Free Essay


In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By aviachha
Words 220089
Pages 881
Web Video Texts Audio Projects About Account TVNews OpenLibrary | | | | Home | American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections | Search: Advanced Search | Anonymous User (login or join us) | Upload |

Full text of "Natya Shastra of Bharata Muni Volume 1"THE NATYASASTRA

A Treatise on Hindu Dramaturgy and Histrionics

Ascribed to

B ii A R A T A - M r X I

Vol. I. ( Chapters I-XXVII )

Completely translated jor the jirst tune from the original Sanskrit tuttri «u Introduction and Various Notes

M .U'OMOH A N liHOS H M.A., Pn. I). <OaU

2 Viu i95y




the memory of

thom great scholars of India. and the West

mho by their indefatigable study and. ingenious interpretation of her Religion, Philosophy, Literature and Arts, have demon- strated the high ealiie of India- s culture to the World at large and ham helped her towa.nls a reawakening and political alteration.,


who by their discovery of the Universal aspect of this culture have made patent India's spiritual kinship with the other ancient nations of the World and ham paved the way for an ultimate triumph of Internationalism.


The preparation 'of an annotated English translation of the
Natya&stra entrusted to me as early as 1944, by the Royal Asiatic
Society, has been delayed for various reasons which need not be recounted here in detail. But mention must be made of one important factor of this delay, viz., the inherent difficulty of this very old text which is not yet available in a complete critical edition.
From my first serious acquaintance with it in 1925 in connection with the editing of the Abhinayadarpana (Calcutta, 1934) this work has always engaged my attention in the intervals of other duties.
But it was only a few years ago, that I came to believe that the
'entire work could be translated into English. It was, however, only after making some actual progress in translation that I realised the difficulty ef the task and understood to some extent at least why no complete translation of this veiy important text had so far not been mada.

However, I considered it a duty to make strenuous efforts and proceeded patiently with the work and finished at last translat- ing the major portion of the Natyasastra. I am now genuinely happy to place it before the scholarly public, not because it could be done in an ideal fashion, but because it could be finished at all.

In handling a difficult old text like this it it natural that one has to offer conclusions and interpretations, here and there, which due to the absence of better materials cannot be placed on surer grounds. But whatever tentative assertions I have made, have been made after the most careful consideration with the expectation that they may prove helpful to others working in this field, and it may be hoped that their number has not been too many, and in a few cases where I myself had any doubt about the interpretation offered, the same has been expressly mentioned in the footnote.

The chapters on music covering a little more than one fourth of the Natyasastra still remain to be done. These when completed will be published in the second volume. As the work on it, is progressing very slowly and it cannot be said definitely when it will be finished, it was thought advisable to publish the portion of the translation already prepared. Though the musical terms occur- ring in the present volume remain undefined, the absence of chap- ters on music where they have been discussed, will not, it is hoped, seriously interfere with the understanding of the dramaturgy and histrionics treated here.

For information regarding the plan and scope of the present work, the reader is referred to the Introduction, section I.

For the purpose of this volume, works of various scholars have been helpful to the translator and they have been mentioned


in proper places. But among them all, the American Sanskritist
Dr. G. C. 0. Haas deserves to be specially mentioned ; for his plan of the translation of the Dasarupa, has been adopted in a slightly modified manner in the present work. ,

I am indebted to Dr. 8. K. De, due to whose kindness I could utilise the unpublished portion of the AbinavabhSratl It is also a great pleasure to acknowledge the uniform courtesy of different officers of the Society from 1947-1950, especially Dr. K.N.
Bagchi, and Dr. Niharanjan Ray, the General Secretaries and
Mr. S. K. Saraswati, the Librarian and Mr. Rakhahari Chatterji. the Superintendent of the office, whose patience I had to tax on different occasions in course of the publication.

I am grateful to my father-in-law Sri Kali Charan Mitra who read the original draft of the first fourteen chapters of the present work and made suggestions regarding the language, and to my esteemed friend Dr. S. N. Ray, M.A.,Ph.D. (London) formerly
Head of the Department of English in the University of Dacca, for reading the proof of the first twelve formes and also for going through in Mss. the Introduction and for making welcome suggestions. I wish to mention here vciy gratefully the debt I owe to
Dr. Kalidas Nag in connexion with the preparation and the publi- cation of this work. But for his suggestion to undertake this work it might not have reached at all the stage of publication.

Last but not the least it becomes my most cheerful duty to express my gratitude to Prof. Suniti Kumar Chatterji, who has also helped me otherwise in connexion with this work. This help and his constant encouragement have rendered this work less arduous than it might otherwise have been.

™„ ta Iwf d hei ' e *'* *P° lo g«f t0 t^ refers for the many mis- prints that have crept into the volume. They are requested to make kindly, the necessary corrections pointed out in the corrigenda.

»tk November, I960 Th TnMgahr



Ag.j Abhinava

A3, notes.









Dandin. det '
De's Ms.
















... The first hemistich of a verse.

... Bhasa's Abhisekanataka.

... Nandikesvara's Abhinayadarpana.

... Arthadyotanika, Raghavabhatta's commentary

on the sakuntala.
... Abhinavagupta or his commentary of the

... Ardhamagadhi.
... Bhasa's Avimaraka.
... Kautilya's Arthasastra (ed. Jolly).
... Kautilya's Arthasastra (ed. Jolly). Vol. II.
... Baroda ed. of the Natyasastra.
... The second hemistich of a verse.
... Bhasa's Balacarita.
... Bhamaha's Kavyalamkara.
... Bhasa-nataka-cakra ed. by C. R. Devadhar
... Saradatanaya's Bhavaprakasana.
... Chowkhamaba (Benares) edition of the

... The third hemistich in a stanza.
... Bhasa's Carudatta.
... Chandah-sara-samgraba.
... Dandin's KavyadarSa.
... Definition or definitions.
... The Ms. of the Abhinavagupta's commentary

(Abhinavabharati) belonging to Dr. S. K. De.
... Dhananjaya's Dasarttpa.
... Bhasa's Dutaghatotkaca.
... Bhasa's Dutavakya.
... Example or examples.
... Nobel's Foundation of Indian Poetry.
... J. Grosset's edition of the Natyasastra.
... Gaikwar's Oriental Series.
... Haas's translation of the DaSarupa.
... Indian Antiquary.
... Indian Historical Quarterly.
... Sten Konow's Indische Drama.
... Haldar's Vyakarana-darsaner Itihasa.
... Journal of the Dept. of Letters,

Calcutta University.
. ,.. Vidyalamkara's JivanikoSa.







Natakalaksana. \
' NL., /

















B., Bam.






SV Pr.


tr., trans.


,. Kavyamala ecL of the Natyasastra.
.. Hemaeandra's Kavyanusasana.

Bhasa's Karnabhara.
.. Ramakrishna Kavi or his commentary to

.. Vatsyayana's KamasBtra.
... Kalidasa's Kumarasambhava.
... Damodaragupta's Kuttanimata.
... Sylavain LeVi's Le Thfttre indien.
,.. Bhasa's Madhyamavyayoga.
... BhavabhSti's Malatlmadhava.
... Kalidasa's Mai vikagnimitra. .
... Coomaraswamy's Mirror of Gestures-
... i&draka's Mrcchakatika.. .
... Vi&khadatta's Mudrarak§asa.
... Sagaranandin's Natakalaksanaratnakofo.

... Ramacandra and Gunaeandra's Natyadarpana.

... New Indo-Aryan.

... Nitti-Dolci's Le Grammairiens Prakrit.

... Natyasastra.

... Purana.

... Pafcaratra

... Panini.

... Pangala's CltandalistUra.

... Pischel's Grammatik der Prakrit-spraehen.

... Praki'ta-Paingala.

... Pratisakhya.

... Prakarana.

... Bhasa's Pratima-nataka.

... Bhasa's Pratijna-yaugandharayana.

... Paniniya-Siksa.

... Paia-sadda-mahannavo.

... Ramayana.

... Harsa's Ratnavali.

... Kalidasa's Rtusamhara.

... Kalidasa's Abhijflanasakuntala.

... Sahityadarpana.

... Sarngadeva's Samgitaratnakara.

... Bhoja's Srngaraprakafo.

... Bhasa'B Svapavasavadatta.

... translation or translated.

... Uttararamacarita of BhavabhQti.


jj rU , ... Bhasa's Urubhariga.

Vikram. ... Kalidasa's Vikramorva&ya.

Winternitz. ... Winternitz's History of Indian Literature.

NJS. (a) Numerals preceding the paragraphs of the translation relate to the serial number of couplets in the original. When the same number is repeated in two consecutive paragraphs, in the first place it will indicate the first hemistich and in the second the second hemistich. Roman figures relate to the chapter of the NS.

* (b) For the "manner of referring to dramas, see under the Bhasa- nataka-cakra in the'Bibliography (Original Texts).

(c) In the footnotes to the Introduction long : vowels, cerebral sounds andjthe labial sibilant have been indicated by italics.

1, General Works

Barua, B. M. .- Inscriptions of Asoka, Vol. II, Calcutta 1943.

Chatterji,S. K. -Origin and Development of the Bengal,

Language, Calcutta, 1926-

Coomaraswamy, A, K. ... The Mirror of Gestures, New York, 1936.

De, S. K. - Sanskrit Poetics : Vol. I and II,

London, 1903, 1926.

Ghosh, Chandramohan ... Chandahsarasamgraha (CSS ), Calcutta.

Haldar, Gurupada ... Vyakarana-darsaner Itihasa (Itihasa). (An his- torical account of the grammatical speculation # of the Hindus in Bengali), Calcutta. 1350 B.E.

Jolly, J. ... Hindu Law and Customs, Calcutta, 1929.

Keith, A. B. ... Sanskrit Drama, Oxford, 1924.

Konow, Sten. ... Das Indische Drama. Berlin, 1920.

Levi, Sylvain ... Lo Theatre indien, Paris, 1890.

Mankad, D. R. ... Typos of Sanskrit Drama, Karachi, 1936.

Nitti-Dolci, L. ... Les Grammairiens Prakrit, Paris, 1938.

J. Nobel. ... Foundation of Indian Poetry, Calcutta, 1925.

PischeliR. ... Grammatik der Prakrit-sprachen, .

Strassburg, 1900.

Pusalker ... Bhasa, Lahore, 1940.

Raghavaa, V. ... Sfngara-Prakasa, Bombay, 1940.

Seth, H. D. ... Paiasaddamahannavo, Calcutta, 1928.

Sircar, D.C. ... Select Inscriptions bearing on Indian History

and Civilization, Calcutta, 1942.

Vidyalamkar, S. B. ... Jivanikosa (A dictionary of the Puranic mytho- logy in Bengali), Calcutta.

2. Original Texts

Abhinavabharati (Ag.) ... On chapters I-XX ed. Ramakrishna Kavi in B.
On chapters XXI-XXVII and XXIX-XXXH the Ms. of
Dr. S. K. De. Reference to the Ms. are to its pages. Printed portion of the commentary when referred to, relates to the relevant text in B.

Abhinayadarpana of Nandikesvara ( AD. ). Ed. Manomohan Ghosh
Calcutta, 1934.

Abhisekauataka (Abhi.). Ed. Devadhar in BhNC.

Arthadyotanika. Nirnayasagara ed.

Avimaraka. Ed. Devadhar in BhNC.

Arthasastra of Kautilya (AS.). Ed. J. Jolly, Vols I and II, Lahore, 1923-24.

VUararamacarita ofBhavabhati (Uttara.). Ed. Ratnam Aiyar, Bombay 1930.
Vrubhanga (tJru.> Ed. Devadhar in BhNC.
£tusamhara of. 'Kalidasa. Ed. Jivananda Vidyasagar, Calcutta, 1893.,
Karnabhara (Karna ). Ed. Devadhar in BhNC.
Kavyadarsa ofiDandin. Ed. N. Sastri, Lahore, 1990, Samvat.
Kavyalannkara of Bhamaha. Ed. B. N. Sarma and B. Upadhyaya Chow- khamba. Benares, 1928.

Kavyalainkara^fjVaniana, Ed. K.P. Parab & W. Pansikar, Bombay, 1926.

K'ytilata of Vidyapati, Ed. Haraprasad Shastri.

Kuttanimata, Ed. in Bibliotheca Indica, Calcutta.

Carudatta of Bhasa (Caru). Ed. Devadhar in BliNC.

Dasarilpa (DB). Ed. K. P. Purab, Bombay, 1897. Oar references are to thjs edition. The ed. of. G.C.O. Haas with an English tran- slation has also been referred to. P. Hall's ed. {.Bibliotheca
Indica) has also been used-

Dutaghatotkaca of Bhasa (Dutagha.) Ed. Devadhar in BhNC.
Dntavakya'of Bhasa (Dutava.). Ed. Devadhar in BhNC
Madhayamavyayoga of Bhasa (Madhyama-). Ed. Devadhar in BhNC.
Malavikagnimitra of Kalidasa (Malavi.). Ed. S. P. Pandit.

( Bombay Sanskrit Series ), Bombay, 1889.
Mrcchakatika (Mrech). Ed. K. P. Parab and W. L. S. Pansikar,

Bombay, 1926-
Mudraraksasa of Visakhadatta (Mudra). Ed. Kasinath Trimbak Telang

{Bombay Sit. Series), Bombay, 1928
Meghaduta of Kalidasa (Megha). Ed. S. Vidyaratna, Calcutta, 1821, Saka.
Natakalaksana-ratnakosa of Sagaranandin (Natakalaksana, NL). M.

Dillon, London, 1939. References are by lines unless

otherwise mentioned.

Natyadarpana of Ratnacandra and Gunacandra (ND.), Ed. in GOS.

Natyasastra of Bharata (N^). Chapters I-XIV. Ed. J. Grosset, Paris,
Lyons, 1898 ; Chapters I-XX. ed. R. Kavi, Baroda, 1926^
1936. Numbering of couplets in this work is often wrong.
Iu case of chapters I-III this has been corrected, but in case of other chapters wrong numbers have been retained and in some cases where confusion may occur, pages have also been referred to. The edition of Sivadatta and Parab
(Bombay, 1894), and the Chowkhamba edition (Benares, 1©26) have also been used.

Paflcaratra of Bhasa (Paflea). Ed. Devadhar in BhNC.

Paflcatantra of Visnusaraman, Chowkamba, Benares, 1930.

Paninlya-siksa (P8.) ( Ed. Manomohan Ghosh, Calcutta, 1938.

PratijaYia-yaugandharayana of, Bhasa (Pratijril.), Ed. BhNC.


Pratimanataka of Bhasa (Pratima.) Ed. Devadhar in BhNC.
Balacarita of Bhasa (Bala.), Ed. Devadhar in BhNC.
Bhavaprakasana of Saradatanaya (BhP.) Ed, in GOS.
Bhasa-nataka-cakra (Plays ascribed to Bhasa), critically edited by C. R.
Devadhar, Poona, 1937. References are to acts, verse passages and lines after them, e.g. Svapna, 1. 12, 23 indicates the twenty- third line afrer the twelfth verse in act I of Svapnavasavadatta
Vikramorvasiya of Kalidasa (Vikram.). Ed- 8. P. Pandit. {Bombay Sans-

krit Series), Bombay, 1898.
Venisamhara of Bhattanarayana ( Ed- K. 8. Parab and W. L. 'A.

Pansikar, Bombay, 1930.
Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa (Raghu.). Ed. K.P. Parab and W.L.S. Pansikar,

Bombay, 1932.
Ratnavall of Sriharasa (Ratna.), Ed. M. K. Jogelkar, Bomba'y 1925.
Sakuntala of Kalidasa^ (Sak.) Ed. Isvara chandra Vidyasagar, Calcutta.
Sarogitaratnakara of Sarngadeva (8R.). Snandasrama edition.
Sahityadarpana of ViSvanatha Kaviraja (8D.) Ed. Jivananda'Vidyasagar.
Svapnavasavadatta of Bhasa (Svapna.), Ed. Devadhar in BhNC.
Harsacarita of Banabhatta, Ed. P. V. Kane, Bombay, 1912.


PREFACE ... ... Vll




I. The Present Work, p. XXXVII ; 1. General History of the

Study, p. XXXVII j 2- Basic Text, p. XL; 8. Translation, p. XLI;

4. Notes to the Translation, p. XLI.

II. The Ancient Indian Theory of Drama, p. XLH ; 1. The

Meaning of Natya, p. XLII ; 2. The Dramatic Conventions/ p. XLIV ;
3. The Time and Place of Drama, p. XLV ; 4. The Unity of Imperession,
p. XLV ; 5. Criticism of Drama, p. XLV ; 6. The Pour Aspecta of
Drama, p. XLVIII.

III. Literary Structure of the Ancient Indian Drama, p.
XLIX ; The Ten Types of Play. The Nataka, p. XLIX j (a) Subject- matter and the division into Acts, p. XLIX ; (b) Explanatory Devices,
p. LI ; (i) Introductory Scene, p. LI ; (ii) The Intimating Speech, p.
LI ; (iii) The Supporting Scene, p. LI ; (iv) The Transitional Scene, p.
LI ; (v) The Anticipatory Scene, p. LI ; (c) The Plot and its Develop- ment, p. LI ; The Prakarana, LII ; The Samavakara, p. LH ; The
Ihamrga, p. LIII ; The Dima, p. LIII ; The Vyayoga, p. LIII ; The
Utsrstikanka, p. LHI ; The Prahasana, p. LHI ; The Bhana, p. LTV ;
The Vithi, p. LIV. 2. Diction of Play, p. L1V ; (a) The Use of Metre,
p. LIV ; (b) Euphony, p. LIV ; (c) Suggestive or Significant Names,
p. LV ; (d) Variety of Languages Dialects, p. LV.

IV. The Ancient Indian Drama in Practice, p. LV ; 1. Occa- sions for Dramatic Performance, p. LV ; 2. The Time for Performance,
p. LVI ; 3. The Playhouse, p. LVII ; 4. The Representation, p. LVHI.
(a) The Physical Representation, p. LVHI ; (b) The Vocal Representation,
p. LXI j (c) The Costumes and Make-up, p. LXI ; (d) The Temperament,
p. LX1II.

V. Literature on the Ancient Indian Drama, p. LXIV ; l>The
Early Writers : SUalin and Krsasva, p.LXIV ; 2. The Socalled Sons of
Bharata (a) Eohala, (b) Dattila, (c) Satakarni (jSitakarna, fialikarna), (d)
Asmakutta and Nakhakutta, (e> Badarayana (Badari), p. LXIV ; 3, Sam-


grahakara, p. LXV ; 4. The Present Text of the Natya&stra, p. LXV j 5.
Medieval Writers on Drama, (a) Nandi (NandikesVara), Tumburu, Visa- khila and Carayana, (b) Sadaftva, Padmabha, Drauhini, Vyasa, and Inja- neya, (c) Katyayana, Rabula and Garga, (d) Sakaligarbha and Ghantaka,
(e) Yartika-kara-Har§a, (f) Matrgupta, (g) Subandhu, (h) Compilers of the Agnipurana and the Visnudharmottara, pp. LXV-LXVII ; (6) Late
Literature on Drama, (a) Dasarupa, (b) NStekalaksanaratnakosa, (c)
Natyadarpana, (d) Rayyaka's Natakamimamsa, (e) Bhavaprakasana, (f)
Sahityadarpana and Natakaparibhasa, pp. LXVII-LXX.

VI. The Natyasastra : The Text and iis Commentaries, p.
LXXI i 1. Its Author, p. LXXI ; 2. The two Recensions, p. LXXI ;
3. Unity of the Natyasastra, p. LXXII ; 4. Its Scope and Importance,
P.LXXIV; 5. Its Style and Method of Treatment, p. LXXIV ; 6. The
Early Commentators : Scarya Kirtidhara, and Bhasyakara Nanyadeva
(b) Bhatta Udbhata, (e) Bhatta Lollata, (d) Sri Bankuka, (e) Bhatta
Nayaka, (f) Bhatta Yantra, p. LXXV; 7. Bhatta Abhinavagupta,

VII. Data of India's Cultural History in the Natyasastra,
p. LXXVIII ; -1. Language, p. LXVIII ; 2. Literature, p. LXXVIII ,
3. Art, p. LXXVIII; 4. Metrics, p. LXXIX; 5. Poetics, p. LXXIX ;
6. Costumes and Ornaments, p. LXXIX ; 7. Mythology, p. LXXIX ;
8. Geography, p. LXXX; 9. Ethnological Data, p. LXXX ; 10.
Ars Amatoria, p. LXXX ; 11. Arthagastra, p. LXXX ; 12. Psychology,

VIII. The Date of the Natyasastra, p. LXXXI I ; 1. The Geo- graphical Data, p. LXXXII ; 2. The Natyasastra earlier than Kalidasa,
p. LXXXII ; 3. The Mythological Data, p. LXXXIII ; 4. The Ethno- logical Data, p. LXXXIII; 5. The Epigraphical Data, p. LXXXIII;
6. The Natyasastra earlier than Bhasa, p. LXXXIV.

THE NITYA&STRA (Translation)


Chapter One

1. Salutation, p. 1 ; 2-5.' Sages question, p. 1 ; 6-23. Bharata answers, pp. 2-5 ; 24-25. The Nafcyaveda and Bharata's one hundred sons, pp. 5-6 ; 26-40. Names of Bharata's one hundred sons, pp. 6-7 ; 41 • Per- formance begins with three Styles, p. 7 ; 42-45. Need of the Kaisik! Style,
p. 7-8 ; 46-47. Creation of Apsarasas for practising the Kaisik! Style,
p. 8 ; 47-50. Names of Apsarasas, p. 8 ; 50-53. Svati and Narada engaged to help Brahman, pp. 8-9 ; 53-58. The Banner Festival of Indra and the first production of a play, p. 9 ; 58-63. The pleased gods reward Bharata's party, pp. 9-10 ; 64-66. Vighnas attack the actors, pp. 10-11 ; 67-68.
Indra comes to iheir protection, p. 11 ; 69-75. The Origin of the Jarjara,
p. 11 ; 75-81. The Origin of the first playhouse, pp. 11-12 ; 82-97. Differ- ent gods asked to protect different parts of the playhouse as well as the actors, pp. 12-13 ; 98-105. Brahman pacifies the Vighnas, pp. 13-14 ; 106-
121. Characteristics of a drama, pp. 14-16 ; 122-129. Offering Piija to the gods of the stage, pp. 16-17.

Chapter Two

1-3. Introduction, p. 18 ; 4-8. Three types of playhouse, pp. 18-19 j
8-11. Three sizes of the playhouse, pp. 19 ; 12-16- The table of measure- ment, p. 20 ; 17. The playhouse for mortals, p. 20 ; 18-23. Disadvan- tage of a too big playhouse, pp. 20-21 ; 24-26. Selection of a suitable site, p. 21 ; 27-28. Measurement of a site, pp. 21-22 ; 28-33. Taking up the string for measurement, p. 22 j 33-35. The ground plan of tho play- house, p. 22 ; 35-43. The ceremony of laying the foundation, pp. 23-24 ;
43-63. Raising pillars of the playhouse, pp. 24-26 ; 63-67. The Matta- varanl, pp. 26-27 ; 68-74. The stage, pp. 27-28 ; 75-85. Decorative work in tho stage, pp. 28-30 j 86-100. Description of a square playhouse, pp. 30-32 ; 101-104. Description of a triangular playhouse, p. 32.

Chapter Three

1-10. Consecration of the playhouse, pp. 33-34 ; 11-16. Offering
Pftja to tho Jarjara, pp. 34-35 j 17-20. Installation of gods, p. 35 ; 20-32.
The Mandala for installing the gods, pp. 35-36 j 33-39. Offering Puja to tho gods, p. 37 ; 40-73. Consecration of the Mattavarani, pp. 37-40 ;
73-81. Consecration of tho Jarjara, p. 41 ; 81-87. Homa or pouring ghSe into sacrificial fire, pp. 41-42 j 87-89. Breaking the jar, p. 42 ; 89-93.
Illumination of tho stage, pp. 42-43 ; 93-97. Good results of consecrating


the stage, p. 43 ; 98-101. Evils following non-consecration of the stage., pp. 43-44.

Chapter Four

THE CLASS DANCE, Pages 45-75

1-14. Brahman writes the first play and gets it performed, pp. 45-46 ;
14-16. Two kinds of Preliminaries, pp. 46-47 ; 16-27. The Angaharas,
p. 47 ; 28-29. Uses of Aiigahlras, p. 47 ; 29-61. The Karanas, pp. 47-49;
62-169. Definition of 108 the Karanas, pp. 49-60 ; 170-245- Definition of the Angaharas, pp. 60-65 ; 246-252. The Recakas, pp. 65-66 ; 253-264.
The Pindibandhas, pp. 66-68 ; 265-272- The Sages speak on the use of dance, pp. 68-69 ; 273-274. The Vardhamanaka, p. 69 ; 27,5. The Ssarita,
p. 69; 276. The Upohana, p. 69 ; 277-294. Entry of female dancers and the four kinds of Pindis, pp. 69-72 ; 295-308. The Cnandakas, pp. 72-73 ;
309-310. The gentle dance, p. 73 j 311-314. Occasions suited to dance, pp. 73-74 ; 315-320. Occasions when dances are prohibited ; p. 74 ; 321-
324 Playing of drums, pp. 74-7b; 325-328. When drums are not to bn played, p. 75

Chapter Five

1-4. The sages question, 76 ; p. 5-6. Bharata answers, p. 76 ; 7. Preli- minaries defined, p. 76 ; 8-16. Parts of the Preliminaries, pp. 76-77. 17,
Pratyahara, and Avatarana, pp. 78 ; 18. Srambha, and Asravana, pp. 78 ;
19. Vaktrapani, Parighattana, p. 78 ; 20. Samghotanii, Margasarita, p. 79.
21. Asiirita and the Application of Songs, p. 79 ; 22-23. Utthapana, p 79 ;
23-24. The Walking-round, p. 79 ; 24-25. The Benediction, 79 ; 25-26.
^uskavakjsta Dhruva, pp. 80 j 26-27. Rangadvara, p. 80 ; 27-28. The Cari and the Mahacari, p. 80 ; 28-29. Three Men's Talk, p. 80; 29-30. The
Laudation, p. 80 ; 30-32. Origin of Bahirgita and its justification, pp.
80-81 ; 33-36. Daityas and Raksasas provoked to jealousy, p. 81 ; 37-38.
The {tods approach Niirada to stop the Nirglta, p. 81 ; 38-44. Narada pacifies the gods, p. 82 ; 44-59. The gods are pleased with the Nirglta
(Bahirgita), pp. 82-83; 60-64. Songs in puro Preliminaries, p. 84;
65-66. The first Walking-round, p. 84 ; 67-76. The second Walking-round, pp. 84-86 ; 77-84. The third Walking-round, pp. 86-87 ; 84-89. The fourth Walking-round, p. 87 ; 89-101. The Parivartani Dhruva, pp. 87-89 ;
101-104. The Fourth Man enters, p. 89 ; 104-107. Singing of the Avakrsfci
Dhruva, pp. 89-90 ; 107-113. Examples of the Benediction, pp. 90-91 j 113-
116. An example of SuskavakRta Dhruva, p. 91 ; 116-119. Rangadvara,
p. 91 ; 119-127- Carl, pp. 92-93 ; 127-137. Mahacari, pp. 93-94 ; 137-
141, The Throj Men's Talk, p. 94 ; 14U142. The Laudation, pp. 94-95 ;


143-154. The Tryasra Preliminaries, pp. 95-96 ; 155-166. The Mixed preliminaries, pp. 96-97 ; 167-179. Introduction of a play, pp. 97-99.

Chapter Six

THE SENTIMENTS, pages 100-117

1-3. The sages question, p. 100 ; 4-8. Bharata answers, pp. 100-101 ;
8-14. Digest, Memorial Verse and Etymology denned, pp. 101 ; 15-16. The eight Sentiments, p. 102 ; 17-21. The Dominant States, p. 102 ; 22. The eight Temperamontal States, pp. 102-103 ; 23. The four kinds of Histrio- nic Representation, p. 103 ; 24. The two Practices and the four Styles, p.
103 ; 25-26. The four Local Usages, and the Success, p.- 104 ; 27-29. The notes, and the f«ur kinds of musical instrument, p. 104 ; 29-31. The five kinds of Dhruva, pp. 104-105 ; 31-33. The Sentiments explained, pp. 105-
136 ; 33-38. Thi» relation between the Sentiment and the States, p. 106-107 ;
38-43. The eight Sentiments from the four original ones, p. 107-108 ; 44-45.
The presiding deities of the Sentiments, p. 108 ; 45-48. The Erotic Senti- ment, pp. 108-110 ; 48-55. The Comic Sentiment, pp. 110-111 ; 56-57.
Of persons of the middling type, p. Ill ; 58-61. Of persons of the inferior type, pp. 111-112 ; 61-63. The Pathetic Sentiment, p. 112 ; 63-66. The
Furious Sentiment, pp. 112-113 ; 66-68. The Heroic Sentiment, p. 114 ;
68-72. The Terrible Sentiment, pp. 114-115 ; 72-74. The Odious Sentiment, pp. 115 ; 74-76. The Marvellous Sentiment, p. 116 ; 77. The three kinds of the Erotic, the Comic and the Terrible Sentiments, p. 116 ; 78. The three kinds of the Pathetic Sentiment, p. 116 j 79. The three kinds of the
Heroic Sentiment, pp. 116-117, 80. The three kinds of the Terrible Senti- ment, 117. 81. The three kinds of the Odious Sentiment, p. 117 ; 82-83.
The three kinds of the Marvellous Sentiment, p. 117.

Chapter Seven

1-3. Bkavas (States) explained, p. 118 ; 3-4. Vibhavas (Determi- nants) explained, pp. 118119 ; 4-6 Annbhavas (Consequents) explained,
p. 119 ; 6-7. The three kinds of State ; Dominant, Transitory and Tem- peramantal, pp. 119-120 j 7-8. Difference between the Dominant and the other States pp. 120-121 ; 8-9. Love, p. 121 ; 9-10. Laughter, p. 121 ; 10-
14. Sorrow, p. 122 ; 14-20. Anger, pp. 122-123 j 20-21. Energy, pp. 123-
124 ; 21-25. Pear, p. 124 ; 25-26. Disgust, p. 125 ; 26-27. Astonishment
p. 125 j 27-29. The Transitory States, pp. 125-126 ; 27-30. Discourage- ment, p. 126 ; 30-32. Weakness, pp. 126-127 ; 32-35. Apprehension,
PP. 127 ; 35-37. Envy, pp. 127-128 ; 37-46. Intoxication, pp. 128-129 ;
48-47. Weariness, p. 129 ; 47-48. Indolence, pp. 129-130; 48-49. Depression,
P. 130 ; 49-51. Anxiety, p. 130 j 51-53/ Distraction, pp. 130-131 ; 53-55.


Recollection, p. 181 ; 55-57. Contentment, pp. 131-132 ; 57-59. Sbame,
p. 132 ; 59-60. Inconstancy, p. 132-133 ; 60-62. Joy, p. 133 ; 82-65. Agita- tion, pp. 133-134 ; 65-66. Stupor, p. 134135 ; 66-67. Arrogance, p. 185 ;
67-69. Despair, p. 135-136 ; 69-70. Impatience, p. 136 ; 70-72. Sleeping,
p. 136 ; 72-74. Epilepsy, p. 137 ; 74-76. Dreaming, pp. 137-138 ; 76-77.
Awakening, p. 138 ; 77-79. Indignation, p. 138 ; 79-80. Dissimulation, pp. 138-139 ; 80-81. Cruelty, p. 189 ; 81-82, Assurance, p. 139 ; 82-83. Sick- ness, pp. 139-140 j 83-85. Insanity, pp. 140-141 ; 85-90. Death, pp. 141-
142 ; 90-91. Fright, p. 142 ; 91-93. Deliberation, pp. 142-143 ; 93.
Temperamental States, p. 143 ; 95. Perspiration, p. 144 ; 96. Parafysis and Trembling, p. 144 ; 97. Weeping, p. 144 ; 98. Change of Colour and Horripilation, p. 144 ; 99. Change of Voice and Pointing, p. 144 ;
100-106. Representation of the Temperamental States, pp. 144-145 ; 107-
124. Application of the States to the different Sentiments, p|>. 145-147.

Chapter Eight
1-3. Sages question, p. 148 ; 4-6 Bliarata answers, pp. 148-149 ; 7.
The meaning of abhinaya, p. 149 ; 8-9. The four kinds of abhinaya, p.
149 ; 11-16. The Gesture : its three varieties, pp. 149-150 ; 17-37. Gestures of the head and their uses, pp. 150-152; 38-42. The thirtysix Glances, pp 152-153 ; 43-51. The Glances to express the Sentiments, pp. 153-154 ;
52-60. The Glances to express the Dominant States, pp. 154-155 ; 61-84.
The Glances to express the Transitory States, pp. 155-158 ; 85-95. Uses of
Glances to express the Transitory States, pp. 158-159 j 95-98. The eye- balls, pp. 159-160 ; 99-102. Uses of the eyeballs, p. 160 ; 103-107. The additional Glances, pp. 160-161 ; 108-111. The eyelids, p. 161 ; 112-115.
Uses of the eyelids, p. 162 ; 116-120. The eyebrows, pp. 162-163. 121-125.
Uses of the eyebrows, p. 163 ; 126-128. The nose, pp. 163-164 ; 129-132.
Uses of the nose, p. 164 ; 132-134. The cheeks ; p. 164 ; 135-137, Uses of the cheeks, pp. 164-165 ; 137-139. The lower lip, p. 165 ; 140-142. Uses of the lower lip, p. 165 ; 143-146. The chin, p. 166 ; 146-149. Uses of the chin, p. 166 ; 149-157. The mouth, pp. 166-167 ; 157-158. The colour of the face, p. 167 ; 159-165. Uses of the colour of the face, pp. 167-168 ;
166-167. The nock, p. 168 ; 167-173. Description and usos of the neck gestures, pp, 168-169.

Chapter Nine
1-3. Bharata speaks, p. 170 ; 4-17. Sixtyseven gestures of the hand, pp. 170-171 ; 17-126. Gestures of single hands, pp. 171-181 j 126-155.
Gestures of combined hands, pp. 182-185 j 156-159. General rules regard- ing the use of hand gestures, p. 185 ;. 160-165. Different movements of


hand gestures, p. 185 j 166-167. Spheres of hand gestures, p. 186 ; 168-177.
The quantity of gestures, pp. 186-187 ; 178-204. The Dance-hands, pp. 187-
189 ; 205-211. The four Karanas of the hands, pp. 189-190 ; 212-214. The movements of arms. p. 190,

Chapter Ten
1-9. The breast, pp. 191 ; 10-15. The sides, p. 192 j 16-17. Uses of the sides, p. 192 J 18. The belly, p. 192 ; ; 9-20. Uses of the belly, pp. 192-193 ;
21-^4. The waist, p. 193 j 25-26. Uses of the waist, pp. 193-194:27-31.
The thifch, p. 194 ; 32-33 Uses of the thigh, p. 194 ; 34-37. The shank, pp. 194*195 ; 28-40. Uses of the shank, p. 165 ; 41-51. The feet and their uses, pp. 195-196 ; 52-54. The Carls, p. 196.

'Chapter Eleven
1-3. Definitions, p. 197 ; 4-6. Uses of the Carls, p. 197 ; 7-12. The thirtytwo Cans, pp. 197-198 ; 13-2a The earthly Carls, pp. 198-199 ;
29-49. The aerial Carls, pp. 199-201 ; 50-71. The SthSnas, pp. 201-203 ;
71-88. The four Nyiiyas in using weapons, pp. 203-205 ; 88-91. The
Sausthava, p. 205 ; 91-92. The Caturasra, p. 205 ; 92-94. The four acts relating to the bow, p. 205 ; 94-96. The method of exercise, pp. 205-206 ;
96-100 Health and nourishment of persons taking exercise ; p. 206.

Chapter Twelve
1-5. Tho Mandalas, p. 207 ; 6-41. The aerial Mandalas, pp. 207-210 ;
42-68. The earthly Mandalas, pp. 210-212.

Chapter Thirteen

1. Gaits for different characters, p. 213 ; 2-3. Entrance of dramatis personae, p. 213 ; 4-7. Posture for superior and middling characters at the entrance, p. 213 ; 8-10. The interval of their feet, pp. 213-214 j 10-11. The time for their steps, p. 214 ; 12-14. The tempo of their Gait, p. 214 ; 15-24.
The natural Gait, pp 214-215 ; 25-29 Gait of kings, p, 216 ; 30-34.
Gait under special conditions, p. 216 ; 35-40. Tempo of Gaits under special conditions, pp. 217 ; 41-48. Gait in the Erotic Sentiment, pp.
217-218 ; 48-54. Gait in the Terrible Sentiment, p. 218 ; 54-56. Gait iu the Odious . Sentiment, p. 218 ; 57-58. Gait in the Heroic Sentiment, pp-
218-219 j 59-60. Gait in the Marvellous and the Comic Sentiments, p.
219 ; 61-69. Gait in the Pathotic Sentiment, pp. 219-220 ; 70-75. Gait
(of inferior characters) in the Terrible Sentiment, p. 220 ; 76-78. Gait of


merchants and ministers, p. 220 ; 79-86. Gait of ascetics and sectarians, pp. 220-321 j 87. Gait of a person in darkness, p. 221 ; 88-92. Gait of one riding a chariot, pp. 221-222;. 92-95. Gait while moving in the sky, p. 222 ; 96-100. Gait in ascending a lofty palace, p. 222 ;
101-104. Gait in getting down into a lower place, pp. 222-228 ; 105-107.
Gait in travelling by boat, p. 223 ; 108. Gait in riding a horse, p. 223 ;
109. Gait of serpents, p. 223 ; 110. Gait of a Parasite, p. 224 j 112-
114. Gait of the Kaficukiya, p. 224 ; 115-117. Gait of emaciated, sick and fatigued persons, p. 225 ; 118. Gait of a person walking a long distance, p. 225 j 119-120. Gait of a corpulent person p. 225; 121-122.
Gait of intoxicated persons, p. 225 ; 123-130. Gait of a lunatic, p. 225 ;
131-136. Gait of lame men, cripples and dwarfs, p. 226 ;. 137-1 46. Gait of the Jester, pp. 226-227; 146-148. Gait of manials, p^227 ; 148-149.
Gait of Sakara, p. 228 ; 150. Gait of lowly persons, .p. 228; 151. Gait of the Mleccha tribes, p. 228 ; 152. Gait of birds ; 153-158. Gait of lions, bears and monkeys, pp. 228-229 ; 159-171. Walking postures of women, pp. 230-229; 171-177. Gait of women, p. 230 ; 177-179. Gait of young women, p. 231 ; 179-181. Gait of aged women, p. 231 ; 181-183. Gait of handmaids, p. 231 ; 183-186. Gait of half-women, p. 231 ; 186-187. Gait of children, p. 242 ; 187-181. Gait of hermaphrodite, p. 232 ; 188-189.
Gait in the change of a role, p. 232 ; 189-191. Gait of persons in disguise,
p. 232 ; 192-193. Gait of the tribal women, P. 232 ; 193-195. Gait of women ascetics ; PP. 232-233 ; 195-199. Sitting postures for men and women, P. 233 ; 196-197. Sitting at case, P. 233 ; 197-198. Sitting in a thinking mood, p. 233 ; 198-199. Sitting in sorrow, p. 233 ; 199-200. Sitting in fainting and intoxication, p. 233 ; 200-201. Sitting in shame and sleep,
p. 234 ; 201-202. Sitting on ceremonial occasions, p. 234 ; 202-203. Sitting in pacifying a beloved woman, p. 234 ; 203-206. Sitting in worshipping a diety, p. 234 ; 206-207. Seats for different characters, p. 234 ; 208-210.
Scats for male characters, p. 235 ; 210-214. Seats for female characters, p.
235 ; 215-216. Seats for ascetics and sectarians, p. 235 ; 217-220. General rules about seats, p. 236 ; 221-228. Lying-down postures, pp. 236-237.

Chapter Fourteen


1. The Zones, p. 238 ; 2- The arrangement of drums, p. 238 ; 3. The ijonal division, p. 238 j 4-7. Utility of the Zonal division, p. 238 ; 8-10.
Indicating relative location on the stage, p. 239 ; 11. The east on the stage, p. 239 ; 12-15. The rule of exit, p. 232 ; 16. Indication of rank in group walking, p. 239 ; 17. Indicating distance great, small and medium,
p. 240 ; 18-20. Movements of gods and demigods p. 240 j 21. Movement
}f men in Bharatavarsa, p. 240 ; 22. Departure for a distant place,


p. 240 j 28-82. Time allowed for the events of an Act, pp. 240-241 ;
32-35. Movements of gods, p. 241; 36. The four Local Usages, pp.
241-242; 37-39. The Daksinatya Local Usages, pp. 242-243; 40-42.
The Svanti Local Usage, p. 243; 43-46. The Odra-Magadhi Local
Usage, 243 ; 47-49. The Pattcala-Madhyama Local Usage, p. 244 ; 50-55.
The two-fold entrance in observing Local Usage, p. 244 ; 50. The two
General types of plays, p. 245. 57-60. The violent type, p. 245 ; 61. The delicate type, p. 245 ; 62. The two Practices, p. 245 ; 63-64. The realistic
Practice, pp. 245-246 ; 65-78. The conventional Practice, pp. 246-247.
Chapter Fifteen
^ RULES OP PROSODY, Pages 248-261
1. The actor's speech, p. 248 ; 2-4. Importance of speech in drama,
p. 248 ; 5. The ^wo kinds of recitation, p. 248 ; 6-7. Different aspects of
Recitation, p. 249 ; 8. The speech-sounds, p. 249 ; 9-19. Consonants ; their articulation, pp. 249-251 ; 20. Vowels ; their quantity, p. 251 ; 21-22. The four kinds of word, p. 252; 23-25. The noun, pp. 252-253; 26-27. The verb, p. 253 ; 28. The particle, p. 254 , 29. The affixes, p. 254 ; 30. The nominal affix, p. 254 ; 31. The case-ending, p. 255 ; 32-33. The euphonic combination, p. 255 ; 34-35. The compound words, pp. 255-256 ; 36. The two kinds of word, p. 256 ; 37. Words in prose, p. 256 ; 38. Words in verso, p. 256; 39. Syllabic metres, p. 256; 40-42. Rhythm-types, pp. 256-257 ; 43-49. Twenty-six Rhythm-types, p. 257 ; 49-79. Possible metrical patterns, pp. 257-258 ; 79-89. Another method of defining metres, pp. 258-259 ; 89-90. The regular couplet, p. 259 ; 90-91. The stop and the foot, pp. 259-260 ; 93. Quality of syllables, colours of metres, p. 260 ;
94-95. Pitoh of vowels, p. 260 ; 95-97, Three kinds of syllabic metres,
p. 260 ; 98-102. Classes of metres, p. 261.

Chapter Sixteen


1-2. Tanumadhya, p. 262 ; 3-4 Makaraka-sn-sa, p. 262 ; 5-6. Malati,
p. 263 ; 7-8. Malini, p. 263 ; 9-10. Uddhata, pp. 263-264 ; 11-12. Bhrama- ramalika, p. 264 ; 13-14. Simhalekha, p. 264 ; 15-16. Mattacesjita, pp. 264-
265 ; 17-18. Vidyullekha, p. 265 ; 19-20. Cittavilasita, pp. 265-266 ; 21-22.
Madhukari, p. 266 ; 23-24. Kuvalayamala, p. 266 ; 25-26. Mayurasarini, pp. 266-267 , 27-28. Dodhaka, p. 267 ; 29-30. Motaka, pp. 267-268 ; 31-32.
Indravajra, p. 268 ; 33-34. Upendravajra, pp. 268-269 ; 35-36. Rathod- dhata, p. 269 ; 37-38. Svagata, pp. 269 ; 39-40. Salini, p. 270 ; 41-42.
Totaka, p. 270 ; 43-44 KumudanibhS, pp. 270-271 ; 45-46. Candralekha,
p. 271; 47-48. Pramitaksara, pp. 371-272; 49-50. Vamsastha, p. 272,
51-52. Harinapluta, pp. 272-273; 53-54. Kamadatta, p. 273; 55-56.
Aprameya, p. 273-274; 57-58. Padmim, p. 275; 59-60. Patuvrtta,

JXHf •

pp. 274-275 ; 61-62. Prabhavat! ; p. 275 ; 63-64. Praharsini, pp. 275-276;
65-66. MattamayBra, p. 276 ; 67-68. Vasantatilaka, pp. 276-277 ; 69-70.
Asambadha, p. 277 ; 71-72. £arabhS, pp. 277-278 ; 73-74. Nandimukhi,
p. 278 ; 75-74. Gajavilasite pp. 278-279 ; 77-78. Pravaralalita, p. 279 ;
79-80. &kharini, pp. 279-280 ; 81-82. Vr?abhaeestita, p. 280 ; 83-84.
^ridhara, pp. 280-281 ; 85-86. Vainiapatrapatita, p. 281 ; 87-88. Vilam- bitagati, pp. 281-282 ; 89-90. Citralekha, p. 282 ; 91-93. &rdalavikridita,
p. 283 ; 94-96. Suvadana, pp. 283-284 ; 97-99. Sragdhara, p. 284 ; 100-102.
Madraka, pp. 284-285 ; 103-105. Asvalalita, p. 286 ; 106-108. Meghamala,
p. 286 ; 109-111. Krauiicapadi, pp. 286-287 ; 112-114. Bhujaiiga-viirm- bhita, pp. 287-288 ; 115-118. The uneven and the semi-even metres ; p. 288 ,
119-120. Even metres, p. 288 ; 121-122. Pathya, p. 288 ; 123-124- Uneven
Pathya, p. 289; 125-126. Inverted Pathya, p. 290; 127-128. Capala.
p. 290 ; 129-136. Vipula, pp. 290-292 ; 137-138. Vanavasika. p. 292 ;
139-140. Ketumati, p.292 1 141-142. Apar.ivaktra, p. 93 ; 143-144. Pu^pi- tagra, 293 •' 145-146. Udgata, pp. 293-294 ; 147-151. Lalita, pp. 294-295 j
152-159. Srya metres, pp. 295-296 ; 160. Pathya Arya and Vipula Arya,
p. 296 ; 161. Pathya Ary5, p. 296 ; 162. Vipula SryS, p. 296 ; 163-164
Capala Arya, pp. 296-297 ; 165. Mukha-capala and Jaghana-capala Arya,
p. 297 ; 166. Mukha-capala Arya, p. 297 ; 167-170. Jaghana-capala
Irya, p. 298.

Chapter Seventeen

DICTION OP A PLAY, Pages 299-322.

1-5. Thirtysix marks of a good play, pp. 299-300 ; 6. Ornateness,

p. 30 ; 7. Compactness, p. 300 ; 8. Brilliance, p. 301 ; 9. Parallelism, p.

301; 10. Causation, p. 391; 11. Hesitation, p. 301; 12. Favourable

Precedent, p. 301 ; 13. Discovefy, p. 302 ; 14. Fancy, p. 302 ; .15.

Unfavourable Precedent, p. 302 ; 16. Convincing Explanation, p. 302 ; 17.

Persuation, p. 303 ; 18. Distinction, p. 303 ; 19. Accusation of Virtues,

p. 303 ; 20. Ewnll >nci, p. 393 ; 21. Inference from Similitude, pp. 303-

304 ; 22. Multiplex Predication, p. 304 ; 23. Description, p. 304 ; 24.

Pointed Utterance, p. 304 ; 25. Deliberation, p 304 ; 26. Inversion,

p. 305 , 27. Slip of Tongue, p. 305 ; 28. Mediation, p. 305 ; 29. Series

of Offers, P. 305 ; 30. Clever Manners, p, 306 ; 31. Censure, p. 306 ;

32. Presumption, p. 306 ; 33. Celebrity, p- 306 ; 34. Interrogation ;

35. Identity, p. 307 ; 36. Indirect Etpre«ion of Desire, p. 307 ; 37.

Wit. p. 307 ; 38. Concealment, p. 307 j 39. Enumeration of Merits,

p. 308 ; 40. Serai-utterod Expression, p. 308 ; 41-42. Compliment,

p. -308; 33. Four figures of Spoech, p. 308; 44. Simile, p. 309; 45-49.

Number of objects compared, p. 309 ; 50. Five kinds of simile, p. 309 j

51. Simile of praise, p, 309 ; 52. Simils of censure, p. 399 j 53. Simile

of conceit, p. 309 ; 24. Simile of uniqueness) p. 310 ; 55-56. Simile of


Partial likeness, p. 310; 57-58. Condensed Expression, p. 310 ; 59-60.
Metaphor, PP. 310; 61. Yamaka, p. 311; 62-64. Ten kinds of
Yamaka, p. 311 ; 65-66. Padant a Yamaka, p. 31 1 ; 67-68. Kanei Yamaka, pp. 311-312 ; 69-70. Samudga Yamaka, p. 312 ; 71-72. Vikranta Yamaka!
p. 312; 73-74. Cakravala Yamaka, p 313; 75-76. Sandasta Yamaka,
p. 313; 77-78. Padadi Yamaka, pp. 313-314; 79-83. Imred'ita Yamaka,
p. 314 ; 81-82. Caturvyavasita Yamaka, p. 314 ; 83-87. Mala Yamaka, pp. 314-315; 88. Ten faults, pp. 315-316; 89. Circuloeution and super- fluous Expression, P. 316 ; 90-91. Want of Significance and Defective
Significance, p. 316 ; 92. Tautology and Want of Synthesis, pp. 316-317 ;
93. Logical Defect and Metrical Defect, p. 317 ; 94. Hiatus and Slang,
p. 317; 95. Gunas, p. 317 ; 96. Ten Gunas, pp. 317-318; 97. Synthesis,
p. 318 ; 98. Perspicuity, p. 318 ; 99. Smoothness, p. 318 ; 100. Concentra- tion, p. 318 ; li>l. Sweetness, p. 319 ; 102. Grandeur, p. 319 ; 103 Agree- ableness, p. 319 ; 104. Directness of Expression, p. 319 ; 105-106. Exalted- ness, pp. 319-320 ; 107. Alamkaras and Gunas, p. 320 ; 108-110. Sounds and figure? of spsech according to Sentiments, Metres according to Senti- ments, In the Erotic Sentiment, p. 323 ; 111-112. Metres in the Heroic
Sentiment, and in the Pathetic Sentiment, p. 321 ; 113. In the Heroic and the Furious Sentiments, p. 321; 114-115. Vowel length in different
Sentiments and States, p. 321 ; 116-122. Uses of prolated vowels and euphony, pp. 331-322.

Chapter Eighteen
1-2. The Prakritic Recitation, p. 323 , 3-5. Three kinds of Prakritic
Recitation, p. 323 ; 6-17. Vowels and simple consonants, pp. 324-325 ;
18-25. Conjunct Consonants, pp. 325-326 ; 26. Pour types of language,
p. 226 ; 27. The Superhuman and the Noble languages, p. 327 ; 30. The two kinds of Recitation, p. 327 ; 31. Occasion for Skt. Recitation, p. 328 ;
32-35. Occasion for Pkt Recitation, pp. 328-329 ; 36-46. Exception to the rule for Pkt. recitation, pp. 329-331 ; 47 48. Seven major dialects,
p. 331; 49-51. Uses of major dialects, pp. 331-332; 52-55. Uses of minor dialects, pp. 332-333; 56-61. Distinguishing features of various local dialects, pp. 333-334.

Chapter Nineteen
1-2. Different modes of address, p- 335 ; 3. Modes of addressing males, p. 335 ; 4. Addressing gods, sectarian teachers and learned men,
p. 335 ; 5. Addressing Brahmins, the king, the teacher and an old man,
p. 336 ; 6. Brahmins addressing the king, p. 336 ; 7. Brahmins address- ing ministers, p. 336 ; 8. Addressing the' equals, Proviledged inferiors



addressing superiors, pp. 336-337; 9. Addressing employees, artisans and artists, p. 337 ; 10. Addressing persons, of respect, 'addressing per- sons of equal status p. 337; 11. The charioteer addressing the chariot-rider,
Addressing an ascetic or a person with beatitude, pp. 337-338; 12.
Addressing princes, Addressing inferior persons, p. 338 j 13. Addressing persons by their occupation or birth, p. 339 ; 14. Addressing a son or a disciple p. 339 ; 15. Addressing Buddhist and Juin monks, Addressing persons of other sects, p. 339 ; 16. People addressing the king, pp. 339-
340 ; 17-18. Sages addressing the king, The Jester addressing the king, The
Jester addressing the queen, her maids, and the king addressing the Jesjfer,
p. 340 ; 19. Women addressing their husband, p. 341 ; 20. Addressing the older and the younger brothers, p 341 ; 21. Modes of addressing women and female ascetics and goddesses, p. 341 ; 22. Addressing wives of senior persons, and elderly ladies, Addressing an accessible woman and an old lady, pp. 341-342 ; 23-24. Addressing king's wives, p. 342 ; 25. Address- ing unmarried princesses and a sister, pp 342-343 j 26. Addressing a
Brahmin lady, a nun or a female ascetic, addressing one's wife, p. 343 ; 27.
Women addressing their equals, addressing a hand-mand, p. 343 ; 28.
Addressing a courtezan, p. 343 ; 29. Addressing the wife in love-making,
p. 344 ; 30. Giving names to different characters in a play, p. 344; 31.
Names of Brahmins and Ksatriyas, p. 344 ; 32. Naming merchants and warriors, p. 344 ; 33. Naming king's wives and courtezans, p. 345 ; 34.
Naming handmaids and menials, p. 345 ; 45. Naming superiors, p. 345 ;
37-37a. Naming other persons, p. 345 ; 37-38. Qualities of Recitation,
p. 346 ; 38-40. Seven notes to suit different Sentiments, p. 346 ; 40-43.
Uses of the three voice registers, p. 346 ; 43. Uses of the four accents;
p. 347 ; 43-44. Two ways of intonation, p- 347 ; 45. The Sis Alam- karas, p. 348 ; 45 57. Uses of the sis Alamkaras, pp. 348-350 ; 58-59.
Intonation in different Sentiments, Six limbs of enunciation, pp. 350-351 ;
59-60. Pause defined, pp. 351-352 ; 60-61. Uses of Pause, p. 352 ; 62-67.
Hands in connexion with Alamkaras and Pause, p. 352 ; 68-78. Drawn- out syllables ahd their use, pp. 353-354.

Chapter Twenty
TEN KINDS OP PLAY, Pages 355-379

1-9. Tenfold division of plays and their structure, p. 3 55 ; 10-12-
The Nataka, p. 356 ; 13-18. The Act, pp. 356-357 ; 19-26. Incidents not directly presentable in an Act, pp. 358-359 ; 27-35. The Introductory Scene, pp. 359-360 j 36-38. The Supporting Scone, pp. 360-361 ; 39-40. Number of dramatis personae.y. 361; 41-42. Introducing chariots and palaces on the stage, pf. 361-362; 43-47. Introducing an army on the stage
p. 362 ; 48-50. The Prakarana, pp. 262-364 ; 59-63. The Natika, pp.
364-365; 64-66. The Samavakara, pp. 365 : 366; 67. The first act of the


Samavakara, p. 366 j 68-69. The second aed the third acts of the Sama- vakara, pp. 366-367 j 70. The three kinds of Excitement, p. 367 ; 71.
Three kinds of Deception, p. 367 ; 72. Three kinds of Love, p. 367 ; 73.
Love together with duty, pp. 367 ; 74. Love together with materia] gain,
p. 368 ; 75. Love due to passion, p. 368 ; 76-77. Metres not allowed in the Samavakara, p. 368 J 78-83. The thamrga, pp. 368-369 ; 84-89. The
Uima, p. 370 ; 90-93. The Vyayoga, p. 370 ; 94-96. The Utersti- kanka, p. 371 ; 97-101. Scenes with celestial Heroes, pp-372. 371 ; 102.
The Prahasana, p, 372 ; 103-104. The pure Prahasana, p. 372 ; 105-107. The mix*ed Prahasana, pp. 372-373 ; 107-111. The Bhana, p. 373 ; 112-113.
The Vithi, pp. 373-374 j 114-116. Thirteen types of the Vlthi, p. 374 ;
117. Accidental Interpretation, p. 374 ; 118. Transference, p. 374 ; 119.
Ominous Significance, p. 374 ; 120-121. Incoherent Chatter, p. 375 ; 122.
Compliment, p.*375 ; 123. Enigma and Rapartee, p. 375 ; 124. Outvy- ing, p. 375 ; 125. Deception, 375 ; 126. Declaration, p. 376 ; 127.
Crushing, p. 376; 128. Three Men's Talk, p. 376; 129-131. Undue
Combination of Words, p. 376 ; 132-133. The Lasya, p. 377 ; 134-135. The twelve types of the Lasya, p. 377 ; 136-137. Geyapada, p. 377 ; 188,
Sthitapathya p, 378; 139. AYina, p. 378 ; 140. Puspagandika, p. 378 ;
141. Pracchedaka, p. 378 ; 142 Triniudhaka, p. 378 ; 143. Saindhavaka,
p. 378 ; 144. Dviinttdhaka, p. 379 ; 145. Uttamottaka, p. 379 ; 146.
Vicitrapada, p. 379 ; 147. Uktapratyukta, p. 379, 148-150. Bhavita, p. 379.

Chapter Twenty one
1. The five Junctures of the Plot, p. 380 ; 2. The two kinds of
Plot ; 308 ; 3-5. Their definition, p. 380 ; 6-8. The five stages of the action ; pp. 380-381 ; 9. Beginning, p. 381 ; 10. Effort, p. 381 ; 11.
Possibility of Attainment, p, 381 ; 12. Certainty of Attainment, p. 381 ;
13-15. Attainment of Results, pp. 381-382 ; 16-17. Play to begin with the Principal Plot, p. 382 ; 18-19. Rules about the omission of Junctures,
p. 382 ; 20-21. The five elements of the Plot, p. 382 ; 22. The Germ,
p. 383 ; 23. The Prominent Point, p. 383 ; 24. The Episode, p. 383 ;
25. The Episodical Incident, p. 383 ; 26-27. The Denouement, p. 383 ;
28. Secondary Junctures in the Episode, p. 384 ; 29. Limit of the Epi- sode, p. 384 ; 30. The Episode Indication, p. 384 ; 31. The First Episode
Indication, p. 384 ; 32. The Second Episode Indication, p. 384 ; 33. The
Third Episode Indication, p, 384 ; 34-35. The Fourth Episode Indication,
p. 385 ; 36-37. The five Junctures, p. 385 ; 38. The Opening, p. 385 ;
39. The Progression, p. 385 ; 40. The Development, p. 385 ; 41. The
Pause, pp. 385-386 ; 42-43. The Conclusion, p. 386 ; 44-47. Junctures vary in different types of Drama, p. 386; 48-50. Subjuncturo, p. 387 ;
51 . Alternative Junctures, p. 387- ; 52-53. The sirfold needs of the Limbs


of the Junctures, p. 387 j 64-57. Uses of the Limbs of the Junctures, pp. 387-388 ; 58-68. The sixtyfour limbs of the Junctures, pp. 388-389 ;
69. Limbs of the Opening, Suggestion, p. 389 ; 70. Enlargement, Establish- ment, p. 389 ; 7.1. Allurement, Decision, pp. 389-390 ; 72. Accession,
Settling, p. 390 ; 73. Conflict of Peelings, Surprise, p. 390 ; 74. Dis- closure, Activity, p- 390 ; 75. Incitement, Limbs of the Progression,
p. 39D ; 76. Amorousness, Pursuit, p. 391 ; 77. Refusal, Pessimism, p. 391 ;
78. Joke, Plash of Joke, p. 391 ; 79. Moving Forward, Hindrance, p. 391 ;
80. Pacification, Sweet Words, pp. 391-392 j 81. Thunderbolt, Reference,
p. 892 j 82- Meeting of Castes, Limbs of the Development, p. 392 ;
83. Mis-statement, Indication, p, 392; 84. Supposition, Exaggeration
p. 392 ; 85. Progress, Propitiation, p. 393 ; 86. Deduction, Supplication,
p. 393 ; 87. Revelation, Quarrel, p. 393 ; 88. Outwitting, 6ismay, p. 393 ;
89. Panicky Commotion, Limbs of the Pause, p. 393 j 90. Censure, Angry
Words, p. 394 ; 91. Insolence, Placation. p. 394 ; 92. Assertion, Rever ence, p. 394 ; 93. Rebuke, Lassitude p. 394 ; 94. Opposition, Alter- cation, p. 394 ; 95. Summing Up, Humiliation, p. 39 ; 965. Foresight,
Limbs in the Conclusion, p. 395 ; 97. Junction. Awakening, p. 395 ; 98,
Assembling, Ascertainment, p. 395 ; 99. Accusation, Confirmation, pp.
395-396 } 100. Gratification, Joy, p. 396 ; 101. Dclivercnce, Surprise,
p. 396 ; 102. Clever Speech, Retrospect, p. 396 ; 103-105. Termination,
Benediction, pp. 396-397 ; 106. Five Explanatory Devices, p. 397 ; 107-
108. The Supporting Scene, p. 397 ; 109. The Intimating Speech, p.
397 j 110-111. The Introductory Scene, p. 398 j 112. The Transitional
Scene, p. 398; 113. The Anticipatory Scene, p. 398; 114-130. An ideal
Nataka, pp. 398400.

