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Dr. Travel United States

In: Business and Management

Submitted By mrnwatford1968
Words 781
Pages 4
In the article Women in Management in America, women are highly under-represented in upper-level management in many U.S. companies and are also making less than men performing the same types of jobs. The article explains that the glass ceiling is one of the main barriers preventing women from reaching upper management positions. The barrier has been around for many years, but women are starting to break the glass ceiling. There are some companies that are beginning to recognize that women bring a wealth of talent and expertise to the table and they are exploring this talent and giving them opportunities at upper level management positions. Using the White House as evidence, we currently have Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in one of the most powerful positions in the world. The article also brought up some specific barriers to women's advancement in the workplace. Training, career development, promotion, compensation, "old boy network" and discrimination. Discrimination was on the top of the list, however it has existed for many years in the United States. Congress has over the years passed various statues to address the situation. One of the most important federal statutes that deal with discrimination is the Civil Right Act of 1964 (Fogliasso, 2011). In the training area where women wanted to gain knowlwedge for the next level they were just not given the training, so without the training and experience women would often be passed over for upper management positions. Promotion and compensation barriers have much to do with upper management and the culture of the organization. The article went on to say that upper management today needs to set examples for future leaders, by showing that they are willing to promote and compensate women who have proven themselves and deserve to move up the corporate ladder (Fogliasso, 2011).

The “old boy network” is the concept that women are excluded from membership in the informal male social system that expands throughout organizations (Oakley, 2000). It is difficult for women to achieve career advancement when an old boy network exists because typically the opportunities are passed from one male to another, with women seldom considered. Stereotypes are said to be most likely the hardest barrier for women to overcome due to society and many business cultures. There are many ways to stereotype a women, for instance the way she speaks in regard to her tone of voice, the way she is built and the way she dresses just to name a few. Stereotypes based on females’ tone of voice, physical appearance, and manner of dresses are also barriers to the advancement of women. Oakley (2000) stated that the leadership standard consists of a low-pitched, masculine-sounding voice, and it is not unusual for female political candidates to seek help to lower their voice to increase their credibility with voters. Another stereotype that society places on women is the home and family life. A clear double standard exists when it comes to raising a family while having a full-time career. This isn't the 50s and women are no longer expected to exist solely as housewives in blue-checkered aprons. This is both good and bad because although a married woman can simultaneously work and raise a family, she is typically viewed as less stable when performing both roles. In conclusion the article brought up a few ways to improve the situation, one being the time-based program. This program includes implementing methods such as flexible work schedules, job sharing, part time work and shorter or altered days like compressed work weeks. The attachment-based program allows pregnancy and childbirth leave, early childcare leave available for either parent, “parent days” leave, and various family/medical leaves, including sabbatical leaves for family events. Another is the assistance-based program, which includes relocation assistance, and includes pursuing career opportunities for spouses, counseling for work-related or personal dilemmas, education benefits which include full or partial repayment for expanding education (Fogliasso, 2011). Career enhancing techniques included a mentorship program, a sponsor, role model, networking with other women, were a few the name for women to really to get a true opportunity. in additional to these techniques it was noted that women should seek advice from women who are already in those top level positions. Women in management and the glass ceiling are controversial subjects that are constantly in hot pursuit. There are many statistics and theories that come into play, in fact many people may find it difficult to reach a solid conclusion. At the end of the day women are going to be in the cooperate mix and the number of women in management positions are going to increase.

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