atomic and molecular orbitals. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: knowledge

10. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 240 OBJ: 8.3.2 Describe how VSEPR theory helps predict the shapes of molecules. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: knowledge

11. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 240 OBJ: 8.3.2 Describe how VSEPR theory helps predict the shapes of molecules. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: knowledge

12. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 250 OBJ: 8.4.2 Evaluate the strengths of intermolecular attractions compared with the strengths of ionic and covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

13. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 252 OBJ: 8.4.3 Explain why the properties of covalent compounds are so diverse. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

MULTIPLE CHOICE

14. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 222 OBJ: 8.1.1 Identify the information a molecular formula provides. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

15. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 227 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

16. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 223 OBJ: 8.1.1 Identify the information a molecular formula provides. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

17. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 226 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

18. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 226 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

19. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 230 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

20. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 227 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: application

21. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 226 | p. 227 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

22. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 226 OBJ: 8.1.2 Describe the representative units that define molecular compounds and ionic compounds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

23. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 238 | p. 244 OBJ: 8.3.1 Describe the relationship between atomic and molecular orbitals. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: application

24. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 230 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: application

25. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 230 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: application

26. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 224 OBJ: 8.1.2 Describe the representative units that define molecular compounds and ionic compounds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

27. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 232 OBJ: 8.2.2 Describe how coordinate covalent bonds are different from other covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

28. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 233 OBJ: 8.2.4 Explain how the strength of a covalent bond is related to its bond dissociation energy. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: application

29. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 236 | p. 237 OBJ: 8.2.4 Explain how the strength of a covalent bond is related to its bond dissociation energy. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: application

30. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 237 OBJ: 8.2.5 Describe how resonance structures are used. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

31. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 235 OBJ: 8.2.3 Identify some exceptions to the octet rule. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: application

32. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 237 OBJ: 8.2.5 Describe how resonance structures are used. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

33. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 240 OBJ: 8.3.1 Describe the relationship between atomic and molecular orbitals. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: comprehension

34. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 241 OBJ: 8.3.1 Describe the relationship between atomic and molecular orbitals. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: comprehension

35. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 240 OBJ: 8.3.1 Describe the relationship between atomic and molecular orbitals. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: comprehension

36. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 241 OBJ: 8.3.1 Describe the relationship between atomic and molecular orbitals. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: comprehension

37. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 241 OBJ: 8.3.1 Describe the relationship between atomic and molecular orbitals. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: comprehension

38. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 240 | p. 241 OBJ: 8.3.1 Describe the relationship between atomic and molecular orbitals. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: comprehension

39. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 241 OBJ: 8.3.1 Describe the relationship between atomic and molecular orbitals. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: comprehension

40. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 242 OBJ: 8.3.2 Describe how VSEPR theory helps predict the shapes of molecules. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: knowledge

41. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 242 OBJ: 8.3.2 Describe how VSEPR theory helps predict the shapes of molecules. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: knowledge

42. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 243 OBJ: 8.3.2 Describe how VSEPR theory helps predict the shapes of molecules. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: comprehension

43. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 244 OBJ: 8.3.3 Identify the ways in which orbital hybridization is useful in describing molecules. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: knowledge

44. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 245 OBJ: 8.3.3 Identify the ways in which orbital hybridization is useful in describing molecules. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: knowledge

45. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 244 OBJ: 8.3.3 Identify the ways in which orbital hybridization is useful in describing molecules. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: knowledge

46. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 245 OBJ: 8.3.3 Identify the ways in which orbital hybridization is useful in describing molecules. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: comprehension

47. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 245 OBJ: 8.3.3 Identify the ways in which orbital hybridization is useful in describing molecules. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: application

48. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 245 OBJ: 8.3.3 Identify the ways in which orbital hybridization is useful in describing molecules. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: application

49. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 248 | p. 249 OBJ: 8.4.1 Describe how electronegativity values determine the charge distribution in a polar molecule. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: application

50. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 248 | p. 249 OBJ: 8.4.1 Describe how electronegativity values determine the charge distribution in a polar molecule. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: application

51. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 248 | p. 249 OBJ: 8.4.1 Describe how electronegativity values determine the charge distribution in a polar molecule. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: application

52. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 248 | p. 249 OBJ: 8.4.1 Describe how electronegativity values determine the charge distribution in a polar molecule. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

53. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 251 OBJ: 8.4.2 Evaluate the strengths of intermolecular attractions compared with the strengths of ionic and covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

54. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 251 OBJ: 8.4.2 Evaluate the strengths of intermolecular attractions compared with the strengths of ionic and covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

55. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 251 OBJ: 8.4.2 Evaluate the strengths of intermolecular attractions compared with the strengths of ionic and covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

56. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 250 OBJ: 8.4.2 Evaluate the strengths of intermolecular attractions compared with the strengths of ionic and covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

57. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 251 OBJ: 8.4.2 Evaluate the strengths of intermolecular attractions compared with the strengths of ionic and covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

58. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 251 OBJ: 8.4.2 Evaluate the strengths of intermolecular attractions compared with the strengths of ionic and covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

59. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 252 OBJ: 8.4.3 Explain why the properties of covalent compounds are so diverse. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

60. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 251 OBJ: 8.4.3 Explain why the properties of covalent compounds are so diverse. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

NUMERIC RESPONSE

61. ANS: 7

PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 227 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: application