Chapter Twentytwo

THE STYLES, Pages 401-409

1-5. The origin of the Styles, p. 401 ; 6-11. The origin of the
Verbal 8tyle, pp. 401-402.; 12. The origin of the Grand Style, p. 402 ;
13. The origin of the Graceful Style, p. 402 ; 14-16. The origin of the
Energetic Style, p. 402 ; 17-25. The origin of the Nyaya, pp. 403-404 ;
86. The four varieties of the Verbal Style, p 404 ; 27. The Laudation, p.
404 ; 28-29. The Introduction, p. 404 ; 30-31. The five varieties of the
Introduction, p. 404 ; 32. Opening of the Story, p. 404 ; 33. Particular
Presentation, p. 405 ; 34-37. Personal Business, p. 405 ; 38-40. The
Grand Style, pp. 405-406 ; 41. The four varieties of the Grand Style, pp.
406 ; 42. The Challenge, p. 406 ; 43 Change of Action, p- 406 ; 44 The
Harsh Discourse, p. 306 ; 45-46. Breach of Alliance, p. 406 ; 47. The
Graceful Style, p. 407 j 48. The four varieties of the Graceful Style, p.
407(49-50. The three kinds of Pleasantry, p. 407 ; 51. Beginning of
Pleasantry, p. 407 ; 52. Unfoldment of Pleasantry, p. 407 j 5H4, Covert


Pleasure, p. 408 ; 55-56. The Energetic Style, p. 408 j 57. The four varieties of the Energetic Style, p. 498 ; 58. Compression, pp. 408409 ;
49. Commotion, p. 409 ; 60. Raising the Theme, p. 409 ; 61-62. Conflict
p. 409 i 63-65. Styles according to Sentiments, p. 409 ;

Chapter Twentythree
1-3. Necessity of the Costumes and Make-up, 410 ; 4. Four kinds of Costumes and Make-up, p. 410. 5-8 The four kinds of model-work, pp.«410-411 ; 9. Decoration, p. 411 ; 10. Garlands, p. 411 ; 11. Four kinds of ornament, p. 411 ; 12. Piercing ornaments, Tied-up ornaments,
p. 411 ; 13. Worn ornaments. Put-round ornaments, p. 412 ; 14. Ornaments according habita'tion and tribal origin, p. 412 ; 15. Ornaments for males :
Head ornamente, Ear ornaments, p 412 ; 16. Neck ornaments, Finger ornaments, pp- 412-413 ; 17. Ornaments of the forearm, Wrist ornaments,
p. 413 j 18. Ornaments above the elbow, Breast ornaments, p 143 I
19. Ornaments for the entire body, Waist ornaments, p. 413 ; 23-23.
Ornaments for females : Head ornaments, p. 419 ; 23-25. Ear ornaments, pp. 414-415 j 26-27. Neck ornaments, p. 415 ; 28. Breast ornaments,
p. 415 ; 29. Arm ornaments p. 416 ; 30. Finger ornaments, p. 416 ; 31-33.
Hip ornaments, pp. 416-417 ; 34-36. Ornaments of the ankles, p. 417 ; 37-44.
Other rules about ornaments, pp. 417-418 ; 45-51. Costume of celestial women p. 418-419 ; 52. Siddha women .p. 419 ; 53. Gandharva women
p. 419 ; 54. Raksasa women, p. 419 ; 55. Goddesses, p. 419 ; 56-57. Monkey females, pp. 419-420 ; 58. Human females according to their countries, p.
420 ; 59. Women of Avanti and Gauda, p. 420 ; 60 Abhira women, p- 420 ;
61. Women of the North-east, p. 420 ; 62-63. Women of the South, p. 420 ;
64. Ornaments to be worn in the right place, pp. 420- 421; 65-67. Dresses to suit the condition of females, p. 420 ; 68. Painting the limbs, p. 421 ;
69. The four original colours, p. 421 ; 70. The derivative colours, p. 421 ;
71-74. The primary derivative colours, pp. 421-422 ; 75-80. The secon- dary derivative colours, p. 422 ; 81. Living beings, p. 422 ; 82. Lifeless objects, p. 422 ; 83. Lifeless objects in human form, p. 422 ; 84. Painting the limbs, p. 422 ; 85-87. Colour for gods, p. 423 ; 88-89. Colours for demigods, 90-92. Colours for human beings in different regions, p. 424 ; 93.
Colours for Bhutas and Dwarfs, p. 424 ; 94-98. Colours of different peoples of Bharatvarsa, p. 424 ; 99-101. Colours of different tribes, p. 425 ;
102. Colours of different castes, p. 426 ; 103-109. Rules for the beard, p.
426427 ; 310-127. Rules for different costumes, pp. 427-429 ; 128. Use of masks, p. 429; 129-139. Three kinds of crown, pp. 430-431*; 139-145. Rules of different hairs, p. 431 ; 146-148. The Sa jiva, p. 432 ; 148-155. The use of weapons, pp. 432-433 ; 156-1 58. Use of other objects, p. 433 ; 159. lndra's Banner-staff, p. 433 J 160-167. The Jarjara, pp. 438-484 j .167-170.


TheDandakastoVP- 434; 170*180. The making of masks, pp. 485-436 ;
180-187. Other accessories, p. 436 ; 187-198. The realistic and conven- tional objects, p. 437 j 198-208. Making of ornaments, pp. 438-489}
208-211. Use of weapons on the stage, p. 439.

Chapter Twenty four
1-2. Importance of Temperament p. 440 ; 8. The definition of
Temperament, p. 440 j 4-5. Feminine graces in the drama, pp. 440-441 ;
6. Physical graces of women, p. 441 ; 7. The origin of these graced p.
441 ; 8. Peeling, p. 441 ; 9-10. Emotion, p. 441 ; 11. Passion, p. 441 ;
12-13. Natural Graces of women, p. 442 ; 14. Sportive Mimicry, p. 442 ;
15. Amorous Gestures, p. 442 ; 16. Dishabille, p. 442 ; 17. Confusion,
p. 442 ; 18. Hysterical Mood, p. 443 ; 19. Manifestation «f Affection, p.
443 j 20. Pretended Anger, p. 443 ; 21, Affected Coldness, p. 443 ; 22.
Lolling, p. 443. 23. Want of Respouse, p. 443 ; 24. Involuntary Graces of women, p. 444 ; 25. Beauty, p. 444 ; 26 Charm, Rndiance, p. 444 ; 27.
Delicacy p. 444 ; 28. Self-control, p. 444 ; 29-30 Courage, Dignity, p.
444-445 ; 31. Eight aspects of the male Temperament, p. 445 ; 32. Brilli- ant Character, p. 445 ; 33. Graceful Bearing, p. 445 ; 34.. Self-posse- ssion, p. 445 ; 35. Tenacity, pp. 445-446 ; 36. Gravity, p. 446 ; 37. Spor- tivenoss, p. 446 ; 38. Nobility, p. 446 ; 39. Spirit, p. 446 ; 40-41. Hist- rionic Representation through the body, p. 446 ; 42. Word, p. 447 j 43.
SQca, p. 447 ; 44. Aiikura, p. 447 ; 45. Sakhfi, p. 447 ; 46-47. Natyayita,
p. 447 ; 48. NtvWty.ifik.ira, \i, 1 18 ; 4*K> I. Twelve forms of the verbal
Rerpesentation, p 448 ; 52- Accosting, Prattling, p. 448 ; 53. Lament,
Repeated Speaking, p. 448 ; 54. Dialogue, Change of Words, pp. 448-449 ;
55. Message, Agreement, p. 449 ; 56. Command, Pretext, p. 449 ; 57.'
Instruction, Statement, p. 449 ; 58-71. Another classification of the Verbal
Representation, pp. 449-451 ; 72-73. The basic Representation, p. 451}
74-75. Regular Historionic Representation, p. 451 j 76-77. Irregular
Historionic Representation, p. 451 ; 78. Laksa,pa defined, p. 452 ; 79.
Practice preferred to '.he Sastra, p. 452; 80. Representation of the sensual perception, p. 452 ; 81. Sound, p. 452 ; 82. Touch, p. 452 •
83. Form, p. 452 ; 84-85. Tasto and Smell, pp. 452-453 • 86. Importance of the mind, p. 453; 87. The three aspecto of the of the mind p.
*»S ! 88-89. The favourable mind, p. 353 ; 90. The unfavourable mind, p. 453; 91-92. The indifferent mind, p. 453 ; 93. The meaning of personal , and the moaning of "external", pp. 453-454 , 94-95

S™ v m '' 95 - 96 - Love ' P- 4S4 ' W.98. Erotic Affair, p. 454 ,
89-100. Vanous types of women, p. 454 ; 101-102- The woman of divme type, pp. 454-455 , 103-104. The woman of Asura type, p. 455 ,
105-106. The woman of Gandharva type, ,..465 , 107-108. The woman o


Raksasa type, p. 465 ; 109-110. The woman of Naga type. p. 465 ; 111-
118. The woman of bird type, p. 456 ; 113-114. The woman of Pisaca type, p. 456 ; 115-116. The woman of Yaksa type, p. 456 ■, 117. The woman of tiger type, p. 456; 118-119. The human female, pp. 456457 ;
120-121. The woman of monkey typo, p. 459 ; 122-123. The woman of elephant type, p. 457 ; 124-125. The woman of deer type, p. 457 ; 126.
The woman of fish type, p. 457 ; 127-128. The woman of camel type, p.
457 ; 129. The woman of Makara type, p. 458 ; 130-131. The woman of ass type, p. 458 ; 132-133. The woman of swine type, p. 488; 134-135.
Thcwoman of horse tvpe, p. 458 ; 136-137. The woman of buffalo type,
p. 458 ; 138-139. The woman of goat type, p. 458-459 ; 140-141. The woman of horse type, p. 459 ; 142-143. The woman cow type, p. 459 ; 144-
147. Etiquette towards women, pp. 459 ; 147-149. Two elassess of Eti- quette, p. 460, 149-150. King'g Etiquette towards women, p. 460 ; 150-155.
The three classes of women j pp. 460-461 ; 156-159. The beginning of love,
p. 461 ; 160-162. Signs of love, p. 462 ; 163-165. Signs of a courte- zan's love, p. 462 ; 166-167. Signs of love in a highborn lady, p. 462 ;
168. Signs of a maiden' s love, p. 462 ; 169-171 . Various stages of her love,
! 172-173. Longing, pp. 462-463. 174-175. Anxiety, p. 463 ; 176-177. Re- t collection, p. 463 ; 178-179. Enumeration of Merits, pp. 463-464 j 180-
181. Distress, p. 464 ; 182-183. Lamentation, p. 464 ; 184-185. Insanity,
p. 464; 186-187. Sickness, pp. 464-465 ; 188-189. Stupor, p. 465; 190-
191. Death, p. 465 ; 192. Manifestation of men's love, p. 465 ; 193.
Characteristics of love, p. 465; 194-196. Women seperatcd from the beloved one, pp. 465-466 ; 197. Relief in lovesickness, p. 466 ;
198-200. The female Messenger, p. 466 ; 201-207. The king's Etiquette to women, pp. 466-467 ; 208-209. Reasons for Conjugal Union, p. 467 ;
210-211. Eight kinds of Heroine, p. 267; 212- The Heroine dressed up for Union, p. 268 ; 214. The Heroine having her husband in subjec- tion, p. 268 ; 215. The Heroine seperated by quarrel, p. 268 ; 216.
The enraged Heroine, p. 268; 217. The deceived Heroine, p. 268;
218. The Heroine with a sojourning husband, pp. 268-269; 219.
The Heroine moving to her lover, p. 269 ; 220. Representation of the different Heroines, p. 469; 221-223. Enraged, deceived and quarreling
Heroines, p. 469 ; 223. The Heroine with a sojourning husband, p. 469 ;
224. The Heroine having a husband in subjection, p. 469 ; 225. Different classes of Heroine moving to their lover, p. 469 ; 226. The courtezan, p.
470 ; 227. The woman of high family, p. 470 ; 228. The hand-maid. p. 470 ;
229-232. How to meet a sleeping lover, p, 470 ; 233-235. The Conjugal
Union, p. 470 ; 236. Bohaviour at the Conjugal Union, p. 470 ; 237-239.
Preparation for the Conjugal Union, pi 471 ; 240-244. Acts prohibited on the stage, p. 472 ; 245-252. The Heroine in expectancy, p. 472 j 253-2^7.


Personal omens, pp. 473-474; 258. HeroWs reception of the beloved,
p. 474 ; 259-264. Receiving the guilty lover, pp. 474-475 ; 264. Causes of jealousy, p. 475 ; 265-266. Depression, p. 475 ; 267-268. Mired Peeling,
p. 475 ; 269-270. Disgust, pp. 475-476 ; 271-272. Anger, p 476 ; 273-292.
On treating a lover at fault, pp. 476-478 ; 293-298. Acts forbidden on the stage, pp. 478-479 ; 299-300. Endearing terms for the beloved p. 479 ;
301. Angry terms of address for tho beloved, p. 479 ; 302-309. Endearing terms of address explained, pp.479; 310-319. Angry terms of address explained, pp. 480-481 ; 320-328. Goddesses in human roles, pp. 481-482.

Chapter Twenty five *


1-2. The definition of a Gallant, p. 483 ; 3-8. Qualities of a Gallant, pp. 483-484 ; 9-10. The female Messenger, p. 484 ; 11-12« Qualities of a
Messenger, p. 484 ; 13-18. Functions of the female Messenger, p. 485 ; 19.
The woman overcome with love, p. 485 ; 20-23. The attached woman, pp.
485-486 ; 24-27. The hostile woman, p. 486 ; 28-29. Winning back of women's heart, p. 486 ; 30-31. Causes of hostility, p. 486 ; 32-35. Acts winning women's heart, pp. 486-487 ; 36. The three types of woman, p.
487 j 37-39. The superior woman, p. 487 ; 40-41. The middling woman,
p. 487 ; 42. The inferior woman, p. 487 ; 43. The four stages of woman's youth, p. 488 ; 44. The primary youth, p. 488 J 45. The secondary youth, p. 488 ; 46. The tertiary youth, p. 488 ; 47-48.
The quaternary youth, p. 488 ; 49. Behaviour in the primary youth,
p. 488 ; 50. Behaviour in the secondary youth, pp. 488-489 ; 51.
Behaviour in the tertiary youth, p. 429 ; 52. Behaviour in the quartcrnary youth, ft 489 ; 53-54. Five types of man, p. 489 ; 55. The excellent man, p"489; 56-37. The superior man, p. 489; 68-59. The middling man,
p. 490 ; 60-61. The inferior man, p. 490 ; 62-63. The too old man, p. 490 ;
64-66. Psychological approach to women, pp.490-491 ; 67. Conciliation,
p. 491 ; 68. Gift. p. 491 ; 69. Diasention, Chastisement, p. 491 ; -70-72.
Application of Conciliation, Gift etc. p. 491; 73. Reading a woman's heart from her behaviour, p. 491 ; 74-80. A courtezan's mercenary treatment of men, p, 492.

Chapter Twekttsix

Oh J" ^^ Reprr»cntation, p. 493 ; 2-4. Day, night, season ote. 5.

Objecteonthe ground, p. 493 ; 6. Moonlight, happinc* and air etc, p. obL'J'n^T ' du Q 8 f' 8m6kc " tc - 8 - Midday 9U n, p. 494; 9. Pleasant

494 I N J t ^T bieCte ' P - 494i11 - *■» ^ "alto! feeling,
p.494,l^ w klaceandflowcrsetc,p.494 i 18. The idea of entirety,


p. 494 i 14. Audible or visible objects, p. 494 , 15. Lighting, shooting star. etc. p. 495 ; 16. Repugnant objects, p. 495 ; 17. Hot wind and heat etc
p. 495 ; 18. Lions, bears etc p. 494 ; 19. Worshipping superiors, p 495 ;
20-22. Numerals, p. 495 J 23. Umbrellas, Banners etc, p. 496 ; 24. Memory and meditation etc, p. 496 ; 25. Height, p. 496 ; 26. Past and Cessation etc, p. 496; 27. The autumn, p. 496 ; 28-30. The early winter, pp 496-
497 ; 31. The winter, p. 477 ; 32. The spring, p. 497 ; 33. The summer
p. 497 ; 34. The rains, p. 497 ; 35. The rainy night, p. 497 . 36.37
Seasons in general, pp, 497-498 ; 38. The States, p. 498 ; 39-40. The
Determinants, p. 498 j 41-44. The consequents, pp. 498-499 ; 45-46. General directions for representation, p. 499 ; 47. Men's and women's efforts, p

499 ; 48. Women's mevements of limbs, p. 499 ; 49. Meaning of words'
p. 499 ; 50-51. Joy, p. 499-500 ; 52. Anger, p. 500 ; 53-54. Jealous Anger of women, p. 500 ; # 55. Men's sorrow, p. 500 ; 56-57. Women's sorrow, p.

500 ; 58. Men's fear, p. 500 ; 59-60. Women's fear, pp. 500-501 ; 61-64
Women's intoxicated condition, pp. 501 ; 65. Parrorts and Sarikiis, p. 501.
66. Big birds, p. 501 J 67. Asses and Camels, p. 501 ; 68-70. Bhiitas and
Pisacas, p. 502; 70-71. Greeting an invisible person, p. 502 ; 71-73.
Greeting gods superiors, p. 502 ; 73-74. Great crowd, and friends etc]
p. 502 ; 74-75. Mountains and tall trees, p. 5U2 ; 75-78 Wide expanse of water, pp. 502-503 ; 78-79. A house and darkness ete, p. 503 ; 79-80.
Lovesick, cursed and possessed persons, p. 503 ; 80-83. A swing, p 503 ;
83-85. Speaking to the sky, pp. 503-504 ; 85-86. Speaking aside, Concealed speaking, p. 504 ; 87-88. Private Personal address. Thinking within ouoself, p. 504 ; 90-91. Mentioning -incidents that occured already, pp.
504-505 ; 91-92. Representing Concealed speakihg, p. 505 ; 92-94. Repeti- tion of words, p. 505 ; 94-95. Suspension of Representation, p. 505 ;
95-97. Observing proper States, p. 505-506 ; 97-98. No movement in the state of sleeping, p. 506; 98-99. Declamation of a person in sleep, p. 506 ; 99-100. Dsclamation of old people, Children's words,
p. 506,' 100-102. Dying declamation, p. 506; 102-103. Representation of death, p. 507 ; 103-104. Death from disease, p. 507 ; 104-105. Death from drinking poison, p. 507 ; 105-107. The eight stages in death from poison,
p. 507; 107-108. Weakness, p. 507 ; 108-109. Tremor, p. 507 ; 109-110.
Burning sensation, p. 508; 110-111. Hiccough, p. 508; 111-1 2.
Froth in the mouth, p. 508 ; 112-113. Breaking of the neck, Paralysis,
P- 508 ; 113 115. Death, pp. 508 509 ; 115-118. General directions, p. 509 ;
118-122. The triple basis of drama, p. 509 ; 123-129. People supplying norm to the drama, pp. 509-510.

Chapter Twentyseven
1. The Success in dramatic production, p. 511 ; 2. The two kinds


of Success, p. 511 ; 8. The human Success, p. 511 ; 4. The vocal Success,
p. 511; 5-15. The physical Success, p. 511-513; 16-17. The divine
Success, p. 513 ; 18-19. Three kinds of Blemishes, pp. 513-514 ; 20.
Blemishes from gods, p. 514 ; 21-23. Blemishes from an enemy, p. 514 5
23-27. Selfmade Blemishes, pp. 514-515 ; 28. Blemishes without remedy,
p. 515 1 29-36. Palpable sources of Blemishes, pp. 516-517 } 37-39.
Three grades of Blemishes, p. 617 ; 40. Wrong Benediction, p. 517 ;
41-43. Interpolation is a Blemish, pp. 517-518 ; 44-47. Limitation of human efforts in a play, pp. 518-519 ; 48-57. Spectators of a performance, pp. 519-520; 50. Various Classes of spectators, p. .520 ; 59-62. Dis- position of different spectators, p. 520 ; 62-70. Assessors in a perfor- mance, pp. 520-521 ; 71. Controversy about a performance, p- 522 J
72. Procedure in deciding controversies, p. 522 ; 73. Recording of Ble- mishes, p. 522 ; 74-75. Ideal position of Assessors in a performance p.
522 j 76. Blemishes to be ignored, pp. 522-523 ; 77-82. Procedure of awarding the Banner, pp 523-524 ; 83-84. Co-ordination, p. 554 ; 85-87.
Charm of limbs, p. 524 ; 88-97. Suitable times for performance, p. 525 ;
98-99, Emergency performances are independent of time, p. 526 ; 100-101.
Qualities of an Actor, p. 526 ; 102 An ideal performance, p. 526 ;
103. Brilliance of Pageant, p. 526 ; 104-105. The best performance,
p. 526.

Chapter Thuitfopr


1. Three types of character in a drama, p. 527 ; 2-3. A superior male character, p. 527 ; 3-4. A middling male character, p. 527 ; 5-7.
An inferior male character, p. 527 ; 8-10. A superior female character, pp. 527-528 ; 11. A middling female character, p. 528; 12. An inferior female character, p. 528 ; 13-14. A mited character, p. 528 ; 16-20. The four types of the Hero, pp. 528-529 ; 20-23. The four types of Heroines,
p. 529 ; 24-25. The two classes of employment for characters, pp. 529-530 ;
26-29. Female inmates of the harem, p. 530 ; 30-32.Tho chief queen, p. 530 ;
33-34 The other queens, p. 530 ; 35-36. High-born wives, p. 531 ; 37-39.
Ordinary wives, p. 531 ; 40. Concubines, p 531 ; 41-42. Women artistes,
p. 531 j 4344. Actresses, pp. 531-532 ; 44-48. Dancers, p. 532 ; 48-49. Maids in constant attendance, p. 532 ; 49-51. Maids of special work, p. 532 ;
51-53. Maids in constant move, pp. 532-533 ; 53-54. Errand girls, p.

533 i 54-55. Mahattarls, p. 538 ; 55-56. Pratiharics, f>. 533 ; 56-57.
Maidens, p. 533 ; 57-58. Old dames, p. 533 ; 58-60. lyuktikas, pp. 533-

534 ; 61-64. Qualities of women to be employed by the kin«, p. 534 ;
64-70. Other inmates of the harem, p. 534; 71. The Vanjadharas. p.
635 ; 72. The Nirmundas, p. 535 ; 73-74. The Kaiicukins, p. 685 j 76-77,


External persosn, pp. 535-636 ; 78-82 The king, p. 536 j 82-83. The leader of the army, p. 586 j 84-85. Councillors, pp. 536-537 ; 85-87.
Judges, p. 537 j 87-90. Courtiers', p. 537.

Chapter Thirtyfive


1. Distribution of Roles, p. 538 ; 2-4. General principles of dist- ribution, p. 538 ; 5-6. The role of gods, p. 538 ; 7-8. The role of Rak$a- sas, fiie Danavas ete, pp. 538-539 ; 9-11, The role of kings, p,' 539 ; 12-13.
The role of army leaders and councillors, p, 539 ; 14, The role of the
Kaiicukin and the Srotriya, p, 539 ; 15-17, The role of minor characters,
p. 539-540; 19, 'The role of fatigued persons, The role of persons without disease* pp, 440 ; 19-21. Special cases of assigning roles, p, 540 ; 22-23. The roles of characters with extra or special limbs, pp.
540-541 ; 24. The first entry of a character, p. 541 ; 25-26. The result of proper impersonation, p, 541 ; 27. The psychological preparation for impersonation, p. 541 ; 28. The three kinds of impersonation, p. 541 j 29.
The natural impersonation, p- 541 j 30, The unnatural impersonation, p.
541 ; 31-33. Imitative representation, p. 542 ; 33-36. Suitability of women in some roles, 542 j 37. Training for women in different roles, p. 524 ;
38. Result of proper assignment of roles, pp 542-543 ; 89-41. Result of employing women for acting, p. 543 j 42. The two types of dramatic production, p. 543 ; 43-47. Tho delicate type of production, pp. 543-544 ;
48-53. The violent type of production, pp. 544-545 ; 53-59. The typical impersonation of a king; p 545 ; 59-62. Impersonation of the attendants of gods, p. 546 ; 62-68. The characteristics of a Director, pp. 546-547 j
69-71. The natural qualities of a Director, p. 547 ; 71-72. Characteris- tics of an Assistant to the Director, p. 547 ; 72-73. Characteristics of an Actor, p. 547 j 73-44. Characteristics of the Parasite, p. 547 ;
75. Characteristics of the iSakara, pp. 547-548 j 76. Characteristics of the
Jester, p. 548 ; 77. Characteristics of the servant, p. 548 ; 78-81. Charac- teristics of the courtezen, p. 548 ; 81-83, Characteristics of the typical
Heroine, p. 548 ; 83-85. Women disqualified to be Heroines, p. 549 ;
85-89. Members of the typical theatrical party, p. 549 ; 89-91. Charac- teristics of the Jester, pp. 549-550 ; 91-92. Charactcrista of the master musician, p. 550 ; 92-93. Meaning of the word Nate, p. 550 ; 93-95.
Benediction defined, p. 550 ; 96-97. Characteristics of the playwright, p.
561; 97-98. Characteristics of the Actor, p. 5 51; 98-99. Characteristics of the actress, p, 551 ; 99-100. The maker of headgears* p> 551 s 100-101.
The maker of ornaments, p. 551 : 101-102. The maker of garlands, the costumcr, the painter and the dyer, p, 551 ; 103-104. The Craftsmen, the
Kusilavas, p, 552 ; 104-135. The other members of the party, p. 552.


Chapter Thirtybix

1-9. Sages question, pp. 553-554 ; 10. Bharata's reply, pp. 554 ; 11-23.
The Preliminaries and their uses, pp. 554-555 ; 34-26. The ablution of the
Director on the stage, p. 555 ; 27-29. Bharata's sons offended the sages by caricature, p. 556 ; 80-36- The sage3 curse Bharata's sons, pp, 556-557:
37-38. Gods intercede in favour of Bharata's sons, p. 557 ; 39-40. Bharata's sons approach their fattier, p. 557 ; 41-45. Bharata pacifies them, pp, 557-
558 ; 46-49. Nahusja invites divine artistes to the earth, p. 558;
50-51. Gods reject the request, p. 558 ; 52-53- Nalnisa approaches Bharata,
p. 559 j 54-57. Urva& and the mundane drama, p. 559 ; 58-61. Bharata grants the request and sends his sons to the earth, pp. 659-560 j 62-63.
Kohala is the successor of Bharata, p. 560 ; 65-68, Bhaiate's sons come down to the earth, p. 560 ; 62-70, Kohala and his associates, p. 560 ;
71-73 Value of the Natyas^stra, p. 561 ; 74-77. Value of the dramatic show, and the final Benediction, p. 561.



I. The Present Work

1. General History of the Study

Since the West came to know of the Sanskrit literature through
William Jones's translation of the Sakuntala 1 , the nature and origin of the ancient Indian theatre have always interested scholars, especially the
Sanskritists, all over the world. H. H. Wilson who published in 1826 the first volume of his famous work on the subject 2 deplored that the Natya- sastra, mentioned and quoted in several commentaries and other works, had been lost for ever 3 . P. Hall who published in 1865 his edition of the
DasarOpa 4 , a medieval work on the Hindu dramaturgy, did not see any Ms. of the Natyasastra till his work had greatly advanced 5 . And for the time being he printeS the relevant chapters of the Natya&istra as an appendix to his DasarSpa. Later on he undertook to critically edit the Ms. of the
Natyasastra he acquired ; but this venture was subsequently given up, due perhaps to an insufficiency of materials which consisted of one unique
Ms. full of numerous lacunae* But even if the work could not be brought out by Hall, his very important discovery soon helped others to trace similar
Mss. elsewhere. Aud in 1874 Hcymann, a German scholar, published on the basis of Mss. discovered up till that date a valuable article 7 on the contents of the Natyasastra. This seems to have been instrumental in attracting competent scholars to the study of this very important teit. The French Sanskritist P. Eegnaud published in 1880 chapter
XVH» and in 1884 chapter XV (in part) and the chapter XVI 9 of the
Natyasastra. This was soon followed by his publication of chapters VI and Vninl884. u And J. Grosset another French scholar and a pupil of Eegnand, published later on (in 1888) chapter XXVHI " of the Natya- sastra which treated of the general theory of Hindu music.

' Saoontaln, or the Fatal Ring. Translated from the original Sanskrit and
Pracrita, Caloutta 1789.

' H. H. Wilson, Select Speoimens of the Theatre of the Hindus (3 yolst,
Calcutta. 1826-1827. ' Wilson, p. 37. Grosset, Introduction, p. iij.

4 The Dasarupa by Dhananjaya (Biblioiheca Mica), Calcutta, 1861-1865.

' Grosset, Introduction, t. iij. ' See note 5 above.

' TJeber Bharata's Natyasastrun in Naohrichten von der Koeniglisehen
Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Goetingen 1874, pp. 86 ff. Ref. Grosset, Introduction p xj ID. pp 2-3.

" Le dix-eeptieme ohapitre du Bharatiya-naiyasistra. Annales du' Musie
Guimet ( Tome, 1. 1860, pp. 86 ff.

• La metrique de Bharata, texte Sanscrit de deux chapitres du Natyasastra publio pour premier fois et sum d'une, interpretation francaise, Annales due Musee
Guimet, Tome, It, 1884, pp. 65 ff. ' " Rhctorique sanserite, Paris, 1814.

1 ' Contribution a l'«t*de de la nuisique hindou, Lyons, 1888.


But the different chapters of the work and studies on them) which were published up till 1888; though very helpful fot the understanding of some aspeots of the ancient Indian dramatic works cannot be said to have thrown any considerable light on the exact nature of the ancient Hindu plays, especially the manner of their production on the stage. Sylvain
Levi's Theatre indien (1890) in which he discussed comprehensively the contribution of his predecessors in the field and added to it greatly by his own researches, made unfortunately no great progress in this specific direction. Though he had access to three more or less complete
Mss. of the Natya&astra, L£vi does not seem to have made any serious attempt to make a close study of the entire work except its chapters
XVH-XX(XVffl-XXII of our text) and XXXIV. Thc.reason for his relative indifference to the contents of the major portion (nearly nine-tenths) of the work, seem to be principally the corrupt nature of his Ms. materials, like his predecessors, Levi paid greater attention to the study of the literary form of the ancient Hindu plays with the difference that he utilised for the first time the relevant chapters of the Natyasastra, 1 * to check the accuracy of the statements of later writers on the subject like
Dhananjaya 1 * and Visvanitha 1 * who professed their dependence on the
Natyasastra. But whatever may be the drawback of Levi's magnificient work, it did an excellent service to the history of ancient Indian drama by focussing the attention of scholars on the great importance of the Natyasastra- Almost simultaneously two Sanskritists in India as well as one in the West were planning its publication. In 1894 Pandits
Shivadatta and Kashinath Pandurang Parab published from Bombay the original Sanskrit text of the work. 1 "' This was followed in 1898 by
J. Grosset's 1 * critical edition of its chapters I-X1V based on all the
Mss. available up till that date.

Though nearly half a century has passed after the publication of
Grosset's incomplete edition of the Natyasastra, it still remains one of the best specimens of modern Western scholarship, and though in the light of the new materials available, it is possible nowa-dayg to improve upon his readings in a few places, Grosset's work will surely remain for a long time a landmark in tiie history of the study of this important text. It is a pity that this very excellent work remains unfinished. But a fact equally deplorable is that it failed to attract sufficient attention of scholars

" Chapters XVII-XX ( XVIU-XXU of our text ).
1 ' The author of the Dasarupa. See abore note 4.
14 Ike author of the Sabityadarpana. See below.

11 Sri Bkaratamuai-pranitam, NiWyajntram, ( Karyamala, 42 ) Bombay, 1884.
11 Xwate da Bhitrata »ur leTboatru. Texts Sanscrit, Edition critique. Tome
I. Partie, I. (Annates de i' UnieertUt de Lyons, Fane. 40, 1898)


interested in the subject.. Incomplete though it was, it nevertheless contained a good portion of the rules regarding the presentation of plays on the stage, and included valuable data on the origin and nature of the ancient Indian drama, but no -one seems to have subjected it to the searching study it deserved. Whoever wrote on Hindu plays after Levi depended more on his work than on the Natyasastra itself, even when this was available (at least in a substantial part) in a critical edition. It may very legitimately be assumed that the reasons which conspired to render the Natyasastra rather unattractive included among other things, the difficulty of this text which was not yet illuminated by a commentary.

Discovery in the early years of the present century of a major por- tion of a commentary of the Natyasastra by the Kashmirian Abhinava- gupta" seemeij to give, however, a new impetus to the study of the work. And it appeared for the time being that the Natyasastra would yield more secrete treasured in the body of its difficult text But the first volume of the Baroda edition of the work (ch. I-VII) 18 including Abhi- nava's commentary, disillusioned the expectant scholars. Apart from the question of the merit of this commentary and its relation to the available versions of the Natyasastra, it suffered from a very faulty trans- mission of the text. Not only did it contain numerous lacunae, but quite a number of its passages were not liable to any definite interpretation due to their obviously vitiated nature. Of this latter condition the learned editor of the commentary says, 'the originals are so incorrect that a scholar friend of mine is probably justified in saying that even if Abhi- navagupta descended from the Heaven and seen the Mss. he would not easily restore his original reading. It is in fact an impenetrable jungle through which a rough path now has been traced'. The textual condition of Abhinava's commentary on chapters VIII-XVHI (VIII-XX of our text) published in 1934 ' 9 was not appreciably better.

But whatever may bo the real value of the commentary, the two volumes of the Natyasastra published from Baroda, which were avowedly to give the text supposed to have been taken by Abhinava as the basis of his work, presented also considerable new and valuable materials in the shape of variant readings collated from numerous Mss. of the text as well as from the commentary. These sometimes throw new light on the con- tents of Natyasastra. A study of these togethor with a new and more or

" Di, 8. K, Ds seems to be the fiist in announcing the existence of a more or less complete Ms. ot Abhinava's commentary, and in recommending its publication.

ESkt. Poetics, Vol I. pp. 120-121.
«' NaiyasoBtra with the commentary ot AbhinaTagnpta. Edited with a preface, pendix and Index by Ramakrishna Kari. Vol 1, Baroda 1926.
" Natyasostra with the commentary of Abhinavagupta. Edited with an reduction and Index by M. Ramakrishna Kari. Vol, II, Baroda, 1934.


less complete (though uncritical) tett of the work published from Benares in 1929 s ° would, it is hoped, bo considered a desideratum by persons interested in the ancient Indian drama. The present work has been the result of such a study, and in it has been given for the first time a com- plete annotated translation of the major portion of the Natyasastra based on a text reconstructed by the author. * '

2. The Basic Text

The text of the Natyasastra as we have seen is not available in a complete critical edition, and Joanny Grosset's test (Paris-Lyons, 1898) does not go beyond ch. XIV- Hence the translator had to prepare a cri- tical edition of the remaining chapters before taking up the translation."
For this he depended principally upon Ramakrishna Kavi's incomplete edition (Baroda, 1926, 1934) running up to ch. XVIII (our XX) and including Abhinava's commentary, as well as the Nirnayasagar and
Chowkhamba editions (the first, Bombay 1894, and the second, Benares,
1929). As the test of the Natyasastra has been available in two distinct recensions, selection of readings involved some difficulty. After the most careful consideration, the translator has thought it prudent to adopt readings from both the recensions, whenever such was felt necessary from the context or for the sake of coherence, and these have been mentioned in the footnotes. But no serious objection may be made against this rather unorthodox procedure, for A. A. Macdonell in his critical text of the Brhaddevatit (Cambridge, Mass. 1904) has actually worked in this manner, and J. Grosset too in his edition 'does not give unqualified pre- ference to any racension and confesses that due to conditions peculiar to the Natyasastra his text has 'un caractere largement eclectique' (Introduc- tion, p. xxv) and he further says 'nous n'avions pas l'arabition chimerique detendreala rcconstitution du Bharata primitif (loc. «'/.). Condi- tions do not seem to have chaged much since then.

" .Sn'-Bharltmuni-prattitam Na/ayasastram. {Kashi- Sanskrit StrUi\ Benares,

' ' This edition will be published later on. The following chapters of the NS. have been translated into Frooch : ch XIV and XV ( our XV and XVI ) Vogabhinaya by
P. Begnaud in hie Metrique du Bharata ; see note 8 above. eh. XVII (our XVIII)
Ihtsxeidhnna by Luigia Niiti-Dolci in her Les Grammairiens Prakrit, This has been partially ,( 1-24 ) translated into English by the present writer in his Date of die Bharata-
Na/yasasrra, See JDL, 1930, pp. 73f. Chapter XXVIII by J. Grosset in his Contribution a l'ttude de la mnsique hindou ; see note 10 above. Besides these, ch, XXVUI by B.
Breoler in his Qrund-elemente der alt-indisohen Musik nach dem Bharatiya-nafya- iflstra. Bonn. 1922, and ch. IV by K V. N. Naidu, P. 8. NaiduandO.V. B. Pantlu in the Tawdavalaksanam, Madras, 1936 and chapters Mil translated into Bengali by the late Pandit Asokenath Bhattacharyya in the Vasomati, 1352 B8.


3. . Translation

Though the translation has been made literal as far as possible except that the stock words and phrases introduced to fill up incomplete lines have been mostly omitted, it has been found necessary to add a number of of explanatory words [enclosed in rectangular brackets] in order to bring out properly the exact meaning of the condensed Sanskrit original.
Technical terms have often been repeated (within curved brackets) in the translation in their basic form, especially where they are explained or defined. In cases where the technical terms could not be literally ren- dered into English they were treated in two different ways : (1) they were given in romanised form with initial capital letters e.g. Bhana and Vithi
(XX. 107-108, '112-113), Nyaya (XXII. 17-18) etc. • (2) Words given as translation have "been adopted with a view to indicating as far as possible the exact significance of the original, e.g. State (bhava) Sentiment (rasa),
VI. 33-34. Discovery (Prapti), Persuasion (siddhi), Parallelism (uddAa- rana) (XVII. 1), Prominant Point (bindu), Plot (.mufti) (XX.15) etc :
Lest these should be taken in their usual English sense they are distin- guished by initial capital letters. Constantly occuring optative verbal forms have been mostly ignored. Such verbs as kuryat and bhavet etc, have frequently been rendered by simple 'is' or a similar indicative form.
And nouns used in singular number for the sake of metre have been silently rendered by those in plural number and vice versa, when such was con- sidered necessary from the context.

4. Notes to the Traslation

Notes added to this volumes fall generally into three categories,
(a) Text-critical. As the basic text is not going to be published imme- diately, it has been considered necessary to record variant readings.
For obvious reasons variants which in the author's opinion are less important have not been generally recorded, (b) Explanatory. These include among other things references to different works on allied subjects and occasional short extracts from the same. Abhinavagupta's commentary naturally occupies a prominent place among such works, and it has very often been quoted and referred to. But this does not mean that the worth of this work should be unduly exaggerated. ' (c) Materials for Comparative Study. A very old text like the Natyasastra not illuminated by anything like a complete and lucid commentary, should naturally lw studied in comparison with works treating similar topics directly or indirectly. Hence such materials have been carefully collated as far as the resouroes at the author's disposal permitted.

!■ See M, Qhosh, "The NS. and tho Abhinavabhoratt" in IHQ vol. X. 1934, pp. 161ff.


Bat even when supplied with these nates, readers of this translation may have some difficulty in reconstructing from the work written in a diifiise manner the picture of the ancient Indian drama in itt theatrical aa well aa literary form, as it existed in the hoary antiquity To give them some help the theory and praotice of the ancient Hindu drama has been briefly discussed below together with other relevant matters.

II. The Ancient Indian Theory of Drama
1, The Meaning of Natya

The word "Natya" has often been translated as 'drama' and the plays of ancient India have indeed some points of similarity with those of the Greeks. But on a closer examination of the technique of their pro- duction as described in the NatyaSastra, the Hindu dramas represented by the available specimens, will appear to be considerably different. Unless this important fact is borne in mind any discussion on the subject is liable to create a wrong impression. As early as 1890 Sylvain Levi (pp. 423-424) noticed that Indian Natya differed from the Greek drama from which the Westerners derived their early conception of the art. Though it is not possible to agree with Levi on all points about the various aspects of this difference and the causes which he attributed to them, no one can possibly have any serious objection against his finding that, "Le ndtaka par se nature autant que par son nom se rapproaehe de-la dance scenique ; le drame est Taction mttne" (Joe. cit). Levi however did not for reasons stated above fully utilize in this connection the Natyasastra which contains ample materials for clarifying his conclusion.

The essential nature of the (Natya) derived from its etymology cannot by any means be called fanciful. For in the Harivamsa 1 (c. 200 A.C) we meet with an expression like nalflkam nanrtuh (they danced a play) and the KarpQramaBjari 1 (c. 1000 A.C.) has an expression like sattaam naccidavvam (a Sattaka is to be danced or acted).

The terms like rupaka or rUpa (representation) and preksa (specta- cle), all denoting dramatic works, also characterise the Hindu dramas and show their difference from the drama of the Greeks who laid emphasis on action and not on the spectacle. Of the sir parts of the tragedy, the most typical of the Greek dramatic productions, Aristotle puts emphasis on the fable or the plot and considers decoration to be un- important. On this point the philosopher says :

"Terror and pity may be raised by decoration— the mere spectacle; but they may also arise from the circumstanco of the action itself, which is far

» Vis»uparrw, Oh. 93. 81. 28, * .Ed. M. Ghosh, p. 80.


Prferable aad shows a superior poet, For the fable should be so construe- that wiftout the assistance of the sight its incidents may excite horror eommissemtion in those who hear them only; # • # # to produce this effect by meaa3 of the decoration discovers want of

art in the poet ; who mast also be supplied with an expensive apparatus"

But in case of the Hindu dramas the decoration (i. c. the costumes and make-up) mostly plays an important part. Equally with five other elements such as gestures and postures (ahgikd), words (vacika), the repftscntation of the Temperament (satlva), it gives the Natya its charac- teristic form. But in the theatre of the Greeks, it was not the case. In the performance of the tragedies, for example, they did not care much for the spectcale, if the declamation was properly made. For Aristotle himself says that, "the power of tragedy is felt without representation and actors"
(II. IH).'

Another peculiarity of the Hindu dramas was their general dependence on dance (nrtya), song [gita), and instrumental music (vadya). Though the chorus of the Greek tragedy introduced in it some sort of dance and songs, the function of these elements seem to have been considerably differ- ent in the Hindu drama. The ancient Indian play was produced through , words, gestures, postures, costumes, make-up, songs and dances of actors, and the instrumental music was played during the performance whenever necessary. But these different elements did not play an equal part in all the plays or different types of play. According as the emphasis was to be put on words, music, or dance, a play or its individual part partook of the nature of what the moderns would call 'drama', 'opera', 'ballet' or 'dramatic spectacle' 6 . Due to this nature the Hindu dramas which connected them- selves in many ways with song, dance and instrumental music, had a literary form which was to some extent different from that of the ancient Greeks.
But it was not so much due to this literary form as to the technique of their production on the stage that the Hindu dramas received their special character. After forming a general idea of this Natya, from the various terms used to denote it, one should enquire what the ancient Indian theorists exactly meant by the term (Natya) or what they regarded as being the essence of the dramatic art as opposed to the arts of poetry, fiction or pain- ting. To satisfy, our ouriosity on this point the Natyasastra gives us the following passage which may pass for a definition of the Natya.

'A mimicry of the exploits of gods, the Asuras, kings as well as of householders in this world, is called drama" (1. 120).

' Poetics (Eferymans Library), p. 27. ' Ibid. p. 17.

' HJB. Wilson, On the Dramatic System of the Hindu«, Oaloutta, 1827, pt. 1420.


This description Beems to fall in a line with Cicero's view that "drama is a copy of life, a mirror of custom, a reflection of truth". In this state- ment Cicero evidently takes his cue from Aristotle who considered that the art in general consisted of imitation (mimesis). But this does not help us very much to ascertain the nature of drama as an example of 'imitation'.
For the Greek philosopher nowhere defines this very essentially important term. So when he declares that "epic poetry, tragedy, comedy, dythrambics as also for the most part the music of the flute and of the lyre all these are in the most general view of them imitations" 8 , one can at best guess how drama imitates. There seems to be no such difficulty about understanding the view of the Hindu theorists. The Natyasastra lays down very elaborate rules as to how the drama is to make mimicry of the exploits of men and their divine or semi-divine counterparts. It is due to rules of representa- tion that the Hindu drama has been called by the later theorists 'a poem to be seen' (SD. 270-271). By this term epic or narrative poetry and fiction etc. are at once distinguished from drama which is preminently a spectacle including a mimicry of activities of mortals, gods or demigods. It may now be asked what exactly was m-ant by the word mimicry (anukarana) used by the Indian theorists. Did this mean a perfect reproduction of the
» reality ? For an answer to this question we are to look into the con- ventions of the Hindu drama.

2. The Dramatic Conventions

That the Hindu theorists turned their attention very early to the problem of dramatic representation and enquired about the exact placo of realism or its absence in connection with the production of a play, is to be seen clearly from their very sensible division of the technical practice into
"realistic" (tokadAarami, lit. popular) and "conventional" (nalyadAami, lit. theatrical". By the realistic practice, the Na^yasastra (XIV. 62-76 ;
XXIII. 187-188) means the reproduction of the natural behaviour of men and women on, the stage as well as tho cases of other natural presentation.
But from the very elaborate treatment of the various conventions regarding the use of dance, songs, gestures and speeches etc. by different characters it is obvious that tho tradition of the ancient Hindu theatre recognised very early the simple truth that the real art to deserve the name, is bound to allow to itself a certain degree of artificiality which receives its recognition through many conventions. One very patent example of this conventional practice on the stage; is speeches uttered 'aside' or as soliloquy. The advocates of extreme realism may find fault with these as unnatural, and the accusation cannot be denied, but on closer examination of circumstances connected with the construction of a play as well as its production on the stage, it will be fouud that if the spectators are to demand realism very

• BMtfc»,p.6-


rigidly then no theatrioal performence of any value, may be possible.
Neither the Hindus nor the Greeks ran after this kind of absurdity. Critics of ancient Indian dramas will do -well to remember this and to take care to understand the scope and necessity of various conventions relating to the production, so that they may better appreciate the art of great play-wrights like Bhasa, Kalidasa, ikdraka and Visakhadatta.

3. Time and place in Drama

Hindu playwrights, unlike the majority of Greek tragedians, did never make any attempt to restrict the fictional action to a length of time roighly similar to that taken up by the production of a drama on the stage.
In developing plots they had not much restriction on the length of time, provided that, individual Acts were to include incidents that could take place in course of a single day, and nothing could be put in there to interrupt the routine duties such as saying prayers or taking meals (XX 23), and the lapse of time between two Acts, which might be a month or a year (but never more than a year)' was to be indicated by an Introductory Scene
(pravesaka) preceding the last one (XX. 27-28).

Similarly there was almost no restriction about the locality to which individual Actors, and gods in their human roles were to be assigned, except that the human characters were always to be placed in India i.e.
Bharatavarsa (XX. 97).

4. The Unity of Impression

In spite of having no rules restricting the time and place relating to different incidents included in the plot of a drama, the playwright had to be careful about the unity of impression which it was calculated to produce.
For this purpose the Natyasastra seems to have the following devices :

The Germ (Hj'a) of the play as well as its Prominent Point (iindu) was always to relate to every Act of the play and the Hero was sometimes to appear in every Act or to be mentioned there (XX. 15, 30).

An Aet was not to present too many incidents (XX24), and such subsidiary events as might affect the unity of impression on their being directly presented, were merely to be reported in an Introductory Scene.
Besides this, short Explanatory Scenes were sometimes put in before an
Act to clarify the events occuring in it (XXI). 106-111. All these, not only helped the play to produce an unity of impression but also imparted to its plot a rapidity of movement which is essential for any kind of successful dramatic presentation.

5. Criticism of Drama

Indians from very early times considered plays to be essentially spectacle' (Jrekea) or 'things' to be visualised ; hence persons attending

• BhaTabhwti however violates the rule in his Uttara. in letting many years paw between Acts I and II.


the performance of a play were always referred to (XX VII. 48-57) as
'spectators' or 'observers' (prehataY and never as audience (srotr), although there was always the speech element in it, which was a tiling to be heard.
This disposes of the question of judging the value of a drama except in connection with its production on the stage This importance of the representational aspect of a play has possibly behind it an historical reason.
Though in historical tiuies wo find written dramas produced on the stage, this was probably not the case in very early times, and the dialogues which contribute an important part of the drama wore often impro- vised on the stage by the actors", and this practice seems to have continued in certain claws of folk-plays till the late medieval times' ".
Hence the drama naturally continued to be looked upon* by Indians as spectacles oven after great playwright creators like Blusa, Kalidasa,
SOdraka, and Bhavabhuti had writt-n their dramas which in spite of their traditional form were literary master-pieces.

Now, dramas being essentially things to be visualised, their judgement should properly rest with the people railed upon to witness them. This was not only the ancient Hindu view, even the modern producers, in spite of th<ir enlisting the service of professional (dramatic) eritics, depend actually on the opinion of the common people who attend their performance. The judgement of the drama which is to depend on spectators has been clearly explained in the theory of the Success discussed in tho Natya- sastra (XXVII). In this connection one must remember the medley of persons who usually assemble to witness a dramatic performance and what varying taste and inclinations they might possess. For, this may give us some guidance as to what value should be put on their judgement which appear to have no chance of unity. In laying down the characteristics of a drama the Natyasastra has the following : "This (the Niitya) teaches duty to those bent on doing their duty, love to those who "are eager for its fulfilment, and it chastise* those who are ill-bread or unruly, promotes self- restraint in those who are disciplined, gives courage to coward*, energy to heroic persons, enlightens men of poor intellect and gives wisdom to the learned. Ihis gives diversion to kings, firmness [of mind] tcpersons afflicted with sorrow, and [hints of acquiring] wealth to those who arc for earning it, and it brings composure to persons agitated in mind. The drama as I

•• Tho Kr,„akirtana, a collltfo, of MidH, J^T"* Vo11 » «*■>» in our early boyhood that «teZ3 , *■»"«« ol.dnm.. We M w

theatre whi^ depend ol ZSJl'^ """"*"*» '^^ -*»


havo devised, is a mimicry of actions and conducts of people, which is rich in various emotions and which depicts different situations. This will relate to actions of men good, bad and indifferent, and will give courage, amuse- ment and happiness as well as counsel to them all" (1.108-112).

It may bo objected against the foregoing passage that no one play can possibly please all the different types of people. But> take this view of a dramatic performance, is to deny its principal character as a social amusement. For, the love of spectacle is inherent in all normal people and this being so, every one will enjoy a play whatever be its theme, unless it is 'to contain anything which is anti-social in character. The remarks of the author of the Natyasastra quoted above on the varied profits the specta- tors will reap from witnessing a performance, merely shows in what diverse ways different 'types of plays have thoir special appeal to the multitu- dinous spectators. And his very detailed treatment of this point, is for the sake of suggesting what various aspects a drama or its performance may have for the spectators. This manysidedncss of an ideal drama has been very aptly summed up by Kalidasa who says, "The drama, is to provide satisfaction in one [place] to people who may differ a great deal as regards their tastes" (Malavi. 1.4). It is by way of exemplifying the tastes of such persons of different category that the Natyasastra says :

"Young people are pleased to sec [the presentation of] love, the learned a reference to some [religious or philosophical] doctrine, the seekers after money topics of wealth, and the passionless in topics of liberation.

Heroic persons are always pleased in the Odious and the Terrible
Sentiments, personal combats and battles, and th/3 old people in Puranic legends, and tales of virtue. And common women, children and uncultured persons are always delighted with the Comic Sentiment and remarkable
Costumes and Make-up" (XXV. 59-61).

These varying tastes of individual spectators were taken into consi- deration by the author of the Natyasastra when ho formulated his theory of the Success. The Success in dramatic performance was in his opinion of two kinds, divine (dat'viki) and human (nianum) (XXVII. 2). Of these two, the divine Success seems to be related to the deeper aspects of a play and came from spectators of a superior order i.e. persons possessed of culture and education (XXVII. 16-17), and the human Success related to its superficial aspects and came from the average spectators who were ordinary human beings. It is from these latter, who are liable to give expression to their enjoyment or disapproval in the clearest and the most energetic manner, that tumultuous applause and similar other acts proceeded
[(XXVII. 3, 8-18, 13-14), while the spectators of the superior order gave
[their appreciation of the deeper and the more subtle aspects of a play sXXVII, 5, 6, 12, 16-17). During the medieval times the approval of the
Spectators of the latter kind .came to bo considered appreciation par


excellence and pro-occupied tho experts or learned critics. They analysed its process in every detail with the greatest possible care in their zealous adherence of Bharata's theory of Sentiment (rasa) built upon what may bo called a psychological basis.

But in spite of this later development of this aspect of dramatic cri- ticism it never became the preserve of specalists or scholars. Critic* never forgot that the drama was basically a social amusraent and as such depen- ded a gr eat deal for its success on the average spectator. Even the Natya- sastra has more than once very clearly said that the ultimate court of appeal concerning the dramatic practice was the people (XX. 125-126). Hence a fixed set of rules, be it of the Natyavcda or the Natyasastra was never considered enough for regulating the criticism of a performance. This seems to be tho reason why special Assessors appointed to judge the different kinds of action occurring in a play (XXVI. 6S-69), decided in co-operation with the select spectators, who among the contestants deserved to be rewarded.

6. The Four Aspects of Drama.

Though the Hindu plays are usually referred to as 'drama' all the ten varieties of play (riifia) described in the Natyasastra are not strictly speak- ing dramas in the modern sense. Due to the peculiar technique of their construction and production they would partially at least partake of the nature of pure drama, opera, ballet or merely dramatic spectacle. To under- stand this technique one must have knowledge of the Styles (vrtti) of dra- matic production described in the Natyasastra (XXII). These being four in number are as follows : the Verbal (bharati), the Grand (saltvati), tho
Energetic (arabhali) and the Graceful (iaisiki). The theatrical presenta- tion which is characterised by a preponderating use of speech (in Skt.) and in which male characters are excusivcly to be employed, is said to be in the
Verbal Style (XXII. 25ff.). This is applicable mainly in the evocation of the
Pathetic and the Mervellous Sentiments. The presentation which depends for its effect on various gestures and speeches, display of strength as well as acts showing tho rise of tho spirits, is considered to be in the Grand Style
(XXII. 38 ff). This is applicable to the Heroic, the Marvellous and the
Furious Sentiments. The Stylo which includes the presentation of a bold person speaking many words, practising deception, falsehood and bragging and of falling down, jumping, crossing over, doing deeds of magic and conjuration etc, is called the Energetic one. This is applicable to tho Terri- ble, the Odious and the Furious Sentiments (XXII. 55ff). The presenta- tion which is specially interesting on account of charming costumes worn mostly by female characters and in which many kinds of dancing and sing- ing are included, and the themes acted ralate to the practice of love and ite


enjoyment; is said to constitute the Graceful Style (XXII. 47ff). It is pro- per to the Erotic and the Comic Sentiments.

From a careful examination of the foregoing descriptions one will see that the Styles, excepting the Graceful, are not mutually quite exclusive in their application. On analysing the description of different types of play given in tlio Natyasastra it will be found that the Nataka, the Prakarana. the Samavakara and the Ihamrga may include all the Styles in their presen- tation, while the I)iraa, the Vyayoga, the Prahasana, the Utsrstikanka, the
Bhaiia and the Vithi, only some of those (XX. 88, 96). Hence one may call into question the soundness of the fourfold theoretical division of the Styles of presentation. But logically defective though this division may appear, it helps one greatly to understand the prevailing character of the perfor- mance of a play as it adopts one or more of the Styles, and gives prominence to one or the o^ier. It is a variation of emphasis on these, which is responsible for giving a play the character of a drama (including a dramatic spectacle), an opera or a ballet, Considered from this standpoint, dramas or dramatic spectacles like the Nataka, the Prakarana, the ?amavakara and the Ihamrga may, in their individual Acts, betray the characteristics of an opera or a ballet. The Prahasana, an, one Act drama to be presented with attractive costumes and dance, may however to some extent, partake of the nature of a ballet. The Pima, the Vithi, the Bhaiia, ihe Vyayoga and the
Utsrstikanka are simple dramas devoid of dance and colourful costumes.

III. Literary Structure of the Drama :
1. Ten Types of Play

The Nalaka, To understand the literary structure of the Hindu drama, it will be convenient to take up first of all the Nataka which is the most important of tho ten kinds of play described in the Natyasastra 1 .

(a) Subject-matter and division into Acts.

The Nataka is a play having for its subject-matter a well-known fetory and for its Hero a celebrated person of exalted nature. It describes the character of a person descending from a royal seer, the divine protec- tion for him, and his many superhuman powers and exploits, such as success in different undertakings and amorous pastimes 5 and this play should have an appropriate number of Acts (XX. 10-12).

As the exploits of the Hero of the Nataka have been restricted to his success in different undertakings including love-matters, it is a sort of
'comedy', and as such it can never permit the representation of the Hero's defeat, flight or capture by the enemy or a treaty with him under compul-

1 NS. ignores the Uparopakas. Fortheae scoSD. NL. andBhP. ete.^

sion. Such a representation would negutive the subject of the play whir], is the triumph or the prosperity of the Hero. But all these except his (th,.
Hero's) death, could be reported in an Introductory Scene which may come before an Act. The presentation of the Hero's death was for obvious reasons impossible in a comedy.

The first thing that attracts the attention of reader on opening a
Nataba, is its Prologue (sthapana or prastuvana). But according to th<-
Natyasastra this was a part of the Preliminaries (/mrvaraitna) and was outside the scope of the play proper (V. 171). That famous playwright* like Bhisa, Kalidasa and others wrote it themselves aii'l made it the formal beginning of their dramas, seems to show that they made in this matter an innovation which as great creative geniuses they were fully entitled to.

But unlike the Greek plays the Hindu Natakas are divided into
Acts the number of which must not be le.« than live' or more than dn
(XX. 57). These Acts, however, are not a set of clearly divided scenes a» they usually are in modern western compositions of this category. An
Act of the Hindn drama consists of a series of more or less loosely con- nected scenes* which due to its peculiar technique could not be separated from one another. It has three important characteristics ,

-(i) Only the royal Hero, hi* queen, minister, and similar other im- portant personages are to be mndo prominent in it and not any minor character (XX. 18). This rule seems to be meant for securing the unity of impression which has been referred to before.

(ii) It i9 to include only those incidents which could take place in course of a single day (XX. 23). If it so happens that all the incidents occurring within a single day cannot be accommodated in an Act these
. surplus events are to be reported in a clearly separated part of it, called the Introductory Scene (firaveiaka) where minor characters only can take part (XX. 27, 30). The same should be the method of reporting events that are to be shown as having occurred in the interval between two
Acts (XX. 31). Evidently these latter should be, of secondary importance for the action of play. But according to the Natyasastra these; should not cover more than a year (XX. 28). This al lowance of a rather long period of time for less important events occurring between two Acts of a
Nitaka was the means by which the Hindu playwrights imparted speed to the action of the play and compressed the entire plot distributed through many events over days, months and years within its narrow frame-work suitable for representation within a few hours.

(iii) An Act should not include the representation of events relating to feats of etcessive anger, favour and gift, pronouncing a course, running

' Sao note 2 in IV. below.


away, marriage, a miracle, a battle, loss of kingdom, death and the siege of a city and the like (XX. 20, 21). The purpose of this prohibition was probably that, when elaborately presented in an Act, these might divert much of the spectator's interest from the line of the principal Sentiment which the play was to evoke and might therefore interfere whith the unity of impression which it was to make.

(b) Explanatory Devices

(i) The Introductory Scene. It has been shown before how the
Ililtdu playwrights divided the entire action of the Nataka into two sets of evonts of which the one was more important than the other, and how they represented in its Acts the important set, whereas the less important ones 'were reported, whenever necessary, in an Introductory
Scene giving we the idea of the time that intervened between any two
Acts. This Scene is one of the five Explanatory Devices {arthopaksepaka) which were adopted by the playwright for clarifying the obscurities that were liable to occur due to his extreme condensation of the subject-matter.

The other Explanatory Devices are as follows : The Intimating
Speech (culika), the Supporting Scene (viskam&haka) the Transitional
Scene (ankdvalara) and the Anticipatory Scene (ahkamukha).

(ii) The Intimating Speech. When some points [in the play] are explained by a superior, middling or inferior character from behind the curtain, it is called the Intimating Speech (XXI. 108).

(iii) The Supporting icene. The Supporting Scene relates to the
Opening Juncture only of the Nataka. It is meant for describing some incident or occurrence that is to come immediately after (XXI. 106-107).

(iv) The Transitional Scene. When a scene which occurs between two Acts or is a continuation of an Act and is included in it, relates to the purpose of the Germ of the<play, it is called the Transitional Scene
(XXL 112).

(v) The Anticipatory Scene. When the detached beginning of an
Act is summarised by a male or a female character, it is called the Anti- cipatory Scene (XXI. 112).

(c) The Plot and its Development

The Plot or the subject-matter (vaslu) of a Nataka may be twofold :
"The principal" (adkikarika) and the "incidental" (prasahgiia). The meaning of the principal Plot is obvious from its name, and an incidental
Plot is that in whioh the characters acting in their own interest incidentally furthe^thc purpose of the Hero of the pricipal Plot (XXL 2-5).

The exertion of the Hero for the result to be attained, is to be represented through the following five stages (XXI. 8) : Beginning
(ambha), Effort (prayatna), Possibility of Attainment (pmpti-sqmihavd),


Certainty of Attainment (niyal&pti) and Attainment of the Result
(fhalaprapti). These five stages of the Plot liave five corresponding
Elements of the Plot (XXI. 20-21) such as, the Germ (bija), the Prominent
Point Hindu) the Episode {pataka), tho Episodical Incident (firaian) and the Denouement (karya). Besides these aspects of the action and the
Plot of the Nataka, the elaboration of the latter has been viewed a< depending on its division into the following live Junctions which are a- follows*: the Opening {mukhi), the Progression ipratimukha). the Develop- ment (gariha), the Pause (vimaria) and the Conclusion («;'< vahaiia)-

Aud these have been further subdivided and described to give detailed hints as to how the playwright was to produce a manageable play including events supposed to occur during a long period of time.

Kalidasa's Sakuntalii and Bhiisa's Svapna-vasavadattii are well- known examples of the Nataka '

The Prakarana. The second species of Hindu play, is the Praka- rana which resembles the Nataka in all respect- e«ept that ''it takes a rather less elevated range". \^ Plot is to be original and drawn from real life and the most appropriate theme is love The Hero may ben
Brahmin, merchant, minister, priest, an officer of the king or a leader of the army (XX. 49-51). The female characters include a o-mrtezan or a depraved woman of good family (XX. 33) '. But the court<vun should not meet the Hero when he is in the company of a lady or gentleman of high family, and if the courtezans aud respectable ladies must meet on any account they are to keep their language aud manners undistorted (XX. 55-
56). From these and other features, the Prakarana has been called a bourgeois comedy or comedy of manners of a rank below royalty.

Siidraka's Mrcchakatika and Bhavabhiiti's Malatimadhava are well- known examples of the Prakarana.

The Samavakhra. The Saniavakara is the dramatic representation of some mythological story which relates to gods and some well-known
Asura, who must be its Hero. It should consist of three Acfr which are to take for their performance eighteen Nadikas (seven hours and twelve minutes).' Of these the first Act is to take twelve and the »econd four and the third two Nadikas only. The subject-matter of the Samnvakara should present deception, excitement or love, and the number of characters allowed in it arc twelve. And besides this, metres used in it should be of the compter kind (XX. 63-76).

u.atetheobj^lofdramat.c utriga,, a prohibition which could sadly hare cooled tho

nSTSSu ^ tta * ll *lM« «"<» Ooagrero -Select *pc*im.a. of Hindu

• See" H.H. Witaw, Oo tho Dramatic Sysfe. f tb, Hindus, Occulta, 1887, p. 16.


No old specimen of this type of drama has reached us. Prom the description given in the NatyaSastra it seems that the Samavakara was not a fully developed drama, but.only a dramatic spectacle on the sasis of a mythological story. It naturally became extinct with the development and production of fulfledged literary dramas such as those of Bhasa and

Ihamrga. The Ihamrga is a play of four Acts in which divine males are implicated in a fight over divine females. It should be a play with well-ordered construction in which the Plot of love is to be based on causing discord among females, carrying them off and oppressing [the enemies], and when persons intent on killing are on the point of starting a fight, the imperilling battle should be avoided by some artifice (XX. 78-82).

No old specimen of this type of play has been found. Prom the description givAi in the Natyasastra it seems that the Ihamrga was a play of intrigue, in which gods and goodesses only took part.

The Dima- The l)ima is a play with a well-constructed Plot and its
Hero should be well-known and of the exalted type. It is to contain all the
Sentiments except the Comic and the Erotic, and should consist of four
Acts only. Incidents depicted in it arc mostly earthquake, fall of meteors, eclipses, battle, personal combat, challenge and angry conflict. It should abound in deceit, jugglery and energetic activity of many kinds. The sixteen characters which it must contain are to include different types such as gods, Nagas, Raksasas Yaksas and Pisacas (XX 84-88).

No old or new example of this type of play has reached us. It seems that like the Samavakara this was a dramatic epectacle rather than a fulfledged drama. With the advent of literary plays of a more developed kind, it lias naturally become extinct.

