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Adrian Petcu and Boi Faltings

{adrian.petcu, boi.faltings}@epﬂ.ch http://liawww.epfl.ch/ Artiﬁcial Intelligence Laboratory

Ecole Polytechnique F´ d´ rale de Lausanne (EPFL) e e

IN (Ecublens), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

Abstract

We present in this paper a new, complete method for distributed constraint optimization, based on dynamic programming. It is a utility propagation method, inspired by the sum-product algorithm, which is correct only for tree-shaped constraint networks. In this paper, we show how to extend that algorithm to arbitrary topologies using a pseudotree arrangement of the problem graph. Our algorithm requires a linear number of messages, whose maximal size depends on the induced width along the particular pseudotree chosen.

We compare our algorithm with backtracking algorithms, and present experimental results. For some problem types we report orders of magnitude fewer messages, and the ability to deal with arbitrarily large problems. Our algorithm is formulated for optimization problems, but can be easily applied to satisfaction problems as well.

1

Introduction

Distributed Constraint Satisfaction (DisCSP) was ﬁrst studied by Yokoo [Yokoo et al., 1992] and has recently attracted increasing interest. In distributed constraint satisfaction each variable and constraint is owned by an agent.

Systematic search algorithms for solving DisCSP are generally derived from depth-ﬁrst search algorithms based on some form of backtracking [Silaghi et al., 2000; Yokoo et al., 1998;

Meisels and Zivan, 2003; Hamadi et al., 1998].

Recently, the paradigm of asynchronous distributed search has been extended to constraint optimization by integrating a bound propagation mechanism (ADOPT - [Modi et al.,

2003]).

In general, optimization problems are much harder to solve than DisCSP ones, as the goal is not just to ﬁnd any solution, but the best one, thus requiring more exploration of the search space. The common goal of all distributed algorithms is to minimize the number of messages required to ﬁnd a solution.

Backtracking algorithms are very popular in centralized systems because they require very little memory. In a distributed implementation, however, they may not be the best basis since in backtrack search, control shifts rapidly between

different variables. Every state change in a distributed backtrack algorithm requires at least one message; in the worst case, even in a parallel algorithm there will be exponentially many state changes [Kasif, 1986], thus resulting in exponentially many messages. So far, this has been a serious drawback for the application of distributed algorithms in the real world, especially for optimization problems (also noted in

[Maheswaran et al., 2004]).

This leads us to believe that other search paradigms, in particular those based on dynamic programming, may be more appropriate for DisCSP. For example, an algorithm that incrementally computes the set of all partial solutions for all previous variables according to a certain order would only use a linear number of messages. However, the messages could grow exponentially in size, and the algorithm would not have any parallelism.

Recently, the sum-product algorithm [Kschischang et al.,

2001] has been proposed for certain constraint satisfaction problems, for example decoding. It is an acceptable compromise as it combines a dynamic-programming style exploration of a search space with a ﬁxed message size, and can easily be implemented in a distributed fashion. However, it is correct only for tree-shaped constraint networks.

In this paper, we show how to extend the algorithm to arbitrary topologies using a pseudotree arrangement of the problem graph, and report our experimental results. The algorithm is formulated for optimization problems, but can be easily applied to satisfaction problems by having relations with utility either 0 (for allowed tuples) or negative values (for disallowed tuples). Utility maximization produces a solution if there is an assignment with utility 0.

The rest of this paper is structured as follows: Section 2 presents the deﬁnitions and the notation we use, Section 3 presents an optimization procedure for trees, Section 4 the optimization for graphs, Section 5 proves the complexity to be equal to the induced width, Section 6 compares theoretically our algorithm with other aproaches, Section 7 presents experimental results, and we conclude in Section 8.

2

Deﬁnitions & notation

A discrete multiagent constraint optimization problem

(MCOP) is a tuple < X , D, R > such that:

• X = {X1 , ..., Xm } is the set of variables/agents;

• D = {d1 , ..., dm } is a set of domains of the variables, each given as a ﬁnite set of possible values.

• R = {r1 , ..., rp } is a set of relations, where a relation ri is a function di1 × .. × dik → + which denotes how much utility is assigned to each possible combination of values of the involved variables.

In this paper we deal with unary and binary relations, being well-known that higher arity relations can also be expressed in these terms with little modiﬁcations. In a MCOP, any value combination is allowed; the goal is to ﬁnd an assignment X ∗ for the variables Xi that maximizes the sum of utilities.