62. ANS: 4

PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 228 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

63. ANS: 2

PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 226 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: knowledge

64. ANS: 3

PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 228 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: application

65. ANS: 1

PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 228 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

66. ANS: 4

PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 228 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

67. ANS: 4

PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 230 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

68. ANS: 3

PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 228 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: application

69. ANS: 3

PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 229 OBJ: 8.2.1 Explain the result of electron sharing in covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: application

70. ANS: 105

PTS: 1 DIF: L1 REF: p. 243 OBJ: 8.3.2 Describe how VSEPR theory helps predict the shapes of molecules. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: knowledge

ESSAY

71. ANS:
Bond dissociation energy is the energy required to break a single bond. The greater the bond dissociation energy, the more stable the compound. Due in part to the high bond dissociation energy of carbon-carbon bonds, carbon compounds are not very reactive chemically.

PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 236 | p. 237 OBJ: 8.2.4 Explain how the strength of a covalent bond is related to its bond dissociation energy. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: synthesis

72. ANS:
Yes, sulfur and phosphorus can expand the octet. They can have 12 or 10 valence electrons, respectively, when combined with small halogens. In PCl, phosphorus has 10 valence electrons.

PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 235 OBJ: 8.2.3 Identify some exceptions to the octet rule. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: application

73. ANS:
When two atoms combine, the overlap of their atomic orbitals produces molecular orbitals. An atomic orbital belongs to a particular atom, whereas a molecular orbital belongs to a molecule as a whole. Much like an atomic orbital, two electrons are required to fill a molecular orbital. A bonding orbital is a molecular orbital occupied by the two electrons of a covalent bond.

PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 240 OBJ: 8.3.1 Describe the relationship between atomic and molecular orbitals. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: application

74. ANS:
A pi bond is the bond formed as a result of the side-by-side overlap of two p orbitals. A sigma bond is the bond that results from a combination of two s orbitals, two p orbitals, or a p and an s orbital. Orbital overlap in pi bonding is less extensive than that for sigma bonding. Therefore, pi bonds tend to be weaker than sigma bonds.

PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 240 | p. 241 OBJ: 8.3.1 Describe the relationship between atomic and molecular orbitals. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: analysis

75. ANS:
VSEPR (valence-shell electron-pair repulsion) theory states that because electron pairs repel, molecules adjust their shapes so that the valence-electron pairs, both bonding and non-bonding, are as far apart as possible. Methane, CH, for example, has four bonding electron pairs and no unshared pairs. The bonding pairs are farthest apart when the angle between the central carbon and each of its attached hydrogens is 109.5. This is the angle that is observed experimentally.

PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 242 OBJ: 8.3.2 Describe how VSEPR theory helps predict the shapes of molecules. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: application

76. ANS:
In orbital hybridization, two or more different atomic orbitals mix to form the same total number of equivalent hybrid orbitals. For instance, the s and p orbitals of an atom combine to make hybrid orbitals having the character of both the s orbital and the p orbital. These hybrid orbitals are equivalent. Orbital hybridization occurs in the methane molecule in which one 2s orbital and three 2p orbitals hybridize to form four sp orbitals.

PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 244 OBJ: 8.3.3 Identify the ways in which orbital hybridization is useful in describing molecules. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 | C.3.4 BLM: application

77. ANS:
Sample Answer: NO2 is an molecule that does not satisfy the octet rule. The Lewis dot structure for nitrogen dioxide is It does not satisfy the octet rule because each atom in the molecule only has access to 7 electrons, instead of the eight required, as shown by the circled atoms.

This molecule can be represented by a resonance structure in which the nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom at a time appear to have a stable octet. The actual bonding is a hybrid, or mixture, of the extremes represented by the resonance forms.

PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 235 | p. 237 OBJ: 8.2.3 Identify some exceptions to the octet rule. | 8.2.5 Describe how resonance structures are used. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: evaluation

78. ANS:
The relative electronegativity of the two bonded atoms determines the polarity of a bond. If the difference in electronegativities between the two atoms is less than 0.4, the bond is nonpolar covalent. If the difference in electronegativities between the two atoms is 0.4 to 1.0, the bond is moderately polar covalent. If the difference in electronegativities between the two atoms is 1.0 to 2.0, the bond is highly polar covalent. If the difference in electronegativities between the two atoms is more than 2.0, the bond is ionic.

PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 247 | p. 280 | p. 249 OBJ: 8.4.1 Describe how electronegativity values determine the charge distribution in a polar molecule. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: analysis

79. ANS:
Dispersion forces are the weakest of all molecular interactions, and are thought to be caused by the motion of electrons. Generally, the strength of dispersion forces increases as the number of electrons in a molecule increases. Diatomic molecules of halogen elements are an example of molecules whose attraction for one another is caused by dispersion forces.

PTS: 1 DIF: L3 REF: p. 251 OBJ: 8.4.2 Evaluate the strengths of intermolecular attractions compared with the strengths of ionic and covalent bonds. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: synthesis

80. ANS:
Network solids are substances in which all of the atoms are covalently bonded to each other. Melting these substances requires breaking covalent bonds throughout the solid. Two examples are diamond and silicon carbide.

PTS: 1 DIF: L2 REF: p. 252 OBJ: 8.4.3 Explain why the properties of covalent compounds are so diverse. STA: C.3.1 | C.3.2 | C.3.3 BLM: comprehension

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