Vyayoga. The Vyayoga is a play with a wcll-kuown Hero and a small number of female characters. The events related in it are to be of one day's duratiou. It is to have one Act only and to include battle, per- sonal combat, challenge and angry conflict (XX. 90-92).

Bhasa's Madhyama-vyayoga is a solitary old specimen of this type of play.

Utsrgtikaiika, The Utsr§tikanka or Aiika is an one-act play with a well-known plot, and it includes only human characters. It should abound in the Pathetic Sentiment and is to treat of women's lamentations and despondent utterances when battle and violent fighting have ceased, and its Plot should relate to the downfall of one of the contending characters
(XX. 94-100).

Bhasa's Urubhanga seems to be its solitary specimen. This type of play may be regarded as a kiud of one-act tragedy.

The Prahasana. The.Prahasaua is a farce or a play in which the
Comic Sentiment predominates* dud it too is to consist of one 'Act only.


The object of laughter is furnished in this, mainly by the improper couducl of various sectarian teachers as well as courtezans and rogues (XX 102-106).

The Mattavilasa and the Bhagavadajjukiya arc fairly old specimens of this type of play.

The Bhana. The Bhana is au one Act play with it single character who speaks after repeating answers to his questions supposed to be given by a person who remains invisible, throughout This play in monologue relates to one's own or mother's adventure. It should always include many movements which are to be acted by a rogue or a Parasite (XX. 108-1 10!.
The Bhanas includod in the collection published under the title Cufur- bhani seem to be old specimens of this typo of play.

The VUlii. The Vithi should be acted by one or two persons- It may contain any of the three kinds of characters superior, middling and inferior (XX. 112-113). It seems to be a kind of a ve*y short one Act play. But one cannot be sure about this ; for no specimen of this type of play has come down to us.

2. Did ion of a Play

(a) The Use of Metre. One of the first things to receive the atten- tion of the Hindu writers on dramaturgy was the importance of verse in the dramatic dialogue. They discouraged long and frequent prose passages on the ground that these might prove tiresome to spectators (XX- 34).
After giving a purmawul place to verse iu drama the Hindu theorist* utilized their detailed knowledge of the structure of metres which varied in ctesuru as well as the number and sequence of syllables or moras in a pkda (XV. 3bff„ XIV. 1-86), for heightening the effect of the words used, by putting them in a appropriate metro. In this respect they framed definite nW a> to the suitability of particular metres to different Senti- ment*. For example, the description of auy uct of boldness in connexion with the Heroic and the Furious Sentiments is to be given in the Arya metre, and compositions meant to express the Erotic Sentiment should be in gentl'' metre- such as Milini and Mandakrauta, and the metres of the iSakkari and the Atidhrti types were considered suitable for the Pathetic
Sentiment (XVII. 110-112). In this regard the Hindu theorists, and for that matter, the Hindu playwrights anticipated the great Shakespeare who in his immortal plays made "all sorts of experiments in metre".

(b) Euphony, After considering the use of metres the author of the
Nityasastra pays attention to euphony and says, "The uneven and even metres which have been described before should be used in composition with agreeable and soft sounds according to the meaning intended.

The playwright should make efforts to use in his composition sweet and agreeable words which can be recited by women.

A Way abounding in agreeable sound and sense, and containing no


obscure or difficult words, intelligible to the country people, having a good

construction, fit to be interpreted with dances, developing Sentiments

becomes fit lor representation to spectators" (XVII. 119-122).

(c) Suggestive or Significant names. Another important aspect of the diction was the suggestive or significant names for different characters in a play. It has been said of Gustave Flaubert that he took quite a long time to find a name for the prospective hero and heroine of his novels, and this may appear to be fastidious enough. But on discovering that the
Hindu dramatic theorists centuries ago laid down rules about naming the created characters (XIX. 30-36), we come to appreciate and admire the genius of the great French writer.

(d) Varisty of languages or dialects. The use of Sanskrit along with different dialects of Prakrit (XVIII. 36-61) must be ascribed to circumstances m the midst of which the Hindu drama grew up. The dramas reflect the linguistic condition of the society in which the early writers of plays lived. As the speech is one of the essential features of a person's character and may profitably be retained unal- tered from the normal. Even in a modern drama dialacts are very often used though with a very limited purpose.

IV. The Ancient Indian Drama in Practice

1. Occasions for Dramatic Performance

The Hindu drama like similar other forms of ancient art and poetry aeems to have been of religions origin, and it developed probably out of jdances and songs in honour of a deity like &va who in later time3 came to styled the great dancer-actor (natarafa). As time passed, the dance rith songs gradually assumed the form of regular dramatic spectacles, and ae range of subjects treated was extended beyond the legends connected ith the exploits of a particular deity. It is just possible that this
Jevelopment of the religious aspect came in course of time to be partially rrested, and plays began to be composed more with a purely secular baracter. And this change considerably loosened its original connexion
|ith the popular deities. Possibly due to this the Hindu drama in the
Btoric period of its career, is found to be acted sometimes for moral edifi- ion as in the case of the Buddhist plays, sometimes for the aesthetic ftjoyment of the elite as in the case of KalidSsa's works, and sometimes
|hononr of a deity as in case of one of Bhavabhttti's plays. In spite of various uses, the Hindu drama unlike its modern counterparts did ftsibly never become an ordinary amusement of everyday life. It was
{ttly on special occasions like a religious festival, a marriage ceremony, ing's coronation, a friend's visit that dramatic performances were held
39 ; AD. 12-14). But among all these ocoasions religious festivals


were the most common for the performancee of drama. It was natural that on such occasions the drama was a popular entertainment as well, the public being then in a holiday mood.

Another fact about the dramatic performances of the Hindus was that these were sometimes held in the form of contests (XXVII. 21-22,
71, 77-79). Different groups of actors vied with one another for the popular appreciation, and reward for their skill in the particular art. This drama, however does not seem to have been a regular feature of the Hindu, as was the case with that of tho Greeks, and theatrioal troups gave, how- ever, performance usually for money without any spirit of rivalry towards others, and were paid by the rich people or the different guilds.

2. The Time of Performance

Except in the midnight or at noon or at the time of the Sandhya prayers, the Hindu dramas could be performed almost at any part of the day or of the night. But this does not mean "that any play could be pro- duced at any allowable time during the twentyfour hours. Though at the command of the patron the Director of a theatrical party could overlook strict rules in this regard, the time of performance was to be regulated according to the nature of the subject-matter of the individual play. For example, a play based on a tale of virtue was to be performed in the fore- noon ; a performance which was rich in instrumental music, and told a story of strength and energy, was to be held in the afternoon, and a play which related to the Graceful Style, the Erotic Sentiment, and required . vocal and instrumental music for its production, was to be performed in the evening ; but in case of plays which related to the magnanimity of the Hero and contained mostly the Pathetic Sentiment, performance was to be held in the morning (XXVII. 88-99).

Though in the modern times dramatic performance is mostly held in the evening, the ancient Indian rules regarding the assignment of a play of a particular type to a particular part of the day or of tho night need not be considered queer ki any way. On the other hand, they appear very much to have been based on a proper understanding of the ever-changeable nature of human personalities. Even if a play based on a tale of virtue
. or of woe, when properly presented on the stage, could be appreciated at anytime, it had better chance of impressing the spectator in the forenoon
, or in the morning, when after the night's sleep and rest, he could be the
Vmost receptive in regard to these Sentiments That a play including a story of energy and strength can better be assigned to the after-noon is to
. be explained on the assumption that on taking rest after meals at the com- pletion the morning's activities, one becomes psychologically more competent to appreciate stories of strength and energy presented on the stage. In a similar manner, a play with love as its principal theme CUt« Jrith


the Erotic Sentimont) may be mora effectively pro3eatcd on the stage in the evening, when after the day's work, one is naturally inclined to enjoy the company of his dear woman, be she his wife or the hetaera.
3. The Playhouse or the Theatre
The Natyasastra describes various types of playhouse, and their different parts have been mentioned to some extent in detail. But in the absence of evidence the like of which has been copiously available in case of the Greek theatre, it cannot be said how far the ancient Indian plays were peformed in specially constructed theatres. It may be possible that only the kings and very wealthy people owned playhouses constructed accor- ding to the Nityyasastra, while dramatic spectacles meant for the common people were heid in the open halls called the Nat-mandir (Natya-mandira) in front of the {Samples, or in a temporarily devised theatre under the cover a canopy, as in *he case of the modern Bengali Yatras which seem to have some resemblance and connexion with the ancient Indian Natya described in the Sastra. One remarkable feature of the playhouses described in the
Natya-sastra is that they are of a very moderate size, the largest among them (meant for mortals) being only thirtytwo yards long and sixteen yards board, capable of accommodating about four hundred (400) spectators.
This is in sharp contrast with the Athenian theatre which sometimes held as many as fifteen thousand (15,000) people.

" The comparative smallness of the ancient Indian theatre was a nece- ssary consequence of the pecular technique of the dramatic production.
For in a larger playhouse the spectators could not all have heard delicate points on which depended in no-small measure the success of a performance.
The inordinately largo Athenian theatre was not much handicapped in this respect, for the Greek drama depended on a considerably different technique. The Natyasiistra describes three main types of playhouse : oblong
(vikrsfa), square (caturasra) and triangular {tryasra). These again might be the large, medium or small, with their length respectively as one hundred and eight, sixtyfoui, and thirtytwo cubits. This gives altogether nine different varities of theatres, viz. (i) the large oblong, (ii) the large- square, (iii) the large triangular, (iv) the medium oblong, (v) the medium square (vi) the medium triangular, (vii) the small oblong,
(viii) the small square and (ix) the small triangular. These nine types can also be measured in terms of damjas instead of that of cubits. This will give us eighteen different diamensions oE playhouse. But the Natya- sastra is silent about the use of the playhouse measured in terms of danQas, and the playhouse of the largest typo measuring 108 cubits in length have been prohibited by the Sastra for tho mortals. And it has been mentioned before that a playhouse more in area than thirtytwo yards long and sixteen

yards broad has been prescribed for them. This should bo divided into three parts : (i) the tiring room (nepathya) (ii) the stage (rahgapitha or rahgasirsa) and (iii) the auditorium (rahgamanfala). Of these the tiringroom would be at one end of the theatre and would measure sixteen yards by four yards. On the two sides of the stage there should be two
Mattavaranis each occupying an area of four yards by four yards and having four pillars. Thus the area to be occupied by the seats of specta- tors would be twentyfour yards by sixteen yards.

The tiring room (nepathya) was the place in which the actors and the actresses put on the costumes suited to the different roles, and from fhis place, the tumults, divine voices {daiva-mni) and similar other acts proceeded. This part of the theatre was separated from the stage by two screens over its two doors, Between these two doors the members of the orchestra {kulapa) were to sit and the direction facing them was to be considered conventionally the east.

4. The Representation

To understand the technique of representation of the Hindu drama one must remember that it avoided stark realism and gave utmost scope to imagination and fancy. The one unmistakable evidence of this is the total absence of any painted scenery from the stage. This is but a- negative side of it. If the Hindus avoided bringing in any kind of artificial scenery, they made positive efforts in communicating the meaning of the drama and calling forth the Sentiment (rasa) in the spectators through suggestive use of colour in the costume and make up of the actors and rhythmic movements of many kinds which have been summed up in their theory of four representations (abhinaya) such as angika, vaeika, aharya, and sattvika (VI.23).

(a) The Physical Representation

Among these, the ahgika should be discussed first. This consists of the use of various* gestures and postures of which the Natyasastra gives elaborate descriptions. Different limbs have been named and their manifold gestures and movements described, with various significance attached to each one of them (VIII.-XII). For example, the head has thirteen different gestures which are as follows :

Akampita : Moving the head slowly up and down.

Kampita: when the movements in the Akampita head are quick and copious. (Uses) : The Akampita head is to be applied in giving a hint, teaching questioning, addressing in an ordinary way (lit naturally), and giving an order.

The Kampita head is applicable (lit. desired) in anger argument understanding, asserting, threatening, sickness and intolercnce.

Dhnta and Vidhuta : A slow movement of the head is called the


Dhuta and when this movement is quick it is called Vidhuta. (Uses) :
The Dhuta head is applicable in unwillingness, sadness, astonishment confidence, looking side ways, emptiness and forbidding.

The Vidhuta head is applied in an attack of cold, terror, panic, fever and the first stage of drinking (i. e. intoxication).

Parivahita and Udvahita : when the head is alternately turned to two sides it is called the Parivahita, and when it is once turned upwards it is known as the Udvahita. (Uses) : The Parivahita head is applicable in demonstration, surprise, joy, remembering, intolerence, cogitation, concealment and [amorous] sporting.

The Udvahita head is to be applied in pride, showing height, looking high up, self-esteem and die like.

Avadhuta ! When the heaPIs once turned down it is called the
Avadhuta. (Usts) : it is to be applied in [communicating] a message involking a deity, conversation and beckoning [one to come near].

Aflcita : When the neck is slightly bent on one side the Aflcita head is tha result. (Uses) : It is applicable in sickness, swoon, intoxication anxiety and sorrow.

Nihaficita : when two shoulder** are raised up with the neck bent on one side the Nihaficita head is produced. (Uses) : It is to be used by women in pride, Amorousness (vilasa), Light-heartedness (laltla).
Affected Indifffirence {bibboka), Hysterical Mood (kilakinciia). Silent
Expression of Affection (mottayifa), Pretented Anger (kuttamitaY ;
Paralysis {stambha) and Jealous Anger (matia).

Paravrtta : when the face is turned round, the Paravrtta head is the result. (Uses) : It is to be used in turning away the face, and looking back and the like.

Utk§ipta •. when the face is raised up the Utks.ipta head is the result. (Uses) : It is used indicating lofty objects, and application of divine weapons.

Adhogata : The head with the face looking downwards is called the Adhogata. (Uses) : It is used in shame, bowing [in salutation] and sorrow. Parilolita : when the head is moving on all sides, it is called
Parilolita. (Uses) : It is used in fanting, sickness, power of intoxi- ation, possession by an evil spirit, drowsiness and the like.

The eyes are similarly to haw different kinds of glances according to the States {bhava) and Sentiments {rasa) they are to express. The eyeballs too are liable to similar changes to creat impressions of different feelings and emotions, and so have the eyebrows, tho nose,

1 For the definition of all these terms together with the preceding ones see NK
XXIV. 15,18-82.


the cheeks, the chin, and the neck. The hands, however, are the most important limbs in the making of gestures. Gestures and movements of hands fall into three classes, viz. single {asamyula), combined (samyuta) and dance hands (nrtta-hasta). Single-hand gestures and movements relate to one hand only, while combined hands to both the hands, The following are examples of the three kinds of hand gestures r— Pataka
(single hand) : The fingers extended and close to one another and the thumb bent. A»jali (combined hand) Putting together of the two Pataka hands is called the Afijali. Caturasra (dance-hand) : The Katakamuk.ha hands held forward eight Aiigulis apart [from each other] on one's breast, the two shoulders and elbows on the same level- Besides these gestures, the hands have varied movements which are characterised by the following acts : drawing upwards, dragging, drawing out, accepting, killing, beckon- ing, urging, bringing together, separating, protecting, releasing, throwing, shaking, giving away, threatening, cutting, piercing, squeezing and beatingdX. 161-163).

Prom the foregoing discussion about the gestures it is apparent that their uses fall into two different categories, viz. realistic and conven- tional. Of these two types, the gestures used conventionally far outnumber those of the other kind. But this should not appear strange. For the ancient Indian dramatists and theatrical producers were fully conscious of the limited scope of realism in arts of various kinds, and hence they conceived action as comething very closely allied to dance. This demanded that while moving on the stage with or without uttering any word, the actors should gesticulate rhythmically, to impart grace and decorative effect to their figure. For this very purpose another set of gestures called
Dance-hands (nrtlahasta) are also to be used. As their name implies these hands were exclusively to be used in dance, but for reasons men- tioned above -they were sometimes utilized at the time of declamation or recitation. Tjjte lower parts of the body down to the Jfeet are also to be similarly used. Among these, the feet are the most important On them depend the different movements of the entire body as well as the various standing postures. The movements of the feet are of three kinds, viz. ordinary gait, Cari and Mandala, Of these, the Can is a simple movement of the feet (XI.) while Mandala, is a series of such movements considered together (XII.) During the stage fighting the two combatants are to move with Carls and Mandalas in accompaniment with suitable music And the gait is very valuable for the representation of different roles- In this matter too convention plays a very considerable part. The
Natya&istra lays down elaborate rules about the width of footsteps and the tempo of the gait for different characters according to their social position, age, sex v health and feeling as well as the peculiar environments in which they might be placed (XEU. 1-157).

(b) The Vocal Representation

The second means of theatrical representation consists of the use of speeoh. It relates to the proper musical notes (svara) voice registers
(sthatu), pitch of vowels (varrta), intonation (kukri), speech-tempo (laya) to be used in reciting or declaiming a passage for the purpose of evoking different Sentimente (rasa) in the spectators. For example to call forth the Comic and The Erotic Sentiments a passage should be recited with tho
Madhyama and the Paiicama notes, and for the Heroic and the Marvellous
Sentiments the Sadja and the Rsabha would be the suitable notes.

To call a person staying at a distance the voice should proceed from the head register (iiras) and when he is at a short distance it should be from the chest {.uras), and for calling a man at one's side the voice from the throat register (kantka) would bo proper (XIX. 43).

For any speech with the Comic and the Erotic Sentiments the prevail- ing pitch would be Udatta (acute) and Svarita (circumflex) while in the
Heroic, tho Furious and the Mervellous Sentiments it should be Udatta and Kampita.

In the Comic and the Erotic Sentiments the speech-tempo should be medium, in the Pathetic slow, and in the other Sentiments a quick tempo is appropriate (XIX. 59).

Besides the above aspects of speech, close attention was to be given in observing rhythm and cadence. And the metrical character of any passage in verse was to be fully expressed in its recitation or declamation.
For this propose the Natyasastra devotes nearly two full chapters (XV,
XVI) which discuss prosody and allied topics.

(c) The Costumes and Make-up

One important element in theatrical representation now-a-days is the various stage appliances such as, painted scenery, costumes and make-up
However able the actors aud actresses might be in delivering the speeches assigned to their roles, without being placed against properly painted scenery and without having proper costumes and make-up, by their acting and delivery alone they cannot create that kind of stage-illusion which is necessary for the success of a dramatic production. But in the ancient Indian stage thero was no painted scenery. Hence the actors had to depend a great deal upon costumes and make-up. By the term ShSryabhi- naya the Hindu theorists understood these two items (XXIII)..

Though painted scenery is considered indispensable iu tho modern, theatre, tho aucient Indians having a considerably different conceptiou of the drama, did not require its aid for the production of a play. The wall that separated the tiring room (nepathya) and the stage (raitgapiiha) together with the screens covering the two doors connecting the stage aud the tiring room, served as tho back-ground to show off to advantage tho


figures of the performers. And these, the wall and the screens, possibly did not contain anything other than the usual decorative designs. This simplicity in the character of the scenic apparatus was a nacesscry con- comitant of the peculiar technique of the Hindu drama, and its cause may be looked for in ite early history. The introduction of magnificent scenery appears to be a later development in the history of drama.
Similarly the back scene of the Shakaspearean stage consisted of a bare walli and anything in the way of spectacular effect was created by the movements and grouping of actors

The production of an impression by means of painted scenery would have been alien to the taste of the ancient Hindus who were more or less conscious of the limitation of realism in their various arts. In order to make the spectators visualise the place and time of the dramatic story in hand, the Hindus had a different device. Numerous descriptions of place and time composed in rhythmic prose and verse, which are scattered over the classical Hindu plays, served very efficiently indeed the purpose of painted scenery. When properly read or sung, these passages very easily created an illusion of the place or the time described. The elaborate description of Vasantasena's magnificent reisdence in the Mrcchakatika was calcu- lated to call up vividly its picture before the mind's eye. The same thing may be said of the grand description of the Dandaka forest in the Uttararamacarita. This device of making a scene lively, has been utilized by Shakespeare also. In appreciation of his very beautiful des- cription of place and time, one critic says "The plays are full of such des- criptive passages as can nullify the achievements of decorators and mechanics." It has already been mentioned that in the Shakespercan stage too painted scenery was unknown.

There being no scenery of any kind in the Hindu theatre which made no effort at realism, the spectators were required to use their imagination to the utmost. The demand on tho spectator's imagination made by the ancient Indian producers of plays was further testified by their rules of conventional Zonal division (kaksa-vibhaga) of the stage (XIV. 1-15).
Some of these are as follows :

A Zone might change with the actor walking a few steps over the stage.'' Any ancient Hindu play will furnish numerous examples of this convention. For etample in the first Act of the Sakuntala tho king appears for the first time at a distance from Kanva's hermitage, but shortly after- wards he enters it by simply taking a few steps over the stage, looking around and saying. "This is the entrance of hermitage and let me enter it".

By the same kind of convention the inside and outside of a house was

> Dae to this kind of convention, scenes of the Hindu plays ware not clearly separated as thay aro in a modern drama. This puzzled J?. Hall who says :


simultaneously presented. 8 The rule relating to this was as follows :
According to the Zonal division, those who entered the stage earlier should be taken as being inside [a house] while those entering it later are known to be as remaining outside it. He who enters the stage with the intention of seeing them (ie. those entering earlier) should report himself after turning to the right. To indicate going to a distant locality one is to walk a good few steps over the stage and to indicate going to a place near by, a short walk only is needed, while a walk of medium duration will indicate going to a place of medium distance, But in case a person leaves one country and goes to a distant land, this is to bo indicated by closing the Act in which such an event occurs, and mentioning again the same fact in an Explanatory Scene at the beginning of the next Act.

An example* of some of these conventional rules occurs in the ninth
Act of the Mrftchakatika where Sodhanaka appears first as being at the gate of the court of justice and enters it by making a pantomimic move- ment ; then again he goes out to receive the judge and re-enters, the court- room after him by simply walking over the same stage. And when the judge has started work, Sodhanaka again goes out to call for the complain- ants. This going out also consists of actually walking a few steps over the stage.

Though painted scenery was not in use in the Hindu theatre objects like hills, carriages, aerial cars, elephants etc, were represented on the stage by suggestive models {putta) of these. According to the Natyasastra the model works were of three kinds, viz. sandhima which was made up of mat, cloths or skins, wrapping cloth, or other materials wrapped round something, and vyajt'ma which was a mechanical contrivance of some kind
From Dhanika, the commentator of the Dasarupa (II. 67-58), we learn about a model-work of an elephant for the production of the Udayana- carita, and the Mrcchakatika owes its name to the toy cart which plays an indispensable role in the story-

(d) The Temperament

The fourth or the most important means of representation is the
Temperament (sattva) or the entire psychological resources of a man
(XXIV), The actor or the actress must for the time being feel the
States that he or she is to represent, and only then will the Sentiments
[related to them follow. This kind of reprsentation was indispensable for giving expression to various delicate aspects of men's and women's emotional nature.

So far as is known, Hindu dramas have always been parted into acts ; but never ave they had scenes. It is somewhat to be wondered at, that the Hindus, wi h their
'ordinate love tor subdivision, should have left those univented. (Introduction to
)asantpa, pp. 28-29. » Secnote 2 above.

V. Literature on the Ancient Indian Drama

1. The Early Writers

Silalin and Krmva. Panini (circa 500 B;0.) refers (IV. 3.110-111) to the Natastttras of Silalin and Krsasva. As the works of these two authors hare perished beyond recovery we are not in a position to have any exact idea about their contents. But LeVi and Hillebrandt have taken them to be manuals for actors (nata) though Weber and Konow have con- sidered those to have been sets of rules for dancers and pantomimists, and
Keith has accepted their view. Konow further thinks that the treatises of
Silalin and Krsasva were absorbed in the body of the Natyasastra (ID. p. 1)

2. The so-called sons of Bharata

After Silalin and Krsasva come the writers whose, names have been included in the list of the one hundred sons of Bharata, given in the extant version of the Natyasatra. (I. 26-22). Among these Kohala, Dattila
(Dhurtila), Salikarna (Satakarna), Badarayana (Badari), Nakhakutta and
Asmakutta have been referred to and quoted by later writers as authorities on dramaturgy and histrionics. Beside3 these, Vatsya and Sandilya have beon named as authorities on drama by some writers. Such references and quotations are our only source of knowledge of them and their work.

(a) Kohala Among the writers on drama who wrote after Silalin and Krsasva, Kohala seems to be the most important. In the extant version of the Natyasastra (XXXVI. 63), it is given in the form of a prophecy that Kohala will discuss in a supplementary treatise all those topics on drama that have not beon touched by Bharata. Prom quotations of his works made by Abhinava 1 and another commentator, 2 as well as from their references to his opinion, it appears that Kohala wrote on dance and dramaturgy as well as historionics and music.

(b) Dattila, Hamjilya, and Vatsya, Dattila seems to be identcal with Dantila or Dhurtila mentioned in the Natyasastra (I. 26). Abhinava too quotes from one Dattilitcarya 3 and it is likely that he is not other than this Dattila. From these quotations .it appears that he wrote on histrionics and music. Sandilya and Vatsya montioned in the
Natyasastra (XXXVI. 63) along with Dattila (Dhurtila) are to us nothing but mere names. It is possible that they were writers on somo aspects of drama and theatre.

» Ag I. pp. 173, m, 183-184; II p. 26, 55, 130, 133, 142, 116, 148. 151,155,
407,416-417,421,434,438-439,413,452,459; De* Ms. p. 413, 436, 496 521 680

• BhP. pp. 204. 210, 236' 245, 251.

' Ag. I. p. 205, Besides this Ag. quotes and refer* t ) Dattila in less than 14 times while eomenting on chapter on ibmc. See Do's Ms. pp. 544, 573, 576, 580 583, 588 590
621, 6^628, 68, 631, 640, 642, 644, 650, 655. See also Ku«» »1 123


(c) Satakaryi (fatakatwh &Mkarna). Satakariii as a proper name is found in inscriptions from the first lecntury B. C. to 149 A. C. Hence it is possible (though not quite certain) that fcktakarni the writer on drama flourished about the first century A. C* Like kings in later times who were sometimes found to take interest among other subjects in drama and poetics and to write treatises on them, this Satakarni might well have been a king or a person of royal descent From the quotations made by later writers 3 from him it appears he wrote on dramaturgy.

(d) Asmakutta and Nakhakutta. These two writers from their nanws appear to have been contemporaries, probably belonged to the same locality. Sagaranandin 9 and Visvanatha' quote from Nakhakutta, and
Sagara only is, known to have quoted from A^makutta 8 , Prom these quotations it appears that AiSmakutta and Nakhakutta wrote on dramaturgy. ,

(e) Ebdarayana [Badari). Sagara quotes from Badarayana twice 9 and possibly names him once as Badari, and from the extracts quoted it seems that this early writer discussed dramaturgy.

3. Samgraliakara

Abhinavagupta once mentioned the Samgraha and once the Sam- graliakara. 10 In the Natyasastra (VI. 3, 10) itself also one Samgraha has been mentioned. It seems that the reference is to the identical work.
From those facts it appears that the work might have been a compendium treating of dramaturgy as well as liistrionics.

4. The Present Text of the Natyasastra (circa 200 A.C.). 11
5. Medieval Writers on Drama

(a) Nandi (Nandikesvara) Tumburu Visakhila and Camyana.
Besides the writers mentioned above Abhinava and Saradatanaya refer to
Nandi or Nandike&vara 1 2 and the former also names Tumburu" and
Visakhila 1 4 with occasional reference to their views or actually quotations from them, and Carsiyana has once been quoted by Sagaranandin. 15

(b) Sadimva, Padmablm,- Drauhini, Vy'usa and Ahjaneya.

4 Select Inscriptions, pp. 191-207.

• NL. 1101-1102, Rucipati's Comm. on AR. p. 7.
« NL. 2768-2769, 2904-2905.

' SD. 294, Nakhakutta has also bean mentioned by Bahmwpa in his Comm. on
Dasampa (Indian and Iranian Studies presented to I). Ross, Bombay, p. 201), p. 201 f,n.

• 83,437.27663707, 2774-2775. ' NL. 1092-1094, 2770-2771.

10 Ag. II. pp. 430, 2770-2771. ,l Sec below sections VI. and VIH.

** Ag. I. p, 171, Do's Ms. p. 559. This Nandikesvara may bo identical with the author of the AD. l ' Ag. I. pp. 165.

1 4 Ag. I. p. 199 also De's Ms. pp. 547, 561, 5C3, Soo also Kutfa, si. 123.
" NL. 862-363.


Abhinava and iWadatenaya once refer to Sadasiva 1 " while some writors on drama, such as Padmabhn, 1 ' Drauhini, 18 VyaW and Injaneya* 1 ' have boon named by Saradatanaya only. But we are not sure whether they were really old authors or these names have been attached to some late treatises to give them an air of antiquty.

(c) Katyayatta, Rahula and Getrga. These three writors, quoted by Abhinava and Sagara may be counted among tJjo medieval writers on on drama. Prom the available extracts from his work Katyayana 81 seems to have been a writer on dramaturgy. Rahula has been twice quoted in
Abhinava's commentary, and Sagara" has once referred to his view. 78
Prom these it appears that Rahula was a writer on dramaturgy as well as histrionics. Garga as an authority on drama has been mentioned by Siigara- nandin.' 4 In the absence of any quotation from him we cannot say what exactly he wrote about-

(d) Sakaligarbha and Gkaqtaka. Abhinava mentions among others the names of SSakaligarbha* 6 and Ghantaka. 78 Of these two, Ghaiuaka seems to bo a contemporary of Sanknka, and as for, Sakaligarbha, we have no definite idea about his time. Prom the references to their views it appears that they wrote on dramaturgy.

(e) Variika-kara Harm. Abhinava once quotes from the Varti- kakrt 17 and once from the Vartika 18 and neifc time from tho Harsa- vartika, 10 and besides this he once refers to tho views of the Vartika- karl. 80 Sagaranandin and Saradatanaya refer to one Harsavikrama 8 ' or
HarRa. 85 It seems possible that they all referred to the same author, and tho name of the author of the Vartika was Harsa or Har§a-vikrama-
Prom these quotations and the references it appears that this Vartika was an original treatise on dramaturgy and histrionics.

(f) Matrgupla. Matrgupta has been taken to be a commentator of the Natyai&tra by Sylvain Levi. 33 Though this view has been accepted by authors who have written later on tho subject, 8 * from the metrical extracts 5 3 made from his work by some commentators it appears

'• BhP. 152, DR. IV. 38-3). " Bh'*.p. 47. " BhP. p. 239.

•» BhP. 251. •• Soenotol9. " NL. 1484-1485. Ag. II. pp. 245-246.

>■ Ag. I. pp. 115, 172. NL. 2873-2175. •• NL. 3225. " NL.3226.

• ■ Ag. II. p. 452. Kavi thinks that Sakaligarbha - .Sakaleya- Udbhala.

" Ag, II. p. 436.

" Ag. I. p. 172. This Vmrtika seams to have been in original work like Kunw- rila's Slokavnrtika written in verso. •■ Ag. I. p 174.

" Ag I. p. 207 alsoDe'9Ms.p.545. •• Ag.Lp.31.

»• NL.3225. ■■ BhP. 23*. ■■ Le Theatre indien p. 1 5.

" e. g. Skt. Poetics, Vol. (p. 32-33).

'» A. dy pp. 2, 0,7, 8, 9, 13, 15. 110, 126, 230, NL. 102, 314-316, 459-471, 534,
1186(?), BhP. p. 234.


that he composed an original work on the subject. It is probable that in this he occasionally explained in prose the view expressed by the author of the Natyasastra.' 6 Interpreting in thia manner one can understand the words of Sundara-nrisra, who, commenting on Bharata's definition of the
Benediction (nandi), remarks that 'in axplaining this Matrgupta said etc'." About the time of Matrgupta, we have no sufficient evidence. All that can be said is that, Abhinava quotes from his work once 88 and hence he [was earlior than this great well-known commentator,. Besides this
Sagaranandin, who is possibly earlier than Abhinava, names Matrgupta aloitg with old writers such as ASmakutta, Nakhakutta, Garga, and
Badarayana (Badari);'"' hence it appears that he was not a late writer.

From the* meagre information available about him scholars have identified him widh the poet of that name living during the reign of Har§a- vikramaditya of "Kashmir who seems to have been the author of a work on drama called Vartika. This would roughly place his work at the end of the 4th century AC. or in the beginning ofthe5th.' 10 From the extracts made from his works it appears that wrote on dramaturgy and music.

(g) Subandhu, Baradatanaya refers to one Subandhu who wrote on dramaturgy. 41 If it is possible to identify him with the famous author of the Vasavadatta, then he may be placed roughly in the 5th century A.C.

(li) The compilers of the Agnipurut}a and the Visiyudharmottara,
The Agnipurana treats of na{ya, nrtya, and rasa, but this treatment depends considerably on the Natyasastra- There is literal borrowing from this work as well as parapharases of some of its metrical passages in this
1'urana. This portion of the Agnipurana is usually placed after Dandin
(circa. 7th century).** The Vis^udharmottara too treats of nrtta, nafya and abhinaya, and thia treatment too is dependent on the Natyasastra and does not appear to be earlier than the 8th century.

6. Late writings on Drama

(a) Daiarupa. The Dasarupa (DaSarupaka) of Dhananjaya was composed in the last quarter of the 10th century A.C. during the reign of
Munja (Vakpatiraja, II) the king of Malawa. This work, as its name implies, treats of ghe ten principal forms of dramatic works (ritpa) which constitute the subject-matter of chapter XX of the Natyasastra, but it

91 For example Sugars, (NL. 534IT.) discusses Matrgupta's view in his compi- lation which is written in Terse and prose. It seems that this author was his model.

" Skt Poetics Vol, I. pp. 102-103.

" A g. Do's Ms. p. 643. Dr. S. K. De thought that Matrgupta was unknown to Ag. (Skt. Poetics, Vol. i. p. 33) .

" See note 23 above. " Keith, Skt. Drama, p. 291.

41 BhP.p.838. «> Skt. P.oetios, Vol.!- p. 102-103.


actually brings in a few other relevant matters scattered over other parts of this comprehensive work.

Any careful student of the Natyasastra will easily discover that
Dhananjaya in restating the principles of dramaturgy in a more concise and systematic form has carried too far tho work of his abridgment and left out quite a number of important matters. The special stress which he lays on tho literary aspect of drama by his exclusion of its histrionics and other technical sides, very clearly indicates the general decadene of
India's aesthetic culture at the time. With his professed reverence for the rules of tho Natyasastra (ascribed to Bharata), ho seems to have mis- understood the aims and objects of its author who composed his work for the playwrights as woll as the producers of plays. 4 3

But whatever be its limitation, the Dasariipa, and its commentary
Avaloka without which it was only half intelligible, attained in course of time a wido popularity and gradually superseded the Niityasastra which socms to have become very rare with tho passage of time. And the
DaSarupa so thoroughly supplanted other dramaturgic works as existed before its time, that with the exception of the Natya&stra it is the most well-known work on the subject and very frequently drawn upon by the commentators of plays as well as later writers on dramaturgy like

(b) Na{akalaksaiM-ratnako'sa. Slightly earlier than the Dasariipa or contemporaneous with it, 1 4 is the Nitakalaksana-ratuako&i (briefly
Natakalaksana) of Sigarauandin. Till about a quarter of a century ago our only knowledge of the work consisted of a few quotations from it in different commentaries. Bat in 1922 the late Sylvaiu Levi discovered its
Ms. in Nepal and published a report on its contents and other relevant matters (Journal Asiatique, 1922, p. 210). Since then the work has been carefully edited by M. Dillon and published (London, 1937). Just like
Dhananjaya, Sagaranandin too discusses in his NStakalaksjana, dramaturgy in detail aud mentions only incidentally certain topics connected with histrionics. But unlike the Dasariipa tho Natakalaksana does not treat exclusively of dramaturgy, but refers to histrionics whenever necessary.
Though tho author professedly depends on no loss than seven different authorities such as Harsa-vikrama, Matrgupta, Garga, Asmakutta, Nukho- kutta, Badari (Badariiyana), and Bharata (the mythical author of the
Natyasastra) yet his dependence on tho last-named one seems to be the greatest A large number of passages have actually been borrowed by him from the same.' 5 Besides these borrowings the extent of Sagaranandin's

" Ag. I. p. 7.

" See B. Kari, 'Date of Sr'agara-Nandiji ' in Indian and Iranian Studies prewnted to D. Boss. Bombay. 1939. pp, 198ff, ," SeoNL.pp 143-144.


dependence on the NatyssSstra is apparent from his echoing of the numerous passages 46 of the latter.

(c) Natyadarparia. The Natyadarpana 4 ' of Ramacandra and Guna- candra is the next important work on dramaturgy after the Dasariipa. Of the two jouuVauthors* 8 of this text, who were Jains Ramacandra lived probably between 1100 and 1175 A.C., and ho was a disciple of the famous
Hemacandra. Ramacandra wrote a largo number of works including many plays. But of Gunacandra, the collaborator of Ramacandra, very little is known except that he too was a disciple of Hemacandra. T lie
Natyadarparia which is divided into four chapters, treats of dramaturgy.

This work, has been composed in Anustup couplets. Its brevity of the treatment is compareable to that of the Da&ufipa, and as in the latt r many, of its passages cannot be fnlly understood unless a commentary is consulted. Fortunately for us the joint-authors of the work have loft for us a very clearly written and informative vrtti (gloss). It is evident from the metrical text that the authors had access to the Niityasastra and ex- ploited it very thoroughly, And whatever could not bo accommodated in the text has been added in the prose vrlti which has utilised also Abhi- nava's famous commentary. Besides this the authors have occasionally criticised tho views of other writers among whom the author of the Dasu- rupa figures most prominently. 8 " All this has given tho Niityadarpana a unique value and some superiority over the Dasarupa.

(d) Ruyyaka's Natakamimamsa. Ruyyaka alias Rucaka/' T who was a Kashmirian and flourished probably in the 12th century, was a voluminous writer on poetics. It was from one of his works (a commentary of Mahima-bbatta's Vyaktiviveku) that we learn of his NatakaniimKmsa a work on dramaturgy. No Ms. of this work has so far been discovered.

(e) Ehhvapralmana. Soiadiitanaya, who seems to have been a
Southerner and flourished in the 12th century, wrote the Bhavaprakaiana" s which dealt with dramaturgy in greater detail than either the Dasarupa or tho Niityadarpana. And his work acquires an additional authority from the fact that Saradatanaya had as his teacher one Divakara who was tho
Director of a theatre 04 and might be taken as deeply conversant with the theory and practice of Indian drama as it was current in his time. Though
>&radatanaya depends much on earlier authors for the materials of his work, yet his approach to the subject is to some extent original. As the, name of his work implies, it deals with the "expression" firakusa of the

" Printed out by M. Dillon in the margin of HU
" Ed. in G.O.8. Baroda. 1929. <• See Introduction of ND. p.:i.
" But thoy hare also drawn materials from older writers like Kohala, 6'aHkuka and Ag. See ND. p. 224. •' See ND. Introduction p. 3. " Skt. Poetics, p. I90ff.
' > Ibid. p. 186. " Bid. Q.O.S. Baroda, 1930, ' ' BhP. p. 2 also Introduction, p.G.


"State" (ihavd). Now the proper expression of the States by the actors according to the Natyasastra gives rise to the Sentiments (rasa). Hence
Saradatanaya begins his work with the description of the States and everything connected with them- Next ho passes very naturally to the discussion of the Sentiments, These being thoroughly discussed, he takes up the Heroines of different classes who are the main stay of the
Sentiments. The time factor in the plot and the diction of the play which also arc means of developing the Sentiments are considered next.
Afterwards he analyses the body of the play and its different parts.
This brings him to the consideration of the ten major and twenty minor types of play (rtifia), and finally of the miscellaneous matters connected with drama and theatre. To avoid prolixity we desist from giving here any detailed account of its contents which include all' possible topics relating to dramaturgy. It may bo briefly said that • Saradatanaya's treatment of the subject is in many respects more comprehensive than that of the Dasariipa, the Natakalaksana, and the Niityadarpana. And to attain his object Saradatanaya has freely referred to the Natyasastra 65 as well as the works of early writers like KolnuV' Matrgupta, 57 Harsa 08 and Subandhu. 5 " Besides this he has sometimes mentioned authors like
Dhvanikrt, Rudrata, Dhanika, Abhinava, Blioja and, sometimes referred also to their views and criticised these. u All this adds to the great value of his work.

(f) Sahilyadarpana and Nalakaparibhasa, VisvanStha Kaviraja, who flourished about the tli irtocnth century" r was a poet and a scholar and in this latter capacity he wrote among other things the famous
Sahityadrapana which treats all branches of the Skt. literature including drama. It was the sixth chapter of this work dealing with drama on which the early western writers of the ancient Indian drama mostly depended.
For his treatment of drama Visvanatha seems to have utilised tho Natya- sastra,' 1 the DasarUpa" and its commentary Avaloka 64 as well as the
Work of Rudrata and others.

SiAga-Bhupala's Natakuparibhasa is known only in name. But his
Rasarnavasudhakara 85 also treats of drama towards its end, It seems that no important treatise on drama was written after all these works.

-•' >arad«tanaya'a debt to So has been pointed out by the editor of his work, tee Introduction of BhP. pp. 61-0?. '• See above note 1. " See above notes 33-37.

" See above notes 31-32. " Sua abeve note 41.

■° lihP. pp. 175, 179, 95, 150, 327, 82 160, 194, 313, 12, 152. 1U4, 213, 216, 242, 245,
251 • " Ski. Poetics, Vol. 1. pp. 233 ff.

" See SD. 281, 306, 321, 503, 517; 537.

" So SD. Viwan .tha wrongly a aacribed to Dhanika what belong* to DR.UII.
32-33;. This misled some scholars to boliovo that Dhanika and Dhana»jaya were not different persona. • • See Skt. Poetics. Vol. I. pp. 243 ft".

' ' fed. Trivandrura Oriental Series, 1916. .


Vf. The Natyasastra' : The Text aiitf its Commentators
1. Its Author

The If atyasastra is commonly attributed to Bharata Muni. 1 But
Bharata cannot be taken as its author, for in the Natyasastra itself his mythical character is very obvious, and the majority of the Parana? are silent about the socalled author of the Natyasastra*, and there is not a single legend about him in any of the extant Puranas or the Bamayana and the Mahabharata. The word Bharata which originally meant 'an actor' seems to have given rise to an eponymous author of the Rharaiasastra or the Naiakaslra (the manual of actors).

2. lta Two Recensions

Whoever jnight be the author of the Natyasastra it is certain that the work itself possesses undoubted signs of great antiquity, and one of these is that its text is available in two distinct recensions. In having two partly divergent recensions the Natyasastra can well bo compared with works like tho Nirukta, the Brhaddevata and the Sakuntalii.
The editors of these works have differently settled the claims of their shorter and longer recensions. At first sight the tendency would bo to accept tho shorter recension, as representing tho original better, because elaboration would seem in most cases to come later. But opinion is divided in this matter: Pischcl regarded the longer recesion as being nearer tho orginal 3 , Macodonell has also given his verdict in favour of the longer recesion 4 but he has not ventured to reject tho shorter recension entirely as being late, and Lakshinan Sarnp has definitely suggested that tho shorter recension is the oalier one. 5 All these go to show that the problem of the relation between two recensions of any ancient work is not so simple as to be solved off-hand. So in this case also we should not settle the issue with the idea that the longer recension owes its bulk to interpolations. The text-history of tho Natyasastra shows that already in the tenth century tho work was available in two recensions. Dhananjaya the author of the DasarQpa quotes from the shorter recension while Bhoja, who closely follows him, quoted from the longer one. a Abhinava in his commentry of tho Natyasastra, however, used the shorter recension as the basis of his work. 7 It is likely that the longtime which passed since then has witnessed at least minor changes, intentional as well as unintentional, in the

1 Seo IHQ. Vol. VI. 1930. pp. 72 ff, Annals of BORI, Vol. XV, 1934, p. 90 fn.

' See N8X 2-5 note 2. ' KolidW* Sakuntala. HOS. p. XI.

* The Brhaddevata, HOS. Vol. I. p. XVIII-XIX.

* Introduction to the Nighanra and Nirukta, p. 39.

' Preface to Baroda od. of N.V. Vol. I. p. 8. ' Soe above.note 0.


toxtofboth tho reeeMoas. Heaoo the problem becomes stf/1 'mow <<Mm&
But a careful examination of the rival recensions may give us some C/ue to their relative autlicnticity. Bamnkrishna Kavi who has examined no less then forty Mss of the text, is of opinion that the longer recension (which he calls B.) seems to bo ancient, although it contains some interpolation
(pointed at by him) going back to a time prior to Abhinava. 8 Mr. Kavi, however, does not try to explain tho origin of the shorter recension which he calls A. This view regarding the relative authenticity of the longer recension soems to possess justification. Reasons supporting it are to be found in the teste differcntating the two recensions, which are as follows :

(i) Chapters XIV and XV of the shorter recension dealing with prosody introduce tho later terminology of Pingala (ra, ja, sa, na, and bha ganas etc.) while tho longer recension uses terms like laghu and guru in defining the scheme of metres. •

(ii) The shorter recension in its chapter XV gives definitions of metres in Upajilti. while the corresponding ehaptcr (XVI) of the longer recension gives them in Anustup metre and in a different order.
Considering tho fact that tho bulk of tho Natyasastra is written in this
(Anustup) metre tho longer recension in this case seems to run closer to tho original work."

Though Ramakrishna Kavi, has overlooked it, there is yet another point which may be said to differentiate tho two recensions. The chapter dealing with the Natyagunas and Alamkaras have nearly forty slokns difforntly worded in the two recensions. These Slokas in the longer recension (ch. XVII) are written in the usual simple language of the Natya- sastra while (ch. XVI) in tho shorter recension (tho Slokas) betray a later polish. Tho opening stanzas of the chaptar (XVI) in the shorter recension are in Dpajiiti metre while in tho longer recension (ch. XVII) they arc in the iSIoka metre. This points to the earlier origin of the latter for tho bulk of the Natyasastra as has been pointed out before is composed in the same metro. Now the shorter recension which appears to be of later origin, does not seem to be totally devoid of worth. It appears that this has in certain cases preserved what once existed but arc now missing in the longer recension. Tho cases in which the shorter recension gives in a different language the corresponding passages of tho longer recension may be explained by assuming that tho passages in question were probably written from memory of the original in the prototype of the recension.

3. Unity of the Natyasastra

. Some scholars have entertained a doubt tho unity are authorship of the Natya&istra. They think that there are indications that "it (the

* Spe above note 6. ' See above note 6.


XT(yu/$TstraJ /10s 6cea svA/ectctf to cousii/cmM' jnr>A/wMi/# in A&r t/u/tv

before it assumed tiio present s/iaj« "

The .alleged indications may be sumned up as follows :
(i) The colophon at the the end of the KM. text of the Natyasastra.
(ii) The mention of Kohala as the future writer on certain topics in the
Natyasastra (XXXVI. 63). (iii) Bhavabhiili's reference to Bharata
Muni, the socalled author of the Sastra, as the Tauryatrika-sntrakiira.
(iv) The mention of the siitra, the bfiasya and the karika as its constituent parts in the Natyasastra itself along with the the existence of prose passages in it. As for the first alleged indication Dr. 8. K. De has tried to connect the colophon of the Natyasastra (santaptai cayam Nandi-
Bharata-samgitcffiitstakam with the chapter on music only. To Ho opines that the Nandi-Jjharala of the colophon indicates that the chapters on music ( XX VIII-X XXIII) are Bharata's original teaching on the subject as modified by the doctrine of .Nandi. If we could accept the view it would have been easy to believe in the composite authorship of the Natyasastra.
But this does not seem to bo possible for tho following considerations :

(a) The colophon in question stands at tho end of two Mss. copied from the same original and are missing in all the rest of the available Mss.

(b) The word samgita occurring rarely in tho Natyasastra includes according to Siin'igadeva (c. 1300 A.C.) glla (song), vudya (instrumental music) and nrtya or nrtta (dance). Hence the colophon may be taken in relation to the entire text and and not with the chapters on music alone.

(c) Nandi as a writer or authority on samgita alone has not been mentioned anywheres else.

As for the prediction that Kohala will treat certain topics not discussed in the Niityasastra, it may be said that there is nothing in it to show that Kohala is later than the author of this treatise. He was in all likelihood a predecessor or a contemporary of his.

The most important of all the alleged indications of the plural authorship of the Natyasastra is the third one. The idea that the work was originally written in prose and was subsequently turned into verse, arose probably from a misunderstanding of the word siitra. In spite of its tradi- tional definition as alpnkzaram asandigdkam survad vihmlomukham etc. there is nothing iu it to show that tho siitra must always bo iu prose.
Indeed the Niityadarpana-sutra is entirely in verse, and the Saddharma- pundarika'Slltra of the Mahiiyiina Buddhists is partly in verse and partly in prose. In the Mangalacarana slokas of his commentary
Abhinava too mentions the extant Natyasastra as tho Bharatastttra. Thus on taking the siitra in its oldest sense, the theory of tho supposed original prose version of the Niityasiistra falls to the ground. The existence of the prose passages in the Natyasastra does not in the least help this theory, and

•° Skt, Poetics, Vol 1. p. 21. , '■' JM. GCH. Baroda, 1929.


it may bo explained on the assumption that the author found it more con- venient to write certain things in prose. AH this will remove the difficulty in understanding the words of Bhavabhuti who mentioned Bharata as the sulmiSra. 4. It Scope and Importance
It has already been shown what a great variety of topics the Natya- sastra discusses in connection with its principal theme, the dramatic art.
In sharp contrast with almost all the later writers on the subject its author treats of dramaturgy as well as histrionics. In justification of this two- fold aspect of this work Abhinava says that 'it is for the guidance of the producers as well as playwrights' 1 i . As the drama in any form is primari- ly and essentially a spectacle, laws of its production should be considered indispensable for the playwrights. It is a wellknown fact that many good literary dramas often get rejected by the theatrical directors because of their construction being found unsuitable for successful and profitable reperscntation in the stage. The author of the Natyasastra was evidently conscious about this vital connection between the literary and technical aspects of a drama, and treated of both very elaborately. It is a very unique text dealing with every possible aspect of the dramatic theory and practice. It is no wonder therefore that the Natyasastra was often quoted or referred to in later treatieses on gestures, poetics, music, prosody and even on grammar, besides being often laid under contributfon by commen- tators of diffirent Sanskrit and Prakrit plays. And all the later writers on dramaturgy too depended greatly if not cxeusively on this work, and most of them expressly mentioned their debt to the Muni Bharata, the supposed author of the Natyasastra.

5. lis Style and Method of Treatment

In style the Natyasastra differs very largely from all the later writers on drama who professed adherence to it and formulated their rules in a con- cise manner. Those latter are sometimes so very brief, that without the help of a commentator thoy are not easily intelligible. Though some passa- ges remain obscuro without a commentary or similar help yet the major por- tion of the Natyasastra is written in a simple language in the Sloka and the
SryS metres. Though composed mainly in verse, a very small number of its passages are in prose. As the work is in the form of dialogue between
Bharata, its mythical author, and some ancient sages, it has some similarity with the Puranas. One of the charge, brought against the Natyasastra is that it is very diffuse. This is true. On a careful examination of his method of treatment it will be found that the author of the Natyasastra, like :the famous Piinini, treated of the subject analytically. He has taken

" 4*1 p. 7. '» Haas, P.XXVIH.'


up iudividual topics and considered them in every possible detail and has found it necessary to repeat things for the completion of the matter in hand- This ha? given it diffuseness. But the adoption of this method was unavoidable in a technical work which aimed at completeness. This however may be said to have rendered it difficult to some extent- The difficulty with which we moderns are confronted in studying this ancient work, is however primarily due to its discussing an art which has pratically gone out of vogue for quite a long time. That the text was transmitted through a defective Ms. tradition is no less responsible for ocSasional difficulties it presents.

6. The Early Commentators

According to Sarngadeva (SB. I. 1. 9) the commentators' who set themselves to the task of explaining or elucidating the Natyasastra are Lollata, Cdbhata, Sankuka, Abhinavagupta and Kirtidhara.
Abhinava in his commentary refers in addition to Bhatta
Yantra and Bhatta Nayaka who may be taken as commentators of the
Natyasastra, and quotes from of ouo a Bhasya and one Vartika. The Vartika however seems to be an independent treaties on drama though the Bhasya an old commentary. But in the absence of suitable data our knowledge about the date of these commentators and the nature as well as the value of their work, is very inadequate. We are however discussing below what- ever meagre informations may be gathered about them.

(a) Acarya Kirtidhara and Bhusyakaxa Nanyadeva. Abhinava has referred to Kirtidhara only once. 1 * But from the special respect shown him by the commentator who calls him acarya, it appears that Kirtidhara was a very early commentator of the Natyasastra, and as such he was possibly anterior to Bhatta Udbhata and hence may be placed in the 6th or the 7th century. 15 And Nanyadeva 16 quoted by Abhinava as the author of the Bharata-Bha§ya seems to be another early commentator of our text.

(b) Bha\ta Udbhata. Bhatta Udbhata's" opinion has been thrice quoted by Abhinava. As his views were controverted by Bhatta Lollata who flourished in the 8th century it is possible that Udbhata was a person of the early 8th or the late 7th century.™ Though it has been doubted 7 ' whether Udbhata was really a commentator of the Natyasastra, from the reference to his work by Abhinava we may be fairly certain in this matter.

14 Ag.I.p.206. Cf. Skt. Poetics, Vol. I.p,29. T ' Cf. Ski. Poetics, I. p. 39.

1 ' Ho should be distinguished from bis namesake who was a kiug off Mithila in
Iho 12th century (see JASB for 1915, pp. 407 ff.)
" Ag. II. pp. 70, 441, 451, De-s. Ms. pp. 392.
" See Skt. Poetics, I. pp. 76ff.
11 Skt. Poetic, I. pp. 37 ff.


(c) Bhatlfl Lolla{a. Bhatta Lollata has been referred to as many as eleven times.* From these he appears to be a commentator of the
Natyasastra. As the rasa theory of Saiikuka was known to have been lavelled against Lollata's view on :the same, this latter writer nourished possibly in the middle of the 8th century. 51 "

(d) £>ri Haitiuki. Abhinava referred to SrI-Sankuku or Hankuka as many as fifteen times. 5 - About his time wo seem to liavo some definite information. For he is probably identical with the author of the poem
Bhuvanabhyudaya written during the Kashmirian king Ajitiipida whose date is about 818 or 816 A. C. 33

(e) Malta Nayaka. Bhatta NSyaka has been referred to as many as six times by Abhinava. u Besides explaining and elucidating the
Natyasastra, at least in part, he wrote on the Dhvani theory an indepen- dent work named the Hidayadarpaiia. He has been placed between the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. "

(f) BhaUa Yantra, From the single reference to him in Abhiua- va*s commentary it appears that Bhattu Yantra 2 * was a commentator of the Natyasastra. About him nothiug more can be said except that lie pre- ceded the celebrated commentator.

7. Bhatta Abhinavaguplu

Among the commentators of the Niityasistra, Abhinavagupta or Abhi- nava is the most wellknown. But his fame rests also on his commentary on the Dhvanyaloka as well as numerous learned treatises on the Kashmir
Saivism. From the concluding portion of some of his books we learn a few facts of his family history, and on the strength of these lie lias been placed between the end of the 10th and the begining of the 1 1th century. 2 ' From the AbhinavabhSrati we learn that his another name was Nvsimhagupta.- s

Although like any other work of this class it professes to explain the text, Abhiuava's commentary is not always an adequate help for under- standing the several difficult passages of the Natyasastra. This drawback might be due to its defective text tradition, but a careful study of it will convince any one that all ite weak -poiuts cannot be explained away on this assumption alone. There are instances of Abhiuava's not being sure about the explanation offered, for example, the word kutafia is once explained as

" Ag I pp. 208, 260, 279, 299 , II. pp. 134. 196, 415, 423, 436, 452. Dc's Mb p. 380. bkt. Poetics. Vol. I, pp 3S.39.

4i3.«utf;K ,217 ' 274 '^ m ' mai8ilI - pp ' 4iii436 - ije ' 8 ' M8 ' «• ™>

" See Skt. Poetics, I pp :j8-39.

" Ag. I. pp. 4, 26,278, II. p. 298, Dee MS pp. 000, 508.

■• Skt Poetics, I. pp. 39ff. •• Ag. I. p, 208.

•• SktPoetfe 8 ,I.pp.U7tf. »'-S 6 e Ague's. Ms. pp. 428, 611.


'four kinds of musical instruments' 89 and next as 'a group of singers and players of musical instruments'" and then again as 'four of musical instru- ments'," while explaining the mallavararii he gives four different views* 5 and does not give special support to his own preference. Besides this, his explanation in some cases seem to be fanciful. For example, he oxplains khamlana as (meaning) 'also fanning by means of a fan made of palmleaf'.* J This evidently is wrong, for in the same context vyajanakam
'fanning' has been mentioned, and kharf^ana may better be interpreted as
'drawing patterns or designs'. 3 * But such instances are not many. That
Abhinava had as the basis of his commentary a defective text of the Natya- sastra, is apparent from its published portion, and his text was in places to some extent different from any of the versions that have reached us. It is due to this latter fact that sometimes particular passages of the commentary cannot be connected with any portion of the text (given above the commen- tary) iu the Baroda edition. For example, once Abhinava writes "here iire four ca-karas", 3 '" but in the text indicated by the pralika two ca-kuras only are available. And curiously enough a part of this text quoted elsewhere 36 in the commentary corroborates the available reading of the text. Jn another place of Abhinava's commentary we have the word alambhana explained, but we look in vain for it in the text. 37 The same is the case with avyaiireka and agama occuring in the commentary later on. 4 " And some responsibility for its reduced usefulness must be ascribed to the fact that Abhinava had his commentary based on an imperfect text of the Natyasastra.

There is still another reason due to which Abhinava's work does not prove to be quite adequate for our need. It is probably because he wrote the commentary with a view to help scholars of his time, whose knowledge on many things relating to the Indian drama, theatre and general literature he could easily assume, his commentary sometimes falls short of our needs.

But in spite of these limitations Abhinava's work has its value.
Whenever he has to explain any theory or problem concerning the dramatic art or general aesthetics, lie does it very exhaustively by quoting all possible views on the same and often cites examples from a vast number of dramatic and other works some of which have perished. Often he sums up the discussion in a masterly fashion. That he was a voluminous writer on the abstruse philosophical topics gave him some facility in handling such matters. But, for the purpose of reconstructing the theory and practice of the ancient Indian drama, such scholastic discussions arc often not of much value, though students of Indian poetics and aesthetics will surely

a j

Ag. I.p.73. ■» Ag.I.p.65. •» Ag. l.p. 186.

Ag. 1. pp. 64-65. " Ag. X. p. 41. " See note 2 on IX 61-64'

Ag.II.p.34. ■• Ag. I. p. 203. " Ag.II. pJi ,
Ag. II. pp. 9?, 226.


be profited by their perusal. But it must be said of Abhioava's common- tary that it gives considerable help in understanding some difficult passages of the very old obsolete text of the Natyasastra, and for this we should be genuinely greatful to him.

VII, Data of India's Cultural History in the Natyasastra

Besides giving all sorts of information relating to the dramaturgy and histrionics as well as the allied arts of dance and music, the Natya- sastra includes considerable other materials for the cultural historv of
India. The most important among theso will be discussed below under their several heads.

1. Language

The Natyasastra gives some description of Pkt. (XVIII. 1-25) and examples of Dhruva songs in Pkt. (XXXII). From these materials it seems that the Pkt of the Natyasastra lie mid-way between the Pkt. of the classical dramas and that of Asvaghosa's plays. Besides this there occur in this work (XVIII. 44, 48) some references about the. nature of languages used by the ancient tribes liko the Barbaras, Kiratas, Andhras, Dramidas,
Sabaras aud Candiilas. Thare arc besides other interesting matters relat- ing to the language used by men of different professions aud status in life.

2. Literature

In addition to Prakrit verses given as examples of Dhruvas, the
Natyasiistra cites numerous poetical stanzas in Skt. as examples of the
Benediction and of the different metres (V. 108-112, 130-131 : XVI).
These arc very early specimens of the ancient Indian literature. It is on the testimony of these which are free from the artificiality of the later classi- cal poetry, that P. Regnaud placed tho Natyasastra about the beginning of the Christian era (Introduction to Grosset's cd. of the NS. p. VII-VIII).
The Natyasaastra contains also the earliest available discussion on figures of speech (alamkara), and the method of criticism based on the theory of Sentiments (rasa) which became very popular amongst Indian scholars during the medieval times-

3. Art

In the Visnudharmottara (II. 2. 4) it has been "said that tho canons of painting arc difficult to understand without an acquaintance with the canons of dancing. Now the Hindu drama as we have seen before depends a great deal on dance which is in fact its mainstay. The same work similarly connects the canons of painting with the canons of image-making. Thus the three arts being connected with one another, the Najyasastra receives an aditionat importance. This view is justified by the fact that tiw
Natyasastra desoribes various male postures (sthatta) such as Vai«nava,


Saroapada, Vaisakha, Manila, Jlidho and Pratyaiidha (XJ. 50-71), and female postures (sthana) (XIII. 159-169) such aslyata, Avahittha and
Asvakranta. These and the various gestures described in the Natyasastra may also be helpful in studying specimens of the ancient sculpture and painting. It should be noted in this connection that the Samarftngana- sBtradhara a medieval eneyclopoedie work while describlug the rules of making imaees describes (od. GOS. Vol. II. p. 301ff) the hand gestures etc, almost in the language of the Natyasastra.

. 4. Metrics

Piftyeight varieties of metre of soma, ardhasama and visama types have been described in the Natyasastra (XVI). All those are perhaps antorior in timo to the Chandhah-siitras of Pingala. One important aspect of this description is that the name of the following metres are different in tho NS. e.g. Drutavilambita=Harinapluta (Ni3), Bhujangaprayata=
Aprameya (N§>, Srrigvini=Padraini (NS), Malini=Nandimukhi (Ns),
Harini=Vrsabha-cestita (Ni5), Mandakriinta=^ridhara (NS), Pvithvi=
Vilambita-gati (NS), Kusumita-lata-vellit5=Citralekha (NS).

5. Poetics

The Natyasastra enumerates (XVII. 43-106) four poetic figur, s
(alamkara), ten Gunas and ten faults (dosa) of a composition. In brief these may be called the earliest writings on poetics. To the theory of
Sentiment (.rasa) and the States (ihava) (VI-VII) also the same remark applies. 6. Costumes and Ornaments

Detailed descriptions of ornaments, and directions about costumes to bo used by characters in a play according to thoir social status, profession, religious faith, and tribal origin etc. are given in the Natya&istra (XXIII.
1-67, 110-127). These may throw interesting light on the social life of the Indian people in tho remote past.