For a node Xk , we deﬁne Rk (Xj ) = the relation(s) between

Xk and its neighbor Xj .

3

Distributed constraint optimization for tree-structured networks

For tree-structured networks, polynomial-time complete optimization methods have been developed (e.g. the sum-product algorithm [Kschischang et al., 2001] and the DTREE algorithm from [Petcu and Faltings, 2004]).

In DTREE, the agents send UTIL messages (utility vectors) to their parents. A child Xl of node Xk would send Xk a vecj tor of the optimal utilities u∗ l (vk ) that can be achieved by the

X

subtree rooted at Xl plus Rl (Xk ) , and are compatible with j each value vk of Xk (such a vector has |dom(Xk )| values).

For the leaf nodes it is immediate to compute these valuations by just inspecting the constraints they have with their single neighbors, so they initiate the process. Then each node

Xi relays these messages according to the following process:

• Wait for UTIL messages from all children. Since all of the respective subtrees are disjoint, by summing them up, Xi computes how much utility each of its values gives for the whole subtree rooted at itself. This, together with the relation(s) between Xi and its parent Xj , enables Xi to compute exactly how much utility can be achieved by the entire subtree rooted at Xi , taking into account compatibility with each of Xj ’s values. Thus,

Xi can send to Xj its UTIL message. Xi also stores its optimal values corresponding to each value of Xj .

• If root node, Xi can compute the optimal overall utility corresponding to each one of its values (based on all the incoming UTIL messages), pick the optimal one, and send a VALUE message to its children, informing them about its decision.

Upon receipt of the VALUE message from its parent, each node is able to pick the optimal value for itself (as the previously stored optimal value corresponding to the value its parent has chosen), and pass it on to its children.

At this point, the algorithm is ﬁnished for Xi .

The correctness of this algorithm was shown in the original paper, as well as the fact that it requires a linear number of messages, and linear memory.

Figure 1: Example of a pseudotree arrangement.

4

Distributed constraint optimization for general networks

To apply a DTREE-like algorithm to a cyclic graph, we ﬁrst need to arrange the graph as a pseudotree (it is known that this arrangement is possible for any graph).

4.1 Pseudotrees

Deﬁnition 1 A pseudo-tree arrangement of a graph G is a rooted tree with the same vertices as G and the property that adjacent vertices from the original graph fall in the same branch of the tree (e.g. X0 and X11 in Figure 1).

Pseudotrees have already been investigated as a means to boost search ([Freuder, 1985; Freuder and Quinn, 1985;

Dechter, 2003; Schiex, 1999]). The main idea with their use in search, is that due to the relative independence of nodes lying in different branches of the pseudotree, it is possible to perform search in parallel on these independent branches.

Figure 1 shows an example of a pseudotree that we shall refer to in the rest of this paper. It consists of tree edges, shown as solid lines, and back edges, shown as dashed lines, that are not part of the spanning tree (e.g. 8−1, 12−2, 4−0).

We call a path in the graph that is entirely made of tree edges, a tree-path. A tree-path associated with a back-edge is the tree-path connecting the two nodes involved in the back-edge

(please note that since our arrangement is a pseudotree, such a tree path is always included in a branch of the tree). For each back-edge, the higher node involved in that back-edge is called the back-edge handler (e.g. the dark nodes 0, 1 and 2).

We also deﬁne:

• P(X) - the parent of a node X: the single node higher in the hierarchy of the pseudotree that is connected to the node X directly through a tree edge (e.g. P (X4 ) = X1 )

• C(X) - the children of a node X: the set of nodes lower in the pseudotree that are connected to the node X directly through tree edges (e.g. C(X1 ) = {X3 , X4 })

• PP(X) - the pseudo-parents of a node X: the set of nodes higher in the pseudotree that are connected to the node X directly through back-edges (P P (X8 ) = {X1 })

• PC(X) - the pseudo-children of a node X: the set of nodes lower in the hierarchy of the pseudotree that are connected to the node X directly through back-edges

(e.g. P C(X0 ) = {X4 , X11 })

As it is already known, a DFS (depth-ﬁrst search) tree is also a pseudotree (although the inverse does not always hold).