7. Mythology

The NStyasastra mentions (I-V, XXXIII-XXXIV, XXXVI nu- merous gods, 'goddesses, demigods etc. Classified according to the system adopted by Hopkin in his *Epic Mythology* they are as follows i „

(a) Lower Mythology : Serpont, Birds, Waters, (b) Spirits : Pitrs,
Bhtitas, Rak§asas, Asuras, Daityas, Danavas, Yaksas, Guhyakas. (c) The eight great gods ; Tho Sun-God, tho Moon-God, tho Wind-God, the
Fire-God, the Goii of death, Varuna and Ocean, Indra, the Dikpalas
(World-protector), (d) The Host of Spirits : Gandharvas, Apsafasas,
Kama, Asvins, Maruts, Rudras, Visvedevas, Sdityas, (e) Divine * Seers ■.
Brhaspati, NSrada, Tiimburu, (f) Earthly list's and Personages:


Bala (d.'va), Nalmsa, Sauatkumara. (g) The Three Supreme Deities i
Brahman, Vi51.u1, fiiva. (h) Lesser God : KSrtikcya. (i) Goddesesses :
Sarasvati, Laksmi, TJnra, Parvati, Candika, Siddhi, Medha, Smrti, Mati,
Niyati, Niyyti. It is probably significant that Ganesa and the Avatiiras of
Visnu are absent from this list.

8. Geography. -
In its chapters XIV, XVIII and XXIII the Natyasastra mentions some geographical names such as Anga, Ante (Anti) rgiri, Andhra, AvantI,
Arvnda, Svarta, Snarta, Usinara. Odra, Kalinga, Kasmlra, Kosala, Khasa,
Tamralipta, Tosala, Tripara, Daksinatya, Dramida, Nepala, Paftcala, Puli- nda (bhiimi), Paundra, Pragjyotisa. Pramsu-pravrtti, Plavamga, Bahir- giri, Brahmottara (Suhmottara), Bhargava, Magadha, Madraka, Malav- artaka, Maharastra, Margava, Malava, Mahendra, Mosala, ( Vauga.
Vatea, Vanavasa, Vartika (Martika), Vahlika, Vidisa, Vidcha, Siiraseua,
SSiilaka, Sindlui, Surastra, Sauvira, Gaiiga, Carmanvati, VetravatT, Mahen- dra, Malaya, Sahya, Mekala, Kalapaiijara, Himalaya, Vindhyn, Bhiirnta.

9. Ethnological Data.

The names of the following tribes occur in the Natyasiistra.
Kiisi, Kosala, Barbara, Andhra, Dramida, Abhira, Habara, Candala, Sakn,
Pallava (Pahlava) and Yavana. From the costumes and colours to he assigned to their body it may bo possible to trace thorn historically.

10. Ars Amatoria.

The Natyasastra mentions Karaitantra or Kiimatantra (XXV. 38, 53-
567) and Kamasastra (XXXV. 46). But as it divides women into twenty- four classeR, and Viitsyiiyana's Kamasiitra into four classes these names do not seem to relate to the Kamasiitra which probably comes later.

11. Artliasaslra.

The Natyasastra Is of opinion that "The members of the court (sali/iir stara) should be appointed after consulting the views of Brhaspati who thinks that the following are the qualities required for this office. "They should be always roady for work, alert, free from indolence, undaunted by hard work, affectionate, forbearing, modest, impartial, skillful, trained in polity and good manners, deeply conversant with .tho art of argumentation and all other branches of knowledge, and not affected by sexual passion and the like" (XXXIV-87-90). The word sabhastara which has been translated here as a member of the court, occurs in the Smrti of Vyasa who holds that this officer should hold discussion about morals (dhOrmavakya) for tho edification of those who are present (in court). In Mbh 4.1.24, however sabhastara appears only as a courtier (sabhya, Ntlakantha) who is parti- cularly interested in gambling (Jolly, Hindu law and Custom, pp. 287-288).


The description of the king, the senapati, the amalya and the pifcfowaka
„8 given in the Natyasastra (XXXIV, 78-87) might well have been taken from the now lost work of Brhaspati recognised by Kautilya as one of his sources. The Natyasastra gives besides one interesting information that the inmates of a royal palace included a smtaka (XXXIV. 84-69) and that there was besides a functionary named kumaradhikrla (XXXIV. 76-77).
As the definition has been lost, it is not possible to know what his duty was.
Can he be identified with the kumaramatya mentioned in Samudragupta's inscription P
• 12. Psychology.

The Natyasastra seems to be the first in recognizing the twofold importance of psychology in connexion with the production of a play. Its classification of Heroes and Heroines according to their typical mental and emotional state* (XXIV. 2l0ff., XXXIV. 15ff). proves its admission of the importance of psychology on the creative side of the dramatic art ; for with the complete knowledge of all possible reactions of different objects and incidents upon such Heroes and Heroines, the playwright as well as actors and actresses could attain the greatest possible success in charac- terisation. On the critical side also the importance of psychology was discovorod by the Hindu theorists almost simultaneously. It was realised early that no strictly objective standard of beauty ever existed, and the enjoyment of a theatrical production consisted of peculiar reactions which the art of the playwright as well as that of the actors could success- fully evoke in spectators of different types. It is on this assumption that the theory of Sentiments and States (VI-VH) important alike for the criticism of the theatre and the belles letlres has been elaborated by the author of the Natyasastra. Such a view does not allow any kind of dogmatism in the criticism of art and literature, and will make due allowance for the views of people who may widely differ in their tastes because of their varying cultural equipment.

VIII. TUe Date of tUe Natyasastra

More than sixteen years ago, a careful investigation of the linguistic, metrical, geographical and ethnographic data, of the evidenco to be drawn from the history of poetics and music, of the Kamasastra and the Artha- sastra, and from inscriptions the- present writer came to the conclusion that the available text of the Natyasastra existed in the second century after
Christ, while the tradition which it recorded may go back to a period as early as 100 B.C. (Tho Date of Bharata-Natyasastra", in the JDL. Vol.
XXV. 1984). 1 Since this conclusion was made, a more intensive

1 For a bibliography on the Date of the NS. see this paper p. 1 ,



study of the text as well as accession of fresh data has confirmed the writer's belief in ite soundness. Thc30 additional materials are being discussed below.

1. The Geographical Data

Geographical names occur in the Natyasastra (XIV. 36ff.) mostly in connexion with pravrttts or Local Usages which seem to be a later con- ception and not at all indipensable for understanding the theatrical art as explained in the Natyasastra. In fact the authors of the DasarQpa and the
Natakalak§ana, who speak of the vrttis are absolutely silent on pravrttis whicli are connected with them. Considering the fact that those works depend a great deal on the Natyasastra their omission of this item may be taken as very significant. Geographical names occuring in connexion with tho praw;ilis are found in the Mbh. and some of the PurSnos, some of those being almost in the same sequence (see D. C Sircar, "Text of the Puranic
Lists of Peoples" in IHQ. Vol. XXI., 1945, pp. 297-314). It seems that some interpolator put them into the text of the Natyasastra, for associating it with all the different parts of India, though the original work was an exposition of the dramatic art as it was practised iu the northern India especially in the midland only. Hence the geographical data should not bo used in determining the date of our text.

2. The Natyasastra earlier than Kalidasa

The argument that a particular dramatist who disregards any rule laid down in the Natyasastra, will be earlier than it in time, will reverse the accepted chronological relation between the Natyasastra and Kalidasa.

(a) Though the fact has been overlooked by oarlier writers on the subject, Kalidasa too violates the rules of tho Natyasastra on the following points :

(i) Though the prescribed rule (XIX. 33) is that tho king's wives should be given names connects with tho idea of victory, some of Kali- dasa's royal Heroines have been named as follows : Dharini, Iriivati
(Malavi.) Hamsnpadikii, Vasumati (Sak,).

(ii) It is also in disregard of the rule (XIX. 34) proscribing for tho handmaids (presya) the names of various flowers, that Kalidasa has
Nagarika, Madhukarika, Samabhrtika, Nipunika, Candrika, Kaumudika
(Malavi.), Parabhrtika, Caturika (Sak.) as the names of handmaids in his play. Vakuliivalikii (Malavi.) is possibly an exception.

,, (iii) Though the prescribed rule (XIX. 34) is that the names having an idea of auspiciousness, should bo given to the menials, Kalidasa has
Raivataka and Sarasaka (Malavi.) as tho names of servants.

(iv) The term svamin has been used by an army-chief (senapaii) in addressing the king (Sak. II) in violation of the proscribed rule that it should he used for the crown-prince (XIX- '12).


(v) Besides these, Kalidasa has written elaborate Prologues to his plays, though the Natyasastra does not recognize anything of this kind as a part of the play proper. These as well as the departures from the rules in Bhasa's play, may be taken as great dramatists' innovations which as creative geniuses they were fully entitled to.

(b) Besides these there seems to be other facte which probably go to show that Kalidasa knew the present Natyasastra. They are as follows :

(i) Kalidasa uses the following technical terms of the Natyasastra : ahgahara, wtti, sandhi, prayoga, (Kumsira, VII. 91), ailga-sattva-Bacana' srayam nrttam (Raghu, XIX. 36), palm, prasnika, sauMava, apadeia, upavahana, sMa, vastu, mayuri mar/ana (Malavl.)

(ii) KalidSsa mentions the mythical Bharata as the director of the celestical thoatrc (Vikram, III).

(iii) According to Katayavcnia, Kiilid:isa in his Malavi. (I. 4.0 j 21.0) refers to particular passages in the Natyasiistra (1. 16-19 ; NS (C.) XXX,

3. The Mythological Data

In the paper montioned in the beginning of this chapter the present writer was mistaken in his interpretation of the word mahagrumaifi which does not mean Ganapati as Abhiuava the reputed commentator of the
Natyasastra opines (see notes on III.1-8.). The absenco from the Natyasastra of this deity who does not appear in literature before the fourth century speaks indeed for the great antiquity of this work.

4. The Ethnological Data

The Natyasastra in otie passage (XXIII. 99) names Kiratas, Barbaras and Pulindas together with Andhras, Dramilas, Kasis and Kosalas who wero brown (asita, lit- not white), and in another passage (XVHI. 44) names
Andhras and Dramilas together with Barbaras and Kiratas. Apastamba the author of the Dharinasutra who lived at the latest in the 800 B-C. belonged to the Andhra laud (Jolly, Hindu Law and Custom, p. 6 and also
P.V. Kane, Hist, of tho Dharmasastra. Vol. I. p, 45). Hence it may be assumed on the basis of these names that the Natyasastra was in all likeli- hood composed at a time when a section at least of the Andhras and tho
Dramilas (forefathers of the modern Tamils) were still not looked upon as thoroughly civilized. Such a time may uot have been much after the beginning of the Christian era.

5. The Epighraphical Data

Sylvain Levi has discovered parallelism between the Natyasastra and the inscriptions of the Indo-Seythian Ksatrapas like Chastana who are referred to therein as svimi a term Jtpplioablo, according to the Sastra to


the yuwraja or crown-prince (I. Ant. Vol. XXXIII. pp. 163f). Though
MM.P.V. Kane (Introduction to the 8D. p. viii) has differed from him,
Levi's argument does not seem to be without its force. It may not be con- sidered unusual for common persons who aro intimate with him to show the future king an exaggerated honour by calling him svamin u term to be formally applied to the reigning monarch only. Besides the argument put forward by Levi, there may be collected from the inscriptions other facts too which may incline us to tako 200-300 A.C. as tho thno of the compilation of the Natyasastra. These are as follows:

(a) The word gemdharva probably in the senso in which the Natya- sastra uses it (XXXVI. 76) occurs in the Junagarh Bock inscription of Budradaman, I (150 A.C.). This also mentions terms, like savslhava and niyttddha which we moot in the Natyasastra probably in the same sense (Junagarh Inscription of Budradaman I. See Select Inscriptions, pp. 172-173).

(b) The respect for 'Cows and Brahmins' (go-hrahmana) which the author of the Natyasastra shows at the end of his work (XXXVI. 77) has its parallel iu the inscription referred to above. And respect for
Brahmins also finds expression in more than one inscription belonging to the 3rd century A.C. {op. cit. pp. 159, 161, 165)

(c) The three tribal names Saka, Yavana, and Pahlava appearing in the inscription of Vasistiputra Pulomayi (149 A.C.) occur in the same order in the Natyaiastra {op. cit., p. 197,) and NS.

The cumulative effect of all these data seems to be that they may enable us to place the Natyasastra about 200 A.C., the time of these inscriptions. 6. The Natyasastra earlier than Bhasa

Lack of conformity to the dramaturgic rules of the Natyasastra has sometimes been cited as an evidence of the antiquity of Bhasa, the argu- ment being that as ho wrote before the rules were formulated, he could not observe them. This view however, seems to be mistaken. For the rules occurring in the Natyasastra cannot, for obvious reasons, be the author's fabrication without relation to any pre-cxistcnt literature.' 1 If the Natyasastra was written after Bhasa's plays, its rules had every chance of having been a generalisation from them as well as from numerous other drpjjiatic works existing at the time, while the contrary being the ease (i.e,
Bhisa being later than the Najyaswtw) some novelties are likely to be

• F.Hall in his Introduetion (p. 12) to the Dasarwpa says: At all events, he
(Bharata) .would hardly have elaborated them (the rules) oxcept as inductions, from

actual compositions, * .


introduced by the dramatist in disregard of the existing rules. It is on this line of argumont that the chronological relation between Bhasa and the Natysiistra, will be judged below.

(a) On no less than three points, Bhasa seems to have disregarded the rules of the Natyasastra. These are as follows :

(i) The suiradiara (Director) begins the plays, though according to the Natyasastra the stkapaka (Introducer) should perform this function (V. 167).

(ii) In contravention of the rule of the Natyasastra (XX. 20)
Bhasa allows death in Act I of Abhiseka.

(iii) In the^ Madhyama-vyayoga and the Dutaghtotkaca, Bhasa does not give tho usual bharatavakaya (final benediction) and what he gives in its stead, may be au innovation.

Hence it may be assumed that the Natyasastra was completed before the advent of Bhasa,.

(b) Besides this, there seems to bo some good evidence in his works to show that the dramatist was acquainted with this ancient work on drama. For example, he mentions in a humorous context the Jester con- founding the Natyasastra (Avi. II 0. 38-39) with the Ramayana. Bhasa's mention of some tcchinical terms as well as the acquaintance which he shows with some special rules of the Natyasastra may also be said to strengthen the above assumption.

(i) First, about the technical terms. They are '• sauslhava, prastavana, svtradhara, prehaka, cari, gait, bhadfamtikha, hava, bhava, mama, natakiya, the root patha, rahga.

(ii) The hetaera in the Carudatta (I. 26, 3 a) says within herself, "I am unworthy of being allowed entrance into the harem" (abkaini aham abbhanlara-pavesassa). This seems to refer to the N8. XX. 54. The expression, "by means of a Nataka suiting the time" (kalasamvadiiia nwlaena) in Pratima. (I. 4. 7) probably points to NS. XXVII. 88ff.

(iii) The vocal skill of the hetaera referred to by the Sakara (Parasite) in tho Carudatta may also be said to point to the elaborate rules regarding intonation (kaku) in the NS. XIX 37-8.

(iv) Besides these, expressions like "the two feet made facile in dance due to training" {nrtlopadesa-viiada-caranau) and "she represents the words with all her limbs" (jtbhinayati vacamsi sarvagatraih) in the Carudatta (1.9.0, 16.0) probably relate to the elaborate discussion on dance and tho use of gestures in the Natyasastra.

On the. basis of all these it may be assumed that Bhasa was acquainted with the contents of the-pfeseut text of the Natyasastra. Hence


it ma; be placed in the 2nd centuary A. C. i-e. one century before the time generally assigned to Bhasa's works. (Jolly, Introduction to Ari
p. 10, bat according to Konow Bhasa's date may be the 2nd century
A.C. See ID. p. 51).

From the foregoing discussions it may be reasonable to assume the existence of the Natyasastra in the 2nd centuary A.C., though it must not be supposed that the work remained uninterfored with by interpolators of later ages. Such an interpolation may exist more or less in all the ancient texts. For example, Aristotle's Poetics too, in its received text, has bfien suspected to have interpolated passages in it. There are indeed interpolated passages in the Natyaiastra and some of these have been^ pointed out' and a few more may by some chance bo discovered afterwards. But this may not bring down the work as a whole to later times.

1 See notes on XVlfl. 6, 48 ; XX. 63. Besides these cases, the seventeen couplets after XV. 101 and the five couplets after XVI 169 are spurious. For theae do not giro any important information regarding the art of the theatre or dramaturgy and may be merely scholastic additions. The passage on pravrtlis XIV. 36-55 may also bo spurious. THE NATYASASTRA



, Salutation

1. With'a bow to Pitamaha 1 (Brahman) and Mahesvara*
(Siva) I shall* explain the Canons of Drama* (NaiyaSastm) which were uttered by Brahman.

Sages question.

2-5. Once in the days of yore, high-souled sages such as, Streya 1 and others who had subdued their senses, approached the pious Bharata 2 the master of dramatic art during an inter- mission of studies (anadhyaya). He (Bharata) then just Bnished

1 (B. G. same). ' Pitamaha (the Grand-father) is a Puranic epithet of the Vedic god Brahman. For, the Pitts (the Fathers) such as Angiras,
Bhrgu, Daksa and Mariei and others> whose descendants peopled this earth, were their progeny. In the later literature and religion of India, Brahman gradually recedes in the background and practically vanishes. His place is taken by the extra- Vedic &va, and Visnu in his fullfledged Puranic character. 2 Mahesvara (the Great God) is another name of Siva who is originally a pre-Vedic deity. Salutation to Siva along with Brahman, is very rare in Indian literature.

3 By 'drama' in this connexion is to be understood any play in its theatrical and literary character. For on this point Ag. (I. p. 7) says that the N8. is meant ior the producer (of a play) as well as the poet
(=playwright). «rfwftw«N$>Wi mwfafii.

2-5 (B.G. same). ' Itreya— There are two Streyas. One is a disciple of Yajiiavalkya (Mbh.) and another that of Vimadeva (Brahma P.)
See Vidyalankar, /ivani-kosa, sub voce.

* Puranas.except the Matsya (24. 28-30) are silent on this Bharata, the authority on the Canons'of Drama, '


the muttering of prayers (japa) and was surrounded by his sons. The sages respectfully said to him, "0 Brahman, how did originate the Naytyaveda* similar to the Vedas,- which you have properly composed ? And for whom is it meant, how many limbs does it possess, what is its extent* and how is it to be applied ? Please speak to us in detail about it all 5 ".

Bharata' answers.

(i. Hearing these words of the sages, Bharata began in reply to speak thus about the Natyaveda :

7-12. "Get yourselves cleansed, be attentive and hear about the origin of the Natyaveda devised by Brahman 1 .
Brahmins, in the days of yore when the Golden Age ( Krta- yuga)i* passed with the reign of Svayambhuva (Manu), and the Silver Age (Tretaynga) commenced with the career of
Vaivasvata Manu, and people became addicted to sensual

3 Natyaveda— The 'Natyaveda' according to Ag. is a synonym for the 'Natyasastra', and is no Vedic work. He (I. p. 4) says : *is 3 *W *C

4 firanuma=fsztei\t. Ag. tak<* the word in the sense of proof
(prammiam atra nucaya-janakatvam), but ho cites another view as well, which takes the word to mean 'number' and is as follows : ^ 3 iTOiaral wrrfttt iTBrrfHirawftmii *i swfii famirfwfls'j v* *sitw».

6 Prom the five questions put in here, it is not tol)e assumed that the treatment of subjects mentioned will follow the order'of these.

6 (B.G. same).

7-12 (B.G-. same). ' The reference here is to the Natyaveda alleged to have been composed by Brahman in about 36000 tiokas. It is also believed that, later on a shorter work (in 12000 granthas) was based on this great work and it was in the form of a dialogue between Siva and
Parvatl. This is considered by some to bo the Sdibharata or Sadaslva- bharata. The present NS. contains about 12000 granthas and it is supposed to include the views of the authors of the now extinct Natyaveda (composed by Brahman) as well as of the Sdibharata. See Preface to NS. (B.) pp. 6-7.
On this point Ag (I. p. 8) says: iSi ssifawswftwwrafa^'ta mwt m i W Bftwismg

la A. K. Coomaraswamy has freely translated 8-17 (The Mirror of
Gestures, New York, 1936, p. 16),


pleasures*, were under the sway of desire and greed, became infatuated with jealousy and anger and [thus]' found their happiness mixed with sorrow, and Jambudvlpa* protected by the Lokapalas (guardians of the worlds) was full of gods,
Danavas, Gandharvas, Yaksas, Raksasas and great Uragas
(Nagas), the gods, with Indra (Mahendra) as their head,
(approached) Brahman and spoke to him, 'We want an object of diversion, which must be audible as well as visible*. As the
Vedas are not to be listened to by those born as Sudras, be pleased to create another Veda which will belong to all the
Colour-groups 8 (varna)".

13. "Let it be so", said he in reply and then having dismissed the king of gods (Indra) he resorted to yoga (concen- tration of mind) 1 and recalled to mind the four Vedas.*

14-15. He then thought: "I shall make a fifth 1 Veda on the Natya with the Semi-historical Tales (itihaxa),* which will conduce to duty (dharma)*, wealth (artlm) as well as fame, will

' gmmyadharma~kg. explains the word differently and as follows :
1WtS^t»n«llfalT^t"t$'itfaift <*+: WtfaflWNW.

8 According to ancient Indian geography the earth was divided into seven dvipas (continents). Jambudvlpa is one of them. It included
Bharata-varsa o* Bharata-varsn, known at present as India'. Vi§mi P. (ch.
1-12). See Winternitz, Hist, of Indian Literature, Vol. I, p. 548.

4 On this point Ag. says : S*afa% Hi wfafil ^pfturefaari:.

5 This relates to the four classes such as Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaisya and Sfldra. V

13 (B.GK same). ' Yoga has been defined in Patafljali's work as cittamiiinirodhah. It however begins with the concentration of the mind.

* After 13, B. reads one additional couplet. But G> considers this passage to be spurious and puts it in the footuote.

14-16 (B.G-. same). l In the early Indian literature the itihasa alone was considered as the fifth Veda. See Chandogya Dp. VII. If. and
?., and Sutbmipata, 11.7 (sollasiutta). Kautilya's Arthasastra too gives tho same position to the itt/iiisas. See Winternitz, Vol. T.-p. 313.

1 On itihasa see note below.

' dhama also means virtuo, law and custom etc.


contain good counsel and collection [of other materials for human well-being], will give guidance to people of the future as well in all their actions, will be enriched by the teaching of all scriptures {mtra) and will give a review of all arts and crafts*

16. With this resolve the Holy One (bhagavat) from his memory of all the Vedas shaped this Natyaveda compiled from the four of them.

17-18. The recitative (pathija) he took from the Egveda, the song from the Saman, Histrionic Representati6n (abhinaya) from the Yajns, and Sentiments (rasa) from the Atharvaveda,
[and] thus was created the Natyaveda connected with the
Vedas principal and subsidiary (vedopnvala) 1 , by the holy
Brahman who knows [them] all.

19-20. After the creation of the Natyaveda Brahman said to Indra (lit. the lord of the gods), "Semi-historical Tales
(itihasa) 1 have been composed by me, you are to get them
[dramatized and] acted 2 by gods. Pass on this Natyaveda to those of the gods who are skilful, learned, free from stage-fright and inured to hard work."

4 The word iUpa is very often synonymous with kola. As the 64 kolas enumerated in different works include different arts and crafts, these two words may be translated as 'arts and crafts', tSilpa, however, is some- times to be distinguished from kola; and then it may mean merely 'a craft'.

16 (B.G. same).

17-18 (B.G. same). ' Vedofiaveda—tiie Vedas and the Upavedas
i.e. the Vedas principal as well as subsidiary. The Vedas are all well-known, and there are at least four Upavedas, one being attached to each of the Vedas. They are as follows: the Syur-veda.(the Science of Medicine) to the Rgveda, Dhanur-veda (the Science of Arms)— to the Yajurveda,
Gandharva-veda (Musical Science) to the Samavcda, and Sthaparya-sastra
(the Science of Architecture) to tho Atharvaveda.

19-20 (B.G. same). ' Kautilya's Arthasastra in its definition of itihasa enumerates purima and itivrtta as belonging to its contents. An ttiwtta, according to Wmtmiitz, can only mean an "historical event" and turayta probably means "mythological and legendary lore." Vol. L p. 818.
Pargiter has, however, extracted solid historical facte from some of the

.1.35] THE 0BIG1N OF DBAMA 5

21-22. At these words of Brahman, Indra bowed to him with folded palms and said in reply, "0 the best and holy one, gods are neither able to receive it and maintain it, nor are they fit to understand it and make use of it ; they are unfit to do anything with the drama 1 .

23. The sages (muni) 1 who know the mystery of the Vedas and have fulfilled their vows, are capable of maintaining this
(Natyaveda) and putting it into practice."

The Natyaveda and Bharata's one hundred sons

24. On, these words of Kakra (Indra), Brahman said to me;
"0 the sinlesstone, yon with your one hundred sons 1 will have to put it (the Natyaveda) to use".

25. Thus ordered. I learnt the Natyaveda from Brahman

extant Puraiias (See Iris Ancient Indian Historical Traditions, London,
1922). According to the native Indian tradition itihasa is said to be an account of events that occurred in the past, carrying in it instructions about duty, wealth, enjoyment of pleasure, and salvation. The traditional iloka is—

The same tradition assigns the position of itihasa to the Mahabharata the great Indian epic. It is possibly this itihasa that has been connected with the Natyaveda by the author of the mstra. Hence it appears that
Oldenberg's theory about the original connexion between epic and dramatic poetry, is worthy of serious consideration. Nuty'ukhyam paticamam vedam setihasam karomy aham (15) seems to be very significant Ag. (I. p. 13) explains setihasam as itihasopademkatvpam saprabhedam. Sec Winternitz,
Vol. I. pp. 100 ff. 312 n. ' See note on 14-15 above.

21-22 (B.G-. same). ' It may be tentatively suggested hero that the gods represented the primitive Indo- Aryans who. possibly had no drama.
On this point see the author's PrScIn Bharator Natya-kala (in Bengali),
Calcutta, 1945 p. 60 ff.

23 (B.G-. same). l The word muni is evidently to be derived from the Pkt. root muqa 'to know' which is most probably not of Indo-
European origin.

24. (B.G. same). l The Puraiias and similar other works totally ignoro these one hundred soas of Bharata.

25 (B. G-. same).

6 THE NATyASAStBA [1. 25-

and made my able sons study it as also [learn] its proper application. Names of Bharata's one hundred sons

26-39. ^-Names of my sons are) Sandilya, Vatsya, Kohala 2 ,
Dattila 3 , Jatila, Ambasthaka, Tandu, Agnislkha, Saindhava, Pulo- man, Sadvali, Vipula, Kapi&jali, Badari, Yaraa, Dhumrayana, lambudhvaja, Kakajangha, Svarnaka, Tapasa, Kedara, Kalikarna,*,
Dirghagatra, Balika, Kautsa, Tandayani, Pingala, Citraka, Ban- dhula, Bhaktaka, Mustika Saindavayana Taitila, Bhargava, Suci,,
Bahula Abudha, Budhasena, Pandukarna, Kerala, Rjuka, Mandaka,
£ambara, Vtinjula, Magadha, Sarala, Kartr, Ugra, Tuflara, Parsada,
Gautama, Badarayana 5 , Visaht, Sabala, Sunabha, Mesa, Kaliya,
Bhraraara, Pithamukha Muni, Nakhakutta , As"makutta 7 , Satpada,
Uttama, Paduka, Upanat, Srati, Casasvara, Agnikunda, Ajyakunda,
Vitandya, landya, Kartaraksa, Hiranyaksa, Kusala, Diihsaha,

26-89 (B. same ; G. 26-38). ' B. and G. road some of these names differently. Some at least of the so-called sons of Bharata might in fact have been the authors who wrote on dramaturgy, histrionic art, dance and music etc. iSingabhupala mention the first four. See below notes 2-7.

3 Kohala has again been mentioned in NS. (<J.) XXXVI. 65. Ag. has referred to his opinion several times and quoted from liis work on natya (Vol. J. pp. 140,173,182,183,288; Vol. JUL pp. '&> Mf 13«> 133,
142, 144, 146, 147, 151, 155, 407, 416, 421,434,452,458,459). JLater writers like Damodaragupta, Hemacandra, Sarngadeva, Saradatanaya and
Singabhilpala acknowledge him as an authority on drama and music. (Sec
S. K. De, Skt. Poetics, p. 25. f.n.)

8 Ag. has quoted a passage from the work of one Dattilaearya (Vol. I.
p. 205). He seems to be identical with this Dattila. Sec also note 1 above.

1 Walikania is probably identical with ISatakania referred to and quoted in the commentary of the Anargharughava '(,,. 7. gcc Levi, IT
PP. 27, 65) and the Sitakalak jana. (p. 47, ed. M. Dillon), a S51iv5hana
— Satavakana.

5 The Natakalaksana (pp. 46, 114) refers to and quotes from him.

»^^Szt m,m Mmu> " d qHOtra from t,,i8


Jala, Bhyanaka, Bibhatsa, Vicaksana, Pundriiksa, Pundranasa,
Asita, Sita, Vidyujjihva, Mahsjihva, Salufikayana, Syamayana,
Mathara Lohitanga, Saijivartaka, ParbiSikha, Trislkha, Sikha,
Sankhavarnamukha, Sanda, ^ankukarmi, Sakranemi, Gabhasti,
Ams'umali, Hatha, Vidyut, Satajangha, Raudra and Vira.

39-40. [Thus] at the command of Brahman and for the benefit of the people I assigned to my sons different roles suitable to. them 1 .

Performance begins with three Styles.

41. O' Brahmins, I then prepared to give a performance
[yrayoga) in which was adopted dramatic Styles (rrtti) such as the Verbal (bharati), 1 the Grand (mttrntl), and the Energetic

Need of the Kaisiki Style

42-43. H [then went 2 to Brahman and] after bowing, informed him [of my work]. Now Brahman (lit. the (jui'h of gods) told me to include the Graceful (kaffikl) Style also
[in my performance], and he asked me to name materials conducive to its introduction.

43-45. Thus addressee] by the master I replied, "Give me materials necessary for putting the Graceful (ktiiiill) Style into prac- tice. At the time of Nilakantha's 1 (Siva) dance I have seen his
Graceful Style appropriate to the Erotic Sentiment, and this requires

39-40 (B. same ; G. 39). l G. reads 39b differently.

41 (B. same ; G. 40). v The four Styles probably related to four tribes such as Bharata, Siittvata, Keiika and Arabhata. Among these
Bharata and SSttvata are wellknown. The remaining two names might have been lost.

42-43 (B. same ; G. 41). 1 G om. 42a.

? pragrhya (=embracing) has been taken to mean 'going to'.

43-46 (B. same ; G. 42-44a). l Siva is India's traditional god of dance. See M. Ghosh (ed.) Abhinayadarpana, Calcutta, 1934, English
Translation, p. 1.

8 THE NATYA8ASTRA [ 1. 46-

beautifnl dresses and is endowed with gentle AngahSras* and has Sentiments (/■«.«»), States (bh&va) 3 and action as its soul.

Creation of Apsarasas far practising the Kai&ki Style

46-47. This Style cannot he practised properly by men except with the help of women." Then the powerful Lord
(Brahman) created from his mind nymphs (apsaras) who were skillful in embellishing the drama 1 , and gave them over to me
[for helping me] in the performance. «

Names of Apsarasas

47-50. [Their names 1 are] : Maiijiikes% Sukeft, MKrakefl,
Sulocanii, Saudamini, Duvadatta, Devasena, Manoiama, Sudati,
Sundari, Vidagdha, Sumala, Santati, Sunanda, Sumukhi, Magadhi,
Arjuni, Sarala, Kerala, Dhrti, Nanda, Supuskala and Kalabha.

Sviiti and Narada engaged to help Bharata
1)0-51. And l.y him (Brahman) Svati 1 together with his disciples was employed to play on musical instruments, (lit. drums) and celestical musicians (<j«mihan;i) such as, Narada 1 and others were engaged in singing songs. 2

51-53. Thus after comprehending the dramatic art (»a%) which arose out of the Vedas and their [different] limbs! 1 ' along with my sons as well as Svati and Narada approached
Brahman (lit. lord of the worlds) with folded palms and

;1<V mgakvm see Ns. IV. 16 ff. R, a d mrdvahgahara for nrthnga ;1 „ B. » ], W cttai ] H 011 Sta ^ m , ^ yj ,

46-17 (ft same ■ (I. 44b-45;. > mlyidaiMra here ,nav be taken also to mean nmydmikaras mentioned in NS. XXIV. 4-5.

ina S lS^ 47 '? l ' G -' tMSX '* a " d »•«« — ° f «» — in a slightly ditterent ninnim-

mas can ln Bhagavata and Vayn P. Spo Vidyalankar. JK.. sub **.

.instrumiSr 8 " ^ **"*» -*-W« of stringed
5W3(B.51b-53a,G. 50-51).


said that the dramatic art {>Mija) has been mastered, and prayed for his command.

The Banner Festival of Indra and the first production of a play

53-55, On these words, Brahman said, "A very suitable time for the production of a play has come : the Banner Festival 1 of Indra has just begun i make use of the Natyaveda now on this occasion".

55-58. I then went to that festival in honour of Indra's victory which took place after the Danavas and the A suras (enemies of the gods) were killed. In this festival where jubilant gods assembled in great numbers I performed for their satisfaction the holy 1 Benediction (n&ndi) containing blessings with words in their eightfold 3 aspects (astahga, lit. of eight limbs). Afterwards I devised an imitation of the sitution in which the Daityas were defeated by gods (and), which represented [sometimes] an alter- cation and tumult and [sometimes] mutual cutting off and piercing
[of limbs or bodies].

The pleased gods reward Bharata's party

58-61. Then Brahman as well as the other gods were pleased with the performance and gave us all sorts of gifts 1 as a token of joy that filled their mind. First of all the pleased Indra

53-55 (B. 53b-55a ; G. 52-53). ' This festival occurred on the twelfth day of the bright half of the moon in the month of Bhadra. It was a very popular festival in ancient India. Asvaghosa mentions it in his kavyas. Maha, a part of the compound dhvaja-tnaha is simply a Pkt. form of the word makha meaning 'sacrifice' j cf. Indra-makha.

55-58 (B. 55b-58a ; G. 54-56). l Veda-sammita (.veda-nirmiia, G.) means 'like the Veda' i. e. 'holy'.

' The eight aspects of words are noun (noma), verb (akhyata), particle (nifatd), prefix {upasarga), compound word (samasa), secondary suffis (taddhita), euphonic combination (sand/ii), nominal awKverbal suffixes (vibhakti). See S& XV. 4.

58-61. (B. 58b-61, G. 57-59) » Making gifts to dancers, singers and actors at a performance, is a very old custom in India. Such gifts were mado by rich members of the audience, while the common people enjoyed


(Saki-ii) gave his auspicious banner, then Brahman a Kutilaka 8 and Varuna a golden pitcher (bhrngara), Sfirya (the sun-god) gave an umbrella, Siva success (sUdhi), and Vayu (the wind- god) a fan. Visnu gave us a lion-seat (simltasam), Kuvera a crown, and the goddess Sarasvati gave visibility as well as audibility 8 .

62-63. 1 The rest of the gods, and the Gandharvas, the
Yaksas, the Eaksasas and the Pannagas (Nagas) who were present in that assembly and were of different birth and merit, gladly, gave my sons speeches suited to their different roles [in the play], States
{bharn) 2 , Sentiments H, [good physical] form, [proper] movement [of limbs] and strength as well as beautiful ornaments.

64-65. Now when the performance relating to the killing of the Daityas and the Danavas began, the Daityas who came there
[uninvited] instigated the Vighnas (malevolent spirits) with Viru- paksa as their leader, said, "Come forward, we shall not tolerate 1 this dramatic performance."

66. Then the Yighnas (evil spirits) together with the Asuras resorted to supernatural power {maya) and paralysed the speech, movement as well as memory of- the actors.

the performance without any payment. This old custom is now dying out under the influence of modern theatres which realise; the price of the enter- tainment beforehand by selling tickets.

3 Kutilaka.—Ag. takes it te mean 'a curved stick fit to bo used by the Jester'. But lie does not seem to be supported in this by the old dramatic literature. Jn Kalidiisa's Miilavi. however occur bhuahgama i'ult'la-damlakaUAa and damjakallha (id Pandit, Bombay, 1889, IV. 150,
160). But it is not clear from the context whether it belonged to the
Jester. TheNK. XXIII 167-170 describes probably this damlakM.ha, but does not connect it v, ith the Jester.

* Prom now on the numbering of couplets is wrong in B.
62-63 (B. same ; G. 60-61). ' B. reads 63a as rw mui »W'l«it hm*:, ■' For details on States see NS. VI.

64-65 (B.same-, 0.62-63). ' na kmmnymnahe (neltham ucha- make, B).

68 (B.same;Q. 64).


67-68. Seeing this injury to them, 1 Indra sat in meditation to ascertain the cause of break in the performance and found out that, surrounded on all sides by the Vighnas (evil spirits), the Director (sUtradhara) together with his associates (actors) had been rendered senseless and inert.

69-70. Then with eyes turning in anger be rose and took up that best banner staff (dhvaja), brilliant with all the jewels, set in it. With this Jarjara Indra beat to death the
Asuras and the Vighnas who were hanging about the stage [for mischief]. '

71-73. The Vighnas together with the Danavas having been slain, all the gods saids in joy. "0 f Bharata,] you have got a divine weapon with which all destroyers of a play have been made jarjara
(beaten to pulp). Hence it will have the name of Jarjara. 1

73-75. The remaining enemies too who may come to do violence to [actors] will fare like this." To the g"ods, Indra then said with pleasure, "'Let it be so : this Jarjara will be the protection of all actors.''

75-76. [And afterwards], when the play was ready and
Indra's festival continued in full force, the remaining Vighnas began to create terror for the rest of the actors.

76-78. Having noticed these attempts caused by the insult of the Daityas 1 I, along with my sons, approached Brahman [and said], "O the holy one and the best of gods, the Vighnas (the evil spirits) are determined to destroy this dramatic performance ; so enlighten me about the means of its protection."

67-68 (B. same ; G. 65-66) ' tatra tesam salt (svtradharasya, B.G.)

69-70 (B.MW!;Cf. 67-68).

71-78 (B. 71-72, 78b ; G. 69-70, 71b). l This isjsvidently an instance of folk-etymology. We read 72b. as, irolwTwm^iUfWiiii: (G) but B. G. «l«frl M WT 0** m*r. m: and adds one hemistich as follows:—

73-75 (B. 73b-75, G. 72-78). 75-76 (B. 76, G. 74).

76-78 (B. 77-78 ; G. 75-76). ( . ' daityattam (madarthe, V.)

w THE NATYASA8JBA [ 1. 78~

78-79. "0 the high-souled one," said Brahinan then to
Visvakarman, 1 "build carefully a playhouse of the best type."

79-81. After constructing it according-to this instruction 1 he (i.e. Visvakarman) went with folded palms to Brahman's court
[and said], "0 god, please have a look at the playhouse which has
[just] been made ready." Then Brahman, along with Indra and and all other good (lit. the best) gods, went to have a view of the playhouse. 82-88. On seeing it Brahman said to the rest of gods, "You ought to co-operate in the protection of the playhouse in its several parts [and of the objects relating to dramatic performance) Candra
(the moon-god) to protect the main building ; the Lokapalas
(guardians of the worlds) its sides, the Maruts its four corners,
Varuna the space [within the building], Mitra the tiring room
(nepathya), Agni its plinth 1 , clouds the musical instruments 2 , deities of four Colour-groups (nirna) 3 the pillars, the Sdityas and the Rudras the space between the pillars, the Bhutas (spirits) the rows [of seats "dharani], the Apsarasas its rooms, the Yaksjtais the entire house, the ocean-god the ground, Yama the door, the two
Naga kings (Ananta and Vasuki) the two blades of the door
(dvampatra)*, the Rod" of Yama the door-frame, diva's Pike the top of the door.

88-93. l Niyati and Yama (Mrltju) were made two door- keepers, and Indra himself stayed by the side of the stage. In the

78-79 (B. 79 ; G. 77). ' Visvakarman is the 'architect of the gods,
He is very frequently met with in the Puriinas. There was also'.a Vedic deity of this name. See Vidyalankar, JK, sub voce.

79- tl (B.81-,82; G. 79-80). ' Krtva yatkokUm evam tu grham padmodbhavnwya. B. G. read in place of this hemistich a complete ihka.

82-88 (B. 8 3-89a • G. 8l-87a). » Vedika rahgfiwdM tatra tikmo' dhisthutetyarihali (Ag.).

2 bharpla iti tripuskare sopakarane (Ag.)

" Such deities arc nowhere to be met with.

* dvamfiatr* (dvam-fiarhe <}.) » See NS. III. 1-8 note 5
^ 88-93 (B. 891,95a ;G.87b-92a). , R . ^ a ^ ^^ ^


Mattavarani was placed Lightning which was capable of killing
Daityas, and the protection of its pillars was entrusted to the very strong Bhutas, Yaksas, Pisacas and Guhyakas. In the Jarjara was posted Thunder (vajra) the destroyer of Daityas, and in its sections (farm) were stationed the best and powerful gods. In the topmost section was placed Brahman, in the second Siva, in the . third Visnu, in the fourth Kartikeya and in the fifth great Nagas such as, Sesa, Vasukl and Taksaka."

93-94. Thus for the destruction of the Vighnas, gods were placed in different parts of the Jarjara, and Brahman himself occupied the middle of the stage. It is for this reason 1 that flowers are scattered there [at the beginning of the performance].

95. Denizens of the nether regions such as, the Yaksas, the
Guhyakas and the Pannagas were employed to.protect the bottom of the stage.

96. Let Indra protect the actor who assumes the role of the hero, Sarasvatt 1 the actress assuming the role of the heroine,
Omkarah* the Jester and Siva the rest of the characters (dramatis personx). 97. He (Brahman) said that the gods who were employed to protect it (ie. the play) would be its guardian deities.

Brahman pacifies the Vighnas

98-99. In the meanwhile gods in a body said to Brahman,
"You should pacify the Vighnas by the conciliatory method (Oman).
This (method) is to be applied first, and secondly the making of gifts (dam) ; and (these proving futile) one should afterwards create

93-94 (B. 95b-96 ; G. 92b-93). ' See NS. V. 74.

95 (B. 97 ; G. 94).

96 (B. 98 ; G. 95). ' Sarasvati mentioned here seems to be the
Vedie goddess of the same name. See Rk. 1, 1 42.9 and OK. sui voce,

3 Oinkara as a deity is very rarely to be met with.

97 (B. 99 ; G\ 96).

u ■ THE NATJASASTBA - f 1. 100-

dissension [among enemies], and this too proving unsuccessful punitive force (dan/fa) should be applied [for curbing them 1 ].

100. Hearing these words of the gods, Brahman called the evil spirits and said, "Why are you out for spoiling the dramatic performance ?"

101-103. Questioned thus by Brahman, Virupaksa 1 together with the Daityas and the Vighnas, said these conciliatory words: "The knowledge of the dramatic art (riatyaveda) which you have introduced for the first time, at the desire of the gods, has put
, us in an unfavourable light, and this is done by you for the sake of the gods; this ought not to have not been done by you who is the first progenitor (lit. grand-father) of the world, from whom came out alike gods as well as Daityas."

104-105. These words being uttered by .Virupaksa, 1
Brahman said, 'Enough of your anger, O Daityas, give up your grievance (lit sorrow), I have prepared this Natyaveda which will determine the good luck or ill luck of you as well as of the gods, and which will take into account acts and ideas of you as well as of the Daityas.

Characteristic of a drama

106. In it (ii&tya) there is no exclusive representation of you or of the gods: for the drama is a representation of the state of the Three Worlds (bhavaiinkirtam) 1 .

107. [In it] sometimes tliere is [reference to] duty, some- times to games, sometimes to money, sometimes to peace, and


98-99. (B. 100-101 , O. 97-98). » This is an aicientilndian political maxim. 100 (B. 102 ; G. 99).

101-103 (B. 10S-105 • G 100-109"» itu . t.-

MM, A ■ r> m - m >- Thw name occurs in Ram. and

107.' (BUWjG.lMX h


sometimes laughter is found in it, sometimes fight, sometimes love-making and sometimes killing [of people],

108-109. This teaches" duty to those bent on doing their duty, love to those who are eager for its fulfilment, and it chastises those who are ill-bred or unruly, promotes self-restraint in those who are disciplined, gives courage to cowards, energy to heroic persons, enlightens men of poor intellect and gives wisdom to the leawied 1 .

1 10. This gives diverson to kings, and firmness [of mind] to persons afflicted with sorrow, and [hints of acquiring] money to those who are, for earning it, and it brings composure to persons agitated in mind.

111-112. The drama as I have devised, is a mimicry 1 of actions and conducts of people, which is rich in various emotions, and which depicts different situations. This will relate to actions of men good, bad and indifferent, and will give courage, amusement and happiness as well as counsel to them all.

113. The drama will thus be instructive 1 to all, through actions and States (bhava) depicted in it, and through Sentiments, arising out of it.

114-115. It will [also] give relief to unlucky persons who are afflicted with sorrow and grief or [over]-work, and will be conducive to observance of duty (dharma) as well as to fame, long life, intellect and general good, and will educate people.

116. There is no wise maxim, no learning, no art or craft, no device, no action that is not found in the drama (natya).

108-109 (B. 110-111 ; O. 107-101). » All these lay stress on the educative aspect of dramatic performances.

110 (B. 112 ; G. 109).

111-112 (B. 113-114 ; G. 110-111). 'Aristotle also brings in 'imita- tion' to explain poetry and drama (See Poetics).

118 (B. 115 j G. 112). > Sec above 108-109 Hote.

114-115 (B. 116-11? ; G. 118-114).'

116 (B. 118 j G. 115).

16 THE NATYASA8TBA [ 1. 117-

117-118. Hence I have devised the drama in which meet all the departments of knowledge, different arts and various actions.
So, (0, Daityas) yon should not have any anger towards the gods ; for a mimicry of the world with its Seven Divisions (sopta dvlpa) 1 has been made a rule of, in the drama.

119. * Stories taken out of Vedic works as well as Semi-
* historical Tales (itih&sa) [so embellished that they are] capable of

giving pleasure, is called drama (nStya).

120. J A mimicry of the exploits of gods, Asuras, kings as well as house-holders in this world, is called drama.

121. And when human nature with its joys and sorrows, is depicted by means of Representation through Gestures, and the like
(i.e. Words, Costume, and Temperament or Satlva) it is called drama.'' Offering Pflja to the gods of the stage

122-123. The Brahman said to all the gods, "Perform duly in the playhouse a ceremony (niijana) with offerings, Homa, J
Mantras 4 , (sacred) plants, Japa 3 : and the offerings in it should consist of eatables hard as well as soft (bhojijn and bliahj/a*).

124. Thus this Veda {i.e. this Natyaveda) will have a

117-118 (B. 119-120 ; G, 116). ' According to the Puranic geography the world was divided into seven continents such as Jainbu, Plaksa, Balmali,
Kusa, Kraufice, SSka and Puskara. Each of these continents was further subdivided into nine regions, and Bharata (India) is a legion of the Jambu continent. 119(1231-1248 ; G. 119) > B. readsone couplet more afirr this.

120 (B. 121b-122a , G. 117) « We read 120b as kHmukamaam lake natyam etadbhamnyati, but B. G. differently.

121 (B, I22b-I23a ; G. 118).

122-123 (B. I25b-127a ; G. 120-121). ' W. fferi« K oMations to gods by throwing ghee into the consecrated fire.

8 i»3»/rffl-formula of prayer sacred to any deity.

» /^-repeating a mantra or muttering it many time* '

-1. 125 ] THE ORIGIN 01 DRAMA 17

happy adoration of the world. A dramatic spectacle (preksa 1 ) should not be held without offering Puja 2 to the stage.

125. He who will hold' a dramatic spectacle without offering the Puja, will find his knowledge [of the art] useless, and he will be reborn as an animal of lower order (tiryag-yoni).

126. Hence [producers of a play] should first of all offer by all means, Puja to the ' [presiding] deity of the stage, which is* similar to the [Vedic] sacrifice.

127. The actor (nartaha) or his wealthy patron (arthapati) who does not 'offer this Puja or does not cause it to be offered, will sustain ajoss.

128. He who will offer this Puja according to the rules and the observed practice, will attain auspicious wealth and will [in the end] go to heavens."

129. Then Brahman with other gods said to me, '"Let it be so, offer Puja to the stage."

Here ends Chapter I of Bharata's Natyasastra, which treats of the Origin of Drama.

124 (B.l27b-128a ; G.122) > prekm Pali petkha occuring in Sikkha pinks (c. 600 D. C. ).

1 Puja— worshipping a deity with flowers, sweet scent, incense, music and offering of eatables.

125 (B.128b-I29a, G.12.*i). 126 (B.129b-130a, G.124).
127 (B.130b-131a, 0.125) 128 (B13lb-132a, G.126).

129 (B.l32b-13:t, G.127).



£3 SEP 1959



' Introduction

1-2 On hearing Bharata's words, the sages said, "0 the holy one, we would like the hear about the ceremony relating to the stage. 1 And how are the men of future to offer Puja in the playhouse or [to know about] the practices related to it, or its accurate description ?

3. As the production of a drama begins with the playhouse, you should [first of all] give us ks description."

The three typos of the playhouse

4. On hearing these words of the sages, Bharata said,
"Listen, sages, about the description of a playhouse 1 and of the
Puja to bo offered in this connexion.

5-6. J Creations of gods [observed] in houses and gardens 2 .

1-2 (B.O. same). » ranga here means *tlie stage.' It may also mean the auditorium as well as the spectators sitting there. So Kalidasa write •
**1 wsftwjfiwfBpw n tfft xv : S a k. J. i. o. 3 (B.G. same)

i (KG. same). '. Except the cave (c. 200 B.;C.) in the Ramgarh
.ill suspected by Th. Bloch (Report of the Archaeological Survey of
India, 190H PP.123 ff) to have been the remains of a theatre, there, is no other evidence of tl„. existence of a playhouse i„ ancient India. Prom the desenpfonof the playhouse in the pr^eut chapter we learn that it was
,nstr„ct«lwith nek walls and wooden posts probably with a thatched

S" r ' V >«<*** < ««**« mentioned by Ka.idasa i ksMalav, was poss,blv something like a playhouse (nilyammlaM

is sr :"S~,"r "7;""'. *- - L L *

connected wifl, fl ne,ghl wilnn g ]mvimei , ,„,

«£££"■* ' BrWh « ! *» h * - *- B— Is one
■* hi^S "° ^ ° f ' **"»■ 8 » itabI " * the


are the outcome of their [mere] will but men's [creative] activity should be carefully guided by rules [laid clown in the Sastras].
Hence, listen about the method of building a playhouse and of the manner of offering Puja at the site [of its construction].

7-8. There are three types of playhouses devised by the wise Visvakarman [the heavenly architeeht] in the treatise on his art (mstra). They are oblong (vib-dn), 2 square (eatwrauru) and triangular (tryasra).

, The three sizes of the playhouse

8-11. Their sizes vary : they may be large (jycslhi), middle- sized (madkya) arid small (avara). The length (lit. measurement) of these [three types] fixed in terms of cubits as well as Dandas, is one hundred and eight, sixtyfour or thirty two. They 2 should
[respectively] have [sides] one hundred and eight, sixtyfour and thirtytwo [cubits or Dandas] 3 long. The large playhouse is meant for gods 4 and the middle-sized one for kings, while for the rest of people, has been prescribed the smallest [theatre]. 5

7-8 (B.G. same).

8-11 (B.G. same). ' Some are for identifying the oblong, the square and tho triangular types respectively with the large, the middle-sized and tho small playhouses, but Ag. very rightly objects to this. He says.
According "Wt«i* i\H sSsrslfa iftt %Uf[ <w g v&4 faa ftrfa *wtn Ssi wrt:—
<flrct* 9m«i to Ag's view there will be the following nine tj-pes of playhouses :
(i) large oblong (ii) large square, (iii) large triangular, (iv) oblong (v) medium square, (vi) medium triangular, (vii) small oblong, (viii) small square and (xi) small triangular. For a free translation of the passages in this chapter (8, 17, 19, 24-28, 33-35, 43-53, 63,68, 69-92) relating to.the cons- truction of the playhouse see D. R. Mnnkad, "Hindu Theatre" in 1HQ.
VIII. 1932. pp. 482 ff.

3 They »'. e. the large, the middle-sized and the small.

8 As the measurements described are both, in terms of cubits and
<fo>i<las (4 oubite), eighteen kinds of playhouse will be available.

* Ag (I. p.51) thinks that by gods, kings and other peoples mentioned in this passage characters in a play have been meant But this view does not soem to be plausible. So the other view, mentioned by liim, which takes
Sods and kings etc. as spectators may be accepted.

• After this, B. reads throe couplets which go rightly between 2Q and
24. Oh also holds tho same view. * *


The table of measurement

12-16. Listen now about the measurement of all these theatres, which has been fixed by Visvakarman. Units of these measurements 1 are: Ami, Raja, Bala, Liksa, Yiika, Yava, Angula, cubit {hasta) and Danda.

8 Anus


I Raja

8 Rajas


1 Bala

8 Balas



8 Liksas


1 Yukii

8 Yiikas


1 Yava

8 Yavas


1 Angula '

24 Angulns


1 cubit

4 cubits


1 Danda.

the preceding


of measurement I shall describe

them (i.«. the different classes of playhouses).

The playhouse for mortals

17. An [oblong] playhouse meant for mortals 1 should be made sixtyfour cubits in length and thirtytwo cubits in breadth.

Disadvantage of a too big playhouse

18-19. No one should build a playhouse bigger than the above; for a play [producedj in it (i.e. a bigger house) will not be properly expressive. For anything recited or uttered in too big a playhouse will be losing euphony due to enunciated syllables' being indistinct 1 [to spectators not sitting sufficiently close to the stage].

20. [Besides this] w hen the playhouse is very big, the ex- pression in .he face [of actors] on which rests the Representation

12-16 (\\.\ o-l9, G.samrX '.The table of measurement giveu here agrees substantially with the one given in the ArthasTistra of Kautilya (see
IHCJ. VU1. p. 482 footnote).

17 (B.20, (!.««»«). ' A medium oblong playhouse is meant here.
It is described in detail later ou. See 33-38, 43-45, 63-66 below.

18-10 (B.21-22, 0. same). > anabhivyakta-varmivhd. B. reads amhsawm-dharmatvad. In spite of Ag's acceptance of this reading it may not be considered genuiue.


of States and Sentiments, 1 will not be distinctly visible [to all the spectators], 21. Hence it is desirable that playhouses should be of medium size, so that the Recitatives as well as the songs in it, may be more easily heard [by the spectators]. 1

22-23. Creations of gods [observed] in houses and gardens are^the outcome of their [mere] will, while men are to make careful efforts in their creations ; hence men should not try to rival the creation of gods. 1 I shall now describe the characteristics of a
[play] house suitable for human beings.

* Selection of a suitable site

24. The expert [builder] should first of all examine a plot of land and then proceed with a good resolve to measure the site of the building.

25. A builder should erect a playhouse on the soil which is plain, firm, hard 1 , and black or 2 white.

26. It should first of all be cleared and then scratched with a plough, and then bones, pegs, potsherds in it as well as grass and shrubs growing in it, are to be removed.

Measurement of the site

27a. The ground being cleared one should measure out
[the building sitel 1 •

20 (B.24, G.21). ' rugo dkivasrsli-rasasrayali.

J21 (B,24, G.21) ' After this B. G.' read two more couplets.

22-23 (B. 27-28, G. 24-25). ' That is, mortals (men) should not build a playhouse „£ the biggest type which has beeu prescribed for gods.

24 (B. 29, G. 26).

25B.30,G.27). l Ag. thinks ka[hina means anmaru (=fertile).

•' According to Ag. the second ca moans f or'.

26 (B. 3I.G.28).

27a (B. 32a, G. 28a). 'This hemistich is followed in B and £ by one couplet which in trans, is as follows : The asteiismsi UttaraphalgunI
(Beta-Leonis), Uttarasadha (Tau-Stigitlarii), Cttarabhiidrapada (Andro- medoe),Uxs^m\» ( Lambda- Orionis), Visakha (lota-Ltbra), Revati (Pis- c\um), Hastii (Cotyii), Tisya (Delta-CancriJ and Anuradha I ' Delta-Scorpii) are favourable, in connexion with drama.

22 THE NATrASASTBA ' I 1 -™-

27-28. Under tlic asterisin Pusya (Gancri) he should spread
[for measurement] a piece of white string which may be made of cotton, wool, Muiija grass or bark of some tree.

Taking up the string

28-31. Wise people should prepare for this purpose a string which is not liable to break. When the string is broken into two
[pieces] the patron 1 [of the dramatic spectacle] will surely die.
When it is broken into three a political disorder will occur in the land, and it being broken into four pieces the master of the dramatic art 2 will perish, while if the string slips out of the hand some other kind of loss will be the result. Hence it is desired that the string should always be taken and held with [great] care.
Besides this the measurement of ground for the playhouse should be carefully made.

32-33. And at a favourable moment which occurs in a
(happy) Tithi 1 during its good part (mt-knram)' he should get the auspicious day declared alter the Brahmins have been satisfied
[with gifts]. Then he should spread the string after sprinkling on it the propitiating water. 3

The ground plan of the playhouse

33-35. Afterwards he should measure a plot of land sixty- four cubits [long] 1 and divide the same [lengthwise] into two
[equal] parts. The part which will be behind him (i.e. at his back) will have to be divided again into two equal halves. Of these halves one | behind him] should be again ' divided equally into two parts, um- of which will be made the -tago (aiwia-iina) and the part at back the tiring room i mpalhijn).

27-28 (B. 33b-34a, 0. 30b-3k).

28-31 (B. 34b-37, G. 31b-34). ■ mminoli-firekmpateh. Ag.
- firayoktur=naty?tmryasya. (Ag.)

32-33 UUs-39a,G. 35). > W- a lunar (lav . • kara,,a~ & half of a !uuiH . day> m , ^ ^
G. omits 33a.

03-35' (B.39b-41a.G 3«-<vn lu^-i* L

»ia, m. , le -37). See 1.7 jibove and the note 1 on it.


The ceremony of laying the foundation

35-37. Having divided the plot of land according to rules laid down before, he should lay in it the foundation of th8 play- house. And during this ceremony [of laying the foundation] all the musical instruments such as, conchshell, Dundubhi*, Mrdanga 2 , and Panava* should be sounded.

37-38. And from the places for the ceremony, undesirable persons such as heretics, including Sramanas 1 , men in dark red
(Jcasaija) 2 robes as well as men with physical delects, should be turned out.

38-39. »At night, offerings should be made in all the ten directions | to various gods guarding them J ami these offerings should consist of sweet scent, flowers, fruits and etables of various other kinds-

39-41. The food-stuff offered in the four [cardinal] direc- tions east, west, south and north, should respectively be of white, blue, yellow and red colour. Offerings preceded by [the muttering .

35-37 (B.41b-43a, G.38-49). l dundiMi—a kind of drum.

a mrdanga — a kind of earthen drum.

3 pmia-M — a small drum or tabor.

37-38 (B.43b-44a, G.40). ' pasamla.— This word :has a very curious history. Derived originaly from panada (moaning 'assembly' or
'community') its Pkt from was tpassada or *passa<]a or pasatja. The form pasad.a with spontaneous nasalization of the second vowel gave rise . to Asokan pasamda (Seventh Pillar Edict, Dolhi-Topra), which is the basis of Skt. pasa>,i<]a in the sense of 'heretic'. It may be mentioned here that in Asokan Pkt. the word meant simply a 'community' and not a 'hereti- cal community'. One of the very early indications of disfavour to heretics is to be found in the fourth book Cell. 18) of the Visnu P. See Winteruitz,
Vol. I. p. 551.

8 Ft reads iramina, but G. iramana, the word means Jain monks.
See NS. XVIII. 36 note 2.

3 Muwtya-vasana— men in kusmy& or robe of dark red colour ; such people being Buddhist monks who accepted the vow of eclebacy, were considered an evil omen, for they symbolised unproductivity and want of wordly success etc. See also NS\ XVIII, 36 note 2.

38-39 (B.44b-45a,G.41) * 39-41 (B.45b-47a, G42-43)


of] Mantras should be made in [all the ten] different directions to deities presiding over them.

• 41-42, At [the time of laying] the foundation ghee 1 and
Piiyasa 2 should be offered to Brahmins, Madluiparka :) to the king, and rice with molasses ('jmla) to masters [of dramatic art].

42-43. The foundation should be laid during the auspicious part of a happy Tithi under the asterism Muh(Lamhda.8cm-idonin}.

Raising pillars of the playhouse

43-45. After it lias been laid, walls should be built and these having been completed, pillars within the playhouse should be raised in an [auspicious] Tithi and Karana which arc under a good asterism. This [raising of pillars] ought to be made under the asterism Rohini (Ahli'ln-ntit) or Sravana (A'/u'dLr) [which are considered auspicious for the purpose].

45-46. The master [of dramatic art), after he has fasted for three [days and] nights, is to raise the pillars in an auspicious moment at dawn.

41-42 (B.47b-48a. G.44). ' gAee-elariM butter.

" pHwsa-r'm rooked in milk with sugar. It i< a kind of rice- porridge. 3 madhuparka—'u mixture of honey' ; a respectful offering proscribed to bo made to an honourable person in Vedic times, and this custom still lingers in ceremonies like marriage. Its ingredients are five : eurd (dadhij ghee (sarph), water (jala), homy (handra) and white sugar (situ).

42-43 (B.48b-49a, G.45).

43-4'i (IU9b-51a, G.4<>-47). ' karat/a— hnli of the lunar day
(tithi). Thei are eleven in number viz.— (I) vava, (2) vidava,
(3) kaulava, (4) taitila, (5) gara, (6) mru'ja, (7) PtW, (8) iakwi,
(9) calmpada, < 10) nhga and (11) kintughm, and of these the first seven are counted From the wood half of the lirst day of the hMa-paha (bright half of the moo„) to the fct half of the fourteenth day of the h^a-paha
(dark half of the moon). They occur eight times in a mouth. Th'c remain- ing karams occur in the remaining duration of tithis and appear only once in a month. See Suryasiddhanta-II. 67-68.

45-46 (RK]b-52a, G.48).


46-50. *In the beginning, the ceremony in connexion with the Brahmin pillar should be performed with completely white, 2 articles purified with ghee and mustard seed, and in this ceremony
Payasa should be distributed [to BrahminsJ. In case of the
Ksatriya pillar, the ceremony should be performed with cloth, garland and unguent which should all be of red 3 colour, and during the ceremony rice mixed with molasses (gu4<() should be given to the, twice-born caste. The Vaisya pillar should be raised in the north- western direction of the playhouse and [at the ceremony of its raising] completely yellow 4 articles should be used and Brahmins should be given rice with ghee. And in case of the Hudra pillar, which is to be raised in the north-eastern direction, articles used in offering should all be of blue 5 colour, and the twice-born caste should be fed with Krsara,

50-53. First of all, in case of the Brahmin pillar, white garlands and unguent as well as gold from an ear-ornament should bo thrown ;it its foot, while copper, silver and iron are respectively to be thrown at the feet of the Ksatriya, Vaisya and i%dra pillars.
Besides this, gold should be thrown at the feet of the rest [of pillars]. 53-54. The placing of pillars should be preceded by the display of garlands of [green] leaves [of mango trees around them], and the utterance of 'Let it be well' (misti) and 'Let this be an auspicious day' {[mnijaha). .