So, a DFS tree obtained from the DFS traversal of the graph starting from one of the nodes (chosen through a distributed leader election algorithm) will do just ﬁne. Due to the lack of space we do not present here a procedure for the creation of a DFS tree, and refer the reader to techniques like [Barbosa,

1996; Hamadi et al., 1998].

4.2 The DPOP algorithm

Our algorithm has 3 phases. First, the agents establish the pseudotree structure (see section 4.1) to be used in the following two phases. The next two phases are the UTIL and

VALUE propagations, which are similar to the ones from

DTREE - section 3. Please refer to Algorithm 1 for a formal description of the algorithm, and to the rest of this section for a detailed description of the UTIL and VALUE phases.

UTIL propagation

As in DTREE, the UTIL propagation starts from the leaves of the pseudotree and propagates up the pseudotree, only through the tree edges. It is easy for an agent to identify whether it is a leaf in the pseudotree or not: it must have a single tree edge (e.g. X7 to X13 in Figure 1).

In a tree network, a UTIL message sent by a node to its parent is dependent only on the subtree rooted at the respective node (no links to other parts of the tree), and the constraint between the node and its parent. For example, consider the message (X6 → X2 ). This message is clearly dependent only on the target variable X2 , since there are no links between X6 or X13 and any node above X2 .

In a network with cycles (each back-edge in the pseudotree produces a cycle), a message sent from a node to its parent may also depend on variables above the parent. This happens when there is a back-edge connecting the sending node with such a variable. For example, consider the message

(X8 → X3 ) in Figure 1. We see that the utilities that the subtree rooted at X8 can achieve are not dependent only on its parent X3 (as for X6 → X2 ). As X8 is connected with X1 through the backedge X8 → X1 , X8 must take into account this dependency when sending its message to X3 .

This is where the dynamic programming approach comes into play: X8 will compute the optimal utilities its subtree can achieve for each value combination of the tuple X3 , X1 . It will then assemble a message as a hypercube with 2 dimensions (one for the target variable X3 and one for the backedge handler X1 ), and send it to X3 (see Table 1).

This is the key difference between DTREE and DPOP: messages travelling through the network in DTREE always have a single dimension (they are linear in the domain size of the target variable), whereas in DPOP, messages have multiple dimensions (one for the target variable, and another one for each context variable).

Combining messages - dimensionality increase

Let us consider this example: X5 receives 2 messages from its children X11 and X12 ; the message from X11 has X0 as context, and the one from X12 has X2 as context. Both have one dimension for X5 (target variable) and one dimension for their context variable (X0 and X2 respectively), therefore,

Algorithm 1:

DPOP - Distributed pseudotreeoptimization procedure for general networks.

1: DPOP(X , D, R)

Each agent Xi executes:

2:

3:

4:

5:

6:

7:

8:

9:

10:

11:

12:

13:

14:

15:

16:

17:

18:

19:

20:

21:

22:

23:

24:

25:

26:

27:

Phase 1: pseudotree creation elect leader from all Xj ∈ X elected leader initiates pseudotree creation afterwards, Xi knows P(Xi ), PP(Xi ), C(Xi ) and PC(Xi )

Phase 2: UTIL message propagation if |Children(Xi )| == 0 (i.e. Xi is a leaf node) then

U T ILXi (P(Xi )) ← Compute utils(P(Xi ), PP(Xi ))

Send message(P(Xi ), U T ILXi (P(Xi ))) activate UTIL Message handler()

Phase 3: VALUE message propagation activate VALUE Message handler()

END ALGORITHM

UTIL Message handler(Xk ,U T ILXk (Xi )) store U T ILXk (Xi ) if UTIL messages from all children arrived then if Parent(Xi )==null (that means Xi is the root) then

∗

vi ← Choose optimal(null)

∗

Send V ALU E(Xi , vi ) to all C(Xi ) else U T ILXi (P(Xi )) ← Compute utils(P(Xi ), PP(Xi ))

Send message(P(Xi ), U T ILXi (P(Xi ))) return Xi

VALUE Message handler(V ALU EP (Xi ) )

Xi

∗

28: add all Xk ← vk ∈ V ALU EP (Xi ) to agent view

∗

29: Xi ← vi = Choose optimal(agent view)

Xl

30: Send V ALU EXi to all Xl ∈ C(Xi )

31:

32: Choose optimal(agent view)

33:

∗ vi ← argmaxvi

U T ILXl (vi , agent view)

Xl ∈C(Xi )

∗ vi 34: return

35:

36: Compute utils(P(Xi ), PP(Xi ))

37: for all combinations of values of Xk ∈ P P (Xi ) do

38:

let Xj be Parent(Xi )

39:

similarly to DTREE, compute a vector U T ILXi (Xj )

∗

of all {U tilXi (vi (vj ), vj )|vj ∈ Dom(Xj )}

40: assemble a hypercube U T ILXi (Xj ) out of all these

vectors (totaling |P P (Xi )| + 1 dimensions).

41: return U T ILXi (Xj )

X8 → X3

0

X1 = v 1

...

n−1

X1 = v 1

0

X3 = v 3

0

∗ uX8 (v1 )

...

n−1 u∗ 8 (v1 )

X

1

X3 = v 3

0

∗ uX8 (v1 )

...

n−1 u∗ 8 (v1 )

X

...

...

...

...

m−1

X3 = v3

0

∗ uX8 (v1 )

...

n−1 u∗ 8 (v1 )

X

Table 1: UTIL message sent from X8 to X3 , in Figure 1

their dimensionality is 2. X5 needs to send out its message to its parent (X2 ). X5 considers all possible values of X2 , and for each one of them, all combinations of values of the context variables (X0 and X2 ) and X5 are considered; the values of X5 are always chosen such that the optimal utilities for each tuple < X0 × X2 × X2 > are achieved. Note that since X2 is both a context variable and the target variable, the message collapses to 2 dimensions, not 3.

One can think of this process as the cross product of messages X11 → X5 and X12 → X5 resulting in a hypercube with dimensions X0 , X2 and X5 , followed by a projection on the X5 axis, which retains the optimal utilities for the tuples

< X0 × X2 > (optimizing w.r.t. X5 given X0 and X2 ).

Collapsing messages - dimensionality decrease

Whenever a multi-dimensional UTIL message reaches a target variable that occupies one dimension in the message (a back-edge handler), the target variable optimizes itself out of the context, and the outgoing message looses the respective dimension. We can take the example of X1 , which is initially present in the context of the message X8 → X3 : once the message arrives at X1 , since X1 does not have any more inﬂuence on the upper parts of the tree, X1 can ”optimize itself away” by simply choosing the best value for itself, for each value of its parent X0 (the normal DTREE process). Thus, one can see that a back edge handler (X1 in our case) appears as an extra dimension in the messages travelling from the lower end of the back edge (X8 ) to itself, through the tree path associated with the back edge (X8 → X3 → X1 ).

VALUE propagation

The VALUE phase is similar to DTREE. Now, in addition to

Xj

its parent’s value, the V ALU EP (Xj ) message a node Xj receives from its parent also contains the values of all the variables that were present in the context of Xj ’s UTIL message

∗

2 for its parent. E.g.: X0 sends X2 V ALU E0 (X0 ← v0 ), then

5

∗

∗

X2 sends X5 V ALU E2 (X0 ← v0 , X2 ← v2 ), and X5 sends

∗

∗

11

X11 V ALU E5 (X0 ← v0 , X5 ← v5 ).

5

Complexity analysis

By construction, the number of messages our algorithm produces is linear: there are n − 1 UTIL messages - one through each tree-edge (n is the number of nodes in the problem), and m linear size VALUE messages - one through each edge (m is the number of edges). The DFS construction also produces a linear number of messages (good algorithms require 2 × m messages). Thus, the complexity of this algorithm lies in the size of the UTIL messages.

Theorem 1 The largest UTIL message produced by Algorithm 1 is space-exponential in the width of the pseudotree induced by the DFS ordering used.

P ROOF. Dechter ([Dechter, 2003], chapter 4, pages 86-88) describes the ﬁll-up method for obtaining the induced width.

First, we build the induced graph: we take the DFS traversal of the pseudotree as an ordering of the graph and process the nodes recursively (bottom up) along this order. When a node is processed, all its parents are connected (if not already

connected). The induced width is the maximum number of parents of any node in the induced graph.

It is shown in [Dechter, 2003] that the width of a tree (no back-edges) is 1. Actually the back-edges are the ones that inﬂuence the width: a single backedge produces an induced width of 2. From the construction of the induced tree, it is easy to see that several backedges produce increases in the width only when their tree-paths overlap on at least one edge, and their respective handlers are different; otherwise their effects on the width do not combine. Thus, the width is given by the size of the maximal set of back-edges which have overlapping tree-paths and distinct handlers.