54-57. After pleasing the Rrahmins with considerable
(analjin) gift of jewels, cows and cloths, pillars should be raised

46-50 (B.52b-56a, G.50-53). ' bofore 46, G. reads on the strength of a single ms. one couplet as follows :— ^ 1 n 5 ^ mm' wt Hifafa ^ I
W *WW «r» V" «V: *"1 » This interpolation seems to record
She tradition that the pillars should be considered as wooden.

8 white— symbol of purity and learning, associated with the Brahmins.

* red— symbol of energy and strength, associated with the Ksatriyas.

* yellow— symbol of wealth (gold) associated with the Vaisyas.

* blue— symbol of non- Aryan origin associated with the Madras.
50-58 (B.56b-58aAG.54-56). _ ' 53-54 (Btf9b-60a, G.57,) •



[in such a manner that] they do neither move nor shake nor turn round. 1 Evil consequences that may follow in connexion with the raisins of pillars, are as follows: 'when a pillar [after it has been fixed] moves drought comes, when it turns round fear of death occurs, and when it shakes, fear from an enemy state appears.
Hence one should raise a pillar free from these eventualities.

58-60. In case of the holy Brahmin pillar, a cow 1 should be given as fee (dahina) and in case of the rest [of the pilkrs] builders should have a feast- And [in this feast foodstuff] purified with Mantr.i should be given by the wise master of the dramatic art (vHtijafarim). Then he should be fed with KrsarS* and salt.

00-63. After all these rules have been put into practice and all the musical instruments have been sounded, one should raise the pillars with the muttering over them of a suitable Mantra
[which is as follows] : 'Just as the mount of Mem is unmoved and the Himalaya is very strong, so be thou immoveable and bring victory to the king.' Thus the experts should build up pillars, doors, walls and the tiring room, according to rules.

TV Mattaviiraiu

03-65. On [each] side of the stage {fiwjn-iiilka) should be built the Mattavarani 1 and this should be furnished with four pillars and should be equal in length to the stage (w hgiijiUha)

54-57 (B.56b-63, 0.r.8-61n). l amlitam (B. acalilan)— Though Ag. is supposed to road acalitam lie interprets it correctly as valayu- hjyadinuparivarttanam yasya karaiiiyam na b/tavati'Q. p.6(0.

58-60 (B. «4-66a, 0. 61b-63). ' This kind of payment is probably a relic of the time when there was no metallic currency.

s krsaru is made of milk, sesamum (tila) and rice. Compare tin's word with NIA. khicaili or kkuw]i (rice and peas boiled together with a few spices). e>0-fi8 (B.66b-«2a, G 64-66)

63-65 (B.69b-71a, G.67-68). ' matta-vurani—'W? word does not seem to occur in any Skt. dictionary. There is however a word mattavumm meaning 'a turret or small room on the top of a large building, a veranda, a pavilion'. In Ksirasvamiu's commentary to the AmaraWa, matta- varana hite been explained as follows ; matttdamiopmrayah syht pragriw


and its plinth should be a cubit and a half high*. And the plinth of the auditorium {rahijanvtnialaY should be equal in height to that of the two [Mattavaranis].

65-07. At the time of building them (the two Mattavaranis) garlands, ' incense, sweet scent, cloths of different colours as well as offerings agreeable to [Bliutas] should be offered [to them].
And to ensure the good condition of the pillars, one should put" a piece of iron below them, and Brahmins should be given food including Kivara- The Mattavaranis should be built up after observing* all these rules.

• The stage

68. Then one should construct the stage (ravijapjtlta) 1

matlavhranalt (see Oka's ed. p. 50). This is however not clear. Jdatta- varanayor varmjilaka mentioned in Subandhu's Vasavadatta (ed. Jivananda.
p. 33) is probably connected with this word. Sivarama Tripathl explains these woids as follows : JrWiwI HWft WlskTJ%l! I fiwiWSWpf $\ »?irqfilHT iRiF^t i Bftq^ffl afo-j fafti 91 <j *«$«*{ ii This also does not give any clear idea about mattavii-rtiiia or matlavamiiayor varantlaka. But the word mattavaram may .lie tentatively taken in the sense of 'a side-room.'
Ag. seerasto have no clear idea about it. On this he (I. pp. 64-65) says : fwroft *r*fSjuHiwi*m «»H1 firifto-f«f«tWwi ft nr«Krrft«t ( •^irftiw ? )
K^iftsijtf finftwiWiiw. A Dictionary of Hindu Architecture, by (P. K.
Acharya Allahabad, 1927) does not give us any light on this term.

'' According to a view expressed in the Ag. (I. p. 62) the plinth of the mattavuran* is a cubit and a half higher than that of the stage — iwitsa
Ktii *r<tai3w ai^TWifwro v% m: qrnif mnrcwr. The plinth of the audi- torium is also to be of tlis same height as that of the mattavarani. But nothing has been said about the height of the plinth of the tiring room.
From the use of terms like raitgitvataraim (descending into the stage) it would appear that the plinth of the tiring room too, was higher than the stage. Weber however considered that the stage was higher. Indische
Studien XIV. p. 225 Keith, Skt. Drama, p. 360. of. Levi, Theatre indien,
i. 374, ii. 62.

8 B. reads rahgamamlapam instead of raiigamaiirjalam (G) which is the correct reading. 65-67 (B.71b-73, 69-71a)

68 (B.74, G.71b-72a). ' Some scholars following Ag, arc in favour of taking and rahgapMho rahgaiina as two different parts of the> play- house (see D.B. Mankad, "Hindu Theatre" urfflQ. VIII. 1932, pp. 480 ff.


after due performance of all the acts prescribed by rules, and the stage (raiiijaiirsa) should. include six pieces of wood.

69-71. The tiring mora (uepdlhya) should be furnished with two doors 1 . In filling up [the ground marked for the stage] the black earth should be used with great care. This earth is to be made free from stone chips, gravel and grass by the use of a plough to which are to be yoked two white draught animals.
Those who will do [the ploughing] work should be free from physical defects of all kinds. And the earth should be carried in new baskets by persons free from defective limbs.

72-74. Thus one should carefully construct the plinth of the stage (rtmgaiii'Kn) 1 . It must not be [convex] like the back of a tortoise or that of a fish. For a stage (rahij<t[)Uha) the ground which is as level as the surface of a mirror, is commendable.
Jewels and precious stones should be laid underneath this
(nihyniimi) by expert builders. Diamond is to be put in the east, lapis hmdi in the south, quartz in the west and coral in the north, and in ihe centre gold.

Decorative work iu the stage

75-30. The plinth of the stage having been constructed thus, one should start the wood-work which is based on a carefully thought out {uha-tiiatyuliarsamyttlrtii) 1 [plan], with many artistic

and IX. 1933-pp. 973 ff. ; V. ltaghavan, "Theatre Architecture in Ancient
•India" Triveni 1V-VI, (1931, 1933) also "Hindu Theatre", IHQ. IX.
1933. pp. '991 ff. I am anable to agree with them. For my arguments on this print so.. "The Hindu Theatre" in IHQ. IX. 1933 pp. 591 ff. and The NiS' and the Abhiiiavabliiirati" in IHQ. X. 1934 pp. 161 ff.

69-71 (15.75-77, G.72b-75a). ' On this point the Hindu Theatre has a similarity with the Chinw lueatre. (See A.K. Coomaraswamy-"Hindu
Theatre" in IHQ. IX. 1933. p. 594).

72-74 (B. 78-80, (>.75b-78»). ' See note 1 on 68. If rangaiina and rmgafrha are take, to mean two different parte of the playhouse the interpret to, of the passage will lead us to unncessary difficulty.

?5-8<J (B.80-86a, 0.780-83). < fife and pralyuha may ako b. taken as t,vo architectural terms (see Ag. I, p. 63).


pieces such as decorative designs, carved figures of elephants, tigers and snakes. Many wooden statues also should be set up there, and this wood-work [should] include Niryuhas 2 , variously placed mechanized latticed windows, rows (Moroni) of good seats, numerous dove-cots and pillars raised in different parts of the floor 3 . And the wood-work having been finished, the builders should set out to finish the walls. No pillar, bracket 4 , window, corner or door should face a door 5 .

80-82. .The playhouse should be made like a mountain cavern 1 and it should have two floors 2 [on two different levels] and small windows ; And it should be free from wind and should have good acoustic quality. For [in such a playhouse] made free from the interference of wind, voice of actors and singers as

' niryaka is evidently an architectural term but it does not seem to have been explained clearly in any extant work. Ag's explanation does not give us any light

* In the absence of a more detailed description of the different parts of the wood-work, it is not possible to have a clear idea of them. Hence our knowledge of the passage remains incomplete till such a description is available in some authentic work.

* nagadanta means 'a bracket'. The word occurs in Vatsyayana's
Kamasutra. mgadantavasakta vina (I. 5.4)

* On this passage Ag. (I. p. 64) says : sftwi ^flurafto fax WTO%^-

80-82 (B. 86b, 89a, G. 84-85). l The pillars of the playhouse being of wood, the roof was in all probability thatched and in the form of a pyramid with four sides. Probably that was to give it the semblance of a mountain cavern.

* The two floors mentioned here seem to refer to floors of different heights which the auditorium, «w//«w»r«'.»» »ud the stage hail. See 63-65 above and note 2 on it. According to some old commentators dvirbkOmi indicated a two-storied playhouse while others were against such a sugges- tion. Ag. (1. p. 64) says : ? 1* *f i^3«ww>if'im^*fn *f*1 1 fiwft
*fffwpiw%>i wft ftiffctwrnfiMi twiwiuft*t (?) mMtsnft fvfMt igfiiftm* i


well as the sound of musical instruments 8 will be distinctly heard 4 .

82-85. The construction of walls being finished, they should be plastered and carefully white-washed. After they have been smeared [with plaster and limej, made perfectly clean and beautifully plain, painting should be executed on them. In this painting should be depicted creepers, men, women, and their amorous exploits 1 . Thus the architect should construct a play- house of the oblong (n'W") type.

Description of a square playhouse

86-92. Now I shall speak of the characteristics of that of the square {i-nhinwi-a) 1 type. A plot of land, thirtytwo cubits in length and breadth, is to be measured out in an auspicious moment, and on it the playhouse should be erected by experts in dramatic art. Rules, definitions ;ind propitiatory ceremonies mentioned before [in case of a playhouse of the oblong type] will also apply in case of that of the square type. It should be made perfectly square and divided into requisite parts 2 by holding the string [of measurement], and its outer walls should be made with strong bricks very thickly set together. And inside the stage and in proper directions [the architect] should raise ten

3 kutapa— This word is explained by Ag. differently in different parts of his comm. Once (J, p. 73) he says f llWfl <*<jf»wfl«iwi«i*tf»l and next time too (J. p. J<-6) lie says ^gf5vmn«i ?a<i, but in another place (I. p. 65) he say W. wi-iimm *ty. and this latter view seems to have boon repeated in I. ?. 2U. The lirst view seems to give the correct interpretation.

4 After H.87 B. repeats 19 (B22) unnecessarily.

82-go (B.89b-92, G.86-P9a). ' atmabhogajam literally means 'due to self-indulsfiice or eujoynnit of the self. Compare with this description the decorative paintings in the Ajanta cave*.

86-92 (B.9:t-99a, l>. 89b-95). ' caturasra gives rise to NIA. mums or corns.

'The exact nature of this division is not clear from tl.e passage.
The view expressed by Ag. 0. P. 66) on this point does not seem to be convincirg. -II. 100 ] DESCRIPTION OP THE PLAYHOUSE 31

pillars 3 capable of supporting the roof. Outside the pillars, seats should be constructed in the form of a staircase by means of bricks and wood, for the accommodation of the spectators.
Successive rows of seats should be made one cubit higher than those preceding them, and the lowest row of seats being one cubit higher than the floor And all these seats should overlook the stage. 92-95. In the interior of the playhouse six more strong pillars capable of supporting the roof should be raised in suitable positions and'with [proper] ceremonies (i e. with those mentioned before).' And # in addition (o these, eight more pillars should bu raised by their side. Then alter raising [for the stage or rutujaihlhii] a plinth eight cubit [square, more] pillars should be raised to support the roof of the playhouse. These [pillars] should be fixed to the roof by proper I'a-teuers, and be decorated with figurines of 'woman-with-a-tree' ( n —sdhihhanjikh).

95-100. After all these have been made, one should care- fully construct the tiring room (ntjMthjd). It should have one door leading to the stage through which persons should enter with their face towards [the spectators]. There should also be a second door facing the auditorium (minjtt). The stage [of the square playhouse] should be eight cubits in length and in breadth, it should be furnished with an elevated plinth with plain surface, and its Mattaviirani should be made according to the measurement prescribed before (is. in ease of the oblong type of

3 The position of tltcso ten pillars and others mentioned afterwards i* not clear from the text. Whatever is written on this point in Ag's commentary is equally difficnlt to understand. Those who are interested in the alleged view of Ag. may be referred to articles of D. R. Mankad and V. Rajfli avail (loc. cit.).

92-95 (B.99b-102a, G.96-98). ' satastri^&ila-bhanjika (see A. K. t'ooinaraswamy, 'The Women and tree or siilabha jikii in Indian literature in Acta Orieutalia, vol. VTl. also cf. this author's Yaksas, Part II. p. 11.)

95-inn (B.1026-107 6.99-104). > Both the sides are meant. There should be two mattavaratfis as in the ease of an oblong medium,
(rikrsia-madhya) playhouse described before (17, 32-35).


playhouse). The Mattavaram" should be made with four pillars by the side 1 of the plinth [mentioned above]. The stage should be either more elevated than this plinth or equal to it in height. In case of a playhouse of the oblong (oilcrsla) type, it should be higher than the stage, whereas in ' a playhouse of the square type it should have a height equal to that of the stage. These are the rules according to which a square type play- house is to be built.

Description of a triangular playhouse

101-104- Now f shall speak about the characteristics of the triangular [Irynm,) type of playhouse. By the builders, a play- house with three corners should be built, and the stage {mwjnpHhn) in it also should be made triangular. In one corner of the playhouse there should be a door, and a second door should be made at the back of the stage (mw</a/»itta). Rules regarding walls and pillars 1 which hold good in case of a playhouse of the square type, will be applicable in case of the triangular type*. Those are the rules according to which different types of playhouses are to be constructed by the learned. Next I shall describe to yon tin.' i propitiatory] I J fija in this connexion.

Here ends Chapter II of Bharata's Natyasilstra which treats of the Characterises of a Playhouse.

101-104 (B.108-1 11, G.104b-108). > It is not clear how the playhouse will have pillars like those of other types.

Playhol!" ""*"*""* W bMn PrCaCriW "' «™ of the triangular

Consecration of the playhouse

1-8. In the auspicious playhouse constructed with all the characteristics [mentioned obove] cows, and Brahmins muttering
[proper Mantras] should be made to dwell for a week. Then the master of the dramatic art who has been initiated [for the purpose] and has put on new cloths, fasted for three days, lived away from his bed-room (lit. the dwelling house), has kept his senses under control and has [thus] become purified, will besprinkle his limbs with water over which purificatory Mantras have been muttered, and consecrate the playhouse. This [consecration] should take place after he has made obeisance to the great god Siva the lord of all the regions, Brahman who sprung from the lotus, Brahaspati the preceptor of the gods, Vi?nu, Kartikeya, SarasvatI, LaksmI,
Siddhi, Medha, Smrti, Mati, Candra (Moon), Sflrya (Sun), Winds,
Guardians of all directions, A^vins, Mitra, Agni, and other gods, such as Rudra, Varnas 1 , Kala* Kali 8 , Yama, Niyati, the Sceptre of
Yama*, Weapons of Visnu", the Lord of the Nagas (Serpents), the
Lord of the birds (Garuda), Thunderbolt, Lightning, Seas, Gan- dharvas, Apsarasas, Sages, Natya-maids 8 , MahSgramani (the great leader of Ganas) 1 , Yaksas, Guhyakas 8 and the hosts of Bhutas.

1-8 (B.l-7, 9. G.l-7, 9). l varnas— No gods called varnas are to be met with in any other work. They may be taken as deities ruling specially ovor the four varnas of people.

' Kala— There are several legendary heroes (gods, sages and Asuras) of this name, see Vidyalankar, JK. sub voce.

* Kali— There are many legendary heroes of this name, see JK. sub voet.

* See note 5 below.

* Weapons of Vi§nu appear as deities in the Act I of Bhasa'i Bala.

* natyakumari— Such goddesses are possibly mentioned nowhere else.

' mahagramani— The great leader of Ganas. It is very difficult to accept Ag's identification of mahagramani with Ganapati (jnakagra- itanir ganapati))). For in 58 below, occurs the term mahagmieivara


0-10. Having made obeisance to these, and other divine sages (devarsi), he should with folded palms invoke all the gods to their respective positions, and say, "Ye, holy ones, should take us under your protection during the night, and ye with your followers should offer us assistance in this dramatic performance".

Offering Paja to the Jarjara

11-18. Having worshipped [thus] all the gods as well as all the musical instruments (kutapa) 1 he should offer Puja to the
Jarjara 2 for attaining good success at the performance [and pray to it as follows]. "Thou art Indra's weapon killing all the demons ; thou hast been fashioned by all the gods,, and thou art capable of destroying all the obstacles ; bring victory to the king and defeat to his enemies, welfare to cows and Brahmins and progress to dramatic undertakings".

14-15. After proceeding thus according to rules and staying in the playhouse for the night, he (the master of the dramatic art)

(in the plural number) indicating the different leaders of Ganas who followed Siva. One of such leaders lias been mentioned there as Nandisvara
(Nandin). Besides this the term Gane^a (the leader of Ganas) has also been applied to Siva in 47 below. In describing pimjibai dhas the pt'nrji of Ganesvara has been named as dakxayajlia-vimardini (KB. IV. 260). This too shows that ganesvara, gramani or mahagriimaiii meant simply the leader, one of the leaders or the great leader of Ganas. The fully developed Ganapati .seems to be non-existent at the time when the NS. was composed. Our suspicion in the matter seems to be corroborated by the variant tathu grimadhi-devala recorded in the ms (ha of B. for mahagnmanyam. Ganapati seems to be a late entrant into the Hindu pantheon. He is not mentioned in any one of the old Puranas. Only the
Varaha, Vamana and Brahma-vaivarta P. which arc very late know the deity (Winternitz, Vol. 1. pp. 566-568, 573, Vidyalankar, JK. sub voce).
* KalidSsa makes no distinction between Yaksas and Ouhyakas,
See Meghaduta 1 and 5.

•See above.. 9-10 (B.10-11, G.10-11).

11-13 (B.12-14, G.12-H). » See below 72- r 3 note 3. The reading samfimyuja in all editions and inss. seems to be wrong. It should be emended as samprapujya.

'. See 73-81 below.

14-15 (B.15-16, G-,15-16).


should begin Puja as soon as it is morning. This Puja connected with the stage should take place under the asterism Ardra (Alpha-
Ononis) or Magba (Regulus) or Yamya (Mmca) or Purvaphalguni
(Delta-Leonis) or PurvasSdha (Della-Sagittarii) or Purvabhadra- pada (Alpha-Pegasi) or Silesa (Hydrae) or Miila {Lambda.

. 16. The stage should be illuminated and the Puja of the gods in its connexion should be performed by the master of the dramatic art (jacaryn) after he has purified his body, concentrated his mind [to these acts] and initiated himself [to the Puja],

•Installation of the gods

17. During the concluding moments of the day, which are considered to be hard and full of evils, and are presided over Ky
Bhutas, one should perform Acamana 1 and cause the gods to be installed. 18. [Along with these gods] should be [taken] red thread- bangle (pratinara) 1 , the best kind of red sandah red flowers and red fruits. [With these andj articles such as barley, white mustard, sunned rice, Nagapuspa 2 powder and husked saffron (priyangu)*, the gods should be installed.

The Mandala for installing the gods

20. In this ceremony one should draw in proper place a
Mandala 1 according to the manner prescribed.

21. This mandala should be sixteen Talas (hasta) 1 square and it should have doors on all its four sides.

16 (B.17, G.17).

17 (B.l 8,0.18). ' SfliiwwM— ceremonial rinsing of the mouth by sipping water from the palm of the hand.

18-20 (B.l£21a. G.19-21a).

1 pratisarce—SutrO'vinirmita grant hi-mantah ka'nkanavncaah, Ag,
(I. p. 74).

" nagapwpa^the campaka tree (ApteL but Ag. says nagapuspam nagadantah, * priyangu— saffron, and not the fruit of the priyangu creeper.

20 (B.21b.G. 2lb). l See the diagram 1.

t\ (B.22-G82). ' hasta in this passage i* to be interpreted as


22. In its middle should be drawn two lines vertically and horizontally (ie. parallel to the sides), and in the apartments made by these lines, should be installed the different gods.

23-30. In the middle of this (manfala), should be put
Brahman who has lotus as his neat 1 . Then one should first of all put in the ea-t Siva with his host of Bhutas, Narayana (Visnu),
Indra, Skanda (Kartikeya), Surya, As"vins, Candra, SarasvatI,
Laksmi, Araddha and Medha, in the south-east Agni, Svaha,
Visvedevas, Gandharvas, Rudras and Rsis, in the south Yama,
Mitra with his followers, Pitrs, Pisaeas, Uragas and Guhyakas, in the south-west the Raksasas and all the Bhutas, in the west the
Seas and Varuna, in the north-west the Seven Winds 3 and
Garuda with other birds, in the north Knvera, Mothers of the
Natya, Yaksas with their followers, in the north-east leaders of
Ganas such as Nandin, Brahmarsis and the host of Bhutas in their proper places.

31. And [in the eastern] pillar should be placed Sanat- kumara 1 , in the southern one Daksa*, in the northern one
Gramani (lit. leader of Ganas) 3 and in the western one Skanda

32. According to this rule all the gods in their [proper] form and colour should be placed in their respective positions.

hasta-taia or tola i.e. the interval between the tips of the thumb and the middle-finger stretched in opposite directions. 11WWI? nil ft TW8 wrWt l mnfcroiS mwoittlfa: , SB. VII. 1046. Otherwise* it will be im- possible k. accomodate the ma V ,1ala on. the stage which is eight cubits wide (8eeNS.lI. 83-35). The ancient commentators like i$ankuka and others pointed out how absurd it would be take hasta in the passage m the sense of cubit, (see Ag. I. p. 75). 22 (B 23. 0.23)

23 3U (B.24-31, 0,24-31). i According to Ag. a lotus i. to be
Vamana P. (see Vidyalaukur, JK. tut voce) of Brlaf'^ ' **'™ of the great ^ and .«

'.Daksa-oneofthe lords of the creation frajipati), «>n of Pra- cetas Ihere ^ VidXkTjK.SL
*e above 1-8 not, 7. *<*U,j£


Offering Paja to the godB

33. After they have been installed with regular ceremony in suitable places they should be worshipped in a fitting manner.

34. Gods [in general] should be given white 1 garlands and unguents, while Gandharvas, Agni and Surya should be given gar- lands and unguents of red* colour.

. 35. After being treated [thus] in due order and manner they should be worshipped according to rules with suitable offerings.
36-39. "[Offerings suitable to different gods and goddesses are as follows] : Brahman Madlmparka 1 , Sarasvatl Payasa 2 , gods like Siva, Visnu, and Indra sweetmeats. Agni rice cooked with ghee, Candra and Surya rice cooked with molasses, Visvedevas,
Gandharvas and sages honey and Payasa, Yama and Mitra cakes and sweetmeats, Pitrs, Pigacas and Uragas ghee and milk, host of Bhutas rice cooked with meat, wines of different kinds and grams covered with thick milk.

Consecration of the Mattavarani

4044 Similar shall be the rules regarding the Puja in
^connexion with the Mattavarani. [Offerings to be made to different gods and demigods are as follows] : Raksasas half-cooked meat,
Danavas wine and meat, the remaining gods cake and Utkarika* and boiled rice, gods of seas and rivers fish and cakes, Varuna ghee and
Payasa,:Sages various roots and fruits, the wind god and birds different edible stuff (lit. bhaksija and hhojyu), Mothers 8 of the

33 (B.34, 034).

34 (B.35, 0.35). ' 'WluV here seems to be the symbol of purity and good grace.-

' 'Rod' here seems to bo the symbol of energy.

35- (B. 35, G.36).

36-39. (B. 37-40, G. 37-40). ' mad/mparka—sx* above II. 41-42. note 3.

* Payasa— ate above II. 41-42 uote.

40-44.(B,41 45, G.41-45). l See above.

3 «//tef«*o"»a kind of sweetmeat.

1 These goddesses seem to have b«eu ignored by the Purayag.


Natya, and Kuvera with his followers eatables including cakes, and

45. These different kinds of foodstuffs should be offered to them and the Mantras to be uttered at the time of making offering to different gods will be as follows : —

46. (The Mantra for Brahman), the god of gods, the most lordly one, the lotus-born one, the grand-father (of 'he worlds) accept this my offering consecrated by the Mantra.

47. (For Siva) the god of gods, the great 'god, the lord of Garros 1 and the killer of Tripura, accept this my etc.

IS. (For Visnn), Narayana, Padmanabha, the best of the gods, with unrestrained movement, accept this my etc.

49. (For Indra), Purandara, the lord of gods, the thunder hearer, the maker of the hundred exploits, accept this my etc.

•>(.i. (For Skanda), Skanda the leader of the celestial army, the blessed one. the dear son of £iva, the six-mouthed one, accept this my etc

51. (For Sarasvati,), the goddess of the gods, the very blessed one, the dear wife of Hari, accept this my etc.

52 (For goddesses Laksmi, Siddhi, Mati, Medha)
.Laksmi, Siddhi, Mati and Medha, ye who are honoured by all the worlds, accept this my etc.

53. (For Maruta) U Mfiruta, you who know the might of all the creatures nnd are the life of all the world, accept this

my etc. - •

3*. vFor fiaksasas) O the great Kaksasas, the great-souled

;v/^ fe ~ Thi9 U8 k "" , '" ali in "* » M «- 'top'**, lefiikh,
Wo. Ik. word m-m to be coiu v «bd with the NIA. luci, loci, from tloctu, *lociku.

•15(K46,0.46) 36 (B.47, G.47)

«ll«. p'T (! ' 48 ' ' H 8 ' l0Uld ** marked hm t,,at ' *™ »« been
48(B.50.(r.49). 49(B.48,(i.50). 50 (B 49 51)

51JB.53,0.52). MfR«.tf. M , « 5 ' fit


ones, the song of Pulastya, born of different cause?, accept this my etc

55. (For Agni) O Agni, the mouth of the gods, the best of the gods, the smoke-bannered one, the eater of things offered in sacrifice, accept this my offering given with love.

56. (For Candra) Soma, the lord of all the planets, the king of the twice-born ones, the favourite of the world, accept thi3 my etc.

57. (For Sflrya) the maker of day, the mass of heat, the best among the planets, accept this my etc.

58^ (Far lords of Ganas such a?, Nandls'vara) the great lord of Ganas. among whom NandlsVarn is I he foremost, accept this my etc.

50. (For Pitrs) I bow to all the Pitrs. do ye accept my offering. (For Bhutas) I always bow to all the Bhutas who may have a liking for offerings 1 .

60a. (For Kainapala) O KSmapila, I always bow to thee to whom this offering is made.

60-61. (For Gandharvas) Gaudharvas, amongst whom
Nfirada, Tumburti and ViSvavasu are the foremost, accept this my best offering.

61-62. (For Yama and Mitra) O Yarnn and Mitra, the gods who are adored by all the worlds, accept this my etc.

62-03. (For Nagas) I bow to all the Pannagas in the nether region, who are .devourers of wind, give me success in dramatic production after I have worshipped you.

■ 63-64. (For Varuna) Varuna, you who are the lord of all waters and haye the swan as your mount, be pleased along with the seas and rivers, after I have worshipped you all.

55(B.57,G.56). 56 (B.58. G.57).

57(IU9,G68). 58 (G.60, B.59).

59(P.6l,G.60a). ' G. puts one hemistich after 60a without nura-
Wing it. 60a (B.62a, G.6Db). . 60-61 (B.62b-63a, G.61).

61-62 (B.68b-64a, G.62). 62-63 (B. 64b-65a, G.63).

63-64 (B.65b-65a, G.64\


64-65. (For Garuda) the son of VinatS, the high-souled one, the lord, the king of all the birds, accept this my etc.

64-66. (For Kuvera) the superintendent of [all] wealth, the king of Yaksas, the guardian of the world, the lord of riches, ye along with Guhyakas and Yaksas accept this my etc

66-67. (For mothers of the Natya) mothers of the
Nstya such as Brahml and others, ye be happy and pleased to accept my offering.

B7-''-8. (For others) weapons of Rudra, ye accept my offerings. weapons of Visnu, ye too accept [things given by me] out of devotion for Visnu. .

68-69. Yama, the Fate, the dispenser of death to all creatures and the end of all actions, accept my offerings.

69-70. Ye other gods who are occupying the JIattavSrani, accept this my etc.

70-71. To all other gods and Gandharvas too who occupy the heavens, the earth, the middle region and the ten directions, these offerings are made (lit. let these be accepted by them).

71-72. Then a [earthen] jar 1 full of water with a garland of leaves in its front, should be placed in the middle of the stage, and a piece of gold should be put into it.

72-73. All the musical instruments covered with cloth should be worshipped with [sweet] scent, flowers, garlands, incense and various eatables hard and soft. 1

64-6,1 B.66b-67a, G.65). 65-66 (B.67b-6$a, G.66).

66-67 (B.68b-69a, G.67). 66-68 (B.69b 70a, G.68).

68-69 (B.70b-71a, G.69). 89-70 (B.71b-72a, G.70).
70-7! (B.72b-73a, 0.71).

71-72 (B.73b-74a, G. 72). > For the significance of this iar see below

72-73 (B.74b-75a, G.76). ' This passage with some minor variation

has been repeated inB. and G. But this is out of place there. For the order in which musical instruments (kulafia) and the Jarjara «Lould be worshipped sec 11-13 above.


■ Consecration of the Jar jar a

73-74. Having worshipped all the gods in due order, and offering Puja to the Jarjara fin the following manner] one should
Have the obstacles removed.

74-76. [One should fasten a piece of] white cloth at the- top [of the Jarjara], blue cloth at the Raudra joint, yellow cloth at the Visnu joint, red cloth at the Skanda joint, and variegated cloth at the lowest joint 1 . And garlands, incense and unguents, are to be offered to it (the Jarjara) in a fitting manner.

76-77. Having observed all these rites with incense, garlands and unguents one should consecrate 1 the Jarjara with the following Mantra:

77-78. "For putting off obstacles thou hast been made very
Mrong, and as hard as adament, by gods such as Brahman.

78-70. Let Brahman with all other gods protect thy top- most part, Hara (Siva) the second part, Janardana ( the third part, KumSra (KSrtikeya) the fourth part, and the great
Pannagas the fifth part*

80-81. Let all the gods protect thee, and be thou blessed.
Thou, the killer of foes, hast been born under Abhijit (Vega), the best of the asterisms. Bring victory and prosperity to the king !"

Homa or pouring ghee into sacrificial fire

81-82. After the Jarjara has thus been worshipped and all offerings have been made to it, one should with appropriate Mantras perform Homa and pour (ghee) into the sacrificial fire.

82-83. After finishing the Homa he should with the fire lighted [in the place of sacrifice] do the cleaning work (?) which is to enhance the brilliance of the king as well as of the female dancers." -

73-74 (B.75b-76a, G.73).

' 74-76 (B.76b-78a, G.74-75). l For identifying the joints eee 78-79

below.. 76-77 (B.79b-80a, G.77). - 77-78 lB.80b-81a,G 78).

78-80 (B.81b-82, G.79-8(M. 80-81 (B. 83b-84a, G.80l)-81).

81-82 (B.84b-85a, G. 82). ' 82-83 (B.85b-86a, 0.88).


83-84. After, faring illumined the king and the dancers together with the musical instruments one should sprinkle them again with water sanctified by the Mantra, and say to them :

84-85. "You are born in noble families and adorned, with multitudes of qualities, let whatever you have acquired by virtue of birth, be perpetually yours."

65-86. After saying these words for the happiness of the king, the wise man should utter the Benediction for the success of the dramatic production.

86-87. [The Benediction] : Let mothers such as Sarasvatl,
Dhrti, Medha, Hrl, &i, LaksmI, and Smrti 1 project you and give you success.

Breaking the Jar

87-88. Then after performing Homa according to rules with ghee and the proper Mantra the master of dramatic art should carefully break the jar.

88-89. In case the jar remains unbroken the king (lit. the master) will have a cause of fear from enemies ; but when it is broken his enemies will meet with their destruction.

Illumination of the stagp

89-90. After the breaking of the jar, the master of the dramatic art should illuminate the auditorium {rabgo) with a lighted lamp.

90-91. Noisily, that is, with roaring, snapping of fingers, jumping and running about, ho should cover the auditorium with that lighted lamp [in his hand],

91-92. Then a fight should bo caused to be made [on the

83-84 (B.86b-87a, G.84). 84-85 (87b-88a, G.85).

85-86 B.88b-89a, G.86). 86-87 (B.89b-90a, GJ7X

. 87-88 (B.90b-91a, G.88). > These are the seven H5tya«nStrkis.
) 23-30 above. g8 . 89 B.91b-92a, G.89).

89-90 (B.92b-93a, G.90). 90-91 (B.93b-94a, G.91).

91-93 (B.94b-96a, G.92-93). ' dundubhi-* kind of drum.


stage] in accompaniment with the sound of all the musical fnsfra* meats such as couch-shell, Dundabhi 1 , Mrdanga* and Panava*.

92-93. If the bleeding wounds [resulting from the fight] will be bright and wide, that will be a [good] omen indicating success. Good results of consecrating the stage

• 93-94. Tf the stnge is properly consecrated it will bring good luck to the king (lit the master) and to people young and old of the city as well as of the country.

94-95. , But when the auditorium is not consecrated in proper manner it will be indifferently held by gods, and there will be an end of the dramatic spectacle, and it will likewise bring evil to the king.

95-9G. He who willfully transgresses these rules [of consecration of the stage] and practises [the dramatic art], will soon sustain loss and will be reborn as an animal of lower order.

90-97. Offering worship to the gods of the stage is as meritorious as a [Vedic] sacrifice. No dramatic performance should be made without first worshipping the deities presiding over the stage. When worshipped, they (these god.-) will bring you worship, and honoured they will bring you honour. Hence one should by all efforts offer Puja to the gods of the stage.

Evils following non-consecration of the stage

98-99. Never will fire fanned by violent wind burn things so quickly, as defective rites will burn quickly [the master of the dramatic art].

99-100. So the stage should be worshipped by the master of the dramatic art who is purified, disciplined and proficient in

* mrdahga—k kind of earthen drum.

' panava— a kind of drum.

93-94 (B.96b-97n, G.94). - 94-95 (B.97b-98a, G.95).

95-96 (B.98b-99a, G.96). 96-98 (B.99b 101a, G.97.-98).

98-99 (B.lUlb-102*, G.99). ' 99-100-(B.l02b-103a, 0.1 0U ).



the rules of the art and initiated into the practice of it and has quiet of mind.

100-101. He who with an agitated mind places his offering in a wrong place, is liable to expiation like one who pours ghee into the sacrificial fire without proper Mantras. This is the procedure prescribed for worshipping the gods of the stage. It should be followed by producers [of plays] in holding a theatrical show in a newly built playhouse.

Here ends Chapter III of Bharata's Natyalastra, whirl) treats of Pujii to the gods of the stage.

100-101 (B.103b-104a, Q.101-102).



Brahman writes the first play and gets this performed.

1. After having worshipped [the gods presiding over the stage] I said to Brahman, "Tell me quickly, the mighty one, which play should be performed 1"

2. [In, reply] I was told by the Lord, "Perform the Amrta- uianthana (the Churning of the Ocean) 1 which is capable of stimu- lating efforts .'Mid of giving pleasure to gods.

3. I have compo.-ed this .Samavakiira 1 which is conducive to [the performance of] duties ('thai nut), to [the fulfillment ofj desire (tow) as well as [to the earning] wealth (<i rthn),"

4. When this Samavakiira was performed, god> and demons were delighted to witness actions and ideas [familiar to them].

5. Now, in course of time Brahman (lit. the lotus-born one) said to me, "We shall present today the play before the great- souled Siva (lit. the three-eyed one)"

6-7. Then on reaching along with other gods the abode of
Siva (lit. the bull-bannered one) Brahman paid him respects and said, "O the best of the gods, please do me the favour of hearing and seeing the Samavakiira which has been composed by me."

8. "I shall enjoy it," said the lord of gods in reply. Then
Brahman asked me to get ready [for the performance].

9-10. "O. the best of the Brahmins, after the Preliminaries connected with the performance had been completed this

1 (B.G. same)

2 B.G. same). ' The legend about the churning of the ocean occurs in the Mbh. (I. 17-19.) and the Visnu P. (1> Sec Wintcrnita, Vol. I pp. 889, 546.

8 (B.G. same). » See N& XX. .69 ff.

4 (B.G. same). 5 (B.G. same). 6-7 (B.G. same).

8 (B.G. same). 9-10 (B.G. same). t


(Samavakara named the Amrtamanthana) as well as a Dlnia 1 named the Tripuradaha (the Burning of Tripura) was performed in the
Himalayan region which consisted of many hills and in which there were many Bhutas, Ganas* and beautiful caves and waterfalls".

11. Then all the [Bhutas] and Ganas were pleased to see actions and ideas familiar to them, and Siva too was pleased and said to Brahman :

12. "0 the high-souled one, this drama (»%«) which is conducive to fame, welfare, merit and intellect, has been well- conceived by you.

13-14. Now in the evening, while performing it, I remem- bered that dance made beautiful by Angaharas 1 consisting of different Karanas 2 . You may utilize these in the Preliminaries
[(lUrmrahya) of a play.

Two kinds of Preliminaries

14-10. In the application of the Vardhamanaka 1 , the

Asarita*, the Gita* and the Mahaglta you will depict properly the

ideas [by means of dance movements]; and the Preliminaries which

you have [just] performed are. called "pure" (suddha). [But] when

' (]tma—OD.e of the plays of the major type ; for its characteristic*

see N^. XX. 84 ff.

' Tripuradaha-&iv& killed an Asura (demon) named Tripura by burning him with one of his fiery arrows. Hence he is called Tripurantaka or Tripnrari. Thi» legend occurs in the Varaha P. Sec JK. sub voce.

8 B.G. read toAuctttodrutitakirne instead of bah:Mmgunakirne.

11 (B.U. smey i 2 (B.G. same).

1S-U&6.JMM). ' patera-major dance figures which depend on nunor dance figures (kara.fasj The word means 'movement of limbs'

tL _L i e f lains jt " wmt •*** ■** «""*nw rw wt vc

below ^ 1 ^ ff , 7 ^ ^9 • 3,l ^ Fw ** *- *• *•*- -

14-16 (B.G. same). ' See K& V. 12-1S no* 3


' Bee Nl V. 60-«3 note 8.


these dances will be added to them (pure Preliminaries) they will he called "mixed" (eUra%

The AngahSras

16-17. To these words of Siva Brahman said in reply, "0 the best of the gods, tell us about the use of the Angaharas."

17-18. Then Siva (lit. lord of the world) called Tamju and said*, "Speak to Bharata about the use of the Angaharas."

18-19. And by Tandu I was told the use of the Angaharas.
I shall now speak of thera as well as of the various Karanas and
Reoakas*. ,

19-27. The thirty two Angaharas are as follows :— Sthira- hasta, Paryastaka, Sficlviddha, Apauiddha, Xkisptaka, Udgha$ta,
Viskambha, Aparajita, Viskambhapasrta, Mattakrlda, Svastikarecita,
Parsvasvastika, Vrfcika, Bhramara, Mattaskhalitaka, Madavilasita,
Gatimandala, Paricchinna, Parivrttarecita, Vai&kharecita, Paravrtta,
AlStaka, Parsvaccheda, Vidyudbhranta, Uddhrtaka, A~lldha, Recita,
Acchurita, Aksiptarecita, Sambhranta, Upasarpita, Ardhanikutteka.

Uses of the Angaharas

28-29. I shall now speak about their performance depen- dent on the Karanas. [And besides this] "0 the best of the Brah- mins, I shall tell you about the movements of hands and feet that ire proper to the Angaharas.

The Karanas

29-80. All the AngahSias consist of Karanas ; hence I shall nention the names of the latter as well as their descriptions.

16-17 (B.G. same). 17-18 (B. same, G. 16).

18-19 (B. same, G.17). l Se below 247 ff.

19-97 (B. same, G.18-27a).

28-29 (B. same, G.27b-28). ' for details, about katana see SOff below.

29-30 (B. same G.29). ' karana— minor dance figure. Ag. (1 93) plains the karana as vw«?n ft*** wrsfnfii <w*vf«Hit«i g nwwW


30-34. The combined [movement ot] hands and feet in dance is railed the Karana: Two Karanas will make one MatrkS, and two, three, or four Matrkas will make up one AngahSra. Three
Karanas will m:ike a Kaliipaka.four a Sandaka 1 , and five a SamghS- taka. ' Thus the Angaharas consist of six. seven, eight or nine
Karanas. I shall now speak of the hand and feet movements making up these (Karana*).

3 1-55. The Karanas are one hundred and eight in number and they are as follows: Talapuspaputa, Vartita, Valitoru, Apaviddha,
Samanakiia, Llna, Sva-tikaiwita, Mandalasvastika, Nikuttaka,
Ardhanikuttaka, Katk-chinnn, Ardliarecita, Vaksahsvastika, Un- matta, ' Svastika, Prsthasvastika, Diksvastika, AlSta, Katisama,
Aksiptareeita, Viksiptaksipta. «\ rdliasvastika, Aficita, BlmjangatrS- sita, Urdhvajanu, Xikuficita, Matalli, Ardhamatalli. Recukanikuttita,
Padapaviddhaka, Yalita, Giiuiniu, Lalita, Dandapaksa, Bhujanga- trastaredta, Nfl'-ura, Vaisikhareeita, Bl.raniaraka, Catura, Bhu- jangaacitaka, Dan l.ikarmta, Vr-cikakuttita, KatibhrSuta, Lata'- vrs"c'ika, Chinna, VrsYikarwita, Vrscika, Vyainsita, Parsvani- kuttana, Latatatilaka, Kianlaka, Kuiicita, Cakramandala, Uroman- dala, Aksipta, Talavilfwta. Argala, Viksipta, Svrtta, DolnpSda,
Vivrtta, VinivrSta'. Pur<vakriiutn, Xisumbhita, Vidyudbhrilnta,
Atikranta. Vivaititaka. (.'ajiikiidifa, Talasamsphotita, Garuda- plutaka. OanuViioI, Paiivi-tta, PSrsVnjSnu, GrdhraA'allnaka,
Samnata, SucI, Ardhnsfici, Surlviddhn. Apakranta. Mayuralalita.
Sarpita. Daijdapilda. llarinaplutn, Prenkholita, Nitamba, Skhalita,
Karihasta. Pnn-irpit;!, Siinhalai'dita, Simliiikarsita, Udvrtta.
Upasrta, Talasinighattila. J.mita, Avahitlhaka.Nivesa Elakakrfcjita.
Urudvrtta, Mada>k! li dita. VisnukiSnta, Sambhrftnta, Viskamblia.
Udgha.ttita, Vrs i .l,liuku..lii il , Lolitaka, Nagapa.supita, Pakatasya,
Gangavataratvi. [11],.., Kaianas will )»> used] in dance, 'fight, persona! combat, walking as well as movement in general.

56. Foot movements which have been prescribed for

80-34 ( 15. same, G. 30-33!. > W ^yz-B.G. read tna^aka.
£4-55 (B.34-55a, 56a, G.34-54)
56 (B.59, G.167).


the exercise of Sthanas 1 and Caris 8 , will apply also to these
Karanas 8 .

57. And application of the Nrtta-hastas 1 which have been prescribed for dance is generally implied in the Karanas.

58. The Sthanas, the Carls and the Nrtta-hastas mentioned
[before] are known as the Matrkas the variations of which are called the Karanas.

59. I shall treat the Carls suitable for [representing] fight at the time of discussing the foot movements. The master [of dramatic art] should apply them on any occasion according to his histrionic talents.

60. In the Karana the left hand should generally be held on the breast, and the right hand is to follow the [right] foot.

61. Listen [now] about the movement of hands and feet in dance in relation to that of hip, sides, thigh as well as to breast, back and belly 1 .

Definition of the Karanas.

62. Talapuspaputa— Puspaputa hand held on the left side, the foot is Agratalasancara, the side is Sannata (Nata) 1 .

' See N& XI. 49 ff. 2 See NS. XI. 2 ff.

* B.G. read one hemistich more before 56a. It does not occur in some mas. Ag. records this fact. Though these ] f)8 karanas constitute general dance, which is sometimes interpolated in 'the acting to fill up its gaps, they (karanas) may be also used to embellish the movement of limbs in fights of any kind. Ag. (I. p. 96) says 'sft'tf q«* *g|5tsf«iraT*m<?tW fiisn^fR'n^ w\ uym*, jwifcji wrss* «*"■• «toT**f'i 11 "F" 8 : besides this he says tanugatisihitisammiliie karanam (I. p. 97)

57 (B.171, G.56a, 168). ■ For nrttahastas see N!$. IX. 177 ff.

58 (B.173, G.170). 89 (B.56b-57a, G.56).

60 (B.57b-58a or 172, G.169).

61 (B. 58b-59a, G.57). ' For B.60 (G.58) omitted see NS. XL 90-91.

62 (B.61, G.59)» l For the sake of convenience constituent parts of the karanas have been separately mentioned without putting them in a cumbrous sentence. This method has been followed by A. K. Coomara- swamy in MG. As the definitions of these parts can be easily traced through the index they have not been referred to in the notes.



63. Vartita — Vyavrtta ( = Vyavartita) and Pari vartita hands bent at the wrist, then these hands placed on thighs.

04. Valitora— $ukatunda hands to make Vyavartita and
Parivartita K., and thighs are Valita.

65. Apaviddha— the (right) hand with Sukatunda gesture to fall on the (right) thigh, the left hand held on the breast.

66. Samanakha— the two Saraanakha 1 feet touching each other, two hands hanging down, and the body in natural pose.

67. Lina— the two Pataka hands held together in Anjali pose on the breast, the neck held high, and the shoulder bent.

6?. Svastikarecita— two hands with Rccita and Aviddha gesture held together in the form of a Svastika, then separated and hold on the hip.

69. Mandalasvastika— two hands moved to unite in the
Svastika gesture with their palms turned upwards in a similar manner, and the body in the Mandala Sthana (posture).

70. Nikuttaka — each of the hands to be moved up and down 1 alternately between the head and another arm, and the legs also moved in a similar manner.

71. Ardhanikuttaka— hands with Alapallava 1 gesture bent towards shoulders, and legs moved up and down:

72. Katiechinna— the hip serially in the Chinna pose, two Pallava hands held alternately and repeatedly on the head.

63 (B.62, Ml) 64 (B.63, 0.61) 65 (B.65, G.62)

66 (B.fiS, 0.63). ' samanakha f«>t has nowhere else been mentioned in the M 67 B.66, 0.64).

68 (B.97, 0.65). 69 (B.68, 0.66).

70(B.69, G.67>. ' nikuttita=nikuttam. Ag. (I. p. 103) quotes the definition of nikuUana from Kohala as follows : umamanam vinamattam , syad ahgasya nikuttanam.

7UB.70 0.68). » For kuwita BG. read aneita. But Ag. (I. p. 204)
Tread *i»W/«"suid means by this word tho alafiallnva gesture, h (B.71, 0.69).


73. Ardharecita — hand with Suclmukha 1 gesture to move freely, feet to move alternately up and down, side in Sannata (i.e.
Nata) pose.

74. Vaksahsvastika — two legs on each other in the form of a Svastika, the two Recita hands brought together in a similar manner on the breast which is bent (iiihihcita).

75. Unmatta — feet to be Aiicita and hands to be Recita.
76- Svastika— hands and feet respectively held together

in the Svastika form.

77. Prsthasvastika — two arms after being thrown up and down coming together as a Svastika, two feet also to come together as a Svastika with Apakranta and Ardhasuci Carls.

78. Diksvastika — turning sideways and towards the front in course of a single (lit. connected) movement, and forming
Svastika with hands and feet.

79. Alata — after making Alata Carl 1 taking down hand from [the level of] the shoulder 8 , then making Urdhvajanu Carl 8 .

80. Katisama — feet to be separated, after the Svastika
Karana, of the two hands one to be placed at the navel and the other at the hip, and the sides in the Udvahita pose.

81. Aksiptarecita — the left hand on the heart, the right hand Recita and thrown up and sideways, and then the two hands to be Recita with Apaviddha (Xviddhaka) gestures.

82. Viksiptaksiptaka— hands and feet first thrown up, then again thrown down.

83. Ardhasvastika — the two feet to make the Svastika, the

73 (B.73, G.70). ' By apaviddha Ag. (1. i>. 105) means the sitd- mukha gesture.

74 (B.74, G.71). 75 (B.7i, G.72). 76 (B.76, G.73).
77 (B.77, G.74). 78 (B.78, G.75).

79 (B.79, G.76). ' carana^nin. ' ■syamsayet^amsiui ;>/«/?■ kramariam kuryat (Ag). '* krama^chn.

80 (B.80, G.7/)- ' udvahita aide it* nowhere else mentioned in
'the Mb.

81 (B.81, G. 78). 82 (.B.82, G.79) 83 UJ.83, G.«i).


right hand making the Karihasta gesture, and the left one lying on the breast-

84. Ancita— in the Ardhasvastika the Karihasta to be alternately in Vyavartita (Vyavrtta) an<l Parivartita movement, and then bent upon the tip of the nose.

85. Blmjangntmsita—the KuScita feet to l>e thrown up, the thighs to hire an oblique Xivartatm (Nivrtta) 1 movement, tlw hip

and the thigh also to hare the same movement.

86. Unlhvajaim— a Jvuiirita foot to be thrown up, and the knee to be held up (lit. stretched) on a level with the breast, and the two hands to be in harmony with the dance.

87. Nikuiieita — feet to be moved as in the Vrscika K., two hands to be bent at the sides, the right hand to be held at the tip of the nose

88. Matalli — making a whirling movement while throwing back the two feet (left and right), and moving hands in the
Udvestita and Apaviddha movement.

89. Ardhamatalli — feet to be drawn away from the position in the Skhalita K., left hand Recita, and afterwards to be put on the hip.

90. Recitanikuttita— the right hand to-be Recita, left foot
Udghattita (= Nikuttita), and the left hand with Dola gesture.


85(15.84,0.82). ,' rV nivariayet,y,.Vt. read vivartayet, and for nivrttam B. vivrttam and G. vivartuc. 86 (B.86, G.83).

87 (B.87, 0.84). ' For vycika karana, B.G. read vridka coram.
But NS. does not know any carana or carl of this name, while a K. of this name occurs, and one karana is very often used to defino anotlicr karana; sec texts for 84 above, 103 and 107 below. In all those eases some mas. read karana instead of carana.


89 (B.89, G.86). ' skhalitipasitfrn fiadan foot drawn away from the lwsition of tlw skhalita K.

90/B.9U, 0.87). 'According U, Ag. udgAa^ta-nikuttita for* which see above 70 uote.



91. Padapaviddhaka— the Katakamukha hands with their
, back against the navel, and feet to be in SucI and [then] the

Apakranta Can

92. Valita—hands to be Apaviddha, feet to be in SucI Cari
Trika turned round [in the Bhramari Cart].

93. Ghurnita— the left hand in Valita and moved round, the right hand with Dola gesture, and the two feet to be drawn

away from each other from the Srastikn position.

94. Lalita — the left hand with Karihasta gesture, the right one to he again turned aside (Apavartita), two feet to be moved up and down.

95. Dandapaksa— observing Urdhvajanu Cari, Lata hands to be placed on the knee.

96. Bhujahgatrastarecita —the feet to be in Bhujahgatrasta
Cari, the two hands to be Recita and moved to the left side.

97. Nupura— the Trika to be gracefully turned round, [in the Bhramari Cart] the two hands to show respectively Lata and
Recita gestures, and the Nupurapada Cart with the feet.

98. Vaisakharecita— hands and feet to be Recita, so the hip and the neck, and the entire body in Vai&kha Sthana (posture).

99. Bhramaraka— Svastika feet in Sskipta Cart, hands in Udvestita movement, and Trika 1 turned round [in the
Bhramari Cart].

100. Catura— the left hand with Aiicita, (i.e. Alapallava) 1 gesture, the right hand is with Catura gesture, the right feet in
Kuttita (i.e. Udghattita) pose.

91 (B.91> G.88). 92 (B.92, G.89).

98 (B.98, G.90). ' Kor voMo. BG read vartita,

M (B.94, G.91). • See N8. IX. 191.

95 (B.95, G.92). 96 (B.96, G.93). 97 (B.97, G .94).

98 (B.98, G.96).

99 (B.99, G.96). ' Trika used here ami many times afterwards means the trMsthi (sacrum) the lowest point in the vertibral column where the two other bones of the legs meet

100 (B.100, G.97). ' This is Ag's interpretation of Aficita.
' Thu ig Ag'e interpretation. •


101. Bhujangancita— the feet in BhujangatrSsita Cart, the right hand Recita, the left hand with Lata gesture.

102. Dandakarecita — hands and feet to be freely thrown about on all sides like a staff (daiufa), and the same hands and feet to be Recita afterwards.

103. Vr&ikakuttita — assuming the Vrscika K. and the hands with Nikuttita movement. 1

104. Katibhrantt— the SucI Cart, the right hand with the
Apaviddha (Aviddha) gesture and the hip to be moved round.

105. Latavrscika— a foot to be Ancita and turned back- wards, and the left hand to be with Lata gesture- its palm and fingers bent and turned upwards.

106. Chinna— the Alapadma hand to be held on the hip which in Chinna pose, the body in the Vaisakha Sthana (posture).

107. Vyscikarecita— assuming the VnScika K„ the two hands in the form of a Svastika gradually to be Recita and to show Viprakirna gesture.

108. Vrscika— the two hands bent and held over the shoulders, and a leg bent and turned towards the back 1 .

109. Vyamsita— assuming Alldha Sthana, the two hands to be Recita and held on the breast and afterwards moved up and down with Viprakirna gesture.

110. Parsvanikuttaka— Svastika bands to be held on one side, and the feet to be Nikuttita. 1

Ill Lala$atilaka— after assuming the Vrscika. K. a mark
{tUaka) in tlie forehead to be made with a great toe.

112. Krantaka-bendiug a KunciUi leg behind the back, the Can, then the two hands to be thrown down.

101(B.101,U.98). 102(B.102.G.9»)

108 (B.103, (1.100). ' S,o above 70 note. * 104 ffl 104 G 1011

issssr '•?<■"*«■«* rssss*

I" (Mil, G.108). U2 (B,li G 100 " ■^ 7 ° "*


113. Kuncita — a leg to be first Aiicita and left hand to be liekl on the left side with its palm upwards.

114. Cakramandala — the inner Apaviddha (Addita) 1 Cari with the body bent and held down between the two arms hanging straight. 1 15. Uromandala — two feet drawn away from the Svastika position and used in Apaviddha (Addita) Cari and hands in
Urflmandala gesture.

1 10. Aksipta — hands and feet to be thrown about swiftly in thisKarana.

1 17. Ttlavilasita — foot with the toe and the sole turned upwards and held high on the side, and the palm of hands bent.

118. Argala— feet stretched backwards and kept two Talas iind a half apart, and hands moved in conformity with these.

119. Viksipta — hands and feet to be thrown backwards or sideways in the same way.

120. Svarta — the Kuncita feet put forward and the two hands moved swiftly to befit the dance.

121. Dolapada— the Kuncita feet thrown up, and two hands swinging from side to side in a manner befitting the dance.

122. Nivrtta — hands and feet first thrown out, and the
Trika to be turned round and the two hands to be Recite.

123. Vinivrtta — observing the >Suci Cari, the Trika to be turned round and hands to be Recita.

124. Parsvakranta— observing the Pars"vakranta Carl, throwing out hands towards the front, and moving them in a manner befitting the dance.

113(B.113 ( G.U0).

114 (B.114, 0.1 1 1). ' According to Ag. apaviddha = Ofjijith curi for

which see N8. XI. 22. 1 15 (B.l 15, G.l 12).

116 (B.U6, 0.113). U7(B.117,G.1U). 118 (B.118, G.1I5).

119 (B.119, G.116). 120 (B.120, G.117). 121 (B.121, G.118).

122 (B.122, G.119). ' For nivrtta, B. reads vivrtta,

123 (B.1 23,0.120), 124 (B.124, 0-121).


I2f). NWumbhita— a foot bent towards the back, the breast raised high, and the hand held at the centre of the forehead (tUakn). 1

126. Vidyndbhranta 1 — foot turned backwards and the two hands in the Mandalaviddha* gesture stretched very close to the head.

127- Atikranta — observing the Atikranta Cari, the two bunds stretched forward in a manner befitting the dance.

128. Vivartitaka— hands and feet to be thrown out, the
Trika to be turned round and hands to be Recita

129. Gajakridita— the left hand bent and brought near the
[left] ear, and the right hand in Lata gesture and the feet
Dolapada Cari.

130- Talasamsphotita 1 — a foot to be swiftly lifted tip and put forward, the two hands showing Talasamsphotita 2 gesture.

131. Garudaplutaka— the two feet to be stretched back- wards and the two hands -right and left— to be respectively with
Lata and Recita gestures, and the breast raised up.

132. Gandasuci — the feet to be in Sucl position, the side to be Unnata, one hand to be on the breast and the other to bend and touch the check.

133. Parivrtta— the hands raised in Apavestita gesture, the feet in Suci position, the Trika is turned round (in the
Bhramari Cari).

134. ParsVajanu-one foot in Sama position and the opposite thigh raised, and one Musti hand on the breast.

135. Grdhravalinakii— one foot stretched backwards and one knee slightly bent and the two arms outstretched.

125 (H.125, 0.122). > Ag. interprets differently

126 (B;126, 0.123). ' Ag. interprets differently.

a Nowhere defined in N& 127 (B.127, 0.124).

128 (B.128, 0.1 25). ] 2 9 (B.129, 0.126).

130 (B.l 30, 0.127). 'Ag. interprets the passage, differently.

Defined nowhere in N&

131(11.131,0.128). 132 (B.182, 0.129). 133 (B.138, G.1S0).

134 (B.134, 0.131). 135 (B.135, 0.132).


136. Sannata — after jumping, the two feet are to be put forward in Svastika form and the two hands to show Sannata 1
(?,e. Dols) gesture;

137. Suci— a Kuficita foot to be raised and put forward on the ground, and the two hands to be in harmony with the per- formance. • 138. Ardhasuci — the Alapadma hand is held on the head, the right foot is in Sue! (karana) position.

139. Suelviddha— one foot of Suci Karana being put on the heel of another foot, the two hands to be respectively put on the waist and the breast.

140. Apakranta— after making the Valita thigh, Apakrauta
Cart is to be performed, the two hands to be moved in harmony with the performance.

141. Mayuralalita— after assuming the Vrscika K. two hands to be Recita, and the Trika to be turned round [in the
Bhramari Cart].

142. Sarpita — the two feet to be moved from the Aficita position and the head with ParivShita gesture, and the two hands are Recita.

143. Dandapada — after the Nupura Cart, Dandapada Cart should be observed and the aviddha (vaktra) hand should be shown quickly. 144. Harinapluta — after observing the Atikriinta Carl one jumps and stops, and then one of the shanks are bent and thrown up.

145. Prenkholitaka — after observing the Dolapada Cart one is to jump and let the Trika turn round (in the Bhramari Cart and come at rest.

186 (B.136, G.133). ' According to Ag. Sannata =Dolahasta.

137 (B.137, G.134). 138 (B.138, G.135).

140 (B.140, 0.137). HI (B.H1, G.138).

U2 (B.142, G.139). U3 (B.H3, G.UO). 144 (B.144, G.141). ■

145 (B.145, G.142). ' Defined nowhere in N8,


1 46. Nitamba— arms to be first thrown up and hands to have their fingers pointing upwards and the Baddha Cari to be observed.

147. Skhalita - after observing Dolapada Cari, hands with
Kecita gesture to be turned round in harmony with this.

148. Krihasta — the left hand is to be placed on the breast, the palm of the other hand to be made Prodvestitala, the feet to be Aucita.

149. Prasarpitaka— ;one hand to be Recira and the other with Lata gesture, and feet to be Samsarpitatala ( = Talasaiicara).

150. Simhavikrldita — after observing tlin Alata Cari one is to move swiftly and hands to follow the feet.

151. Simhakarsita — one foot to be stretched backwards and hands to be bent and turned round in the front and again to be bent.

152. Udvrtta— hands, feet and the entire body to be moved violently (lit. thrown up) and then Udvrtta Cari to be observed.

153. Upasrtaka— observing Aksipta Cari and hands in harmony with this Cari.

154. Talasamghattita — observe the Dolapada Cari two palms will clash with each other and the left hand to be

155. Janita — one hand to be on the breasti, the other hanging loosely and observing Talagrasamsthita (Janita) CSri.

156. Avahitthaka — after observing Janita K. raising hands with fingers spread out and then letting them fall slowly.

157. Nivesa— the twe hands will be on the breast which should be Nirblmgna and the dancer should assume Mandala
Sthana (posture).

146 IB.H6, G.143). 147 (B.H7, G.144). 148 (B.148, G.145).

149 (B.149, G.146). 150 (B.150, G.147). 151 (B.151, G.148).

152 (B.152, G.149). 153 (B.153, G.150). 154 (B.154,G161).

155 (B.155, G.152). ' According to Ag. Talagrasamsthita pad» means Janita cari.

156(B.156,G.153). 1.57 (B.T57, G.154).


158. Elakakrldita — jumping with Talasancara 1 feet ;md coming to the ground with the body bent and turned.

159. Urudvrtta — a hand made Avrtta (Vyavartita) and then bent and placed on the thigh, shanks made aiicita and Udvrttn.

160. Madaskhalitaka — two hands hanging down, the head assuming the Parivahita gesture, the right and the left feet to be turned round in Aviddha Cart.

• 161. Visnukranta — a foot stretched forward and bent as if on the point of walking, and hands to be Recita.

162. Sambhranta— a hand with Avartita (Vyavartita) move- ment placed on Jhe thigh which is made Aviddha. 1

163. Viskambha — a hand to be Apaviddha, 1 SucI Cari, foot to be made Nikuttita and the left hand on the breast.

164. Udghatta — feet to in Udghattita 1 movements and hands in Talasamghattita movement 8 are to be placed on two sides.

105. Vrsabhakridita — after observing the Alata Carl two hands to be made Recita, and afterwards these should to be made
Kuiiclta and Aiicita.

166. Lolita — hands on the two sides to be Reicta and
Ancita, and the head Lolita. and Vartita.

167. Nagapasarpita— to draw back feet from Svastika position and the head to be Parivahita and hand to be Recita.

158 (B.158. G.155). I- Same as agratalasaticara, see NS. X. 46.

159 (B.159, G.156).

160 (B.160, 0.157). ' Denned nowhere in NS.

161 (B.161, G.158).

168 (B.162, G.159). ' Defiuud nowhere in >"«.

163 (B.163, G.160). ' Defined nowhere in NS.

164 (B.164, G.161). ' Defined nowhere in NS.
4 Defined nowhere in NS.

185 (B.165, G.162). ' Defined nowhere in NS.

166 (B. 166, G. 163).

167 (B.167, G.164). ' Defined nowhere in Nti.


168. Sakatasya— beginnning with body at rest, advancing with a Talasaiicara 1 foot and making the breast Udvahita. 2

] 69. Gangavatarana — foot with the toes and the sole turned upwards, hands showing Tripataka with the fingers pointing down- wards and the head being Sannata. 1

Tho Aiigaharas

170. I have spoken of one hundred and eight Karanas. I shall now describe the different Angaharas.

171-173. Sthirahasta— stretching two arras and throwing them up, taking up Samapada Sthana, the left "hand stretched upwards from the level of the shoulder, taking up afterwards the
Pratyalidha Sthanai then observing successively the Nikuttita,
Urudvrtta, Aksipta, Svastika, Nitamba, Karihasla and Katiechinna,

174-176. Paryastaka— observing Talapuspaputa, Apa- viddha, and Vartita Karanas, then takiug up Pratyalidha Sthana, then assuming Nikuttaka, Urudvrtta, Aksipta, Uromandala,
Nitamba, Karihasta, Katiechinna, Karanas.

176-178. Sucividdha— after showing Alapallava(Alapadma) and Suci (mukha) gestures assuming one after another Viksipta.
Avartita, Nikuttaka, Urudvrtta, Aksipta, Urnomandala, Karihasta, and Katiechinna Karanas.

178-180. Apaviddha— Apaviddha and Sucividdha Karanas, then observing Udvestita K. with hands and turning the Trika,

168 (B.168, G.165). » See above 158 note. 4 B. reads udghaiitt.

16:) (B.169, G.166). ' Defined nowhere in NS.

3 Defined nowhere in Nii.

» For B.170-174 and G.167-170 see 50-61 before.

170 (B.I74, 0.17U ' Defined nowhere in N8.

171-173 (B.175-177, 0.172-174). ' Definition of th, ai^akaras have been translated like the katams ■ above sec. 62 not*. Airfqm are mostly combinations of the karams.

174-176 (B.17H-18I),,, Q.175-176). > G. Omits 175b.
176-178 (r5.l80b.-182a, 0.177-1 79aJ.
478-1S0 (B.l82b-184a, (j .I79b-180).


showing with hands Uromandalaka gestures and assumiug Kati* chinna Karana.

180-182. Aksiptaka — assuming successively Nupura, Vik-
§ipta, Alataka, Aksipta, Uromandala, Nitamba, Karihasta and
Katicchinna Karanas.

182-184. Udghattita 1 — moving Udvestita and Apaviddha
(Aviddha) hands and the two feet to be Nikuttita, and again changing them to Uromandala gesture and then assuming Jsucces- sively Nitamba, Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas.

184-187. Viskambha— hands by turns made Udvestita, feet
.are successively made Nikuttita and bent, then assuming Urudvrtta
K. hands to be made Caturasra 1 and feet Nikuttaka, assuming then Bhujangatrasita K. hands to be made Udvestita, assuming
Chinna and Bhramaraka Karanas while Trika is to be moved, then Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas to be assumed.

187-190. Aprajita — assuming Dandapada K., hands having
Viksipta and Akspita 1 movement, then assuming Vyamsita K. the left hand moving along with the left foot, then bands being Catu- rasra and feet having Nikuttaka movement, assuming Bhujangatra- sita K. and hands having Udvestita movement, then assuming successively the two Nikuttakas (i. e. nikutta and ardhanikuttaka),
Sksipta, Uromandala, Karihasta, and Katicchinna Karanas.

190-192. Viskambhapasrta— assuming Kuttita and Bhu- janga trasita Karanas, Reclta hand to show the Pataka gesture, then to be assumed successively Aksiptaka, Uromandala, Lata,
Katiccheda Karanas.

192-195. Mattakrida — assuming Nupara K. • by turning
Tirka, then assuming Bhujangatrasita K. assuming next Becita K.

180-182 (B.I84b-l86a, G.l8l-ld3).

182-184 (B.186b-188a, G.188-184). l lu the definition of ahgahara this term has been equated with nrtta or dance.

184-187 (B.l88b-19la, G.185-187). ' Defined nowhere in NS.
187-190 (B.l9lb-I94a, G. 188-189). l Defined nowhere iu NS.
190-192 (B.194b-I96a, G.190-191).
192-195 (B.196b-199a, G.199.-194).


with the right foot, and then assuming successively Jksiptaka,
Chinna, JBahyabhramaraka, Uromandala, Nitamba, Karihasta,
Katiccheda Karnas.

196-197. Svastikarecita 1 — hands and feet are Recita, then assume Vrscika K. and again repeat this movement of the hand and feet, and then Nikuttaka K. and the Lata gesture alternately with the right and the left hand, and then Katicchinna K.

197-200. ParsVasvastika — assuming (Dik-) Svastika from one side and then the Ardhanikuttaka, all these to be repeated on the side, then the ^flvrtta (vyaavartita) hand to be .placed on the thigh, then to assume successively Urudvrtta, ^ksipta, Nitamba,
Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas.

200-202. Vrs'cikapasrta— assuming Vrs'cika K. holding the
Lata band to be held on the nose, after moving the same hand in
Udvestita movement, then assuming successively Nitamba,
Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas.

202-204. Bhramara— assuming successively Nupurapada
-4ksiptaka Katicchinna, Sucividdha, Nitamba, Karihasta, Uro- mandala and Katicchinna Karanas.

204-206. Mattaskhalitaka— asuming Matalli K. and moving round the right hand and bending and placing it near the fright) cheek, then assuming (successively) Apaviddha. Talasamsphotita,
Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas.

206-208. Madavilasita— moving with Dola hands and
Svastikapasrta feet, making hands Ancita as well as Valita and then assuming successively Talasamghattita, Nikuttaka, rudvrtta,
Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas.

195-197 (B.l99b-201a,G.195-198). ' ]„ the translation of this K.
Ag. has been followed.

197-200 (B.201b-204a, G,19M9»). • l n the translation of tin, K. I have followed Ag.

200-202 (B.204b-2()6a, G.200-201).
202-204 (B.206b-208a, G.202-203).
204-206 (B.208b-210a, G.204-205).
i.08-208(B.arob-212a, G.806-207).


208-210. Gatimandala— after assuming Mandala Sthanaka and making the hands Recita and the feet Udghattita assuming successively Matalli. Aksiptn, Uromandala and Katiccheda

210-212. Paricchinna — after the Samapada Sthan 1 assum ing Paricchinna {ue. Chinna) K then with Aviddha foot assuming
Bahya Bhrama ka 1 and with the left foot assuming Sue! K. and than observi* (successively) Atikranta, Bhujangatrasita, Karihasta and Katicc'.. nna Karanas.

* • *

212-216. Parivrttakarecita — holding on the head hands in loose Svastika form and them after bending the body the left hand to be made Recita, and raising the body, again the same hand to be made Recita, after this hands to show Lata gesture and assuming successively Vrfcika, Recita, Karihasta Bhujangatrasita,
A"ksiptaka Karanas then have Svastika foot ; all this to be repeated after turning back completely, then assume (successively)

216-219. Vaisakharecita — along with body the two hands to be made Recita and all this is to be repeated with the body bent, then observe Nupurpada Can and Bhujangatrasita, Recita,
Mandalasvastika, afterwards bending shoulder Urudvrtta, Aksipta
Uromandala Karihasta' and Katicchinna Karanas are to be assumed. 219-221. Paravrtta— assuming Janita K. and putting for ward a foot, then assuming Alataka K. and turning the Trika, [in the Bhramri Carl] afterwards the left hand bend and to on the cheek, then assuming Katicchinna Karana.

208-210 (B.2l2b-214a, G.208-209).

210-212 (B.2Ub-2l6a, U.. 10-211). 'According to Ag (I.p.152) bahya bhramaraka seems to mean a cari of that name. But it seems that by this bhramaraka, the movement known as bhraman has been meant.
See M. Ghosh AD. 289ff. also A. K. Coomaraswamy. MG. p.74. \

212-216 (B.2l6b-220a, G.212-215X

216-219 (B.220b-223a, G.216-218).

219-221 (B.228b-22. r >a, G.219-2$0).


221-223. Alataka— assuming Svastika, vyarasita [in it hands being RecitaJ, Alataka, Drdhvajanu, NikuScita. Ardhasfici,
Viksipta, Udvrtta, Aksipta, Krihasta and Katicchinna Karanas one after another.

223-225. Parlvaccheda—holding Nikuttita hands on the breast assuming Drdhvajanu, Aksipta, Svastika Karanas, Trika to be turned round, then Uromandala, Nitamba, Karihasta and
Katicchinna, Karanas to be assumed.

220-227. Vidyudbhranta— assuming SucI K. using the left foot first, and Vidyubhranta K, using the right , foot first, then
Sfici K. with the right foot moved first, and Vidyudbhranta with the left foot moved first, afterwards assuming Chinna K., and turning round the Trika, then Lata and Katicchinna Karanas.

227-229. Udvrttaka- assuming Nupurapada Cart hanging the right and the left hands by the side, and with them assuming
Viksipta K., with these hands assuming [again J Suci K, and turning round the Trika [iu Bhramari Cart] and then assuming
Lata and Katicchinna Karanas.

229-231. Slidha— assuming Vyamsita K, striking the hands on the shoulder, and then Nflpura K, with the left foot
[moving first], afterwards Alata and Aksiptaka Karanas with the right foot [moving first] and then making Uromandala gestures with hands and assuming Karihasta and Katicchinna

231-233. Recita — showing Recita hand, bending it on one side and making the [same] Recita movement and then repeating this movement after bending the entire body, assuming succes- sively Nupurapada, Bhujangatrasita, Recita, Uromandala and Kati- cchinna Karanas.

221-223 (B.225b-227a, G.221-222).
223-225 (B.227b-229a, G.223-224).
225-927 (B.229b-231a, G.225-226).
227-229 (B.231b-233a, G.227-228).
229-231 (B.233b-235a, G.229-280).
231-233 (B.235b-237, G.231-232). *


/ .

234-285. A"echurita— assuming Nupura K. and turning the
Trika round, assuming Vyamsita K. and again turning round the
Trika, then assuming successively Alataka 1 K. from the left
[sidej and Sucl, Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas.

236-238. Aksiptarecita— Svastika feet to be in Recita and so the Svastika hands, then with the same (i.e. Recita) movement they should be separated) and with the same Recita movement they are*to be thrown up, then assuming successively Udvrtta, Aksipta,
Uromamjala, Nitamba, Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas.

239-241*. Sambhranta- assuming Viksipta K. throwing out the left hand with'Siici gesture, the right hand placed on the breast,
Trika to be turned [in the Bhraraari Cart} then assuming succes- sively Nupura, Aksipta, Ardhasvastika, Nitamba, Karihasta,
Uromandala and Katicchinna Karanas.

242-243. Apasarpita — observing Apakranta Cart and assuming Vyamsita K. with the hands moving in Udvestita manner, then assuming successively Ardhasuci, Viksipta, Katic- chinna, Udvrtta Aksiptaka, Karihasta and [again] Katicchinna

244-245. Ardhanikuttaka -observing swiftly Nupurapadika
Cart, hands to move in harmony with the feet and Trika to turn round [in the Bhramari Cart], then hands and feet to make
Nikuttita movement, afterwards assuming Uromandala, Karihasta,
Katicchinna and Ardhanikuttaka Karanas.

The Recakas

246. I have spoken of these thirtytwo Angaharas ; I shall now describe the four Recakas 1 ; please listen about them :

247. Among the Recakas the first is that of the foot (jwla),

234-235 (B.238-239, G.233-234 1 . ' Read vamam calatakam for padam calatakam in B.

236-238 (B.240-242, G.235-237). 239-241 (B.243-245, G.238-240).

242-243 (B.246-247, G.241-242). 244-345 (B.248-249, G.213-244).

246 (B.250, G.245). l For the relation between Recakas and the

Angaharas and the use of the Recakas see Ag,



\ the second is that of the waist (kaii), the third is that of the hand

(haxki) and the fourth is that of the neck (ijrlva).

248. The term Recita [relating to a limb] means moving it round separately {i.e. not in any Karana or Cari) or its drawing up or its movement of any kind separately.

249. Pada-recaka— Going from side to side with wavering feet or with differently moving feet, is called their Recaka.

250. Kati-reeaka — Raising up the Trika and the turning of the waist as well as its drawing back, is called the Kati-reeaka.

251. Hasta-recaka— Raising up, throwing out, putting forward, turning round and drawing back of the hand is called its

252. GrivS-recaka — Raising up, lowering and bending the neck sideways, and other movements of it are called its Recaka.

253-254. Seeing Hamkara (Siva) dance with Recakas and
Angaharas, Parvati too performed a Gentle Dance (lit. danced with delicate forms) 1 , and this dance was followed by the playing of musical instruments like Mrdanga, 1 Bheri, Pataha, Bhambhs*,
Din/lima, Gomukha, Panava and Dardura.

255. [Besides on this occasion] MahesVara (Siva) danced in the evening after the break-up (lit. destruction) of Daksa's saeri- lice 1 with different Angaharas and in conformity with proper time beat [tola) and tempo {layn).

248 (B.252, G.247). 249 (B.253, G.248).

2f0 1B.254, G.249). 251 (R.255. G.250).

252 (B.256, G.251).

253-254 (B.257-258, G. 252-253). l Read iirtyanti sma ca parvati
A?. I. p. 203.

2 mrdahga, bheri, pataha. bhambha, dincjima, dardura and panava arc drums of different sizes and shapes, and' made of different materials such as clay, wood etc. Of these bheri, panava and gomukha (possibly n horn) have been mentioned in the Bhagavad-glta, eh. 1.13.

5 B. read jhanjhyit (pa. bambha).

255 (B.259, G.254). l The story of the break-up of Daks/s sacrifice occurs in two different forms in the Bhagavata and the Varaha P,
See JK. under Daksa,


256. Ganas like N/andin and Bhadramukha seeing then
[in course of this performance of fW], Pindibandha 1 [of different dance forms] gave names to them [and imitated these] well.

257-263. Names of Pindls specially attached to different gods and [goddesses are as follows] : Siva— Vrsa, Nandin - PattisI,
Candika (Kali)— Simhavahini, Visnu— Tarksya, Svayambhu—
(Brahman)— Padma (lotus), Sakra (Tndra) — Airavuti, Manmatha
— Jhasa, Kuinara (Kartikeya)— Sikhi (peacock). Sri (Laksmi)— Ulu
(owl), Jahnavi (Ganga)— Dhara, Yama— Pasa, Varuna— Nadi,
Kuvera (Dharfada)— Yaksi, Bala (riima)— Hala (plough), Bhogins
(serpents) — Sarpa, Ganesvaras (the lords of Ganas) 1 — Daksayajna- vimardini, The [ Pin Ji ] of Siva, the killer of Andhaku*, will be
Raudrt in the form of his trident. The Pindis of the remaining gods and goddesses will be similarly, named after (lit. marked with) their own banners 3 .

2G3-264. After inventing the Recakas, Angaharas and
Pin lis, Siva communicated them to the sage Tandu 1 who in his turn made out of them dance together with songs and

256 (B.260, G.255). ' Pimlibandha—kg. (I. 170-171) explains the

words as follows: — tfwtw *mfflfajrtw«qr?«:nflwt fq<gtfa i fq«$i»r. inwf-

trofci f^^*nvQq fflfarq^K*«qiw««f«raif^[i:<ii«qT: i \rim 11

fq^twi: <t«irs*ifq fqi^tw \fa) tmrawfav;- Prom these quotations it is apparent that Ag. had no definite idea about the pirulibandha or ptttfi.
But the word occurs in the following couplet of a later work on dramaturgy (Bh P. p.264) :

$Wiw£l *t qfantsifa mfirai: i fq^q^tftfwtre: top* W5?rs«n u
I'rom the above quotation the meaning of the word seems to be a term relating to group-dance. For more about fii)u\ibandha see 257-262,
284-285, 291-294 below.

257-262 (B.261 266a, G.256 261). ' Ganesvari means relating to
GaneSvaras or lords of hosts ; see above NS. III. 31,53 and 111. 1-8 note 7.

The story of Siva's killing the Asura Andliaka occurs Ram,
Hraivamsa and several Puranas. See JK. sub voce.

* B. omits 263b altogether.

263-264 (B.266b-268a, G.262-263). \ Tandu's name doe, not seem to occur in any extant Purana. It is just possible that the name of this muni has been derived from, tamjav/t a non-Aryan word which originally may have meant dance.

B8 f HE NATtASASTBA [ iV. 266.

instrumenbil music ; and hence this dance is known as Tfindava
(i.e. of Tandu's creation).

The sages speak

2G5. Use of Gestures etc, (ahhimya) having been devised by the experts, for drawing out the sense [of songs and speeches in a play] what led to the making of dance ("»•"")> and what is its nature ?

2G6. Why is dance made in connexion with the Asgrita songs ? It does neither relate to its meaning nor reflect its spirit. 207. [In answer to these questions] it is " said that the dance is occasioned by no specific need ; it has come into use simply because it creates beauty.

268. As dance is naturally loved by almost all people, it is eulogised as being auspicious.

269. It is eulogised also as being the source of amusement on occassions of marriage, child-birth, reception of a son-in-law, general festivity and attainment of prosperity.

270. Hence the host of Bhutus have ever praised 1 the
Pratiksepas' which are used in songs and in regulating the division of dances.

271. Siva (lit. god) too was pleased to say to Tandu,
"Perform this dance in connexion with the singing of songs.

265(B268b-269a,G.264). ' B. reads tasman nrttam for kasman ntflam in 265b.

266 (B.269b-270a, G-285). 267 (B.270b-271a, G.266).

268 (B.27lb-272a, G.267). 269 (B.272b-273a, G.268).

270 (B.273b-274a, G.269). » For Prakirtitdh, B.G. read pravarlitah.
' Pratiteepa— Ag. (I. p.182) defines this term as follows :— mwftjw

271 (B.274b-275a, G.270).' l For tamjuh santosaphrvakam. This variant has been recorded by Ag. (1.181) and it seems to be the correct reading. B.G. read tan<\ustlm<\avaJHtrvakam.


272. The Class Dance (landava) 1 is mostly to accompany the adoration of gods but its gentler form (siihintara-yrayoya) relates to the Erotic Sentiment.

The Vardhamanaka

273. Now while coming to discuss the Vardhamanaka I shall describe the rules regarding the performance of the Class
Dance (larutava) as it was performed by Tandu.

274. As in its performance Kala and tempo (luya) attain crddhi (increment) due to the increment of Aksaras it is called the Vardhamanaka.

• The Asarita

275. After setting down the musical instruments (knlaiia) the producers [of plays] should get the Asarita performed.

270. Then after the Upohana has been performed to the accompaniment of drums 1 and stringed instruments, a female dancer should enter [the stage] with the playing of drums

277. This playing of the [instrumental] music should be in pure Karana 1 and Jati 2 . And then a Cari should be performed with steps in accompaniment of music.

278. On entering the stage with flowers in her hands the female dancer should be in the Vaisakha Sthana (posture) and per- form all the four Recakas (i.e. those of feet, hand, waist and neck).

272 (B.275b-276a, G.271). l The tawlava has been translated by some as 'wild dance' (Haas, Dasariipa, p. 5), but the adjective seems to be misleading. From the present chapter of the NS, it appears that the word meant 'class dance' which has been codified. It is to be distin- guished from the folk dance' mentioned in later works. Tuniiava was no exclusively male dance. For the illustrations of the kararpas taken out of old bos reliefs and printed in the Baroda ed. of the NS. show that these were performed by women as well. These karmias were evidently elements of tamlava ■, litsya performed by women was only a gentler form of the tuifffava.

273 (B.276b-277a, G.272). 274 (B.277b-278a, G.273).
275 (B.278b-279a, G.274). 27« ( B.279b-280s, G.275).
277 (B.280b-261a, G.276). 278 (B.281b-282a, G.27-7).

to 1HE NATYASAS!I?BA [ IV. 2t9-

279. Then she should go round the slage scattering flowers from her hands to gods, and after bowing to them, she should make use of different gestures (abhimiya).

230. Instrumental music should not he played when there is any song to be delineated by gestures, but at the performance of Aftgaharas drums must be employed.

281. The playing of drums (lit. instrumental music) during the Class Dance should be Sama, Rakta, Vibhakta and distinctly heard (m>knta) on account of clear strokes and should be properly following different aspects of the dance.

282. After following the song [with her danqe] the dancer should make her exit and others [like her] will enter [the stage] in the same manner. »

283. These other women will in due order form Pindis 1 and till all these are formed they will perforin the Paryastaka.

281. After forming [Pindis] these women will make their exit, and during the formation of the Pindis an instrumental music which has various Oghas and Karanas should be played, and it should be similar to the music at the time of the Paryastaka.

285.287. Then this Upohana should be again performed as before and the Asarita too ; a song also should be sung and a female dancer should enter the stage in the manner described before, and she should delineate [the meaning of the song in the second Axarita by suitable gesture] and translate the subject- matter {radii) 1 into a dana>.

288. After finishing the Asarita the female dancer should make her exit, and then another female dancer should enter the stage and make a similiar performance.

289. Thus at every step the rules of Asarita should be followed by singers as well as players of the instrumental music.

279 (B.2821,-283., G.278). 280 (B.283b-a84a, G .279).

281 B.284b-285a, 6,-80). 292 (B.285D-28B*, 0.281).

283 <B.28Hb-287a, (i,m>. ' &.. d» m ,'82 im*> 2

284-285 (T1.2H71.-288, 0.283(1-284).

285-287 (B.289-291a, 0.284h-»H-, -N«l i v , /i j , .

.... . " , ' , '»>' r -o*)-a.., ..sbj. | ( „,. wstu (padavaslu) sec

Malavi. U. U, 5, 8, 13, 14. 288'(B,!i91b-292a, 0.287).


290. [During all these performances] the first foot 1 of the song should be sung once, the second twice, the third thrice, and the fourth four times. 2

291. The Pindis have four varieties Pindi [proper]
Srnkhalika, Latabandha, and Bhedyaka. l

292. The name Pindi or Pindibandha is due to its being a
Pindi (lump), a cluster {iinhn.ii) 1 is called Srnkhalika 2 , and that wh'ich is held together [as it were] by a net, is Latabandha*, and
Bhedyaka 1 is to be the (separate) dance of one individual.

293. The Pindibandha is to be applied in the first (lit. shortest Asartfa), Hmkliala at the transition of tempo, the
Latabandha in the middle one and the Bhedyaka in the longest (i e. Asarita).

2S9(B.292b-293a, G.288). l Vastn here means padavastu. See above 285-287 note.

2 These (ishritas were distinguished by .the kalas of time they required. According to Ag. (1.185) the shortest asarita takes up seventeen kalas, tli« medium asarita thirty-three kalas and the longest asarita sixty-live kah'is.

290 (B.293b-294a, G.289). l It is implied that each each of these groups of songs should be followed by dance of different dancers.

291 (B.294b-295a, G.290). ' See notes 256 above. In the BhP.
(p. 246) occurs the following passage : —

5n: m a9fi inraisO*i*aiJ'l i <wqrnrW»i la'i «r <srar wit ii

<W*K fa; <jqi«ii 5Fj « * 8g*: I fq«5ftW5 5 ! w <rafatW<i 3*1 II

From this it is quite clear that the pirtitlbandlia relates to the grouping of dancers. Of these the gulma is a general collective dance, the mikhala is the dance in which partners hold one another's hands, the lata is the dauce of two putting their arms'around each other, and the bhedyaka is the dance of each one separately .away from the group. The section
292 below does not quite agree with this view.

292 (B.295b-296a, G.291). ' Sec above 291 note.

2 BhP. does not identify the gulma and the mtkkalika.

3 See above 291 note 1. * See above 291 note 1.

8 Sec above 291 note 1. * sanrtta=ekanrtla=ekasya nrtta ;

of sakrt ( - once).


294. Origin (of Pindis) is twofold : Yantra and Bhadra- sana. J These should be learnt and properly applied by the producers [of plays].

The Clmndaka

295. In the Vardhamana the producer should thus use
[dances]. I shall speak again about the rules regarding the performance of songs and Chandakas.

290. I shall now speak of the dance and the instrumental music that should accompany songs consisting of the Vastu 1 as well as of their (Angas). During the performance of this song and music a female dancer should enter the stage. ; at that time iill the drums are to be sounded and all the stringed instruments arc to be played with Ksepa and Piatikscpa. 2

298. First of all, the entire words (vastu) of the song should be represented by gestures, and next the same should be shown by a dance.

299. Directions given above regarding the dance, use of gestures and the instrumental music will apply equally to (he subject matter of the songs in the Asarita.

300. This is the rule with regard to songs consisting of the Vastu. Now listen to description of songs made by Angas.

301. Rules regarding the dance, use of gestures and the in- strumental music which apply to words (of songs) are equally appli- cable in case of Chandakas which are composed of their Angas.

302. During the Mukha and the Upohana the instrumental music should be played with heavy and light Aksaras by keeping them distinct (lit. separate).

293 (R.296b-297a, 0,292). 'The distinguishing features of the three asartlas have been given in note to 289 above.

394(B297b-298a, 0.2*0. "Ibis passage is not clear. A^ emanation (I.p.193) „f the yantra an d the bhadrasana is not convincing.

295 (B.298b-299a, 0.294).

296-297 (B.299b-301a, 0.295). - See above 285-287 note 1. i! or firatikzepa see above 270 note 2


308. When in course of a song some of its parts are repeated, the parts uttered first should be delineated by gestures and the rest are to be translated into danqe.

304*305, When in course of a song some of its parts are repeated it should be followed by the instrumental music which observes the rule of three Panis and three kinds of tempo. On an occasion like this the instrumental music should follow the
[proper] tempo.

305-308.. The Tattva, the Anugata and the Ogha relate to the Karana. Among these, the Tattva is to be applied in slow tempo, the Anugata in medium tempo and the Ogha in quick tempo.
This is the rule regarding the instrumental music. [Different] parts of the song in case of a Chandaka are to be repeated. This is always the rule in [combining] the dance, Gestures and the song.
In case of songs composed in one stanza (nibaddha) commencement
(gralia of the playing of drums) should take place at their end, but in the repetition of the parts [of a large song] such commencement should take place from the beginning.

The Gentle Dance
809. This should be the procedure in performing the
Asarita songs. Now consider [all] that relating to the adoration of gods as the Gentle Dance'isukmara).

310. The Gentle Dance with the Erotic Sentimen t [relates to] a dialogue between a man and a woman when they are in love.

Occasions suited to dance

311. Now listen, O Brahmins, about occasions in plays when dance introduced in course of songs.

312. Experts should apply dance when the principal words of a song [in a play] as well as its [ornamental adjunct known as]

301 (R304b-305a, G.300). 302 (B.305b-306a, G.801).

303 (B.306b-307a, G.302). 304-305 (B.3)7b-308a, G.303-804h).

805-308 (]B.308b-311, G.304b-307). 309 (B 312, G.308).

S10 (B.313, G.309), • 311 (B.3H, G.310),


Varna 1 comes to a close or when any character attains good fortune [in a play].

813, And dance should take place on an occasion in a play when something connected with love occurs between a married couple, for it (the dance) will be a source of joy.

314. Dance should also take place in any scene of a play when the lover is near and a [suitable] season or the like is visible.

Occasions when dances are prohibited

315. But dance should not be applied to the part of a young woman who is enraged (kharrfita), 1 deceived (vipralabdha) 1 or separated [from her lover] by a quarrel (kalahantarifa)*.

310. Dance should not be applied also at a time when a dialogue is going* on or when the beloved one is not near at hand, or has gone abroad.

317. And besides this when one realises the appearance of one of the seasons or the like from the words of a Messenger, and feels eagerness or anxiety on account of this, no dance should be applied.

318. But if during the performance of any part of the play the heroine is gradually pacified, dance is to be applied till its end.

319. If any part of a play relates to the adoration of any deity one should perform there a dance with energetic Angaharas which Siva created.

320- And any love-song mentioning relations between men and women should be followed by a dance with delicate Angaharas which Parvati (lit. the goddess) created.

Playing of drums

321. I shall now speak of the rules about the playing of

312 (B.315, 0.311). ' See NS. (C.) XXIX. 19-82.

313 (B.3I6, 0.312). 314 (B.317, 0.313).

315 (B.318, G.314). > soe N8\ XXIV. 216. . 8 ibid. 217,
* ibid. 215., 316 (B.819, G.315),

•317 (B.320, G.316). 818 (B.821, 0.317).

819 (B.322 ,0.318). 880 (B.328, 0.819).

4V. 828 ] DESdfclPTIOtf Of tHB CLASS DANCfi 75

drums which should follow four-footed Narkutaka, 1 Khanjaka" and Parigltaka.

322. Playing of drums should begfti with the SannipSta
Graha at a time when a foot of the Dhruva of the Khafija or the
Narkuta class has been sung.

323. In course of a DhruvS which consists of even number of feet with equal number of syllables the drum should be played with the Graha by the fore finger after its first foot has been sung.

324. [After performing the Dhruva song with the playing of drums as directed above] this song should be repeated with proper gestures [to delineate it], and it should be again sung, and at the end of its last foot drum should be played.

When drums are not to be played

325. Drums should not be played at a time when the song or its Vargas have been finished or it is beginning afresh.

326. During the Antara-marga which may be made by
Trantris or Karanas, the Class Dance should be followed by drums as well as the Suci Cari.

3ii7. One who will perform well this dance created by
Mahesvara (Siva) will' go [at his death] free from all sins to the abode of this deity.

328. These are the rules regarding the Class Danee arising out of its application. Tell me what more I am to speak now about the rules of the Natyaveda.

Here ends Chapter IV of Bharata's Natyasastra which treats of the Characteristics of the Class Dance.

831 (B.S24, G.320). l See NS. (0.) XXXI. 51 1 • XXXII. 304 ff.
> See Si (C.) XXXI. 511 t XXXH. 434. 322 (B.325, G.321).
823 (B.326, G.822). 824.(B.327, G.323).

325 (B.328, G.324). M6 (B.829, G.3-26).

827 (B.330, 0.32*). 328 (B.381, G.327).

Chapter five


The Sages question.
1-4. On hearing the words of Bharata who continued the topic of drama the sages were pleased in mind and said, "We have heard from you about the origin of drama 1 and the Jarjara* as well as [the means of] stopping obstacles 8 , and the worship of gods*. Having grasped the meaning we would like to know in detail (lit exhaustively), the very splendid one, about the
Preliminaries with all their characteristics ; it behoves you,
Brahmin, to explain [everything] for our understanding [the same properly]."

Bharata answers.
5-6. Hearing these words of the sages Bharata spoke thus about the rules of the Preliminaries : "0 the^blessed ones, listen to me. I am speaking about the Preliminaries as well as of the Pada- bhaga 1 , the Kalas and the Walking-round 3 [which relate to them]. Preliminaries defined
7. As it is first performed at the beginning (pUrvam) in the stage (rahga) it is called the (.pur varanga) 1 Preliminaries.

Parts of the Preliminaries
8-11. Its different parts which are to be performed in due

1-4 (B.G. same). ' See NS. 1. 13-18. s See TS& I. 69-73.

' See L 54-68. * See Mill.

6-6 (B.G. same). > fiadabAaga-See Ntf. (C.) XXXI. 308-309. Thio- ls a term relating to tola.

' Ai/a-unit of the time measure in music. See N8. (C.) XXXI. 608.
On this Ag. (I. 211) says : vn «^i[ * wrfVfl mwit ft'i.unfw* i OT
«mst «jmp«««in!mrirf wfti:. » parivarta. On this see bdow 23-24, 65-80.

7 (B.G. same). > BhP. defines purotahga as follows : wnwir. unmtw: itfwifa qftft: i tfftifl«ns# *«tft«%i: (SR. p . 742)1 The definition in tho the comm. of DR. (III. 2) is corrupt. 8-11 (B.G. same).


order with the playing of drums and stringed instruments as well as with Recitatives (pathytt), are as follows : Pratyahara 1 ,
Avatarana 2 , Arambha 8 , Ss*ravana 4 , Vaktrapani 6 , Parighattana 8 ,
Samghotana 7 , Margasarita 8 , and Asarita* of the long, the medium and the short types. These songs outside [the performace of a play] are to be sung by persons behind the curtain 10 to the accompaniment of drums and stringed instruments.

• 12-15. Then after removing the curtain 1 , dances and recitals 2 are to be performed with the playing of all musical instruments, and some song of the Madraka* class is to be sung, or one of the Vardhamanaka 4 class along with the Class
Dance [suitable to it] should be applied, Then should take place
[one after another] during the Preliminaries the following : —
Utthapana 8 , Walking round 6 , Benediction'', Suskapakrsta 8 , Ranga- dvara 9 , Cari 10 , Mahacari 11 , Three Men's Talk 12 and Laudation 13 .
16. I shall now explain in due order the characteristics of all these which are to be included in the ceremony of the

1 See below 17. " See below 18 * See below 18.

* Sec below 18. 5 See below 19. 6 See below 19.

' See below 20. ' See below 20. ' See below 21.

lg From this statement it appears that the tirst nine items of the preli- minaries were performed on the stage covered with a front curtain much like the modern drop curtain. There were besides this, two curtains on two doors of the tiring room. It seems that the front curtain came into regular use in later times and especially at the end of each act. Cf. javani- kantar used as a synonym of 'act' in the KM.

12-15 (B.G. same). ' The front curtain ; see 8-11 note 10 above.

s Recitals of the Benediction fnhndi) and the Laudation (prarocam) etc. * madraka— a class of songs.

4 vardhamanaka— a. claw of songs with dance. See NsJ. (C.) XXXIX.
224ff. B See below 22-28. • See below 23-24, 65-89. ' See below
24-25, 107-113 ' See below 25-26, 113-116, " See below 26-27.

1 ° See below 27-28, 119-120. "See below 27-28, 127-130.

1 ' See below 28-29, 137-141. ' * See below 29-30, 141-142.

16 (B.GK same). ' It may .appear that these items of the •Prelimi u


The Pratyahara

17. Arranging of the musical instruments (kutapa) is called the Pratyahara 1 .

The Avatarana
The seating of singers is called the Avatarana (lit. coming down) 8 .

The Irambha

18. The commencement of vocal exercise for singing
(parigita) is called the Arambha (lit. beginning)*.

The Ssravana
Adjusting the musical instruments for playing them in due manner is called the AVravana. '

The Vaktrapani
10. Rehearsing (lit. dividing) the different styles (vrtfi) of playing musical instruments is called the Vaktrapani'.
The Parighattana
The strings of instruments are adjusted duly during the
Parighattana 4 .

neries to bo performed behind the front curtain, have been made needlessly elaborate. But it is not 'so. In ancient times people duo to different conditions of their lives, were not so much punctual in coming to the theatrical show, They did not come to it all at once and at any fixed time. Quite a long time passed before they all assembled. Hence from behind the curtain the Director offered to the early-comers (naturally the people who had no haste in their lives) whatever they could, while preparing for the actual performance. Hence Ag. (I. p. 215) says that nine items of the Preliminaries were meant for a [common] women, children and fools. The same practice about the Preliminaries maybe observed even now incase ofthcYatris or the open air theatrical per- formances in Bengal. 17 (B.G. same).

1 Kor the arragement of the musical instruments see the diagram" 2.

- tor the position of singers see diagram 2.

18 (B.G. same). ' asravaiiih-For details about the performance of
;hisseeNS. ((J.) XXIX. 120 ff.

W (TiXi. same). ' vakirap«,,i-V m details n U m \ the performance-
:or this see Ncj. (0.) XXIX. 131 ft".

•" fiartetaftanar-Vvr the performance of this see N«. (0.) XXIX.



The Samghotana

20. The Samghotana 1 is meant for rehearsing the use of different hand poses [for indicating the time-beat].

The Margasarita
The playing together [in harmony with one another] of drums and stringed instruments is called the Margasarita*.

The Xsarita

21. The A"sarita is meant for practising the beat of time-fractions .(kalapata) z .

The Application of songs
And the Application of songs (yltavixlhi)* is for singing the glory of gods.

The Utthapana
22-23. I shall now speak about the Utthapana (lit. raising) ceremony which is so styled because from this, the reciters of the
Benediction start (lit. raise) first of all in the stage the performance
[of the play]. Hence the Utthapana is considered by some to be the beginning [of the performance].

The Walking-round
23-24. The Walking-round (parirartana.) is so styled because in it, the guardian deities of different worlds are praised
[by the Directer] walking all over [the stage].
The Benediction
2-1-25. The Benediction (iiaii'fr) 1 is so called because it must always include [and invoke ) the blessing of gods, Brahmins and kings.

20 (B.G. same). l samghotana— For the performance of this see
N& (C.) XXIX. 137-141.

8 margasarita— -For the performance of this see N8. (C.) XXIX.

21 (B.Q. same), >, hsarila— For the performance of this see NS.
(C). XXXI. 59-75. 169-194. ' See S&. (C). XXX. 267 ff.

22-23 (B.22-23a, G. 21 e-22).

23-24 (B.23b-24a, G.23). l parivartana-parivarta see below 65 ff.

24-25 (B 24b-25a, G.24). ' For its specimens see below 107 ff 1 .


The i^uskavakrsta Dhruva

25-26, When an Avakrsta Dhruva is composed with meaningless sounds it is called ^uskavakrsta 1 , It indicates verses for the Jarjara 3 .

The Rangadvara
26-27. The Rangadvara is so called, because from this part commences the performance which includes Words and Gestures.

The Carl and the Mahaeari
27-28. The Cart is so called because it consists of move- ments depicting the Erotic Sentiment and in the Mahaeari occur movements delineating the Furious Sentiment.

The Three Men's Talk
28-29. The conversation of the Director (mtradhara), an
Assistant {paripariroka) and the Jester 1 is called the Three Men's
Talk (trigata).

The Laudation
29-30. The address which the Director (lit. the expert) makes suggesting the Denoument of the action (karyo) of the play in hand with [proper] reasoning and arguments is called the
Laudation (prarocana).

The origin of the Bahirgita and its justification
30-31. I shall now describe in detail the SsrSvana which is included in the Bahirgita and shall speak of its origin as well as its justification.

25-26 (B.26, G.25). ' aftC below 113-115.

2 The meaning is not clear. B.G. read between 25b and 26a two prose lines. 26-27 (B.27, G.26). 27-28 (B.28 G.27).

28-29 (B'29,G'28). > The Jester's role is assumed by one of the
Assistants. See below 70 where two Assistants enter along with the Director, lor details of the Three Men's Talk see below 137-141.

29-30 (B.30,G.29). ■ For details about the Laudation see below


31-32. Now when songs in seven forms 1 and in Citra a and
Daksina* Mgrgas together with the Upohana 4 and the Nirgita* were started by musical experts like Narada in praise of gods, all the gods and the Danavas, in the assembly were made to hear the Nirgita* performed with proper tempo and time beat 1 .

Daityas and Raksasas provoked to jealousy

. 33-34. Now on hearing these happy songs praising the gods, the Daityas and the Raksasas were all provoked to

34-36. Under these circumstances they pondered [over the matter] and said to one another : "We are glad to hear (lit. accept) this Nirgita in accompaniment of the instrumental music,
(and not the songs) in seven forms 1 about the exploits of the gods, which they were pleased to hear ; we shall hear the Nirgita only and shall always be pleased with it. Then these Daityas
[and Raksasas] pleased with the Nirgita urged for its repeated performance". The gods approach Narada to stop the Nirgita.

37-38. This enraged the gods who said to NSrada, These
Danavas and Raksasas are pleased with the Nirgita only [and do not want anything else i.e. songs]. Hence we wish this perfor- mance (of the Nirgita) to coxne to an end. What do you think of this ?"

30-31 (B.31, G.30).

81-32 (B.32-33, G.31-32). ' Seven forms means the types of tolas.
See N& (C.) XXXI. 497 ff. ' Sec (C.) XXXI. 414.

» See (C.) XXXI. 412. 4 See (C.) XXXI. 234 ff.

* Another namo for bahirgita. See below 33-42-

8 nirgila — instrumental music.

5 For different aspects of the tela sec NS. (C.) XXVIII. 15-16 and
(C) XXXI. 33-34 (B.34, G.33).

34-86 (B.35-87a, G.34-36a). A The seven forms— On this Ag. ( 1.
P- 224) says : w««*M«wfcrMMawT vwrcii vvm i?if"tfa« **m liJW



Narada pacifies the gods.

38-41. Hearing these words of the gods Narada replied,
"Let the Nirgita dependent on the music of stringed instruments be not stopped, and this (nirg-rfa) combined with the Upohana and accompanied by the music of stringed instruments will have seven forms. Enraptured (lit. bound down) by this Nirgita the Daityas and the Raksasas will not be provoked and they will not create any obstruction [of the performance].

41-42. This is the called Nirgita to satisfy the vanity of the
Daityas while in honour of the gods it is called the Bahirgita.

42-44. This is to be played by experts in She Citravlna 1 with metallic strings, and the performance should contain light and heavy syllables (afaara)* and have Varnas* and AlamkSras*.
It is. called the Nirgita because in it there is sung a combination of sounds carrying no sense, and to satisfy the jealousy of the gods it is called the Bahirgita".

The gods are pleased with the Nirgita (Bahirgita).

44-45. . The reason behind the Nirgita in its seven forms as well as the Utthapana and the like, will now be given.

45-54. ThePratyShSra pleases the Raksasas (Yatudhana) and the Pannagas, while the Apsarasas are delighted with the Avatarana.
The Gandharvas are pleased when the A"rambha is performed, and in the performance of the A"ft - 5vana the Daityas take delight. The
Vaktrapani pleases the Danavas and in the Parighattana the hosts of Raksasas are [again] pleased. By the Sanighotana Guhyakas are satisfied, while the Margasiirita the pleases Yak?as. When

37-38 (R37b-38, G.36b-37). 38-41 (B.39-41, G.38-40).

41-42 (B.42, G.41).

42-44 (B.43-44,.G .42-43). ' citravina—natyoparanjanarthaya vina; a kind of vim suitable for being played during the performance of a drama. » Syllables like gkrt and drri are heavy, and syllables like,

ma, la, ka, la are light. » See N8. (C.) XXIX. 19-23.

«. See N& (C.) XXIX. 24-75. 44-45 (B.45, G.44),

4*5-54 (B,54b-55, 46-53, G.45-58),,

-V. 59 ] THE PBELIMiNAkiES 01? A PLAY '83

songs (g'daka) are sung the gods enjoy them, and Eudra with his followers is pleased by the performance of the Vardhamana.
Similarly in the performance of the Walking-round (parivarr tana) Lokapalas (the guardians of the worlds) are delighted, and the Moon-god is pleased with the Benediction. During the singing of the Avakrsta (Dhruva) Nagas are pleased, while
Suskavakrsta (Dhruva) pleases the host of Pitrs (ancestors). In the" Rangadvara Visnu is pleased, while the Jarjara, ceremony pleases the leaders of Vighnas. On the Carl being performed
Uma takes pleasure while on the performance of Mahacari the Bhutas are delighted.

55. So much about worshipping the deities in different parts of the Preliminaries (purvarahga) beginning with the Pratyahara and ending in the [Maha] cSri.

• 56. O the best of Brahmins, in course of describing the different parts of the Preliminaries I have named the gods pleased by them and mentioned [the individual] parts of it in which they take delight.

57-58. The performance of the Preliminaries which means worshipping the gods, is praised by them (i.e. gods) and is con- ducive to duty (dharma), fame and long life. And tliis perfor- mance whether with or without songs, is meant for pleasing the
Daityas and the Danavas as well as the gods (lit. denizens of the celestial region).

59. I shall now tell you [afterwards] while discussing the rules of Dhruvas 1 the characteristics and function of performances with or without songs {saglta and nirglta) as well as of the
Vardhamana t *

55 (BJS6, G.54). 56 (B.57, G.55).

57-58 (B.58-59, 0.66-57).

59 (B.61, 0.59). ' See TS&. (C.) XXXH.

* Before this couplet (59) B. reads one additioual Uoka (B. 60).



The songs in die pure Preliminaries

60-63. After performing the songs (gltaka) 1 and the Vardha- m5 na', one should sing the Utthapant (Raising) Dhruva 8 which has in its feet of eleven syllables the first two, the fourth, the eighth and the eleventh as long. It should be [sung in] the Caturasra
(Tala)* and [should consist of] four feet and four Sannipatas" as well as three kinds of tempo {lay*)* and three caesura 7
{yah). Besides this it should consist of four Walking-rounds
{■parivarta) and of three Partis 8 , and it should be in the Visloka 9 metre and in the same kind of Tala.

64. The Tala in question should consist consecutively of
Saroya 1 of two Kalas, Tala of two Kalas, Samya of one Kala and
Sannipata of three Kalas. »

The First Walking-round

65. Thus a Sannipata Tala of eight Kal8s should be observed by the experts. And it is said that a Walking-round is made up of four such Sannipatas.

60. The first Walking-round in the Preliminaries should be made in slow tempo (sthitalaya) and on the termination of the third Sannipata in it (ie. the first parivarta) drums should be played.

The second Walking-round

67. On the termination of the first Walking-round the second one (i.e. Walking-round) having commenced in medium

60-63 (B.62-65, G.60-63). ' See N& (C.) XXXI. 267 ff.

'See NS.(C.) XXXI. 225 ff.

• The term utthapani dkruva does not occur in the Dhruvadkyayn
V&. (0.) XXXII. * See N8. (C.) XXXI. 9-11.

• SeeNS. (C) XXXI. 38-39. • See N8\ (C.) XXXI. 4.
' See Nl (C.) XXXI. 532-537.

8 Ag. explains three pants as samapuni, avara-pani and ufiaripai}'-

• See M(C.) XXXII. 149.

64 (B.B6. 0.64). > Cf. N8\ (C.) XXXI. 74.

65 (B.67, O 65). 66 (B 68, 0.66). 67 (B.69, 0.67).


tempo (laya) the Director [and the two Assistants] 1 should enter
[the stage].

68-09 The three should simultaneously enter [the stage] with handfuls of flower-offering.. But before that they should get themselves purified, initiated and furnished with charms for protection [against evil spirits]. They should be clad in white, and flowers carried by them should [also] be white, and they should be looking with the Adbhuta glance 1 and be in the "Vaisnava
Sthana" with Sausthava of the body.

70. The two 1 Assistants (]>avii>awika) should carry a golden pitcher tylirhgara) and the Jarjara, and with them by his side the Director should put forward five ateps.

71- These five steps [will be] for the purpose of worshipping
Brahman, and the manner of putting them forward will be described
[below] in detail.

72. They should slowly place their two feet three Talas 1 apart and then raise [them one by one] on each side and again put them down at the same [distance].

73. After going five steps 1 in the manner described above the Director and his two Assistants (lit. others) should perform the SucI Cart with left foot moved first and the right foot afterwards. 74. Then the Director should offer flowers in Brahman's circle (Brahma-mamfala) which is another name for the centre of to stage where the deity is supposed to be present.

1 Entrance of the two Assistants is implied in this passage. ' See below 68-69,

68-69 (B.70-71, G.68-69). * 8ee NS. VIH. 48. ' See NS. XI. 50-52.

70 (B.72, G-.70). ' One of the Assistants is to assume the role of the Jester in the Tliree Men's Talk. See above 28-29, 187-144.

* Jarjara— see N& HI, 73 ff.

71 (B.73a, 0.71). » B. omits 71b.

72 (B.74, G.72). l tola— a unit' of length. The distance from the til> of the middle finger to the wrist. See NS. Ill, 21 note.

73 (B.75, G.78). ' B. vwtuupadi for fiancai>adi. 74 (B.76, G.74).

86 THE tf 4TYASASTRA [ V. H-

75-77. And afterwards he {is. • the Director) should res- pectfully bow to Brahman (lit;* Pitamaha) with Lalita gesture, 1 and to measure the length of time during the salutation he should thrice touch the ground with his hand, and his steps should be
[suitably] divided. The second Walking-round which begins, with the entrance of the Director and ends 2 with the salutation [to
Brahman] and use of gestures [related to it], should be performed in medium tempo (laya).

The third Walking round

77-78. Next during the third Walking-round (parivarta) the Director should go round the Brahman's circle {i.e. the centre of the stage), perform Acamana and take up the Jarjara. [The manner of taking it up is as follows :]

78-80. Bising up quickly from [Brahman's] circle
(manilaht) he should perform the SucI (lit. Vedha) Cart with this foot {is. the right foot) put forward first and the left foot after- wards. And then he should again raise his right foot which was on the side and perform the SucI (Vedha) 1 Can putting forward the left foot first and the right foot afterwards.

80-83. Going found [the centre of the stage] the Director should call the person (i.e. one of the Assistants) who carries the golden pitcher {bhrhgara)} and perform ablution (iauca) [with water from this vessel]. He should then perform Acamana and sprinkle himself with water in due order. Thus after performing properly the ablution the Director should carefully take up the
Jarjara, the destroyer of obstacles, and this act should be per- formed along with the beginning of the last Sannipata [of this second Walking-round].

83-84. The third Walking-round beginning with going

75-77 (R77-79a, G.74c-76). ' See MS. IX. 201. B reads wmdatfithi- nayanugali for "nayant'akah.

77-78 (B.79, G-.77 ). '" 78-80 (B.80-81, G.78-79). ' According

tr Ag. (I. l>. 233) Vedha*" Suci Can.

80-83 (B.82-84, 0.8(1-82). ' S«- above 70.
83-64 (B.85, G.88).


round the centre of the stage (if. Brahmtmo^ala) 1 and ending with the taking.up of the Jarjara should be performed in n quick tempo. The fourth Walking-round

84t87. After taking up the Jarjara to ward off evils he should mutter [some Mantras] in eight Kalas. .-Then he should perform the Suci (Vedha) Car! by putting forward the left foot first and the right foot afterwards, and then, move five steps to- wards the musical instruments. And then again he should observe the Suci (Vedha) Cari by putting forward the left foot first and the right foot* afterwards. The fourth Walking-round which begins with the taking up of the Jarjara and ends 1 with an approach to the musical instruments should be made in a quick tempo. 87-88. In this [punarainja which is of the Caturasra type] movements of hand and feet in it will occupy sixteen Kalas while it being of the Tryasra type such movements will occupy Twelve
Kalas only.

88-89. [The Director and the two Assistants] should make three salutations by touching the ground, with the hand and before this they are to sprinkle themselves with water, but in case of the Tryasra [Preliminaries such sprinkling] has not been prescribed 1 .

The Pari vartani Dhruva

89-90. In this manner they should perform the Utthapana
(lit. raising). Then*comes the Parivartanl (Walking-round) Dhruva

1 See N& m, 23-30*note.

84-87 (B.86-88, G .84-86). ' B. reads kutapo nigamaniakah.

87-88 (B.89, G.87).

88-89 (B.90, G.88). l This and the preceding (87-88) passage should properly go after N& 64 for they relate to the Utthapana which should come before the Walking-round ; 'sec before 22-23.

89-90 (B.91, G.89). l For caturasre, B. G. caturasram.


which should be performed in the Caturasra (Tala) and medium tempo and with eight Sannipatas.

90-91. The Dhruva (song) which has only the last syllable long in its four feet of eleven syllables, is called the Parivartant
(Walking-round) Dhruva.

91-92' During the singing of this Dhruva the Director should move letffords 1 in the Vartika MSrga with graceful step in accompaniment of instrumental music and should bow to
[different] deities in directions belonging to them.

92-93. And during the foot movement [mentioned above] each step of the Director should consist two Kalas.and movement in each direction should consist of two Sannipatas.

93-94. Then he would observe the Suci (Vedha)Cari putting forward the left foot first and the right foot afterwards and putting the latter at a distance of two Talas.

94-95. In this manner he should go five steps with the Atikranta Carl 1 and bow to different deities in directions belonging to them.

95-97. First of all he should bow to the eastern direction presided over by (Sakra) Indra, secondly he should bow to the southern direction belonging to Yama. Thirdly he should bow to the western direction ruled by Varuna. Fourthly he should bow to the northern direction of which Dhanada (Kuvera) Is the protector. 97-98. After bowing to these directions he should perform the Slid Cari putting forward the left foot first and the right foot afterwards and begin the Walking-round. *

98-99 Then with his face towards the^east the Director

90-91 (B.92, G.90).

91-92 (B.93, G.91). ' vamakena (vMikena, B).

92-93 (B.94a, 0.92). }, B. pmits 93a.

93-94 (B.94b-95a, G.93). '

94-95 (B.95bc, G.94). " 'Sec NS. 3&. 29.

9.5-97 (B.96-97, G.95-96). 97-98 (B.98, G.97),

98-99 (B.99, G.98),


should bow to&va (Rudra), Brahman and Visnu (Upenflra) while going "forward three steps by 'masculine', 'feminine' and ^neuter' feet [one after another).

99-100. The right foot is 'masculine' and the left foot is
'feminine' while the right foot not [much] raised is clled !neuter'.

100-101. f§iva ,([sa) should be bowed to with the masculine foot [put forward firstj while in bowing to Brahnwif the neuter .foot
[should be so put forward] 1 .

The^outb Man enters.


101-102. The Walking-round should be [finished] thus, and then the FourtU Man {luitwtha-kara) should duly enter [the stage] with flowers [in his hands].

102-103. And he should duly offer Pujfi to the Jarjara and to all the musical instruments (kntapa) as well as to the Director.

103-104. His foot-movements during the Puja should be made to accompany the playing of drums, and there should be no song sung then, but only meaningless syllables should be chanted

Singing of the Avakrsta Dhruva

104-105. After offering the Puja the Fourth Man should make his exit. And then should be sung an Avakrsta Dhruva 1 in
Caturasra (Tula) and slow tempo (4hiU-hujri).

105-106. This Dhruva should abound in heavy syllables and depend on the Sthayi-vainji 1 and be made up of eight Kalas, and its Tala should be Avapanika.

— ' -II— l.ll.l M I ■ " ! '■■-■ ■'■» ■ . " — " -.111.1.. . ■' ■ .— I. - .11

99-100 (B.100,G.99).

100-101 (B.101a-102b, G.100). ' B. repeats here 90-91-
101-102 (B 103/ G.101).
102-103 (B.104, G.102). l See NS. Ill, U-13.
103-104 fB.105, G.103).

104-105 (B.106, G.104). ' Que of the six kinds of Dhruvas. See NS.
(C) XXXII. 154-159).

105-106 (B.107, G.105). » Se*> Ns, (C.) XXIX. 21 .

90 THE NATYA8ASTBA ' [V. 108-

106-107. The Avakrsta Dhruvg is a song consisting of four feet of ten syllables of which the fourth, the fifth, the seventh and the eighth will be short. 1

Tho Benediction

107-108. Then the Director will recite in a medium
[madhyama) tone the Benediction which should consist of eight or twelve feet {paila). 1

108-109. ' These are tho specimens of Benediction) :

namo'stu sarvadevebhyo

dvijatibhyah subham tatha I jitam somena vai rajiia - J

arogyam bboga eva ca l)
TV. Salutation to all the god?. Blessed be the twice born class. May Soma the king attain victory as well as healthy life
'and [eartblyj enjoyment. 1

109-110. brahraottaram tathaivastu

hatabrahmadvisas tatha I pra&stvimam maharajah prthivim ca sasagaram I
Tr. Let there bo an advancement of tho cause of the
Brahmins, and let their enemies be killed, and let the great king rale this earth together with all the seas.

110-111. rastrara pravardhatam caiva

rangas cayam samrdhyatam I preksakartur mah8n dharmo bhavatu brahmabhavitah l

77. Lot this state prosper, and this theatre flourish and let

106-107 (B.108). > G. omits this.

107-108 (B 109, G.106). l For different interpretations of fiada see
Levi, pp. 132-133, II. 25-26. Raghnvabhatta quotes from Ag. in his bakun- talatika (p. 6) the following : usiffl tffatwijflifn faumtf «wf»i or ijwgflat- mPi or i«wwft v and *i*ta wmwiwii*.*^ <rcs»[. Those passages do not occur in tho published Abhinavabharati.

.108-109 (B.U0; G.107). l See Levi, p. 133.

109-110 (B.111, G.108). -UO-lll (B-112, G.109).


the producer of the theatrical show attain virtues proceeding from the Vedic knowledge.

U 1-1 12. kavyakartur yasas" castu

dharmas capi pravardhatam I ijyaya canaya nityam

prtyantam devata iti 1

Tr. Let the playwright (lit. writer of the karya) attain fame and let his virtue increase, and by this kind of sacrifice (tjajhu), let the gods be # a)ways pleased with him.

112-113. After the recitation of each of such Benedictory poems the two Assistants should loudly and distinctly say, "Let this be so."

The Suskavakrsta Dliruva

113-114. The Benediction should thus be performed duly according to the rules [mentioned above]. Then should be sung the Suskavakrstii Dhrura and verses praising the Jarjara.

114-115. This Dlmiva should consist of nine long syllables first and then six short syllables followed by three long syllables, e.g.

115-110. digle digle jhande jhande jam bu ka va li ta ka te tc ja.

The Rangadvara

116-118. After properly performing the Suskavakrsta
Dhruva, he (the Director) should recite in a loud tone one Sloka in adoration of the deity in course of whose worship [the dramatic, performance is going to be held], and then [another Sloka] paying homage either to the king or to the Brahmins should be sung.

118-1 It). After reciting the Jarjara.Sloka in what' is called tha Rangadvara (lit. entry into the performance) he should again read another Sloka to honour the Jarjara 1 .

111-112 (B.tlS.GllO).

112-113 (B.114, G.llla). ■ 113-114 (B.U5, 0.112).

114-115 (B.U6, 0.113). 115-116 (B,117a. 0.114).

116-117 (B 117b-U8a, 0.115). < 117-118 (B.118b-119a, lr6) ;
118-119 (B.119b-l30a, 0.117). ' ' Mss. reading is/arjarasya vitmana


The Cari

119-120. And after the Jarjara has been honoured; 1 he should perform a ,€ari and the two Assistant* , should step backwards. *

120-121. Then the Addita Dhruva 1 should be performed with the medium tempo (/a//«)j Catarasra Tala and four Sannipatas.

121-122. The Dhruva (song) which has the first, the fjfth audi the lasf syllables long a nef the remaining syllables short in all 1 its four feet of twelve syllables, is called the Addita. ,

, 122-123. I shall relate its application according to the procedure adopted by Siva (Mahesvara), and UmS When performing it in the past with [the display ol] different States (Wiora)- and' movements. i23-t25. After assuming the Avahittha Sthana (posture), 1 and placing the left hand [first] with its palm downwards on the navel and taking up the Jarjara by his other hand,* the Director should go five steps, with his left hand showing the Pallava gesture ; and while going he should cover one Tala at each step and move his limbs gracefully 3 .

125-127. Afterwards ho should perform the Sucl Carl by putting forward his left foot first and the right foot afterwards.
Then the Director <( I it. the expert one) should recite a Sloka with love as its • subject-matter, And after reciting this Cart Sloka and

{timmwa). But this gives aa relevaat meaning. We emend, i*. !»• jarjfuasytt mmtnanam.

llShl23(B.li0brl2Ua.Ua). ' Bead m&^&(&&.nmuit#*i),

■' 120-121 (», G.11S). l See below 12^422, •!», Hi (C.)

121-122 (B.122b.l23a, GL120). l2a42a;(B»123kl25», 0.121).

123-125 (B.124b, 125b, 126, G. 122-123). ' Deaacdin. T&&. XHL lAfc
165. * Mss. read lutudlirtam. But its meaning is not clear. It is

just possible, that the original reading has been changed. We thorefore emend this to taladki;tam. meaning 'held in palm" or 'held byhand,'

* B. reads.hetwcen 123b.and 124a an.additionalliomjitiea.

UUH27 (B,127-I28,.aia4»125). '


performing the Walking-round, he should with his face towards the front withdraw backwards with steps described before.

■ » The Mahacari

127-128. And after placing the Jarjara in the hands of one of the Assistants fie should perform the Mahacari in accordance with the rules laid down below. v

• 128-130. During this Cari the Dhruva song should be of the Caturasra type and in quick tempo, and it should have four Sannipatae and eight Kalas. This Dhruva song should have feet of eleven syllables of which the first, fourth, seventh, tenth and the last are" long and the remaining ones short.

130-131. (An example of the Caturasra Dhruva) : padatalahati-pat i ta- sailam

ksobhita-bhuta-saraagra-samudram I tSndava-nrttatn idam pralayante

patu harasya sadS sukliadayi II

Tr, Let the ever-pleasing Class Dance of Hara (Siva) after the destruction of the world, which smashed the hills by the impact of his feet and agitated the ocean with all creatures living in it. always give you protection.

130-131. Then he should step towards the drums (hhanfri) and afterwards perform the Suci Cari followed by a change of the

1S2-J 33. Afterwards he should move his feet gracefully , with a quick tempo, and keeping them three Talas apart, he should" go five steps. There Again he should perform the Sucl
( Vedha) C&M with his left foot put forward first and the right one afterwards. *

134-135. And with the foot movement [described above] he should move backwards with his face towards the front, and again he should go three steps forward in a similar manner, and then he

1 27-128 (B.129, G.126). 128480 (B. 130-131, G.127-128).

130-131 (B.132, 0.189). 131-132 (B.133, G.130),

132-133 (B.134-I35a, G.131-132n): 134-135 (B.ia5b-13fc G.138b-133).


should again perform theSuci Cart with his left foot put forward first and the right foot afterwards.

130-137. Then he should recite a couplet calling up the
Furious Sentiment while bringing his feet together, and then after going three steps he should call for the two Assistants, and on their coming up, a Narkutaka Dhruva should be sung. At the time of singing this Dhruva he should perform the SucI (Vedha) Carl by putting forward the left foot first and the right foot afterwards.

The Three Men's Talk

137-138. Then in case of a phiy in the Verbal Style (Wio- ; rati vrtti) the Throe Men's Talk (Irigntn) should take place.
During it (this Talk) the Jester should suddenly come in and deliver a discourse consisting mostly of irrelevant words to excite the smile of the Director,

138-139. In this discourse should be brought in some controversial topic with an abrupt remark or an enigmatical utter- ance [of some kind], and questions such as who is [there] and who has won, leading to the plot pf the play (lit the poem), but no unpleasant topie should be brought in.

140-141. In the Three Men's Talk an Assistant talks with the Jester who finds fault with his words which are, [however,] supported by the Director.

The Laudation

141. Then the Director (lit. an expert) should put in the
Laudation and the Invitation [to members of the audience], and for the success of the performance (lit. the stage) the subject of the play should again be mentioned.

142. After putting into practice all these rules, all the three persons (i.e. the Director and the two Assistants) should perform

138437 (B.137-138a, G.134-135a).

137-138 (B.138b-139a, G.l35b-I38a).

138-139 (B.139b-140, G.136b-137).

140 (B.1 41, G.omite). u\ (B.U2, G.138X

142 (B.148; G.139X


the SucI (Vedha) Carl, and they should go out together while performing any CSrt other than the Jviddba one.

The Tryasra Preliminaries

143-144. Thus, Brahmin?, should be performed the
Preliminaries of the Caturasra type ; now I shall speak of that of' the Tryasra type. Its use is similar and its component parts are the same ; the only feature that distinguishes it from the Caturasra. one is its abridged measure of Tala.

1-15-146. [In it] the Bamya should consist of two Kalas and the Tftla of one Kala, and again the SamyS is to consist of one Kala and the Sannipata of two Kalas. With this kind of measurement of Kala, Tala and tempo, should be performed the Tryasra Preli- minaries which include the Utthapana and such other items.

147. The Dhruva (song) which has the fourth, the eighth, the tenth and the last syllables long in all its four feet of twelve syllables, is called the Utthapana Dhruva of the Tryasra (type, 1 .