During the UTIL propagation, the message size varies; the largest message is the one with the most dimensions. We have seen that a dimension Xi is added to a message when a backedge with Xi as a handler is ﬁrst encountered in the propagation, and travels through the tree-path associated with the back-edge. It is then eliminated by projection when the message arrives at Xi . The maximal dimensionality is therefore given by the maximal number of overlaps of tree-paths associated with back-edges with distinct handlers.

We have thus shown that the maximal dimensionality is equal to the induced width.

2

Exponential size messages are not necessarily a problem in all setups (depending on the resources available and on the induced width - low width problems generate small messages!)

However, when the maximum message size is limited, one can serialize big messages by letting the back-edge handlers ask explicitly for valuations for each one of their values sequentially, so each message can have customizable size.

A workaround against exponential memory is possible by renouncing exactness, and propagating valuations for the best/worst value combinations (upper/lower bounds) instead of all combinations.

6

Comparison with other approaches

Schiex [Schiex, 1999] notes the fact that so far, pseudotree arrangements have been mainly used for search procedures

(essentially backtrack-based search, or branch-and-bound for optimization). As good examples, see the Distributed

Depth-ﬁrst Branch and Bound (DDBB), Distributed Iterative

Deepening (DID), ADOPT, Synchronous Branch and Bound

(SBB) and Iterative Distributed Breakout (IDB). All these procedures have a worst case complexity exponential in the depth of the pseudotree arrangement (basically because all the variables on the longest branch from root to a leaf have to be instantiated sequentially, and all their value combinations tried out). It was shown in [Bayardo and Miranker, 1995] that there are ways to obtain shallow pseudotrees (within a logarithmic factor of the induced width), but these require intricate heuristics like the ones from [Freuder and Quinn, 1985;

Maheswaran et al., 2004], which have not yet been adapted to a distributed setting, as also noted by the authors of the second paper.

In contrast, our approach exhibits a worst case complexity exponential in the width of the graph induced by the pseudotree ordering. Arnborg shows in [Arnborg, 1985] that ﬁnding a min-width ordering of a graph is NP-hard; however,

the DFS traversal of the graph has the advantage that it produces a good approximation, and is easy to implement in a distributed context. This, coupled with the fact that the depth of the pseudotree is irrelevant to the complexity, means that our algorithm works well with a simple DFS ordering. To see this fundamental difference between the two approaches, consider a problem that is a ring with n nodes. A DFS ordering of such a graph would yield a pseudotree with height n, and one back edge, thus the induced width is 2. A backtracking algorithm is time exponential in n, whereas our algorithm is linear, with message size O(|d|2 ). Since the exponential complexity translates directly in the explosion of the number of messages exchanged, these backtracking-based algorithms have not yet been applied to large systems.

Furthermore, it was shown by Dechter in [Dechter and Fattah, 2001] that the induced width is always less than or at most equal with the pseudotree height; thus we can conclude theoretically that our algorithm will always do at least as well as a pseudotree backtrack-based algorithm on the same pseudotree ordering. However, it is only fair to say that our aproach can generate very big messages in the worst case, so one has to ﬁnd a proper tradeoff between the number and the size of the messages transmitted through the system.

7

Experimental evaluation

Usual performance metrics for distributed algorithms are the number of messages and the number of synchronous cycles required to ﬁnd the optimal solution. Both are linear in our case. For the number of messages, see section 5; the number of synchronous cycles is two times the height of the pseudotree (one UTIL propagation, and one VALUE propagation).

We also introduce the maximal message size as a metric.

7.1 Sensor networks

One of our experimental setups is the sensor grid testbed from

[Bejar et al., 2005]. Brieﬂy, there is a set of targets in a sensor ﬁeld, and the problem is to allocate 3 different sensors to each target. This is a NP-complete resource allocation problem.

In [Bejar et al., 2005], random instances are solved by

AWC (a complete algorithm for constraint satisfaction). The problems are relatively small (100 sensors and maximum 18 targets, beyond which the problems become intractable). Our initial experiments with this setup solve to optimality problems in a grid of 400 sensors, with up to 40 targets.