148. In the Tryasra Preliminaries an expert dancer should abridge the instrumental music, movements [of persons], Dhruva songs and their Tata-
US. The actions and movements [of a dancer] are to be

made of two types— elaborate and abridged — according as the instrumental and vocal musics are such.

150-151. It is said that each movement of hands and feet should be of two Kalas' duration, and in any Walking- round in the
Caturasra (Preliminaries) the hands and feet should be moved sixteen times, while in the Tryasra Preliminaries they are to move only twelve times.

151-152. This is the measurement of both («'.". of hand and foot movements) in the Preliminaries. But in the Walking-round, the foot movement should consist of three steps only, but in bowing

143-144 (B.U4- 145, G.140-1 ll).

145-145 (B.146-147, G.14M43). 147 (B.148, G.144).

148 3.149,0.145). 149 (B.150, G.146).

150-151 (B.l51-152a, G.147-148a).

151-152 (B,l52b-153, G.148D-149).


to [the different] directions in the Caturasra Preltmimttfes one should go five steps.

153. [But all these matters] should be performed in the
Tryasra Preliminaries according to the measure of Tala as the master of the art thinks fit. Hence to avoid repetition no [elaborate] direction about the same has been given [here].

154. the best of the Brahmins, thus should be perform- ed the pure Preliminaries of the Caturasra and the Tryasra types, which relate to a play depending on the Verbal Style.

The Mixed Preliminaries

155. So much about the pure Preliminaries which I was to describe. I shall now till you how the producers may turn them to one of the mixed (r.itrn) type.

150-157. After the Utthapnni (Raising) Dhruvii has been' d with flowers given by the Fourth Man {raturthakard) and resounded with the well measured loud songs of musical ex- perts, DundubhU should be played again and again.

158. [And in the mixed Preliminaries thus begun] clusters of white flowers should bo scattered all over [the stagej, and the
Angaharas should be performed by [dancers dressed as] goddesses.

159-160. The Class Danco which has been described above with its [firths], Recakas, Angaharas, Nyasas and ApanySsas should intervene the separate feet of the Benedictory (itHiidi) poems (pitdu). Tliis rule should be put into practice by those who would turn pure Preliminaries into mixed ones.

1GI. After tho 'pure' Preliminaries have been duly made
'mixed' [all the dancers dressed as] goddesses should make their exit.

102. After tho exit of all the female dancers the other parts of the Preliminaries should be performed.

153 (B.154, G.UO). 154 (B.155, G.151).

155 (B.l5t>, G.152). 156-157 (B.157-158, G.153-154).

158 (B.159, G.155). 159-160 (B.160-161, G.156.157).

161 (B.l62a, 16.3a, G.158). 162 (B.l63b-J64a, G.159).


• - 163." This is the manner in which the pure Preliminaries should be changed into mixed ones. But in the Preliminaries, be they of any type, there should not be too much dance and song. •:

164. If [in a performance] songs, music and dance continue for too long [a timej they tire out the artists as well as the spectators. 165. Tired [persons] can neither attain or help to attain a clear impression of the Sentiments and the States, and because of this the rest of the performance (i.e. of the play itself) cannot excite pleasure.^

166. After performing the Preliminaries, be they Caturasra or Tryasra of the pure or mixed type, the Director along with his
Assistants should make their exit from the stage 1 .

Introduction of the play

167. After the Preliminaries have been duly performed 1 in the manner described, the Introducer (sthapaka) 2 should enter
[the stage] and he should resemble the Director (sulrwlhara) in every respect (lit. in quality and form).

163 (B.164W65a, G 160). 1 64 (B 165b-166a, 0.161).

165 (B.166b-167a, G.162). ' B. reads one additional couplet after this.

166 (B 168b-l69a, G.163). ' B. reads three additional couplets (B.
I69b-172a) after this.

167 (B 1 2b-173a, G.164). ' The read ; ng prajujya in this parage seems to bo defective ; for the nominative to this prajujya cannot be slhapaka 0ntroducer). Dhanaiijaya (c. 10th century) clearly gays that the sulradhara (the Director) having gone out after the Preli- minaries (purvaraiiga), another actor enters to introduce the drama
(III. 2). The same is the opinion of Saradatanaya (c. 1175-1250). See the BhP. p.228, lines 56. ViSvaniitha also expressed a similar opinion.
See the SD. VI. 26. Hence this passage should be construed some- what like the well-known proverb ralhe ca vhmanam drstva pwnar- janma na vidyate . It seems tl at BhiUa cut down the Preliminaries and made an end of the practice of getting the play introduced by the sthhpaka. This assumption will explain why Bairn wrote sutradhara- krlarambhailp etc. (Harsascarita, Introduction, 15).

' Ag. says sitfradkara era stAaPakah, cf. n°t« 1 above,

98 . THE~N.ATYA6ASTRA [Vi.lflft-

168. He should assume the VaisnavaStharin (posfere) 1 and the Sausthava* of the body, and on entering the sta^e he should observe the foot movements which the Director had used. -

16!). At the entrance of the Introducer the DhravS' ishould be made suitable to the occasion (lit. meaning) and it will be either
Caturasra or Tryasra and be in medium tempo.

170. Then he should perform a Carl in praise of. gods and
Brahmins in accompaniment with the recitation of Blokas contain- ing sweet words and evoking various Sentiments and States..

171. After thus pleasing the spectators (lit. the stage) he should announce the name of the play-wright (lit., the poet), and then he is to start the Prologue (prastavana) which relates to proclaiming the theme of the play (lit. the poem) 1 .

172-173. Then by mentioning (lit. having recourse to) a god in a divine [play], a man in a human [play] and a god or a man in
[a play] where gods and men [meet, he] should proclaim in different ways the subject of the play [lit. the poem] by variously alluding to its Opening (mukha) and Germ C'/Jtj) 1 .

174. After introducing the play the Introducer (lit. the
Brahmin who makes the introduction of the play) should go* out
[of the stage]. Thus should be performed the Preliminaries accord- ing to the rules.

175. If any producer of a play will perform the Preliminaries according to the rules laid down, nothing inauspicious will happen" to him and be will [after his death] reach the heavenly "region/

176. i On the contrary] whoever produces a play in an willful violation of the rules [in this matterj will sustain great loss and will [after his dealli] be reborn as a creature of a lower order.

168 (B.l73b-174a, G.165). » Sec XI. 50-51. • Sec XI. 89b, 91a.

169 (Ii.l74b-175a, G.166). 170 (B.175-176a, G.167).
171 (B.176b-177a, 0.168). ' B. reads one additional hemistich.
172-173 (B.178-179, G;169-170). ' Sec SD. VI. 27. also DB. HI 3.

.174 (B.180, G.171). 175 (B.181, G.172).

176 (B.182, G.173).


17?. Fire fanned by a strong wind dpes not burn [anything] so quickly as does the wrongly made production. ^

178. In this manner the Preliminaries of two different ex* tents {pramana) should be performed by the people of Avanti,
Pancala, Daksinatya and Odra regions.

.179. Brahmins, these are the rules regarding the Preli- minaries. Tell me what other rules relating to the Natyaveda should be discussed now 1 .

Here' ends Chapter V of Bharata's Natya&stra which treats pi the Preliminaries to the production of a play.

177 (B.184, G.175). 178 (B.184, 0.175).

179 (B.185, G.176). ' The portion of this chapter after this iloka has not been translated. It is not from the hand of author of the NS.

The, sages question.

1-3. After hearing about the rules regarding the Prelimina- ries, the great sages continued their inquiries and said to Bharata,
"Answer five of our questions. Explain how the Sentiments enumerated by experts in dramatic art attain their special qualities.
And why are the bhaoas (States) so called, and what do they bhavatjanti (make us feel) ? Besides these, what are the real mean- ings of terms such as, Digest (mmijrahi) 1 Memorial Verse
(karika) and Etymology (nirukta)" ?

Bharata answers.

4. At these words of the sages, Bharata continued speaking and mentioned in reply to their question the distinction between the Sentiments and the States.

5-7. And then he said, "0 sages, I shall tell you in detail and in due order about the Digest {sowjraha), the Memorial
Verse (kaiika) and the Etymology (lUnikta). I am not able by any means to exhaust all the topics about drama (nalt/a) ; for science
(jham), 1 and arts and crafts {hilpa)* connected with it are repectively manifold and endless in number. And as it is not possible to treat exhaustively (lit. to go to the end of) even one of these subjects which are [vast] like an ocean, there cannot be any question of mastering them all.

9. [Hence] I shall tell you about the Digest on Sentiments,
States and such other matters, which has its contents embodied'

1-3 IB.G. tame), i For a possible chronolouieal implication of sanigraha, karM, uirukta, svtra and bhteya mentioned in this chapter seoSkt.Port.cs.Vol.I.Mff. 4 (B.O. *»«,).

5-7 (B.G. same). > Mmnwyiitaranadint iasMni (A g).
. »uPam~citrap U stndi-karmani{X % ).

8 (B.O. same). > a»d sutra&MrtJia.

[ VI 14- tHB SENMMENTS 101

in a small number of Sutras (short rules) but which promotes inference [about the understanding of the subject].

Digest Memorial Verse and Etymology defined

9. When subjects taught in detail have been compressed and brought together in [a number of] Sutras and their Bhasyas
(commentary), these latter constitute according to the learned a
Digest isamgraha).

10. The Digest [of the Natyaveda treats] the Senti ments, the States, the Histrionic Representation {abhinaija), the Practice
(dharmi), the Styles {vrlli), the Success (siddhi), the notes (xvara), the instrumental music (atndya), songs and the stage. x

11. When a rule (lit. meaning) is explained (lit. uttered) briefly in the manner of a Sutra by means of a minimum (lit. small) number of words it is called the Memorial Verse (k&rika) which shows the meaning [of the rule clearly]. 1

12. The Etymology (iiimkta) is that which arises in con- nexion with various nouns, is helped by dictionaries and rules of grammatical interpretation, includes the meaning of the root involved as well as the reasons modifying it, and is helped by various findings [of Sastras].

13. When the meaning [of a noun] is established from a consideration of its root [and pfatijaya or affix], words expressing
[such] meaning in brief are called the Etymology.

14. O the best of the Brahmins, [the subjects included into] the Digest (mmgraha), which I mentioned earlier, will now be discussed in detail with the necessary Memorial Verses (karika) and
Etymologies connected with them,

9(8.G same).

10 (B.O. same). ' B. adds one more couplet after 10.

11 (B.12, Or. same). 'One additional characteristic of the karika ii that it should be generally composed in metres like arya or tloka, e.g the Samkhyakarika.

12 (B.18, 0.19). 13 (B.U, G. U). 1 4 (B.15, G.U).

iQt THE NAT* A8ASTBA [Vl.lg.

The eight Sentiments

15. The eight Sentiments (rasa) 1 recognised in drama are as follows : Erotic (srhgam), Comic (hanya), Pathetic (Icarunn)
Furious (ramlra), Heroic (fira), Terrible (bhaijanalca) Odious
(biblmtsa) and Marvellous {adbhula).*

16. These eight are the Sentiments named by Brahman;
I shall now speak of the Dominant, the Transitory and the
Temperamental States. 1

The Dominant States

17. The Dominant States {dha>j\bham) x are .known to be the following : love, mirth, sorrow, anger, energy, terror, disgust and astonishment,

18-21. The tliirtytliree Transitory States (vijabhuari- bhava) 1 are known to be the following : discouragement, weakness, apprehension, envy, intoxication, weariness, indolence, depression, anxiety, distraction, recollection, contentment, shame, inconstancy, joy, agitation, stupor, arrogance, despair, impatience, sleep, epilepsy, dreaming, awakening, indignation, dissimulation, cruelty, assurance, sickness, insanity, death, fright and deliberation. These are defined by their names.

The eight Temperamental States

22. Paralysis, Perspiration, Horripilation, Change of Voice,

15 (B.16, G.15). ' rasa— A. K. Coomaraswamy is for translating the
TfwdM'navour' (MQ. p. 17).

9 The later writers on Skt. poetics add one mora rim iiania)
■to this number.

16(B.17, G.16). ' ihma-k. B. Keith translates this n*rd as feeling 1 or 'emotion'. See Skt. Drama, p. 31V. A. K. Coomaraswamy and others translate it as 'mood' (he. cit.). We are with Haas who translates it as 'State.' See DR. p. 108.

17 (B.18, Q.17). ' sthayMava-Ktit\i translates the term as 'domi- nant emotion' (Skt. Drama) aod Haas as 'Permanent State' (DR.) and
,f&m as 'permanent mood' («./. S. K. De, Skt Poctiej, Vol. II. p. 28).
19-21 (B.IH2, G.18-21). ' Thesa are also known as wVSnVMaw,
M(B.28,0.9S). 'i&thO* MSM-The worn Mtika cannot b«

,yj a* J -5CHE SENTIMENTS ~#3

Trembling, Change of Cofoiir, Weeping and Fainting are the eight
Temperamental States 1 .

The lour kinds of Histrionic Representation

2'). The four kinds of Histrionic Representation are Ges- tures (ahgilca) 1 ', Words (naciha)', Dresses and Make-up (aharya)* and the Representation of the Temperament {sattviha).*

The Two Praotiees

24. The Practice of Representation (dharml) 1 in a dramatic performance fs twofold : realistic (lokadharmi, lit. popular) and coventional {n&tyadharmi, lit. theatrical).

The four Styles

And the Verbal (bliarat:), the Grand (salt call), the Graceful
(Icaigik',) and the Energetic (arahhiHl) are the four Styles (vftti)*.

properly translated into English. Keith does not make any such attempt (sec Skt. Drama) Haas translates the sattvika-bhava as
Involuntary States'. But this seems to bo very misleading, for the
Ntj. takes satha to be connected with manas. (see VI. 94), and most of the later writers follow this work in this respect. So the author of the ND. (III. 153) writes i«W it sw a^ii'jfaw %g»«fh srfsnr: n^s'raqtf' fr i «jwi <n «tft?n«fi Ti«iii sjfagij. The N8. has also a definition of sattva which is as follows: ftiii* w*n *m (XXIV. 7).
The author of the BhP. elaborately defines the term sattva and discusses the psychological process connected with its use j sec (pp. 13-14).
Visvanatha in his SD. (164) dofincs sattva as follows : vm "W watfw*-

23 (B.24, G.23). l ahgika— means Gestures of special kind defined- in the sustra -, sec NS. VIH-XH.

2 vodka — means Words suitable for representation of the different
States ( bhava) composed by the playwright. See NS. XV-XXII.

8 See NS. XXIII. * Sec NS. XXIV.

24 (B.25-26a, G.24-25a). ' dhami— This word lias not been very correctly used, But the meaning is clear ; for details about dharml see
NS. XIII 69-81.

' Haas translates mitts as Styles of Procedure (DR. p. 67). The four Styles aro translated by him as Eloquent (bharati), Grandiose (satlvati)
Gay (kaiiiki) and "Horrific (arabMi). We follow Keith's translation
(Skt Drama, p. 326). For details about vrttis see N& XXII. Iff.

• l64i THE NATYASASTKA [Vi. 26-

The four Local Usages

2f>-26. Avanti, Daksinatyn, OdramSgadhi and Panelist- madhyama are the four Local' Usages (pWdliy in a dramatic


The Success " -

The Success 8 in the dramatic performance is of two kinds : divine {laivih) and human (wa'*«?i). .
The Notes

27-29. And [musical] notes such as, Sadjn, Rsabha etc. are seven 1 in number, and they fall into two groups :. human (fartrg lit from body) and instrumental (w'wm lit from the Vina). 1
Th< four kinds of musical instruments

The musical instruments are of four kinds 2 : stringed (tata) covered (.»ww*/H solid (ghnna), and hollow (mtira).
Among these, the stringed (tain) means an instrument with strings, the covered 'iivi naildha) means a drum, the solid (ghana) a cymbal and the hollow (swim) a flute.

The five kinds of Dhruvas

20-30. Songs which relate to Dhruvas are of five kinds 1 :

25-26 (B.28b-27a, 25b-2fi:i). ' firavrtti—Kaas translates tliis word as 'Local Characteristics', (See PR , p 74). The five geographical names
(Avanti, D ikstinatya, Odra, Magadl.a and Paficala) probably show that those ww the parts of India where dramatic show was current at tho time when tradition recorded in this NS, arose. Omission of the north-eastern part of India, including Bengal and Assam, probably si ows that at that time these places were, still in many respects outside tho palo of
Aryanized India. An 1 the omission of the north-western India from this list may be explained on the assumption that it being on the way of the new immigrants w'.o frequently poured into this country the forma- tion of a iv istiiiUhcd usage was difficult. For details about Pravrttis see N.'i. XIV. 36-56.

* sidtthi (*\\cw&)— For details about the Success sec N& XXVII. 1 ff.

27-29 (15.28.i-30, 0.27b 29). l Sec NS. (C.) XXVIII. 19, 11.

\See NS. (C.) XXVI11. 1-2.

g9-30 (B.31-33a, G.30-31a). ' See NS. (C.) XXXII. 334-352.

.yi. 81 ] THE SENTIMENTS 105

entering (pravesa), casual (ahepa), going out (niskama), pleasing
{pr&sadika) and intermediate (antara). And the playhouse is of the three types : oblong (vilysla), square (caturasra) and triangular (tryasra) 2

31. So much about the Digest on drama giving its con- tents (lit. meaning by a small number of Sutras (concise rules).
I shall now speak about the contents of the Sutra-work 1 .

The Sentiments explained

In that connexion T shall firft of all explain the Sentiments
(rasa). No meaning proceeds [from speech] without [any kind of] Sentiment. The Sentiment is produced (rasa-nispaitih) from a combination (sumyoga)* of Determinants (vibham), Consequents
(anubhava) and Transitory States (vynbhicari-bhavn). Is there any instance (drdanta) [parallel to it]. [Yes], it is said that, as taste (rasa) results from a combination of various spices, vegetables and other articles 3 , and as six testes (rasa) are produced by articles such as, raw sugar or spices or vegetables, so the
Dominant States (sthayibhava), when they come together with various other States (bhara) attain the quality of the Sentiment
(£.". become Sentiment) 4 . Now one enquires, 'What is the meaning of the word rasa" ? It is said in reply to this [(hat rasa is so called] because it is capable of being tasted (ayra<lt/ate). How is rasa tasted ? [In reply] it is said that just as well-disposed persons while eating food cooked with many kinds of spices enjoy
(asvadayanti) its tastes (raw) and attain pleasure and satisfaction,

' B, adds one couplet after 30.
31 (B.33b-34a, G.31b, c). l The original of the next passage till the beginning of 33 is in prose.

8 Tho N& nowhere explains the terms nnfatti and samyoga of this definition and does not include tho sthayiblihva in it (the def.). Hence the theory of rasa has come to be interpreted differently in later times by
Lollata, Sankuka, (Bhatta) Niiyaka and Abhinavagupta. For a brief exposition of their views see Visnupada Bhattacarya— Sahityamimanisa
(Bengali), Calcutta, 1948. pp. 33 ff.

8 G. adds here ono sentence more (tatha nispattih).

4 tatraha (G. rsaya ucvJi), '


so the cultured people taste the Dominant States (stlifiyi-bhava) while they see them represented by an expression of the various
States with Words, Gestures and the Temperament and derive pleasure and satisfaction. Thus is explained [the Memorial Verse ending with] tasman nalyarasa Ui". For in this connexion there are two traditional couplets :

32-33. Just as connoisseur of cooked food (bhalcta) while eating food which has been prepared from various spices and other articles, taste it, so the learned people taste in their mind the Dominant States (such as love, sorrow etc) when they are represented by an expression of the States with Gestures. Hence these Dominant States in a drama are called the Sentiments. 1

The relation between the Sentiments and the States.

a Now one enquires, "Do the States (bhava) come out of the
Sentiments (rata) or the Sentiments come out of the States ?"
On this point, some are of opinion that they arise from their mutual contact. But this is not so. Why ?

"It is apparent that the Sentiments arise from the States and not the States from the Sentiments. For [on this point] there are [traditional] couplets such as :

34-35. The States are so called by experts in drama, for they cause to originate (bhavayanti) the Sentiments in connexion with various modes of dramatic representation. Just as by many articles of various kinds auxiliary cooked food (vyahjana) is

'See below 33-34.

32-33 (B.35-36, G32-33). ' For a discussion on Bharata's theory of rasa see Skt. Poetics, Vol. II. pp. 25 ff.

* The original of this passage till the beginning of 34 is in prose, but its reading seems to be confused. In the light of the five karikas that follow one may be justified in changing the order of some sentences and in emending it partially as follows : ^rai* •itfJPUil «tWt KfltimSjfttfflftfil, 1 g dNI suirafafasfttftfn i ?ra *w?i i iw* f* i<*rcii^'nt<nif«f"i»ftftffl.

But if it is really an instance of textual corruption it may be said to have been sanctified by time, for Bhoja who refuted Bharata's view on bhavas giving riso to rasas relied on this text Cf . V. Raghavan, $Sr. Pr.
P. 26. 34-36 (B.38-39, G.84-35).


brought forth, so the States along with different kinds of Histrio- nic Representation will cause the Sentiments to originate.

30. There can be no Sentiment prior to (lit. without) the
States and no States without the Sentiments [following it], and during the Histrionic Representation they are produced from their mutual relation.

37. Just as a combination of spices and vegetables imparts good taste to the food cooked, so the States and the Sentiments cause one another to originate (bhavayanli).


38. Just as a tree grows from a seed, and flowers and fruits
[including the seed] from a tree, so the Sentiments are the source
(lit. root) of all the States, and likewise the States exist [as the source of all the Sentiments] 1 .

The eight Sentiments from the four original ones

Now we shall describe the origins, the colours, the [presiding] deities, and examples of these Sentiments. Sources of these [eight]
Sentiments are the four [original] Sentiments e. ;;. Erotic, Furious,
Heroic and Odious.*

39. The Comic [Sentiment] arises from the Erotic, the
Pathetic from the Furious, the Marvellous from the Heroic, and the Terrible from the Odious.

40-41. A mimicry of tho Erotic [Sentiment] is called the
Comic, and the result of the Furious Sentiment is the Pathetic, and the result of the Heroic Sentiment is called the Marvellous, and that which is Odious to see results in the Terrible.

42.43. The Erotic Sentiment is light green (syama), the
Comic Sentiment white, the Pathetic (Sentiment) ash-coloured

36(B.40,G.36). 37 (B.41, G.37).

33 (R42, G.38). ' B adds ono prose' sentence more after this passage.
8 Tho original of this passage till the beginning of 39 is in prose.
» Bhoja criticises this view of the author of the Stt. in his Sr. ft
See Ramaswamy Sastri Bh. P. Introduction p. 28; V. Raghavan, Sr. ft. 27.
39 (B.44, G.89). 40-41 (B.45-46, G.40-41).

42-43 (B.47-48, G.42-43).


(kapota), the Furious Sentiment reel, the Heroic (Sentiment) light orange (gawa), the Terrible (Sentiment) black, the Odious (Senti- ment) blue and the Marvellous (Sentiment) yellow.

The presiding deities of the Sentiments

44-45, Visnu is the god of the Erotic, Pramathas of the
Comic, Rudra of the Furious, Yama of the Pathetic, &va (Maha- kala), of the Odious, Yama (Kala) of the Terrible, Indra of the
Heroic, and Brahman of the Marvellous Sentiments.

1 Thus have been described the origins, the colours and the deities of these (Sentiments). Now we shall explain the Determi- nants (ribhnra), the Consequents (aimhhant), the Transitory
States (njahhirariu), their combination, and their definitions and examples. We shall now enumerate the Dominant States in different

The Erotic Sentiment

Of these, the Erotic (otjoiw)' Sentiment 'proceeds .from the
Dominant State of love (rati) and it has as its basis (lit. soul) a bright attire ; for whatever in this world is white, pure, bright and beautiful is appreciated in terms of the Dominant State of love
(srhijara). For example, one who is elegantly 'dressed is called a lovely person (irnyarin). Just as persons are named, after the custom of their father or mother' or famiiyjn accordance with the traditional authority, so the Sentiments, the States and other objects connected with drama are given names in pursuance of the custom and the traditional authority. Hence the Erotic Sentiment has been so named on account of its usually being' associated with a bright and elegant attire. It owes its origin to 'men and women and relates to the fullness of youth. It has two bases': union
(wmhhoga) and separation (viprcdamblui). Of these two, the Erotic
Sentiment in union arises from Deteminants like the pleasures of the season, the enjoyment of garlands, unguents, ornaments [the

" 44-45 (B.49-50, 0.44-45). 'The original of this passage till the beginning of 46, is in prose.


company of) beloved persons, objects [of senses], splendid mansions, going to a garden, and enjoying [oneself] there, seeing the [beloved one], hearing [his or her words], playing and dallying [with him or her]. It should be representated on the stage by Conse- quents such as clever movement of eyes, eyebrows, glances, soft and delicate movement of limbs, and sweet words and similar other things. Transitory States in it do not include fear, indolence, cruelty and disgust. [The Erotic Sentiment] in separation should be represented on the stage by Consequents such as indifference, langour, feais jealousy, fatigue, anxiety, yearning, drowsiness, sleep, dreaming awakening, illness, insanity, epilepsy, inactivity,
[fainting], death and other conditions.

Now it has beeen asked, "If the Erotic Sentiment has its origin in love, why does it [sometimes] manifest itself through pathetic conditions ?" [In reply to this] it is said, "It has been mentioned before that the Erotic Sentiment has its basis in union as well as in separation. Authorities on ars amatoria {vaiiika- saslra) have mentioned ten conditions [of the persons separated from their beloved ones, which are pathetic], We shall discuss them in the chapter on the Common Histrionic Representation. 2
The Pathetic Sentiment relates to a condition of despair owing to the affliction under a curse, separation from dear ones, loss of wealth, death or captivity, while the Erotic Sentiment based on separation relates to a condition of retaining optimism arising out of yearning and anxiety. Hence the Pathetic Sentiment, and the Erotic Sentiment in separation differ from each other.
And this is the reason why the Erotic Sentiment includes conditions available in all other Sentiments.

46. And the Sentiment called Erotic is rich in pleasure, connected with desired objects, enjoyment of seasons, garlands and similar other things, and it relates to [the union of] man and woman. .

There are besides two ArySs related to the preceding Sutra :
47-48. The Erotic Sentiment arises in connexion with


46(B.52,G.46). " 47-48 (B.54-55, G.47-48).

110 THE NATY ASA8TEA t VI. 49-

favourable seasons, garlands, ornaments, enjoyment of the company of beloved ones, music and poetry, and going to the garden and roaming there. It should be represented on the stage by means of serenity of the eyes and the face, sweet and smiling words, satisfac- tion and delight, and graceful movements of the limbs.

The Comic Sentiment
*Now the Comic (h&sya) Sentiment has as its basis the
Dominant emotion of laughter. This is created by Determinants such as showing unseemly dress or ornament, impudence, greediness, quarrel, defective limb, use of irrelevant words, mentioning of diff- erent faults, and similar other things. This (the Comic Sentiment) is to be represented on the stage by Consequents like the throbbing of the lips, the nose and the cheek, opening the eyes wide or con- tracting them, perspiration, colour of the face, and taking hold of the sides. Transitory States in it are indolence, dissimulation, drowsiness, sleep, dreaming, insomnia, envy and the like. This
(Sentiment), is of two kinds : self-centered and centered in others.
When a person himself laughs it relates to the self-centred (Comic
Sentiment), but when he makes others laugh it (the Comic Senti- ment therein) is centred in others.

There are two traditional Aiyas here :

•±9. As this makes one laugh by an exhibition of oddly placed ornaments, uncouth behaviour, words and dress and strange movement of limbs, it is called the Comic Sentiment.

50. As this makes persons laugh by means of uncouth behaviour, words, movement of the limbs and strange dress, it is known as the Comic Sentiment.

51. This Sentiment is mostly to be seen in women and persons of the inferior type, and it has six varieties of which I shall speak presently.

5,2. They are: Slight Smile (mita), Smile (hadta), Gentle
Laughter (oihadta), Laughter of Redicule (itpahasita), Vulgar

1 The original of thts passage till the beginning of 49 is in prose.
49{B.58,G.49). 50 (B.59, G.50).

61 (B.60, G.51). 52(B.61,G.62).


Laughter (apahanifa) and Excessive Laughter (atihasiia,). Two by two they belong respectively to the superior, the middling and the inferior types [of persons].

53. To persons of the superior type belong the Slight Smile
(smita) and the Smile {lianita), to those of the middling type the
Gentle Laughter (vihasita) and the Laughter of Ridicule (npahasita) to those of the inferior type the Vulgar Laughter (aijahasita) and the' Violent Laughter (atihasita).

There are Slokas on this subjects :

5 k The Slight Smile (smita) of the people of the superior type should be'characterised by slightly blown cheeks unci elegent glances, and in it the teeth should not bo visible.

55. Their Smile (ha«ita) should be distinguished by bloom- ing eyes, face and cheeks, and in it the teeth should be slightly visible. Of persons of the middle type

56. The Gentle Laughter {vihasita) should have slight sound, and sweetness, and should be suitable to the occasion and in it the eyes and the cheeks should be contracted and the face joyful.

57. During the Laughter of Ridicule (npahasita) the nose should be expanded, the eyes should be squinting, and the shoulder and the head should be bent.

Of persons of the inferior type

58. The laughter on occasions not suitable to it, the laugh- ter with tears in one's eyes, or with the shoulder and the head violently shaking, is called the Vulgar Laughter (apahasita).

59. The Excessive Laughter (atihaxita) is that in which the eyes are expanded and tearful sound is loud and excessive, and the sides are covered by hands.

00. Comic situations which may arise in the course of a

53 (B.62, G53). 54 (B.65, G54). 55 (B 66, G-55).

56 (B.68, G.56). 57(B.69,G.57). 58 (B.71, G.58J,

59 (B.72, G.59), 60 (B.73,G.60).


play, for persons of the superior, middling or inferior type are thus to be given expression to.

61. This Comic Sentiment is of two kinds : self-centred and centred in others; and it relates to the three types of persons : supe- rior, middling and inferior, and has thus [on the whole] six varieties.

The Pathetic Sentiment

x Now the Pathetic (kamm) Sentiment arises from the Doriii- nant State of sorrow. It grows from Determinants such as afflic- tion under a curse, separation from dear ones, loss of wealth, death, captivity, flight [from one's own place], [dangerous] accidents or any other misfortune. This is to be represented on the stage by means of Consequents such as, shedding tears, lamentation, dryness of the mouth, change of colour, drooping limbs, being out of breath, loss of memory and the like. Transitory States connected with it are indifference, langour, anxiety, yearning, excitement, delusion, faintiug, sadness, dejection, illness, inactivity, insanity, epilepsy, fear, indolence, death, paralysis, tremor, change of colour, weeping, loss of voice and the like-
On this point there are two Aryas :

62. The Pathetic Sentiment arises from seeing the death of a beloved person, or from hearing something very unpleasant and these are its Determinants.

63. This is to be represented on the stage by Consequents like weeping loudly, fainting, lamenting and bewailing, exerting the body or striking it.

The Furious Sentiment

*Now the Furious {rawlra) Sentiment has as its basis the
Dominant State of anger. It owes its origin to Raksasas, Danavas and haughty men, and is caused by fights. This is created by

61 (B.74, G.61). » The original of this passage till the beginning of

62 is in pros •. 62 (B.76, G,62).

63"(B.77, 0.63). ' The original of this passage till the beginning of
64 is in prose.


Determinants such as anger, rape, abuse, insult, untrue allegation, exorcizing, threatening, revengefulness, jealousy and the like. Its actions are beating, breaking, crushing, cutting, piercing, taking up arms, hurling of missiles, fighting, drawing of blood, and similar other deeds. This is to be represented on the stage by means of Consequents such as red eyes, knitting of eyebrows, defiance, biting of the lips, movement of the cheeks, pressing one hand with, the other, and the like. Transitory States in it are presence of mind, determination, energy, indignation, restlessness, fuiy, perspiration, trembling, horripilation, choking voice and the like.

Now one enquires, "Is it to be assumed from the [above] statement about Kaksasas that they only give rise to the Furious
Sentiment, and that this Sentiment does not relate to others ?"
[Reply]. "No, in case of others too this Sentiment may arise. [But in case of Riiksasas] it is to be understood as their special function.
They are naturally furious, 2 for theyhave many arms, many mouths, standing and unkempt hairs of brown colour, and prodigious physical frame of black complexion. Whatever they attempt, be it their speech, movement of limbs or any other effort, is by nature furious. Even in their love-making they are violent*. It is to be easily inferred that persons who imitate them give rise to the
Furious Sentiment from their fights and battles.

On these points there are two Aryas :

64. The Furious Sentiment is created by striking, cutting, mutilation and piercing in lights, and tumult of the battle and the like.

65. It should be represented on the stnge by special acts such as the release of many missiles, cutting off the head, the trunk and the arms.

66. Such is the Furious Sentiment viewed [by experts] ; it is full of conflict of arms, and in it words, movements and deeds are terrible and fearful.

' G. considers this passage till the. end of this sentence as an atya
(0.64). » Cf. Bhattikavya, VIII. 98.

64 (B.79, G.65). 65 (B.80, 0.66). 66 (B.81, G.67).



The Heroic Sentiment

*Now the Heroic (vlra) Sentiment, relates to the superior type of persons and has energy as its basis. This is created by
Determinants such as presence of mind, perseverance, diplomacy, discipline, military strength, agressiveness, reputation of might, influence and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by
Consequents such as firmness, patience, heroism, charity, diplomacy and the like. Transitory States in it are contentment, judgement, pride, agitation, energy (vega), ferocity, indignation, remembrance, horripilation and the like.

There are two Aryas [on these points] :

67. The Heroic Sentiment arises from energy, persever- ance, optimism, absence of surprise, and presence of mind and
[such other] special conditions [of the spirit].

08. This Heroic Sentiment is to be properly represented on the stage by firmness, patience, heroism, pride, energy, agressive- ness, influence and censuring words.

The Terrible Sentiment

J Now the Terrible (bhayamka) Sentiment has as its basis the Dominant State of fear. This is created by Determinants like hideous noise, sight of ghosts, panic and anxiety due to [untimely cry of] jackals and owls, staying in an empty house or forest, sight of death or capitivity of dear ones, or news of it, or discussion about it. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as trembling of the hands and the feet, horripilation, change of colour and loss of voice. Its Transitory States are paralysis, per- spiration, choking voice, horripilation, trembling, loss of voice, change of colour, fear, stupefaction, dejection, agitation, restlessness, inactivity, fear, epilepsy and death and the like.

On these points there are two traditional ArySs :

69. The Terrible Sentiment is created by hideous noise,

1 The original of this passage till tho beginning of 67 is in prose.
67 (B.83, G.68).

•68(B.84,G.69). ' The original of this passage till the beginning of 69 is in prose, 69 (R.86, G.70).


sight of ghosts, battle, entering an empty house or forest, offending one's superiors or the king.

70. Terror is characterised by looseness of the limbs, the mouth and the eyes, paralysis of the thighs, looking around with uneasiness, dryness of tha drooping mouth, palpitation of the heart and horripilation.

71. This is [the character of] natural fear; the artificially shown fear also should be represented by these conditions. But in case of the feigned fear all efforts for its representation should be milder. 72. This'Terrible Sentiment should be always represented by tremor of the hands and the feet, paralysis, shaking of the body, palpitation of the heart, dryness of the lips, the mouth, the palate and the throat.

The Odious Sentiment

1 Now the Odious (b ibhatsa) Sentiment has as its basis the
Dominant State of disgust. It is created by Determinants like hearing of unpleasant, offensive, impure and harmful things or seeing them or discussing them. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as stopping the movement of all the limbs, narrowing down of the mouth, vomitting, spitting, shaking the limbs [in disgust] and the like. Transitory States in it are epilepsy, delusion, agitation, fainting, sickness, death and the like.

On these points there are two traditional Aryas :

73. The Odious Sentiment arises in many ways from disgusting sight, tastes, smell, touch and sound which cause uneasiness. 74. This is to be represented on the stage by narrowing down the mouth and the eyes, covering the nose, bending down the head and walking imperceptibly.

70 (B.87, G.71). 71 (B.88, 0.72).

72 (B.89, Q-.78). ' The original of this passage till the boginning
°f 73, is in prose.

78 6.92, G.74). 74 (B.93,'G.75).


TAo Marreffom /Sbat/meat

'The Mavvellous (miiAtt&i) Sentiment has as its basis the
Dominant State of astonishment. It is created by Determinants such as sight of heavenly beings or events, attainment of desired objects, entrance into a superior mansion, temple, audience hall
(sabha), a seven-storied palace and [seeing] illusory and magical acts. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as wide opening of eyes, looking with fixed gaze, horripilation, tears
[of joy] perspiration, joy, uttering words of approbation, making gifts, crying incessantly ha, ha, hii, waving the end of dhoti or
«3ri, and movement of fingers and the like Transitory States in it are weeping, paralysis, perspiration, choking voice, horripilation, agitation, hurry, inactivity, death and the like.

On this point there are two traditional Aryas ;

75. The Marvellous Sentiment is that which arises form words, character, deed and personal beauty.

76. This is to be represented on the stage by a gesture of feeling [sweet] smell, joyful shaking of limbs, and uttering of ha, ha, ha, sounds, speaking words of approbation, tremor, choking voice, perspiration and the like.

The three kinds of the Erotic, the Comic and the Terrible Sentiments

77. The Erotic Sentiment is of three kinds, viz, of words, dress, and action. And the Comic and the Terrible Sentiments are likewise of three kinds, viz, of limbs, dress and words.

The three kinds of tbo Pathetic Sentiment

78. The Pathetic Sentiment is of three kinds, viz that nsmg from obstruction to lawful deeds, from loss of wealth and from bereavement.

The three kinds of the Heroic Sentiment

79. The Heroic Sentiment is likewise of three kinds, viz.

'The original f this passage till the bovine of 78, is in prm
'75(B.95,G.76). 76 (B.96, G.77). 77 (B 97 G 781

78(B.98,G.79). 79(B.99,G.80). ''


that arising from making gifts, from doing one's duty (d/tarma) and from fighting [one's enemy)

The three kinds of the Terrible Sentiment

80. The Terrible Sentiment is also of three kinds, viz, feigned fear, fear from a wrong action, and fear from an apprehen- sion of danger.

The three kinds of the Odious Sentiment

81. The Odious Sentiment is of three kinds, viz. nauseating, simple, and exciting. Of these the Sentiment from a sight of stool and worms is nauseating, and the sight of blood and similar objects is exciting.

•The three kinds of the Marvellous Sentiment

82. The Marvellous Sentiment is of two kinds, viz. celestial and joyous. Or these the celestial is due to seeing heavenly sights, and the joyous due to joyful happenings 1 .

83. These are the eight Sentiments and their definitions,
I shall hereafter speak of the characteristics of the States.

Here ends Chapter VI of Bharata's Natya&stra which treats of the Sentiments.

80 (BJOO, G.81). 81 (B.101, G.82).

82 (B.102, Q.83). ' B. adds here a spurious passage on ianta rasa.


Bhwvas (States) explained

0. Now I shall;spoak of the bhamn (States). An enquiry in this connexion is, "Why are the bhava* (States) so called ? Is it because they bhavayanti (pervade) and are hence called bliavas
(States)?" It is said in reply that bhavas (States) are so called because through Words, Gestures and the Representation of the
Temperament, they bhavayanti (infuse) the meaning of the play
[into the spectators]. l Uhava is 'cause' or 'instrument', for words such as, bbdcita, oasita and hta are synonymous. An expression like, '0, all these things are bh'dvHa (pervaded) by one another's smell or moistened by one another's juice,' is established even amongst the common people. Hence the root bhamya means
'to pervade'. Ont his point there are the following Slokas :

1. When the meanings presented by Determinants and
Consequents are made to pervade (yamaytc) [the heart of the spectators] they are called bhavas (States).

2. As in these the inner idea of the playwright (kavi) is made to pervade [the mind of the spectators] by means of
Words, Gestures, colour of the face and the Representation of the Temperament they are called bhavas (States).

3. As they cause the Sentiments relating to various kinds of Histrionic Representation to pervade [the mind of the spectators], they are called bliavas (States) by those who produce a drama.

Vibkatoas (Determinants) explained

"Now, why is the word vibhava used ?" [Answer] : "The word vibham is used for the sake of clear knowledge. It is

(B.O. same).

1 .(B.l-2, G.1). ' Wo read bhava itikarana(m) sadhanam yatha etc.
2(B.8,G.2). 3(B.4-5;g.8).


synonymous with k&rana, nimitta and hetn. As Words, Gestures and the Representation of the Temperament are vibhaoayte (deter- mined) by this, it is called ribhava (Determinant). Vibhavita
(also) means the same thing as vijhata (clearly known).

On this point there is a Sloka :

4. As many things are vibhavynin (determined) by this through Words, Gestures and the Representation of the
Temperament it is named vibhava (Diterminant).

Anubhavas (Consequents) explained

"Now, why is the word nnubhava used ?" (Answer) "Because the Histrionic Representation by means of Words, Gestures and the
Temperament are mmbharyntfi (made to be felt) by this, it is called awibhavit (Consequent).

On this point there is a Sloka :

5. As in it the spectators are anubhavyate [made to feel] things by means of Words and Gestures it is called anubhara and it relates to words as well as to [gestures and movements of] major and minor limbs.

Now we have explained that the States (bhava) are related to
Determinants (vibhava) and Consequents (nnubhava). Thus are the
States (bhai:a) created. Hence we shall discuss the definitions and examples of the States together with their Determinants and Conse- quents. Of these, the Determinants and the Consequents are well- known among people. They being connected with the human nature, their definitions are not discussed. This is for avoiding prolixity.

On this point there is the Sloka :

6. Determinants and Consequents are known by the wise to
1)0 things which are created by human nature and are in accordance with the ways of the world.

The tliree kinds of States : Dominant, Transitory and Temperamental

Now the Dominant States (dhayi-bhava) are eight in num- ber. The Transitory States (ryabhii'arinah) are thirtythree and

4 (B.6, G.4). 6 (B.7-8, G.5). ' We read with B.

6 (B.9, 0.6).


the Temperamental States are eight in number. These are the' three varieties of the States. Hence we are to understand that there are fortynino States capable of drawing out the Sentiment from the play. The Sentiments arise from them when they are imbued with the quality of universality (mmamja, lit. commonness).

On this point there is a Sloka :

7. The State proceeding from the thing which is congenial to the heart is the source of the Sentiment and it pervades the body just as fire spreads over the dry wood.

Difference between the Dominant and the other States

It is said in this connexion : "If the fortynine States being represented by Determinants (vibhavn) and Consequents (anubhava) coming into contact with one another become Sentiments when they are imbued with the quality of universality, how is it that
Dominant States only are changed into Sentiments (and not Deter- minants and Consequents) ?" [In reply to this] it is said :
"Just as among persons having same characteristics and similar hands, feet and belly, some, due to their birth, [superior] manners, learning and skill in arts and crafts, attain kingship, while others endowed with an inferior intellect become their attendants, in an identical manner, the * Dominant States become masters because on them Determinants (vibhava), and Consequents (anubhava) and
Transitory States (tyabhicariv) depend. Similarly some of the other States (e.g. Determinants and Consequents) have the quali- ties of [king's] local officers, and [hence] Transitory States
(vyabhkarin) become attendants to these (Determinants and
Cons equents) because of their [superior] quality. Now it may be asked, "Is there any parallel instance ?" [Answer.] "Just as only a king surrounded by numerous attendants receives this epithet [of king] and not any other man, be he ever so great, so the Dominant
States (dhmji-bhava) only followed by Determinants, Consequents and Transitory States receive the name of Sentiment. [On this point] there is a traditional &loka :

7(B.10-11,G.7). » fwn^HM-aifWhi: wifilHWfllfair wwuraaui

srfSwiM hhi;.


8. Just as a king is superior to other men, and the preceptor (guru) is superior to his disciples, so the Dominant
States (sthayi-bhava) are superior to the other States (Determi- nants, Consequents and Transitory States).

The Dominant States

Characteristics of these which are known as the Sentiments have been mentioned before. Now we shall discuss the marks of the States common to them. First of all we shall take up [the case of] the Dominant States (sthayi-bhava).


Love (rati) which has pleasure as its basis is caused by
Determinants like seasons, garlands, unguent, ornaments, dear ones, enjoyment of a superior residential house and absence of opposition [from any one]. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as a snirling face, sweet words, motion of eyebrows, and glances and the like.

There is a Sloka [on this point]

9. Love arises from the attainment of desired objects, because of its agreeableness. It is to be represented on the stage by sweet words accompanied by [suitable] gestures and movements of limbs.


Now Laughter (ha*ya) is caused by Determinants such as. mimicry of others' actions 1 , incoherent talk, obtrusiveness, foolish- ness and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by means of Smile and the like.

.On this point there is a traditional Hloka :

10. Laughter arises from a mimicry of other people's actions. It is to be represented on the stage by the learned with
Smile, Laughter and Excessive Laughter.

8 (B.l 2-14,0.8).

9 (B.H-15, G.9). ' B. adds ku/iaia after paraceMu.

10 (B.16-17, G.10),



Sorrow (ioka) is caused by Determinants such as death of the beloved one, loss of wealth, experience of sorrow due to any one's murder or captivity, and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as shedding tears, lamentation, bewail- ing, change of colour, loss of voice, looseness of limbs, falling on the ground, crying, deep breathing, paralysis, insanity, death and the like. Weeping in this case is of three kinds : [weeping of joy, [weeping] of affliection and [weepingj due to jealousy. On these points there are traditional Aryas :

11. 1 Weeping in which the checks are blooming in joy, the body is horripilating, there are words 2 of remembrance and tears are not concealed is called weeping of joy.

12. Weeping in which there is a loud sound, copious shedding of tears, uneasiness of the body, want of steady move- ments and efforts, lamentation after falling on the ground and rolling on the earth is called weeping due to affliction.

13. Loud weeping of women in which the lips and the cheeks are throbbing and the head is shaking, the eyebrows and the glances are moving in anger, is called weeping due to jealousy.

14. Sorrow relates to women, persons of the inferior type, and it has its origin in affliction [of any kind]. With relation to it, persons of the superior and the middling types are distinguished by their patience and those of the inferior type by their weeping.


Anger (fowllm) is caused by Determinants such as insolence, abusive language, quarrel, altercation, opposing [persons or objects] and the like. Tt is to be represented on the stage by
Consequents such as swollen nose, upturned eyes, bitten lips, throbbing checks and the like.

11 (B.l n, G.ll). ■ B. reads one additional couplet (B.18, before tliis,

. Read sanusmararjam vaganibkrthsram.

W(R20,Gkl2). 13(B.21,G.13). 14 (B.88-23, 0.14).


15. Anger is of five kinds, viz., anger caused by enemies, superior persons, lovers, servants, and feigned anjjer.

On this point there are traditional Aryas :

16. One should show anger against resistance by the enemy with knitting of eyebrows, fierce look, bitten lips, hands clasping each other, and touching one's own head and breast.

17. One should show anger against control by superiors with slightly downcast eyes, wiping off slight perspiration and not expressing* any violent movement.

18. One, should show one's anger to the beloved woman by a very slight movement [of the body], by shedding tears, and knitting eyebrows and with sidelong glances, and throbbing lips. 19. Anger to one's servants should be represented on the stage by means of threat, rebuke, dilating the eyes and casting contemptuous looks of various kinds.

20- Anger which is artificially shown with a view to the realisation of an ulterior motive and which mostly betrays marks of effort is called feigned anger, and it relates to two 1


Energy (utsaha) relates to persons of the superior type. It is caused by Determinants such as absence of sadness, power, patience, heroism and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as steadiness 2 , munificence, boldness of an undertaking, and the like.

On this point there is a Sloka :

15 (B.24, G.omits). 1 6 (B.26, G.15). 17 (B.27, G.16>.

18 (B.28, G.17). 19 (B29, G.18).

20 (B.30-31, G-19). ' ubhayarasa (dvirasa, G.).
8 Omit dhairya after slhairya.

21 (B.82-33, G 20). * Omit smPada before siittya.
3 Omit kantara before durdina.


21. Energy which has effort as its basis and which grows out o{ alertness and such other qualities, should be represented on the stage by acts of vigilance and the like


Fear {bhmjo) relates to women and persons of the inferior type, ft is caused by Determinants such as acts offending one's superiors and the king 1 , roaming in a forest, seeing an elephant and a snake, staying it. an empty house, rebuke [from one's superiors], 2 a dark rainy night, hearii.g the hooting of owls and the cry of animals that go out at night, and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as, trembling hands and feet, palpitation of the heart, paralysis, dryness of the mouth, licking thelips, perspi- ration, tremor, apprehension [of danger], seeking for safety, run- ning away, loud crying and the like.
On this point there are Slokas :

22. Fear arises from an embarassment due to offending one's superiors and the king, seeing terrible objects and hearing awful things. 23. This is to be represented with tremor of the limbs, panic, drying up of the mouth, hurried movement, widely opened eyes and such other gestures and actions.

24. Fear in men arising from terrifying objects should be represented on the stage by actors (lit. dancers) with slackened limbs and suspended movement of the eyes.

Thde is also an Arya on this point :

25. This (fear) should be represented on the stage with

tremor of hands and feel, and palpitation of the heart, paralysis,

.dung the lips, drying up of the mouth, loosened limbs and sinking
{msanna) body. b •

22(B.34,G.21). 23(B.35,G.22),

24 (B.36, G.23).




Disgust {jwgupm) relates to women and persons of the interior type. It is caused by Determinants such as hearing and seeing 1 unpleasant things, and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents sucli as, contracting all the limbs, spitting, narrowing down of the mouth, heartache and the like.
On this point there is a -Sloka.

26. Disgust is to be represented on the stage by covering the nose, contracting all the limbs, [general] uneasiness and heartache. Astonishment
_ Astonishment (n,«ayy.) is created by Determinants such as illusion, inagtc, extraordinary feats of men, great excellence in painting, art- works in parchment 1 and the like. It is to be presented on the stage by Consequents such as wide opening Z'l the eyes, looking without winking of the eyes, [much] movement of the eyebrows, horripilation, moving the head to and fro the <** of "well, done," "well done," and the like. ^

On this point there is a Sloka ;

27 Astonishment arising from joy due to extraordinary acts should be represented by means such as joy tears, fainting and the like. °

The Transitory States

The Dominant Slates 1 are to be known as described here-

We shall now explain the Transitory States (v^bhicari-bhava)

It is questioned, "Why are these called vyabkkanmhr [In answer]

it is said that t>t and of, hi are prefixes, and the root is cara meaning

to go', 'to move». Hence the word vyabhicarinah means 'those that

move in relation to the Sentiments towards different kinds of objects

that is, they carry the Sentiments which are connected withWords

Gestures and the Temperament. It is questioned, "How do they

cany [the Sentiments] ?" In answer it is said, "It is a popular

1 Omit fiarikirtana after iravana.

a? fn 40 " 41 ' G,a8)k ' 0mit "4* afto «**•

(B.42-43, Ga6 )- l Omit rasasamj?,a/ f (B) after sthbyino bhavah.

126 *HB NAtftfASASTBA [ Vtl. 28-

convention to say like this, just as people say, The sun carries this iiahaira (star) or that day. It does not however mean that these arc carried on arms or shoulders. The Transitory States should be considered like this. These Transitory States (vyahhi- caribham) as mentioned in the Digest [samgruha) are thirlythree in number. We shall describe them now.


Discouragement (irira>th) is caused by Determinants such as, being reduced to poverty 2 , getting insulted, abusive lan- guage, wrathful beating, loss of beloved persons and the knowledge of the ultimate (lit. essential) truth and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Determinants such as weeping, sighing, deep breathing, deliberation and the like, on the part of women and persons of the inferior type.

On this point there is a Sloka:

28. Discouragement grows out of being reduced to poverty, and loss of dear ones, and it is to be represented on the stage by deliberation and deep breathing.

On this point there two traditional Aryas :

29. Discouragement arises from loss of dear ones, poverty, disease, envy from seeing the prosperity of others.

30. A discouraged man has the eyes . bathed in tears, face and eyes miserable due to heavy breathing and he is like a yogi absorbed in meditation.


Weakness (ylani) proceeds from Determinants such as vomit- ting, purgation, sickness, penance, austerities, fasting, mental worry, too much drinking, sexual indulgence, too much exercise, travelling a long way, hunger, thirst, sleeplessness and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as weak voice, lustreless eyes, pale face, slow gait, want of energy, thinness of the body, change of colour and the like.

2 Omit vyadhyavatmna after dhtidra.

28(B.44,G.27). 29(B.45, Q.28). 80 (B.47-48, G.29).


On this point there are two Aryas :

31. Weakness grows out of voinitting, purgation and sick- ness, penance, and old age. It is to be represented on the stage by thinness of the body, slow gait and tremor [of the limbs].

32. Weakness is to be represented on the stage by a very weak voice, weakness of the eyesight, poor gait, constant slackness of the limbs.


Apprehension (ianka) has doubt as its basis and it relates to to women and persons of the inferior type. It is caused by Deter- minants such a» theft, giving offence to the king and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as constantly looking on, hesitating movement (" r<il,-ii)rfhati<t) t dryness of the mouto, licking the lips, change of facial colour, tremor, dry lips, loss of voice and the like.

There is a Sloka on these points :

33. Apprehension in the Terrible Sentiment is due to

robbery, and the like, and in case of the Erotic Sentiment it is due to [a possible] deception on the part of the lover.

Some authorities prescribe (lit. desire) in this case a conceal- ment of appearence which is to be characterised by [adoption of] clever tricks and gestures.

There are two Aryas in this connexion :

3 k Apprehension is of two kinds : viz. that arising from one's ownself and that arising from another person. That arising from^qne's own self is to be known from one's eyes and efforts.

35. A man with l Apprehension has n dark face, a thick and protruding tongue, slightly trembling limbs, and he constantly looks sideways.


Envy (aaUjia) is caused by Determinants such as various offences, hatred, other people's ' wealth , good luck, intelligence,

31 (B.49, G.30). 82 (B.50,51, G.31). 33 (B.52-53, G 32).

34 (B.54, G,33). 35 (B.55-56, G.34).


sports, learning and the like. It is to be: represented on the stage by Consequents such as finding fault with others, decrying their virtues, not paying any heed to these, remaining with downcast face, knitting eyebrows in disparagement and abusing others in the assembly [of men].

On these points there are two Aryas :

36. Envy arises in a person who is displeased to see other people's good fortune, wealth, intelligence, and exuberence of sportiveness. 37. It is to be represented by a distorted face, knitting eye- brows, face turned away in jealous anger, decrying other people's virtues and showing hatred towards them. >


Intoxication (mtidn) is caused by drinking of liquor and
Similar other things. It is of three kinds and has five Determinants.
There are the following Aryas on this point :

38. Iotoxication is of three kinds, viz. light, medium and excessive. It has five causes which should bo represented on the stage. 39. While intoxicated some sing, some laugh and some use hot words while other sh>ep.

40. Among these, persons of the superior type sleep, those of the middling type laugh and sing, and (hose of the inferior type cry or use hot words.

41. Light intoxication is characterised by smiling face, pleasant feeling, joyful body, slightly faltering words, delicately unsteady gait and relates to persons of the miperioV type.

42 Medium intoxication is characterised by drunken and rolling eyes, drooping arms or arms restlessly thrown about and irregularly unsteady gait, and relates to persons of the middling type. 36 (B.57, Q.35\ 37 (B.58-59, G.86). 38 (B.60, G.37),

.39 (B.61, G.38-. 40 (B.62, G.39). 41 (B.63, G.40).

42(B.64, G.41).


43. Excessive intoxication is characterised by loss of memory, and incapacity to walk due to vomitting, hiccough and cough, and a thick protruding tongue and spitting, and relates to persons of the inferior type.

44. A character who [acts] drinking on entering the stage is to show that his intoxication is increasing, but the character who enters the stage as drank should show that his intoxication is decreasing.

45. But the intoxication should be stopped by effort when there is panic, grief and increase of terror due to some cause.

40. On 'account of these special conditions, intoxication disappears quickly just as grief passes away on hearing the happy news of [sudden] prosperity.


Weariness (srama) is caused by Determinants such as travelling a long way, exercising of the limbs and the like. l It is to be represented on the stage by ^Consequents such as gentle rubbing of the body, [deep] breathing, contraction of the mouth, belching, massaging of the limbs, very slow gait, contraction of the eyes, making Sitkara and the like.

There is an 5rya on this point :

47. Weariness in man is caused by travelling [a long way] and exercising [the limbs], and it is to be represented on the stage by [deep] breathing, tired gait and the like.


Indolence (alasija) is k caused by Determinants such as nature, lassitude, sickness satiety, pregnancy and the like. And it relates to women, and men of the inferior type. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as aversion to any kind of work, lying down, sitting, drowsiness, sleep and the like. On this point there is an Arya :

43 (B.65, G.42). * 44 (B.66, G.43). 45 (B.61, G.44). .

46 (B.68-69, G.46). » We follow the reading of the ms <fa in B.

47 (B.70-71, G.46). » adhvagali for nrtt wfew'lB).


48. Indolence arising from lassitude as well as nature should be represented on the stage by discontinuance of all activity except taking food.


Dipression (dainya) is caused by Determinants such as poverty, mental agony and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as want of self-command, dullness of'the body, absent-mindedness, giving up of cleansing [the body] and the like.

There is an Arya on this point :


49. Dipression of men proceeds from anxiety, eager expec- tation and misery. Different modes of representing it on the stage includes giving up of cleansing [the body] in any way.


Anxiety (cinta) is caused by Determinants such as loss of wealth, theft of a favourite object, poverty and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by [deep] breathing, sighing, agony, meditation, thinking with a downcast face, thinness of the body and the like.

There are two AYyas on this point :

50. Anxiety of men arises in various ways : from the loss of wealth, theft of a favourite object, and a heart full of expectation.

51. It is to be represented on the stage by sighing, deep breathing, agony, and absent-mindedness, giving up of cleansing
[the body] and want of self-command.


Distraction (tnnha) is caused by Determinants such as accidental injury, adversity, sickness, fear, agitation, remem- bering past enemity and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as want of movement, [excessive]

48 (B.92-73, G.47). 49 (B.74-75, G.48).

60 (B.76, G.42). 51 (B.77-78, G.50),


movement of [a particular] limb, falling down, reeling, not seeing properly and the like.

There is a Sloka on this point :

52. Due to seeing a robber in an unexpected place or from panic of different kinds distraction occurs to a man when he finds no help [near by].

There is also an Arya on this point :

53. Distraction occurs due to adversity, accidental injury, memory of past enemity. It is to be represented on the stage by suspension of the activity of all senses.


Recollection (smrti) is remembering every condition of happiness and misety. It is caused by Determinants such as impairment of health, disturbed nightly sleep, seeing and speaking with a level head, thinking, constant practice and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as notkling of the head, looking down, raising up the eyebrows and the like.
On this point there is a Sloka and an Arya •'
64. One is said to be recollecting something when one remembers past happiness and misery' which were either conceived in mind or did actually occur and was forgotten.

55. Recollection arising from impaired health, or relating to the Vedas and Darsanas is to be represented on the stage by raising or nodding of the head and raising the eyebrows.


Contentment (dhfti) is caused by [Determinants such as] heroism, spiritual knowledge, learning, wealth, purity, good conduct, devotion to one's superiors, 'getting excessive amount of money, enjoying sports, and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as enjoyment of objects gained, and not

6» (B.78^.61). 53 (B.80-81, G.52).

54 (B.82, G.53).

65 (B.83-84, G.54). ' Omit mamratha (B.G.) after adhika,


grumbling over objects unattained, past, partially enjoyed, lost and the like.

On this point there are two Aryas :

56. Contentment arising from spiritual knowledge, purity, wealth and power, is always to be represented on the stage by an absence of fear, sorrow and sadness.

67. When one enjoys attained objects such as [sweet] sound, touch, taste, form and smell, and is not sorry over their non-attainment one is said to have Contentment.


Shame (vrtfa) has improper action as its basis. It is caused by Determinants such as humiliation and repentance on account of transgressing words of superiors or disregarding them, nonfulfilment of vows and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as covered face, thinking with downcast face, drawing lines on the ground, touching clothes and rings, and biting, the nails, and the like.

There are two Aryas on this point :

58. When a man, after he has done anything improper, is seen by those who are pure, he becomes repentant and is

59. The ashamed man will cover his face, draw lines on die ground, bite the nails and touch clothes and rings.


Inconstancy (capalata) is caused by Determinants such as love, hatred, malice, impatience, jealousy, opposition and the like.
It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as harsh words, rebuke, beating, killing, taking prisoner, goading and the like. There are two Xryas on this point

■ ' ■' ■ " ■ ■ ' ■ " i ' n i h i ...I.. i n i || h ^^at— — aw— 1

56 (B.85, G.5S). 57 (S.86-87, 0,58).

58 CB.88, 0.57). 59 (B 89-90, CK58).


00. When a man does anything like killing or imprisoning any one without any forethought he is said to be inconstant be- cause of his not being definite in his action.


Joy (harm) is caused by Determinants such as attainment of the desired object, union with a desired, trusted and beloved person, mental satisfaction, favour of gods, preceptor, king, and husband (or master), receiving [good] food, clothing and money and enjoying them, and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by means of Consequents such as brightness of the face and the eyes, using sweet words, embracing, l horripilation, tears, perspiration and the like.

There are two Aryas on this point :

61. Joy is caused to a man when he has attained any object or obtained anything which was unobtainable or has met his beloved one or has his heart's desire fulfilled.

62. It is to be represented on the stage by brightness of the eyes and the face, loving words, embrace, delicate movement of the limbs, and perspiration and the like.


Agitation (avega) is caused by Determinants such as por- tents, wind or rains, [outbreak] of fire, running about of elephants, hearing very good or very bad news, stroke of adversity and the like. In this connexion portents include [a stroke of] lightning and ,
[falling] of meteors or shooting stars, eclipse of the sun and the moon, and appearance of comets. It is to be represented on the stage by looseness of all the limbs, sadness, distraction of the mind, loss of facial colour, surprise and the like. [Agitation] due to violent winds is to be represented by veiling [the face], rubbing the eyes, collecting [the ends] of clothes [worn], hurried going and the like.
[Agitation] due to [heavy] rains is to be represented by lumping

60 (B. 91-92, 0.59). ' Omit pulakila after kan\akita (B.O).


82 (B.94-94, 0.61).

lti fHB NATYASASfPRA [Vll.136

together of all the limbs, running, looking for some covered shelter, and the like. [That] due to [an outbreak of] fire is to be represented by eyes troubled with smoke, narrowing down all the limbs, or shaking them, running with wide steps, flight and the like. That due to running about of elephants is to be represented by hurried retreat, unsteady gait, fear, paralysis, tremor, looking back and the like. [That] from hearing something favourable is to be represented by getting up, embracing, giving away clothes and ornaments, weeping, horripilation and the like. That due to hearing anything unpleasant is to be represented by ' falling down on the ground, lamentation, rolling about [even] on a rough surface, running away, bewailing, weeping and the like. And that due to popular rising {prakrti-vgasana) is to be represented by sudden retreat, taking up weapons and armour, mounting elephants and horses and chariots, striking 1 and the like.

63. Agitation of these eight kinds has hurry as its basis,
This is characterised by patience on the part of persons of the superior and the middling types ; but agitation of persons of the inferior type is marked by flight.