Another setup is the one from [Maheswaran et al., 2004], where there are corridors composed of squares which indicate areas to be observed. Sensors are located at each vertex of a square; in order for a square to be ”observed”, all

4 sensors in its vertices need to be focused on the respective square. Depending on the topology of the grid, some sensors are shared between several squares, and they can observe only one of them at a time. The authors test 4 improved versions of ADOPT (current state of the art for MCOP) on 4 different scenarios, where the corridors have the shapes of capital letters L, Z, T and H. Their results and a comparison with

DPOP are in Table 2. One can see the dramatic reduction of the number of messages required (in some cases orders of magnitude), even for these very small problem instances (16

Algo/Scenario

MCN , No Pass

MLSP, No Pass

MCN , Pass

MLSP , Pass

DPOP

Test L

626.4

597.88

95.67

81.77

30

Test Z

1111.64

663.32

101.90

91.5

30

Test T

1841.28

477.56

94.93

107.77

18

Test H

1898.04

679.36

258.07

255.2

30

Table 2: DPOP vs 4 ADOPT versions: number of messages in sensor allocation problems. variables). The explanation is that our algorithm always produces a linear number of messages.

Regarding the size of the messages: these problems have graphs with very low induced widths (2), basically given by the intersections between corridors. Thus, our algorithm employs linear messages in most of the parts of the problems, and only in the intersections are created 2 messages with 2 dimensions (in this case with 64 values each).

This fact gives our algorithm the ability to solve arbitrarily large instances of this particular kind of real-world problems.

7.2 Meeting scheduling

We experimented with distributed meeting scheduling in an organization with a hierarchical structure (a tree with departments as nodes, and a set of agents working in each department). The CSP model is the PEAV model from [Maheswaran et al., 2004]. Each agent has multiple variables: one for the start time of each meeting it participates in, with

8 timeslots as values. Mutual exclusion constraints are imposed on the variables of an agent, and equality constraints are imposed on the corresponding variables of all agents involved in the same meeting. Private, unary constraints placed by an agent on its own variables show how much it values each meeting/start time. Random meetings are generated, each with a certain utility for each agent. The objective is to ﬁnd the schedule that maximizes the overall utility.

Table 3 shows how our algorithm scales up with the size of the problems. Notice that the total number of messages includes the VALUE messages (linear size), and that due to the fact that intra-agent subproblems are denser than the rest of the problem, high-dimensional messages are likely to be virtual, intra-agent messages (not actually transmitted over the network). To our knowledge, these are by far the largest optimization problems solved with a complete, distributed algorithm (200 agents, 101 meetings, 270 variables, 341 constraints). The largest reported previous experiment is [Maheswaran et al., 2004], with 33 agents, 12 meetings, 47 variables, 123 constraints, solved using ADOPT.

8

Conclusions and future work

We presented in this paper a new complete method for distributed constraint optimization. This method is a utilitypropagation method that extends tree propagation algorithms like the sum-product algorithm or DTREE to work on arbitrary topologies using a pseudotree structure. It requires a linear number of messages, the largest one being exponential in the induced width along the particular pseudotree cho-

Agents

Meetings

Variables

Constraints

Messages

Max message size

Cycles

30

14

44

52

95

512

30

40

15

50

60

109

4096

32

70

34

112

156

267

32k

70

100

50

160

214

373

256k

86

200

101

270

341

610

256k

96

Table 3: DPOP tests on meeting scheduling. sen. This method reduces the complexity from domn (standard backtracking) to domw , where n=number of nodes in the problem, dom bounds the domain size and w=the induced width along the particular pseudotree chosen. For loose problems, n w holds and our method retains the advantage of a linear number of messages (in practice even orders of magnitude fewer messages than the other aproaches), while preserving a small message size. In real world scenarios, sending a few larger messages is preferable to sending a lot of small messages because of the much lower overheads implied (differences can go up to orders of magnitude speedups). Our experiments show that our method is the ﬁrst one to be able to handle effectively arbitrarily large instances of a number of practical problems while using a linear number of messages.

Finding the minimum width pseudotree is an NP-complete problem, so in our future work we will investigate heuristics for ﬁnding low width pseudotrees.

9

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Rina Dechter and Radu Marinescu for insightful discussions, Jonathan Pearce/TEAMCORE for experimental data from sensor networks and meeting scheduling simulations, and Michael Schumacher for valuable comments on an early version of this paper. This work has been funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation under contract No. 200020-103421/1.

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