On this point there are two ArySs :

64. Agitation occurs over an unpleasant report, disregard of instruction, throwing a missile and panic.

6i>. Agitation due to an unpleasant report has as its Conse- quents assuming a sad look, and that due to a sudden of enemy is to be represented by clash of weapons.


Stupor (ja4ata) is caused by Determinants such as cessation of all activity, hearing of a much desired thing or a [very] harm- ful thing, sickness and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as not uttering any word, speaking indistinctly, remaining absolutely silent, looking with steadfast gaze, dependence on others and the like.

1 tampraharana (pradkarana B. G.J.

63 (B.96, G.62). 64 (B.98, G.63). 65 (B.09-100, 0.64).


There is an A"rya on this point :

60. A man is called stupid when due to senselessness he cannot distinguish between good and bad as well as happiness and misery, and remains silent and dependent on others.


Arrogance (yarva) is caused by Determinants such as king- ship, noble birth, personal beauty, youth, learning, power, attain- ment of wealth and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as contempt 1 [for others], harassing [people], not giving reply [to one's question], not greeting [others], looking to sh ulders, roaming [at large], contemptous laughter, harsh words, transgressing [commands of] the superiors, insulting [others] and the like.

There is an A~rya on this point :

67. Arrogance of persons of the inferior type due to learning, youth, beauty, royalty and attainment of wealth is to be represented by movement of the eyes and the limbs.

' Despair

, . Desoair (rka<1a) is caused by Determinants such as inability to, finish the work undertaken, accidental calamity and the like. It is to be represented on the part of persons of the superior and the middling types by Consequents such as looking for allies, thinking about means, loss of energy, absent-mindedness, deep breathing and the like. And on the part of persons of the inferior type it is to be represented by running away, looking down, drying up of the mouth, licking the corner of the mouth, sleep, deep breathing,, meditation and the like.

There are two Sryas on this point :

08. Despair arises from nonfulfilment the work begun, being taken at the time of committing theft, and giving offence to the king and the like.

66 (B.101-102, G.65). l Omit awya before avajtm.

67 (B.103-104, G.66), «8 (B.105, G.67).

186 THE NATYASASTBA [ Vl'1. 69-

69. In case of persons of the superior and the middling types this is to be represented by thinking about various means, and in case of persons of the inferior type sleep, deep breathing, and meditation are to represent it.


Impatience (nutsuhja) is created by Determinants such as separation from beloved persons, remembering them, sight of a garden and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Con- sequents such as sighs, thinking with downcast face, sleep, drowsi- ness, desire for lying down and the like.

There is an Arya on this point :

70. Impatience arises from the loss of beloved persons or from remembering them. This is to be represented on the stage by thinking, want of sleep, drowsiness, dullness of the body and desire to lie down and the like.


Sleeping (nidi a; is caused by Determinants such as weak- ness, fatigue, intoxication, indolence, [too much] thinking, too much eating, [soporific] nature and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as heaviness of the face, tolling of the body, rolling of the eyes, yawning, massaging of the body, deep breathing, relaxed body, closing the eyes and the like.

There are two Aryas on this point :

71. Sleep comes to a man through weakness, fatigue, exer- tion, [too much] thinking, natural ('tendency [to sleep] and keep- ing awake throughout the night.

72. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as heaviness of the face, closing the eyes, or their rolling, stupor, yawning, massaging of the body and the like.

89 (B.106-107, G.68).

70 (B.108-109. G.69). > hrira-lolana (avalckanaB.),

7J(B.110, G.70).

72 (B.11 1-112,0.71).



Epilepsy (apasmara) is caused by Determinants such as being possessed by a god, a Naga, a Yaksa, a Raksasa, a Pisaca and the like, and a memory of such beings, eating food left after somebody's partaking of it, staying in a deserted house, non- obser- vation of proper time [in taking food, in sleeping etc.], derangement of humours (dhatu) 1 and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as throbbing, trembling, running, falling down, perspiration, foaming in the mouth, hiccough, licking
[the lips] with the tongue, and the like.

On tliis point there are two Aryas :

73. Epilepsy occurs in a person when he is possessed by
Bhutas and Pisacas, when lie remembers these beings, [eats]
Ucchista 1 , stays in a deserted house, disregards for proper time
[for taking food etc.], and is impure [in body].

74. Falling down suddenly on the ground, trembling, foaming in the mouth, and rising up while senseless, are condi- tions during Epilepsy.


Dreaming (siipta) is caused by Determinants such as inter- ruption of sleep, enjoying objects of senses, infatuation [of any kind], spreading the bed on the ground, dragging the bed over the ground and the like. The dreaming which occurs in sleep is to be represented by Consequents such as deep breathing, dullness of the body, closing the eyes, stupefaction of all the senses, dreams and the like.

There are two Aryas on this point :

75. Dreaming occurs due to interruption of sleep, enjoying objects of senses and infatuation [of any kind]. It is to be

1 They are three in number please viz. wind (vayu), bile (pitta) and phlegm (kapha).

73 (B.113, G.72). 1 That which is left over in one's plate after he has finished his meal.

M (B.114-11!?, G.73). . 75.(B.116, O.omit).



ropresented on the stage by closing the eyes, deep breathing, dreaming dreams and talking while asleep.

70. Dreaming is to be represented on the stage by deep breathing, imperfectly closing eyes, stupefaction of all senses and absence of all activity.


Awakening (viboflha) is the break of sleep, and it is caused

- by Determinants such as digestion of food, bad dreams, loud

sound, sensitive touch and the like. It is to be represented on the

stage by Consequents such as yawning, rubbing the eyes leaving,

the bed, and the like.

There is an Arya on this point :

77. Awakening is caused by digestion of food, [loud] sound, [sensesitive] touch and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by yawning, rubbing the face and the eyes, and the like.


Indignation (amavssa) is caused to persons abused or insulted by those having superior learning, wealth or power. It is to bo represented on the stage by Consequents such as shaking the head, perspiration, thinking and reflecting with a downcast face, determi- nation, looking for ways and means and allies, and the like.

There are two Hlokas on this point :

78. Indignation grows in energetic men who have been abused or insulted in an assembly by those having superior learn- ing and wealth.

79. Tt is to be represented on the stage by energy, deter- mination, reflection with a downcast face, shaking the head, pers piration and the like.


Dissimulation^flw/M^/io) is the concealment of appearance.
It is caused by Determinants such as shame, fear, defeat, respect,

76 (B.117-118, G.74). 77 B.119-120, G.75).

VB (B.121, G.76). . 79 (3.122-123, (3.77),


deceit and the like. It is to be represented on the stage bj Con- sequents such as speaking like another person, looking downwards, break in the speech, feigned patience and the like.

There is a Sloka on this point '•

80. Dissimulation is due to boldness, deceit, fear and the like. It is to be represented by carelessness about an action, and not speaking much in reply or in addressing [others].

1 Cruelty

Cruelty (ugmta) is caused by Determinants such as arrest of robbers, offence to kings, offending words and the like. It is to be represented on the st;ige by Consequents like killing, imprisoning, beating, rebuking and the like.

There is an Arya on this point :

81. Cruelty occurs when a robber is arrested or the king is given affence. It is to be represented on the stage by Conse- quents such as killing, imprisoning, beating, rebuking and the like.


Assurance (matt) is caused by Determinants such as thinking- about the meaning of many Sastras and considering the pros and cons of things. It is to be represented on ■ the ■ stage by Consequents such as instructing pupils, ascertainment of [any] meaning, removal of doubt and the like.

There is a Sloka on this point :

82. Assurance comes to men when they arc well-versed in the meaning of many SSstras- It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as instructing pupils and explaining the meaning [of Sastras].


Sickness (rydilhi) owes it origin to [sin attack of three humours such as] wind {rata), biles (/»///<») and phlegm {ka[ilni).

80 (B.124-J.25»G.78). 81 (B.126-I27, 0.78).

82 (B.128-129, G.80).


Fever and similar other illnesses are special varieties of it. Fever is of two kinds, viz. that with a feeling of cold (sita) and that with a feeling of heat {il&ha). Fever with a feeling of cold should be represented by Consequents such as shivering, tremor of the entire body, bending [the bodv], shaking of the jaws, narrowing down the nasal passuge, dryness of the mouth, horripilation, lamentation and the like. And. Jhat . with a feeling of heat, is tp be represented by throwing oat clothes, the hands and the feet, desire [to roll on] the ground, [use of] unguent, desire for coolness, lamentation, crying and the like. The other types of sicknesses are to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as narrowing down the mouth dullness of the body, [deep] breathing, making [peculiar] sounds, crying, tremor and the like.

There is a Bloka on this point :

83. Sickness in general should be represented on the stage by looseness of the limbs, throwing out the limbs and narrowing down the mouth due to illness.


Insanity (uiimadu) is caused by Determinants such as death of beloved persons, loss of wealth, accidental hurt, derange- ment of [the three humours] : wind {i'al(i), biles (i>ilt<t), phelgm
(Uesman), and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by laughing, weeping, crying, . talking, lying down, sitting, running, dancing, singing, and reciting [something] without any reason, smearing [the body] with ashes and dust, taking grass, Nirmalya 1 , soiled cloth, rags, potsherd, earthen tray as decoration [of the body], many other senseless acts, and imitation of others.

There are two Aryas on this point :

84. Insanity occurs owing to death of beloved persons, toss af wealth, accidental hurt, wind (void), biles (pitta}, phlegm
{kaplta) derangement of the inind in various ways.

>■■» 83 (B.130431, G.8I. J Remains of a flower-offering to a deity,
Which- is^upposed to purify a person who takes it with reverence.
84(13.132, G.82).


85. Insanity ie to be represented by laughing, weeping,' sitting, running and crying without any reason and [other] sense- less acts.


Death (inarana) conies through sickness as well as acci- dental injury. Of these two kinds of death, that from ' sickness is caused by Determinants such as a malady of the intestine and the liver, colic pain, disturbance of humours, tumours, boils, fever, cholera, and the like. And that due to accidental injury is caused by weapons, snake-bite, taking poison, [attack ofj fero- cious animals, injury due to falling down from elephant, horse, charriot and other vehicles. I shall now speak of the different methods of their representation on the stage. Death from sickness is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as looseness of the body, niotionlossness of the limbs, closed eyes, hiccough, deep breathing, looking for family members, speaking indistinct words and the like.

There is a Sloka on this point :

80. Death due to sickness is to be represented on the stage by one mark viz. loose body and inactive sense organs.

But death due to accidental injury is to be represented on the stage in different ways : c.<j. [death due to] wound by weapons is to be represented by Consequents such as suddenly falling down on the ground and the like. In case of snake-bite or taking poison [there is gradual] "development of its symptoms which are eight in number, viz. thinness (of the body), tremor, burning sensation, hiccough, foam from the mouth breaking of the neck, paralysis and death.

85 (B.133-134, G.83). l Earlier writers on the Hindu drama
Wrongly believed that NS. excluded wanes of death from the stage. (See
Keith, Skt. Drama, pp. Hi ; also M. Ghosh. "A so-called convention of the Hindu Drama", JLHtJ. ,IX. 1933, pp. 981 ff.). Windish thought that.
Sudraka in his (Act. VUI) violated a rule in showing the murdex of
"asantasena by Sakara (Der griechischo Einfluss in indische Drama.,
Berlin, 1882. p. 43).

86 (B.13W86, G.84).


There are two traditional Slokas on this point :

87-88. The first symptom " of the development [of the effect of poison] is thinness of the body, the second trenior, the third a burning sensation, the fourth hiccough, the fifth foaming in the mouth, the sixth" breaking of the neck, the seyenth paralysis and and the eighth death.

There are besides two XrySls on this point :

89. Death due to [an attack of] ferocious animals, elephant, horse, or falling from chariots and mounts, wound by weapons should be represented by absence of any further movement of the body.

90. Thus death occurs under various conditions. It should be represented by proper words and gestures.


Fright (I raw) is caused by Determinants such as flash of lightning a meteor, thunder, earthquake, clouds, crying or bowling of big animals and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as, shaking of narrow limbs, tremor [of the body], paralysis, horripilation, speaking with a choked voice, talking irrelevantly, and the like.

There is a Sloka on this point :

91. Fright is caused by a very terrible sound and the like.
It should be represented on the stage by looseness of limbs and half-shut eyes.


Deliberation {ritarka) is caused by Determinants such as doubt, cogiation, perplexity and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as various discussions, settling the definition, concealment of the counsel and the like,

There is a Sloka on this point : -

92. Deliberation whieh arises from discussions and which has doubt as its basis is to be represented on the stage by movement of the head, the eyebrows and the eyelashes. '

8»-98 (B.137-138, G.85-86). 89 (B.139, G.87). ' ~~

90 (B.140-141, G.88). 91 (B.142-143, G.89). 92 (B.144-M5, G.90).


These are the thirtythree Transitory States ; they are to be produced in a play by men and women of the superior, middling and the inferior types in conformity with [proper] place, time and occasion. 93. These thirtythree- are known as the Transitory States,
I shall now explain in detail the Temperamental States,

The Temperanfentai States
Now it may be questioned,

"Are these States (bhQva) called Temperamental because other States (Determinants, Consequents and Transitory States) are said to be without the Temperament ?" [In answer] it is said that the Temperament in this connexion is [something] originating in mind. It is caused by the concentrated mind. The - Tempera- ment is accomplished by concentration of the mind. Its nature
[which includes] paralysis, perspiration, horripilation, tears, loss of colour and the like, cannot be mimicked by an absent-minded man. Hence the Temperament is desired in a play for the purpose of imitating human nature. If the question is, 'Is there any reason in support of this view ?' then it may
">e said that in theatrical practice, situations of happiness as well is misery should so purely accord with the Temperament behind
:hem that they may appear to be realistic (i/athwivarujia). How jan sorrow which has weeping as its basis be represented on the stage by any one who is not sorry ? And how can happiness which has joy as its basis be represented on the tage by any one who is not happy ? Hence the Temperament (wit for) being desired (in acting) in connexion with certain States the latter are called Temperamental. The explanation of (he Temperament is this, that tears and horripilation should respectively be shown by persons who are not [actually] sorry or happy.

94. The eight Temperamental States are as follows :
Paralysis, Perspiration, Horripilation, Change of Voice, Trembling,
Change of Cojour, Weeping and Fainting.

93 (B.146-147. G.90).

94 (B.148, G.92), ' above VI 22 note 1 ,


Among these,


95. Perspiration ( svrJa ) occurs as the result of anger, fear, joy, shame, sorrow, toil, sickness,, heat, exercise, fatigue, summer and massage.

Paralysis and Trembling

96. Paralysis ( 4amhl M ) occurs as being due to joy, fear, sickness, surprise, sadness, intoxication and anger, and Trembling
(l:an>iin=:i-q>atlni) duo to cold, fear, joy, anger, touch "[of tho beloved] and old age.


97. Weeping (awi) occurs as being due to joy, indignation, smoke, collyrium, yawning, fear, sorrow, looking with a steadfast gaze, cold and sickness.

Change of Colour and Horripilation

98. Change of Colour (mivaniya) occurs as being due to cold, anger, fear, toil, sickness, fatigue and heat, and Hor- ripilation {nimanr'i) due to touch, fear, cold joy, anger and sickness. Change of Voice and Fainting * '

99. Change of Voice (xwni-s&ht) occurs as being due to fear, joy, anger, fever, sickness and intoxication, and Fainting
(praltt i/h) due to loo much toil, swoon, intoxication, sleep, injury, astonishment and the like.

Representation of the Temperamental States

100. These are to be known by the wise as the eight
Temperamental States, I shall speak afterwards about actions which will represent these States. f

95 (B.149, G.93). 96 (150, G.94).

f! (B.151, B.95). 9 8 (B.152, G.96).

99 CB.153, G.97). 10 o (B.159, G.98)


101. Paralysis should bo represented on the stage by being inactive, motionless, smileless, like an inert object, senseless, and stiff-bodied.

102. Perspiration should be represented on the stage by taking up a fan, wiping off sweat as well as looking for breeze.

103. Horripilation should be represented on the stage by repeated thrills, hairs standing on the end, and touching the body.

104 Change of Voice should be represented by broken and choking voice, and Trembling by quivering, throbbing and shivering. 105. Change of Colour should be represented by alteration of colour of the face by putting pressure on the artery, and this is dependant on the limbs.

106 Weeping should be represented on the stage by rubbing the eyes and shedding tears, and Loss of Consciousness by falling on the ground.

Application of the States to the different Sentiments

107. These are the fortynine States (bhava) of the three kinds mentioned by me. Now you ought to hear of the different
Sentiments to which they are applicable.

' 108. All the (fortynine) States except indolence, cruelty and disgust are applicable to the Erotic Sentiment (lit. raise the Erotic
Sentiment by their own name).

109. Weakness, apprehension, envy, weariness, inconstancy, dreaming, sleeping dissimulation are the States applicable to the
Comic Sentiment.

110. Discouragement,, anxiety, depression, weakness, weep- ing, stupor and death are the States applicable to the Pathetic

101 (B.155, G.100). 102 (B.156, G.99).

103 (B.157, G.102). . 104 (B.158, G.101).
105 (B.159, G.I03-104a) 106 (cf. B.160-161, G.105).

107 (B.162, G.106). # 108 (B.169, G.107).

109 (B.171, G.108). ' 110 (B.172, G.109).


111. Arrogance, envy, energy, agitation, intoxication, anger, inconstancy and cruelty are the States applicable to the Furious

112-113. Presence of mind, energy, agitation, joy,, assurance, cruelty, indignation, intoxication, horripilation, change of voice, anger, envy, contentment, arrogance and deliberation are the States applicable to the Heroic Sentiment.

114. Perspiration, trembling, horripilation, choking voice, fear, death, change of colour are the States applicable to the
Terrible Sentiment.

115. Epilepsy, insanity, despair, intoxication, death, sickness and fear arc the States applicable to the Odoius Sentiment.

116. Paralysis, perspiration, loss of consciousness, horripila- tion, astonishment, agitation, stopper, joy and fainting are the
States applicable to the Marvellous Sentiment.

117. These 1 Temperamental States which depends on the various kinds of Histrionic Representation are included into all the
Sentiments by experts in the production of plays.

118-119. No play in its production can have one Sentiment only. If in an assemblage of the many 1 States, Sentiments, Styles
(rrtti) and Local Usages (prcmiti) [in the production of a play], any one item has varied representation it should be considered the Dominant Sentiment and the rest the Transitory ones*.

120. That which stands on the principal theme [of the play] and is combined with Determinants, Consequents and Tran- sitory States is the Dominant Sentiment.

Ill (B.173, G.113). 112-113 (B.174-175, G.I10-111).

114(B.176,G.114). 115(B.177,G.115). 116 (B.178, G.115).

117 (B.179, G.116). ' ye tvete (canye. B).

1 namibhinayasam%riiah B.

118-119 (B.180-181, G.117-118). > tahunam (sarvemm G.). soma- vetaiiam. . * After this B. reads one additional couplet,

120 (B.183, G.119).


121. 1 This Dominant Sentiment should be represented with an exuberence of the Temperament, but the Transitory States by mere gestures and postures (lit. form), for they are to support the Dominant Sentiment [and as such should not excel 2 it],

122. [An equally full representation of] a variety [of Senti- ments] does not please [the spectators], and such a variety is rare in practical life (lit. amongst people). But a mixture of different
Sentiments will however, bring pleasure [to the spectators] when such is carefully represented.

] 23. In [the production of] a play the Dominant, the Tem- peramental andjthe Transitory States which are supporters of the
Sentiments and which are accomplished through many objects and ideas, should be assigned to male 1 characters 2 .

124. The Sentiments and the States in plays are thus to be created. One who knows this well will attain the best Success
[in the production of a play].

Here ends Chapter VII of Bharata's Natyasastra which treats of the Representation of the States.

121 (B.184, G.120). ' A disregard of this principle is liable to cause undue prominence to a minor character in a play and thereby to frustrate the principal object of the playwright.

1 After this B. reads some additional couplets (B.185-189a) which include a variants of 122 a (B.189a) and 122b (B.186b) and a repetition of 118a (B.186a) and 1186 (B.187a).

122 (B.184 foot-note, 9, G.121).

123 (B.189b-190a, Q-.122). l punisanukiTiiah (puspavaklrnali. B.G.).
* An analysis of the plays of the best kind, known to us seems to

explain this rule. For in almost .ill of them superior roles are assigned to men who can better be made the vehicle of different aud complex psychological states.

124 (B.190bc, G.123).


Tne sages question.

1-2. Through your kindness we have heard in due order everything relating to the origin of the States (bhava) 1 and Senti- ments (rasa)'. - AVe shall now like to know also what the experts say about the different kinds of Histrionic Representation, their meanings and different subdivisions.

3. the blessed one, you are also to tell us accurately what kinds of Histrionic Representation are to be applied to which
[places or occasions] by persons aiming at the Success.

Bharata answers.

4. On these words of the sages, Bharata spoke thus relating to the four kinds of Histrionic Representation.

5. "0 sages, I shall now speak to you in detail so that the Histrionic Representation becomes properly explained to you.

1 We shall speak of [the fact that] the abliiiuiya (Histrionic
Representation) is of four kinds. The question is, "Why is it called the abhinaya ?" It is said in reply to this that the abhinaya is derived from the prefix abhi, and the verbal root »* meaning 'to cause to get' (to attain), and the sufix ac attached to these two,
Hence a [full] answer to this should be made after a consideration of the root and its meaning.

There is a Sloka on this point :

6. As the root nl preceded by abhi means 'carrying the per- formances (prayoga) of a play [to the point of direct] ascertainment

1-2 (B.G. same). ' See NS. VIII. » See W& VI.

3 (B.G. same). i (B.G. same).

5 (B.5-6, G.5). » This portion till the beginning of 6 is origin- ally in prose. 6 (B.7, G.6).

Mil i3 ] the gestubes of minob limbs 149

of its meaning,' so [the word made out of them] becomes abhinaya
(carrying towards). '

The meaning of abhinaya

7. Abhinaya is so called because in the performonce [of a play] it together with the Sakha 1 , the Anga 2 and the Upanga*

"explains the meaning of different [things].

The four kinds of abhinaya

8. IJrahmins, the Histrionic Representation of a play takes place in four ways, and on this (Representation) the plays of different types rest.

9. Brahmins, this Histrionic Representation is known to be fourfold : Gestures 1 {any ilea), Words (wika) Dresses and
Make-up {aharya) and the Temperament {sattrika).

The Gesture : its three varieties

10. Of these, the Temperament has been described before, along with the States ; now listen first of all about the Gestures

11. The Gesture is of three kinds, viz. that of the limbs
{sarira), that of tho face (mnkhaja) and that related to [different], movements of the entire body {cedalrla) including the Sakha, the
Anga and the Upanga.

12. Dramatic performance in its entirety relates to the six limbs including the major and the minor ones such as head, hands, lips, breast, sides and feet.

13. The six major limbs {anga) are head, hands, breast, sides, waist and feet, and the (six) minor limbs {upanga) are eyes, eyebrows, nose! lower lip and chin.

7 (B-8, G.7). ' Sec 15 below- See 13 below. s See 13 below.

8 (B.9, G.8).

9 (B.10, G.9). > More properly 'gestures and postures.'

10 (B.11, G.10). 11 (B.12. 0.11). 12 (B.13, G.12). ^


14. Producers of plays should reckon the Sakha, dance
(itrtta) and the Ankura as the three aspects of the Histrionic
Representation (abhinaya).

15. The gestures (ahgiko) are called the Sakha ; * panto- miming through them is the Ankura* and that which is based on the Karanas 3 and consists of the Angaharas 4 is called dance

10. Brahmins, listen first of all about the different gestures of the head, which are included in the facial gestures and which support many Sentiments {ram) and State's (bhava).

Gestures of the head and their uses '

17-18. The gesture of the head is of thirteen 1 kinds, viz.
Akamptita, Kampita, Dhuta, Vidhuta, Parivahita, Udvahita,
Avadhuta, Aflcita, Nihaucita, Paravrtta, Utksipta, Adhogata, and Lolita.

19. Akampita : Moving the head slowly up and down is called.the Akampita.

Kampita : When the movements in the Akampita head are quick and copious the same is called Kampita 1 .

20. (Uses) ; The Akampita head is to be applied in giving a hint, teaching, questioning, addressing in an ordinary way (lit. naturally,), and giving an order 1 .

14 (B.15, G.14).

15(B.l6, G.15). ' Sarngadeva defines the sakhu and aitkura as follows s— w iretfs ftrarmt ftf"w wmnr i vsti ijpfarwtfgqtftar mffoir i
Tflsir «t «ftn 1$ mfiranfrnitaHi i 8R. VII. 87-38).
From this wo learn that the sakha means the flourish of the gesticulating hand (kara-vartanit) preceding one's speech whereas the ankura means such a flourish following it. ' See Ni§. IV. 299 ff.

8 See Si IV. 170 ff. * See Si IV. 170 ff.

16 (B.17, G.16).

17-18 (B.18-19, G.17-18). ' The AD. has nine gestures of the head.
Sec ed. M. Ghosh, 49-66, and A.K. Coomaraswamy, MG. pp. 86-38,

19 (B.20, G.19).

20 (B.21, G.20). » E reads one additional couplet after this.


21. The Karapita head is applicable (lit. desired) in anger, argument, understanding, asserting, threatening, sickness and intolerance. 22. Dhuta and Vidhuta : A slow movement of the head is called the Dhuta, and when this movement is quick, it is called the Vidhuta.

23. (Uses) : The Dhuta head is applicable in unwillingness, sadness, astonishment, confidence, looking sideways, emptiness and forbidding. .

24. The Vidhuta head is to be applied in nn attack of cold,
* terror, panic, fever and the first stage of drinking.

25. Parivahita and Udvahita : When the head is alternately turned to the two sides it is called Parivahita, and when it is once turned upwards it is known as Udvahita :

26. (Uses) : The Parivahita head is applicable in demons- tration, surprise, joy, remembering, intolerance, cogitation, conceal- ment and [amorous] sporting.

27. The Udvahita 1 head is to be applied in pride, showing height, looking high up, self-esteem and the like.

28. Avadhuta : When the head is once turned down it is called Avadhuta. (Uses) : It is to be applied in [communicating] a message, invoking [a deity], conversation and beckoning [one to come near],

29. Aiicita : When the neck is slightly bent on one side the Aficita head is the result. (Uses) : It is applicable in sickness, swoon, intoxication, anxiety and sorrow.

30-31. Nihancita : When two shoulders are raised up with

21 (B.22, G.21). 22 (B 24,0.22).

23 (B.25, G23). 24 (B.26, G.24).

25 (B.27, G.2B>), ' G. reads one additional hemistich between 25a and 25b, and names the head movement as udhuta.

26 (B.28, G.26).

27 (B.29, G.27). » B. reads the name as adkuta.

28 (B.30, G.28). 29(B.31,G,29).
30-31 (B.32-33, G.30-31).


the neck bent on one side the Nikaflcita head is produced. (Uses) :
It is to be used by women in pride, Amorousness (vilasa) 1 , Light- heartedness {lalita)* Affected Indifference, (bibboka) 3 , Hysterical
Mood, Qcilalihcita)*, Silent Expression of Affection {moffiyita) 8 ,
Pretended anger, (LiiUamita) , Paralysis and Jealous anger (mana).

32. Paravrtta : When the face is turned round.the Paravrtta head is the result. (Uses) : It is to be used in turning away the face and looking back and the like.

33. Utksipta : When the face is [slight'y] raised the
Utksipta head is the result. (Uses) : It is used in lofty objects and application of divine weapons.

34. Adhogata : The head with the face looking downwards is called Adhogata. (Uses) : It is used in shame, bowing [in salutation] and sorrow.

35. Parilolita : When the head is moving on all sides, it is called Parilolita. (Uses): It is used in fainting, sickness, power of intoxication being possessed by an evil spirit, drowsiness and the like 1 .

36. Besides these there are many other gestures of the head, which arc based on popular acting. These are to be used according to the popular practice (lit. nature).

37. I have spoken about the thirteen gestures of the head.
Now I shall discuss the characteristics of the Glances.

The thirtysis Glances

38. The Glances expressing the Sentiments 1 are KantS,
Bhayanaka, Hasya, Karuna, Adbhuta, Eaudrl, Vlra, and Blbhatsa.

1 Sec NS. XXIV. 15.

2 See ibid 22. 3 See ibid 11. l See Hid 18.
8 Sec ibid 19. • Sec ibidiO.

32 (B.34, G.32). 33 (B 35, G.33). 34 (B.36, G.34).

35 (B.37, G.35). ' B. reads after this an additional couplet.

36(B.39,G.36). 37 (B.40, G.37).

38 (B.41, G.38). The AD. too has only eight glances, see ed. M.
Ghosh, 66-78, and A. K. Coomaras\ramy, MG. p. 40. Bat curiously enough the names of 'the eight glances in the AD. even if referred by


39. The Glances to be used in the Dominant States are
Snigdha, Hrsta, Dlna, Kruddha, Drpta, Bhayanvita, Jugupsita and

40-42. The Glances to be used in the Transitory States such as &unya, Malina, Grants, Lajjanvita, Glana, Sankita,
Visanna, Mukta, KuRcita, Abhitapta, Jihma, Lalita Vitarkita,
Ardhamukula, Vibhranhl, Vipluta, Akekara, Vikosa, Trasta and
Madira, make up their number thirtysix 1 .

The Glances to express the Sentiments

43. I shall now explain the characteristics of these Glances in connexion with the various Sentiments and the States, and shall describe their functions.

44. Kanta : When with a feeling of love a person con- tracts his eyebrows and castes a sidelong look, he is said to have a Kanta (pleasing) Glance which has its origin in joy and pleasure.
It is used in the Erotic Sentiment.

45. Bhayanaka : The Glance in which the eyelids are drawn up and fixed, and the eyeballs are gleaming and turning up is called Bhayanaka (terrible). It indicates a great fear and is used in the Terrible Sentiment.

46. Hasya : In the Hasya (smiling) Glance the two eyelids are by turns contracted, and they open with the eyeballs moving and slightly visible ; it should be used in representing jugglary. 47. Karuna : The Glance in which the" upper eyelid has descended, the eyeball is at rest due to mental agony, and the gaze is fixed at the tip of the nose, and there is tear, is called
Karuna (pathetic).

Coomaraswamy's text to the Bharatasastra, does not occur in the NS. which has no less than thirtysix glances. Besides the eight glances Coo- maraswamy's text records (he. cit) fortyfour glances which include those mentioned in the NsL 39 (B.4J, G .39).

40-42 (B.43-45, G.43-42). » See note 1 to 38 above.
43 (B.46, G.43). 44 (B.47 G.44).

45-46 (B.48-49a, G.45-46a). • 47 (B.49, G.46b).


164 THE NATYASASTBA [ Till. 4ft.

48. Adbhuta : The Glance in which eyelashes are slightly curved at the end, eyeballs are raised in wonder, and the eyes are charmingly windened till the end, is called the AdbbatS (of wonder). 49. Raudri : The pitiless Glance in which the eyeballs are rough, red, raised, and the eyelids are still and the eyebrows knitted, is called Raudrl (cruel), and it is used in the Furious

. 50. Vlra : The Glance which is bright, fully open, agi- tated, serious, and in which eyeballs are at the centre of the eye (lit. level) is called Vira (heroic), and it is used in the Heroic Sentiment.

51. Blbhatsii : The Glance in which the corners of the eyes are nearly covered by eyelids, the eyeballs are disturbed in disgust and the eyelashes are still and close to each other, is called Bibhatsa (odious).

The Glances to express the Dominant States

52. The Glances defined here are known to occur in relation to the Sentiments. I shall now explain the Glances relating to the Dominant States.

53. Snigdha : The Glance which is not much widened
(lit. medium widened), is sweet, and in which eyeballs are still, and there are tears of joy, is called Snigdha (loving) ; it is used in love ( lit grows out of love ).

54. Hrsta : The Glance which is moving, slightly bent and in which eyeballs are not wholly visible (lit. entering), and there is winking, is called Hrsta (joyful) ; it is used in laughter.

55. Ding : The Glance in which the lower eyelid is slightly fallen, eyeballs are slightly swollen, and which is moving very slowly, is called Dlna (pitiable) ; it is used in sorrow.

48(B.51,G.48). ' 49 (B.52, G.49).

50 (B.53, G.50).

51 (B.54, G.51). l B.G. add after this one couplet defining the iantarasa. 52 (B.56, G.53). 53 (B.57, G.54). 54 (p.9, B.55, G.55).
55 (p-9, B.56, G.56).


5t$. Kruddha : The rough Glance in which eyelids are

motionless and drawn up, eyeballs are immobile and turned up

and the eyebrows are knitted, is called Kruddha (angry) • it is used in anger.

57. Drpta: The steady and widely opened Glance in which eyeballs are motionless, and which shows forth (lit. emits) prowess is called Drpta (haughty) ; it is used in energy (lit. grows out of energy). 58. Bhayanvita : The Glance in which the eyes are widely opened, the eyeballs are mobile in fear and are away from the centre [of the eye], is called Bhayanvita (awe-stricken) ; it is used

in :

59. Jcgupsita : The Glance in which eyelids are contracted but not joined together, and the eyeballs are covered and are turning away from the object coming in view (lit. the place in view) is called Jugupsita (disgusting) ; it is used in disgust

60. Vismita: The level Glance which is fully blown and in which eyeballs are throughly turned up and the two eyelids are motionless, is called Vismita (astonished); it is used in astonishment. The Glances to express the Transitory States

61. These are the Glances relating to the Dominant States, that I have just defined. I shall now explain the characteristics of the Glances in the Transitory States.

62. Sunyg: The Glance which is "weak and motionless and in which the eyebalhs and the eyelids are in ordinary position
(ht. level), and which turns to the space and is not attentive to external objects is called 8\inya (vacant).

63. Malina : The Glance in which ends of the eyelashes are not shaking and ends of the eyes are pale, and which is charac- terised very much by half-shut eyelids, is called Malina (pale).

56 (p.9, B.57, G.57). 67 (p.9. B.58, G.58). 58 (B.69, G.59).
89 (B 60, G.60). 60 (B.61, G.61). 61 (B.62, G.62).

62(B.68,G.63). 63 (B.64, G.64).


64. Srffnta" : The resting Glance in which eyelids have been let down due to fatigue, corners of the eyes are narrowed, and the eyeballs are fallen, is called Pranta (tired).

65. Lajjanvita : The Glance in which ends of the eyelashes are slightly bent, the upper eyelid is descending in shyness, the eyeballs are lowered due to shame, is called Lajjanvita

06. Glana : The languid Glance in which the eyebrows and the eyelashes are slowly moving and eyeballs are covered
[under the eyelids] due to fatigue, is called Gliina (lazy).

67. Sankita : The concealed Glance which' is once moved, and once at rest, slightly raised, obliquely open and in which the eyeballs are timid, is Sankita (apprehensive).

68. Visanna : The bewildered Glance in which eyelids are drawn wide apart in dejection, and there is no winking and the eyeballs are slightly motionless, is called Visanna (dejected).

69. Mukula : The Glance in which eyelashes are slightly trembling, the upper eyelids are of the Mukula type and the eyeballs are opened in happiness, is called Mukula.

70. Kuncita : The Glance in which ends of eyelashes are bent due to the eyelids being contracted and the eyeballs are also contracted, is called Kuncita (contracted).

71. Abhitapta : The Glance in which the eyeballs are slowly moving due to the movement of the eyelids, and which indicates much distress and pain, is called Abhitapta (distressed).

72 Jihma : The Glance [in which the eyelids are hanging down and slightly contracted and the eyeballs are concealed, and which casts itself obliquely and slyly is called Jihma (crooked).

73. Lalita : The Glance which is sweet, and contracted at the end [of the eye] and which is smiling and has movement of the eyebrows, and shows signs of love is called Lalita (amorous).

64 (B.65, G.65). 65 (B.66, G.66). 66 (B.67, G.67).

67 (B.68, G.68). 68 (B.69, G.69). 69 (B.70, G.70).

7«(B.71,G.71). 71 (B.72, G.72).

72(B.73,G.73). 73 (B.74, G174).


74 Vitarkita : The Glance in which the eyelids are turned up for guessing, the eyeballs are full blown and moving downwards is called the Vitarkita (conjecturing).

75. Ardhamukula : The Glance in which owing to joy the eyelids are of the Ardhamukula*. type, the eyeballs are half-blown and slightly mobile is called Ardhamukula.

76. Vibhranta : The Glance in which the eyeballs are uiovingjand'so are the eyelids, and the middle [of the eye] is wide open'and full-bjown, is called Vibhranta (confused) 1 .

77. Vipluta : The Glance in which the eyelids [first] tremble and'theh become, motionless and the eyeballs are [again] disturbed, is called Vipluta (disturbed).

78. Akekara : The Glance in which the eyelids and the corner of the eyes are slightly contracted and joined together and is half-winking, and the eyeballs are repeatedly turning up, is called Skekara (half-shut).

79. Vikosa : The joyful Glance in which the two eyelids are wide open and there is no winking and the eyeballs are not immobile, is called Vikos"a (full-blown).

80. Trasta : The Glance in which the eyelids are drawn up in fear, the eyeballs are trembling and the middle of the eye is full-blown due to panic, is called Trasta (frightened).

81. Madira : The Glance in which the middle of the eye is rolling, the ends of the eyes are thin, the eyes are bent, and the corners of the eyes are fully widened, is called Madira (intoxicated).
It is to be used in representing light intoxication.

82. In medium intoxication this Glance should have its eyelids slightly contracted, the eyeballs and and the eyelashes slightly mobile.

83. In excessive (lit. the worst) intoxication the Glance

74 (B.75, G.75). 75 (B.76, G.76)

76 (B.77, 0.77). ' B.G. read 76b. differently-

77 (B.78, G.78). 78 (B.79, G.79). 79 (B.80, G.80).
80 (B.81, G.81). 81 (B.82, G.82). 82 (B.8S, G.83).
83 (B.84, G.84).


should have [either too] much winking or no winking at all, and the eyeballs in it should be slightly visible, and it (the look) should be turned downwards.

84 These are the thirtysix Glances due to the Sentiments and the Dominant States described by me. Now listen about their


Uses of the Glances expressing the Transitory States

85. The Glances due to the Sentiments are to be used in representing them, while Glances due to the Dominant (States) should be used'Jin expressing these. Now listen about the uses of the Glances due to the Transitory States in representing these

86-93. Sunya (vacant) — in anxiety and paralysis (motion-

Malina (pale)— in discouragement, change of colour.

Sranta (tired) — in weariness and depression. \

Lajjanvita — (bashful) 1 — in shame.

GIana\(lazy) — in epilepsy, sickness and weakness.

Sankita (apprehensive) — in apprehension.

Visanna (dejected)— in depair.

-Mukula — in'sleeping, dreaming and happiness.

KuScita (contracted)— in envy, undesirable object, objects visible with difficulty and pain in the eye.

Abhitapta (distressed) — in discouragement, accidental hurt and distress.

Jihma (crooked)— in envy, stupor and indolence. Lalita
(amorous)— in contentment and joy.

Vitarkita (conjecturing)— in recollection and deliberation.

Ardhamukula— in joy due to an experience of [sweet] smell or touch.

84 (B.86, 0.84). ' We adopt G's reading
. 85 (B.86, G.85).
86-93 (B.87-94, 087-94). « lajjita Qalita, B.).


Vibhranta (confused)— in agitation, hurry and confusion.

Vipluta (disturbed)— inconstancy, insanity, affliction of misery and death.

Skekara (half-shut)— in looking to a distant [object], separation and consecration by sprinkling (proktita) 1 .

Vikosa (full-blown) — in awakening, arrogance, indignation cruelty and assurance.

Trasta (frightened)— in fright.

Madira (intoxicated)— in intoxication.

94-95. Here I have finished the proper discription of the thirtysix Glances ; now listen about the [additional] Glances, and gestures of the eyeballs, the eyelids and the eyebrows due to the
Sentiments and the States.

The eyeballs

95-96. Eyeballs have gestures of nine kinds : Bhramaaa
(moving round), Valana (turning), Pata-Patana (relaxing), Cakuaa,
(trembling), SampravoSana, (drawing inside), Vivartana, (turning sideways), Samudvrtta (raising up), Niskrama (going out) and
Prakrta (natural).

96-98. Bhramana (moving round) — turning round the

eyeballs at random.

Valana (turning)— moving (the eyeballs) obliquely.
P5tana= Pata (relaxing) — the relaxation (of the eyeballs.)
Calana (trembling)— the tremor (of the eyeballs.)
Sarapravesana= Praves\a (drawing inside) — drawing (the

eyeballs) in.

Vivartana (turning) — turning the eyeballs sideways in a

sidelong glance {kalaha).

1 B. G. read preksitem.1
94-95 (B.95, G.95).

95-96 (B.96b-97n, G.96). l B.G, read one additional couplet after this. 96-98 (B.98b-100a, G.98-100n),.


Samudvrtta (raising up)-the raising up of the eyeballs.
Niskramana (going out)-going out. [as it were of the eyeballs.] Prakrta (natural))-eyeballs in the natural (glance.)

Usf« of the eyeballs

99-101. Now listen about their uses in [different] Senti- ments and States.

Bhramana (moving round), Valana (turning) and Samudvrtta
(raising of eyeballs)— in the Heroic and the Furious Sentiments.

Niskramana (going out), and Valana (turning of the eyeballs)— in the Terrible Sentiment.

Sampravesana (drawing of the eyeball)— in the Comic and the Odious Sentiments.

Patana (relaxed eyeballs) in the Pathetic Sentiment.

Niskramana (going out of the eyeballs)— in the Marvell- ous Sentiment.

Prakrta (natural) eyeballs— in the remaining Sentiments
(lit. States).

Vivartana (turning sideways of the eyeballs)— in the Erotic

102. These are the natural gestures of eyeballs based on the popular practice. They are to be applied [suitably] to all the different States.

The additional Glances

103-107. I shall speak about the varieties of Glances in special relation of these (lit. there). These are of eight kinds, viz.
Sama (level), Saci (sidelong), Anuvrtta (inspecting), Alokita (casual),
Vilokita (looking round), Pralokita (carefully looking), Ullokita
(looking up\ and Avalokita (looking down).

99-101 (B.101b-104a, G.100b-102a).
102 (B.104b-105a, G.l02b-l04a).
103-107 (B.105b-110a, G.104-109a>


Sama (levelj-the eyeballs are in a / ere ] position and at rest

Sacl (side-Iong)-the eyeballs are covered by eyelashes.

Anuvrtta (inspecting)-Glance which carefully observes anv form. '

Slokita (casual)-(the eyeballs) in suddenly seeing any object). '

Vilokita (looking round)— (eyeballs) in looking back.

Pralokita (carefully looking)-turning (eyeball from side to side.

Ullokita (looking up)— (turning the eyeballs) upwards.

Avalokita (looking down)-(turning the eyeballs) towards the ground.

These are the gestures of the eyaballs in relation to all the
Sentiments and the States.

The eyelids

108-1 1 1. Now listen about the gestures of the eyelids follow which the movements of eyeballs They are : Unmesa (opening),
Nimesa (closing), Prasrta (expanding), Kuncita (contracted),'
Sama (level), Vivartita (raising up), Sphurita (throbbing), Pihita
(resting), and Vitaclita (driven).

Unmesa (opening)— separating the eyelids

Nimesa (closing)— bringing together the eyelids.

Prasrta (expanding) -separating the eyelids widely.

Kuncita (contracted)— contracting the eyelids.

Sama (level)— eyelids in a natural position.

Vivartita (raising up)— raising up the eyelids.

Sphurita (throbbing)— when the eyelids are throbbing.

Pihita (resting)— when the eyelids are at rest (lit. clofed).

Vitadita (driven)— when struck the eyelids are struck iccidentally. 108-111 (B.110b-ll4a, G.109b-U8a).


Uses of the eyelids

112-115. Now listen about their uses in different Senti- ments and States :

Vivartita (raising up) — in anger.

Niniesa (closing)— in anger.

Uninesa (opening) — in anger.

Prasrta (expanding)— in objects causing wonder, joy, and heroism. *

Kuiicita (contracted) — in seeing undesired objects, (sweet) scent, flavour and touch.

Sama (level) — in love.

Sphurita (throbbing) — in jealous}'.

Pihita (resting) — in dreaming, fainting, affliction due to storm, hot smoke, rains and collyriuni and eye-disease.

Vitadita (driven) — in accidental injury.

These are the uses of the eyeballs and the eyelids in express- ing the Sentiments and the States.

The eyebrows

116-120. Now, listen about the gestures of eyebrows, which accord with those of the eyeballs and the eyelids. (They) are seven in number and are as follows : Utksepa (raising), Patana
(lowering), Bhrukufi (knitting), Catura (clever), Kuiicita (con- tracted), Recita (moving) and Sahaja (natural).

Utksepa (raising)— raising of eyebrows simultaneously or one by one.

Patana (lowering) — lowering of eyebrows simultaneously or one by one.

Bhrukuti (knitting) - raising the root of tho eyebrows.

Catura (clever)— slightly moving and extending the eye- brows in a plea-sing manner.

112-115 (B.U4b-118a, G.113b-Wa).
116-120 (B.ll8b-123a, G.117b-l2?a),

■Villi 186 ] the gestures of minor limbs m

KuBcita (contracted)— slightly bending of eyebrows one by one or the both at once.

Recita (moving)— raising of one of the eyebrows in an amorous way.

Sahaja (natural)— the position which the eyebrows maintain by nature.

Uses of the eyebrows

121-125. Now I shall speak about their uses in (expressing) the Sentiments' and the States.

Utksepa .(raising) — in anger, deliberation, passion, sporti- venoss, in seeing and hearing only one eyebrow is raised, and in surprise, joy and violent anger both the eyebrows are raised up.

Patana (lowering) — in envy, disgust, smile, and smelling.

Bhrukuti (knitting)— in objects of anger, dazzling light.

(Datura (clever) — in love, sportiveness, pleasing (object),
(pleasing) touch 1 and awakening.

Kuncita (contracted) — in manifestation of affection, pretended and hysterical mood.

Recita (moving) — in dance.

Sahaja (natural)— in simple (anav'uhlha) conditions.

The nose

126-123. (.Gestures of the eyebrows have been described ; now listen about those of the nose. They are of six kinds :
Nata, Manda, Vikysta, Socchvasa, Vikimita and Svabhavika.

Nata -lobes are constantly clinging (glidajmia)

Manda — lobes are at rest.

Vikrsta— lobes are blown.

Socchvasa— when air is drawn in.

Vikimita — the contracted nose.

121-125 (B-123b-126, I28-l2!>a, G.122b-127»). ' B. road? 12-t a differently and one additional hemistich after this.
126-128 (B.129b-182a, G.Wb-ROa).


SvSbhavika— the natural nose.

Uses of the nose

129-132. This is the description of the gestures of the nose. Now listen about their uses :

Nata — in slight weeping £it intervals.

Manda — in discouragement, impatience and anxiety.

Vikrsta — in strange smell, breathing, anger and fear.

Socchvasa — in sweet smell and deep breathing.

Vikunita— in laughter, disgust and envy.

Svabhavika — in the remaining conditions.

The cheeks

132-131 Cheeks are of six kinds : Ksama (depressed).

Phulla (blown), Purna (full), Kampita (trembling) and Kuiicita
(contracted) and Sama (natural).

Ksama (depressed) — (cheeks are) fallen.

Phulla (blown) — (cheeks are) raised

Purna (full)— (cheeks are) expanded.

Kampita (trembling)— (cheeks are) throbbing.

Kuiicita (contracted) — (cheeks are) narrrowed down.

Sama (natural) -as (cheeks are) by nature.

Uses of the cheeks

135-137. Cheeks have been described. Now listen about their uses.

Ksama (depressed)— in sorrow.

Phulla (blown)— in joy.

Pfirna (full) — in energy and arrogance.

129-132 (B.132b, 134-136a, G.130D-133). » Instead of 129b, B. read* one couplet slightly different in content,
■132-134 (B.136D-138, G.l34-138a).
135-137 (B.139-141a,G.136b-l38).


Kampita (trembling) — in anger and joy.

Kuiicita (contracted) — in horripilation (sensitive) touch, cold, fear and fever.

Sama (natural)— in the remaining conditions.
The lower lips

137-139. Gestures of the lips are six in number. (They are) : Vivartana (narrowing), Kampana (trembling), Visarga
(spreading out), Viniguhana (concealing), Sandastaka (biting),
Samudgaka (contracting).

Vivartana (narrowing) — lips narrowed down.

Kampana (trembling)— throbbing (of lips).

Visarga (spreading out) — to spread out (lips).

Viniguhana (concealing) — drawing in (of lips)-

Sandastaka (biting) -(lips) bitten by teeth.

Samudgaka (contracting)— the contraction of lips and keeping them at rest.

Uses of the lower lips

140-142. These are the gestures of the lips ; now listen about their uses.

Vivartana (narrowing) — in envy, pain, contempt, laughter and the like.

Kampana (trembling) —in pain, cold, fear, anger, swiftness and the like.

Visarga (spreading out) — in women's amors, affected indiffer- ence and painting of lips.

Viniguhana (concealing)— in making efforts.

Sanda?taka (biting)— in manifestation of anger.

Samudgaka (contracting)-in pity, kissing and greeting.

187-138 (B.141b-143, G.l39-141a .
140-142 (B.144-146, G.141b-144»).


The chin

143-146. So much about the gestures of the lips j now listen ahout those of the chin ; (they are) : Kuttana, Khandana,
Chinna, Cuksit.i, Lehita, Sauia and Dasta.

Kuttana — when the upper teeth are in conflict with the lower ones.

Khandana — when (the two lips) repeatedly come together with each other.

Chinna — when (the two lips) very closely meet each other,

Cuksifci — when (the two lips) are held widely apart.

Lehita — in licking the (lips; with the tongue.

Sama — when (the two lips) slightly parted from each other.

Dasta— when the lower lip is bitten by the teeth.
Uses of the chin

146-149. Kuttana — in fear, cold, attack of old age, and sickness. Khandana — in mutterings prayers (japa), studying, speaking and eating.

Chinna— in sickness, fear, cold, (taking) exercise, and angry look. Cuksita — in yawning.

Lehita=Lehana — in greediness.

Sama — in a natural position.

Dasta— -in angry efforts.

So much about the gestures of the chin in relation to the teeth, the lips and the tongue.

The mouth

149-156. Gestures of the mouth are: Vidhuta,
Vinivrtta, Nirbhugna, Bhugna, Vivrta and Udvahi.

143-146 (B.147-150a, 0.l44b-147).
146-149 (B.150b-153a, G.U7-150aJ. l4P-156(B.163b-l60a, G.150D-157).


Vidhuta— the obliquely open (mouth).

Vinivrtta — spread out (the mouth).

Nirbhugna — (the mouth) lowered.

Bhugna= Vyabhugna — (the mouth) slightly spread out.

Vivrta — the mouth with the lips kept apart.

Udvahi — (the mouth) turned up.

Uses of the mouth

Vinivrtta — in women's envy, jealousy, anger, contempt and bashfulness and the like.

Vidhuta— jin restraining, saying 'not .so' and the like.

Nirbhugna — in looking into depth and the like.

Bhugna— in being ashamed, discouragement, impatience, anxiety, discipline and consultation. It is natural for the ascetics. Vivrta— in laughter, sorrow and fear.

Udvahi — in sportiveness and pride of women, in saying
'go away', and disregard, in saying 'so indeed' and angry words.

156-157. The exports should also use the mouth in conformity with the varieties of Glances such as Sania and Saci and the like mentioned by others.

The colour of the face

157-158. The col.. ur of the face according to the circum- stances (lit, meaning) is of four kinds : natural (wabharika) bright ( prasaima), reddened {nriia) and dark (ii/ama).

Uses of the colour of the face.
159-100. Natural face — in a natural and indifferent (mood)-
Bright face— in wonder, laughter and love.
Reddened face— in intoxication and in the Heroic the
Terrible and the Pathetic Sentiments.

156-157 (B.160b-161n, G.158).
157-158 (B.l6lb-162a, G.159). "
159-160 (B.162b-164, G.160-162a).


Dark face— in the Terrible and the Odious Sentiments.

161-162. The colour of the face should be thus used to re- present the States and the Sentiments. The acting done with the
Gestures of the Sakha 1 , the Anga and the Upanga is good, but without proper colour of the face it will not be charming (lit.) beautiful. 162-163. Even a few Gestures when combined with the proper colour of the face will double their charm (lit. beauty) just as the moon [rising] at night will.

163-164. Glances too when combined with the proper colour of the face will clearly express the different States and the Senti- ments, and on this (i.e. the colour of the face) the Histrionic
Representation rests.

164-165. The colour of the face suitable to the represen- tation of the States and the Sentiments, should follow every gestures of the eye (Glance), the eyebrow and the mouth. So much about the colour of the face which is the basis of the
States and the Sentiments.

The neck

166-167. I shall now tell you, Brahmins, about the gestures of the neck. They are of nine kinds : Sama, Nata,
Unnata. Tryasra, Recita, Kuficita, Aficita, Valita, and Vivrtta.

Description and uses of the neck gestures

167-171. Sama— the natural neck. (Uses) : in meditation natural pose, and muttering of Mantras.

Nata— (neck with) face bent down. (Uses) in wearing (lit. binding) ornaments, putting ones arms round (lit. taking) some- body's neck.

161-162 (B.165b-I66a, G.162b-163). ' See 11 and 15 above.

162-163 (B.166-l67a,G.l64).

163-164 (B.l67b-I68a, G.165).

164-165 (B.168b-169, G.l66-167a).

166-167 (B.170, G.167b- 168a).

167-171 (B.171-175, G.l68b-173a>


Unnata—neck with the face upturned. (Use): in looking up.
Tryaara - neck with the (ace turned sideways. (Use) : in

carrying weight on the neck, and sorrow.

Eecita — the neck shaken or moved. (Uses) : in feeling
(bhava), churning and dance.

Kuncita— the neck with the head bent down. (Uses) : in pressure of weight and in protecting the neck.

Ancita — the neck with the head turned back. (Uses) : in hanging (to death), arranging hair and looking very high up.

Vahita — the neck witli the face turned sideways. (Uses) : in looking with the 1 neck turned round,

Vivrtta — neck with the face towards the front. (Use) : in
(indicating) going towards one's own place.

172- 1 73- These are the many varieties of the neck gestures according to their [expressing different] customary states of men. Gestures of the neck are all to follow the gestures of the head and the head gestures also are reflected in those of the neck. So much about the description of the gestures of the head and the connected minor limbs {v/iaSiya) and their uses.
N'ow listen about the gestures of the remaining limbs {ah'j«), which T am going to describe.

Here ends Chapter VIU of Bharata's NatyasSstra, which treats of the Gestures of Minor Limbs.

l72-m(l',.l7(i-177,Or.l7:U>-l7. r .).




Bharata speaks

1-3- So much about the minor limbs such as head, eyes, eyesbrows, nose, lips and cheecks, and their description that I was to tell you. I shall now- define you for the gestures of hands, breast, sides, belly, waist, thighs and feet and [explain] theirproper use 1 . In this connexion I shall [first of all] explain the gestures of hands and the like, that are used in the production of a play.
You are to listen how they are to be applied [in acting].

Sixtysevcn gestures of the hand

4-7- Gestures of single haiuhiiisnmijhta-haxta) 1 are twenty- four in number: Patilka, Tripataka, Kartarimukha, Ardhacandra,
Arala, Sukatunda, Musti, Sikhara, Kapittha, Katakanmkha 2 ,
Sucyasya (Suciinukha),Padmakosa, Sarpasirah, Mrgas'irsa, Kangula,
Alapadma (Alapallava), Catura, Bhramara, Hamsasya, Hamsa- paksa, Sandarpsa, Mukula, Urnanabha and Tfimracuda.

1-3 (B.l, 3, 2, G.l-3). ' This use relates' to the two-fold Practice
(realistic and coventioual) on the stage (See N>S. XIV. 62ff). The realistic Practice (lokadharmi) in this connexion is of two kinds, viz.
(1) that reflecting one's emotion, as in arrogant reference to one's own- self, this {paiukd) hand is to be laised on a level with the forehead
(IX. 19), (2) that representing the external form of an object, as the use of the Padmakosa hand to represent lotus and similar flowers. The conventional Practice {'talyadliarmf) is likewise of (wo kinds, vW.
(1) that creating an ornamental effect, as the use of the four karmias of the hand (See NS. IX. 205-211 below), (2) thai partially, a popular behaviour, as the use of the trifiatakh hand to represent words spoken aside ( janimtika ). See Ag.

4-7 (B.O. same). ' The-e hands gestures are ordinarily used singly; but at times two bauds showing one of these gestures are used simul- taneously. But still these are railed single (asamyu/a) hands. For, combined (samyuta) hands are so called because they are always to be shown by both the hands ; see Ag.

3 Some mss. read this name as khalakimukha. Our reading is


8-10. Gesture? of combined hands (/mmijuta-hanta) 1 are thirteen in number : Aiijali, Kapota, Karkata, Svastika, Kabika- vardhamanaka 2 , Utsanga, Nisadha, Dola, Puspapata, Makara,
Gajadanta, Avahittlia and Vardhamana.

10-17. Dance-hands (nrtta-lntdn) 1 are Caturasra 2 , Udvrtta
Talamukha, Svustika, Viprakirna, Arfdakatakamukha, Aviddha- vaktra, Siieyasya, Hecila, Ardliarecita, Uttanavancita, Pallava,
Nilamba, Kesabandha, Lata, Kariliasta, Paksavafieitaka, Paksa- pradyotaka, Gatudapaksa, Dandapaksa, Urdhvamandali, Parsva- liiarulali, Uromandali (Jrah-parsvardliaiiiaridall, Mustikasvastika,
Nalinipadinako^a, Alapallava, (Jlbana, Lalita and Valita.

These are (he sixtyfour 3 gestures of hands.

Gestures of single hands l'('-2ti. Now listen about their definition and uses.
Pataka (Hag) — the lingers extended and close against one another, and the thumb bent.

supported by the AD. (See ed. M. Ghosh, verse 124. A. K. Coomaraswamy
MG. p. 50).

8-10 (B.G. same). ' See note 1 to 4-7 above.

' Some mss. read this name as khalaih" ; kaiakiwardhana, is the warm' of a samyuta-hasta in the AD- (od. M. Ghosh, 187 and A. K.
Cooinaraswamy, MG. p. 60).

10-17 (B.G. I0b-17a). ' These gestures (dance hands, nrttahasta) as their name implies, are ordinarily to be used in dance ; bat in course of acting too they arc often to be used along with other gestures (single and combined) to create an ornamental effect (See note I to 1-3 above).
See Ag.

2 In the Skt. text these names are given in dual number e.g. our caturasra stands as caturasrau. The reason for this is to be sought in the fact that unlike the single and combined hands which must represent one single idea or object, the hands in the dance-haud gestures are to be individually moved, not for representing any idea or object but for creating an ornamental effect in acting as well as in dance. See Ag.

8 In actual enumeration hand gestures are sixtyseveu in number
(single. 24, combined 13 and Dance-hands 30). Catuhsas{hi in the text should be emended to saptasaslhi. • 17-26 (B.18-25, 26a, G.18-25. 26a).


(Uses) : To represent an administration of blows, scorching heat, urging, attainment of happiness and arrogant reference of one's ownself 1 this. hand is to be raised on a level with the forehead. To represent the glare of heat, torrential rain and shower of flowers two
Pataka hands with the fingers separated and moving, are to be joined together. A shallow pool of -water, present of flowers, grass and any design [lit. object] made on the ground are to be represented by two such hands separated from the Svastika position. The same Pataka hands with their lingers pointing downwards arc to be used to represent anything closed, made open, protected, covered, dense or private (concealable). This very band with its lingers pointing downwards and moving up ami down, is to express the speedy movement of wind and [ocean] waves, [ocean waves] breaking against the shore, and flood. The Recaka of this hand should be used to represent encouragement, many
[in number], a great crowd of men, height, beating of drums, and flight of birds upwards. And anything washed, pressed, cleansed, pounded, or holding up a hill or uprooting it, should be represented by the palms of two such hands rubbing each other. This is also the manner of representing man and woman 2 .

26-32. Tripataka (flag with three fingers)— the third finger of the Patakahand to be bent.

(Uses) : It is to be used in representing invocation, descent, bidding goodbye, prohibition, entrance, raising up [anything] 1 , bowing [in salutation], comparing 2 , suggesting alternatives, touching
[the head with] auspicious objects or putting them on the head, putting on a turban or crown and covering the mouth or the ears.
This very hand with its fingers pointing downwards and moving up and down is to be used in representing flight of small birds, stream, snake, bees and the like. And with the third finger of the

1 In saying 'I too/ 'of mc too', 'by me too', in me too' and the like (Ag).

2 Ag. gives detailed rules about tho use of the pataka hand in all the cases mentioned above.

26-32 (B.G. 26b-32) ' Ag. thinks that this relates to objects like one's chin.

2 nidarianam upanumopameyabhrniam (Ag.).


Tripataka should be represented wiping off tears, drawing a Tilaka or Patralekha 3 and touching of hairs.

33-88. Two Tripataka 1 hands held like a Svastika repre- sents adoration of the feet of venerable persona (yum). Two such hands are to meet each other's end for representing marriage.
Separated and moved from this position they indicate a king.
When obliquely forming a Svastika they represent planets. To indicate an ascetic they are to be raised with palm turned back- wards. To represent a door they are to face each other. Submarine lire, battle and sea monsters are to be indicated by two Tripataka hands, first raised near one's face and then moved with the lingers pointing downwards. >> ith these, very hands should be indicated jumping of monkeys, waves, wind and women. To show the cresent moon this hand should put forward its thumb, and to indicate a king's march [against bis enemy] this hand should turn itself towards the back.

3D-H. Kartarliuukha (sissors' blades) — the forefinger of the Tripataka hand to bend backwards.

(Uses) : This [hand with its fingers] pointing downwards will represent showing the way, decorating the feet 1 or dying them-, and the crawling [of babies] 3 . With fingers pointing upwards it will represent biting, horn and letters. And when the lingers in it are turned differently (i.e. the middle finger is bent backwards) it will represent falling down, death, transgression 4 , reversion, cogita- tion and putting [anything] in trust 5 .

:J rocanalabhanakam-bo\\c\\m% (the body) with go-rocam or drawing ornamental designs (patralekha) on the body with this substance.
Gorocana is a bright yellow pigment prepared from the urine or bile of a cow.

33-38 (B.G. 33-38). ' This portion does not occur in all mss., and may well have been a later addition.

8 Parents, grand-parents and the spiritual guide etc. are meant by this term.

39-11 (B.(x. 39-41). ' racanam kasturika dimpairabMigadikriya
(Ag.). » mnjanam alaktakena (Ag.).

3 Read rihgana for rahgana iu B.

1 vyatikramalf—aparadhali (Ag.). 5 nyasta-niksepana.


42. And with the two such (samyuta) "bands or one such
(asamynta) hand should be represented antelope, yak, buffalo, celestial elephant (airavata), bull, gate {(jOfjara) and hill-top.

43-45. Ardhacandra (crescent moon) —the fingers and the thumb so bent as to make a curve like a bow.

(Uses) : With this should be represented young trees, crescent moon, conchshell, jar (knhi'sa), bracelet, forcible opening, exertion 1 , thinness and drinking 2 . With this [very] Ardhacandra hand women should represent girdle, hip, waist, face, Talapatra' and earring.

- 40-52. Arala (bent)— the forefinger curved like a bow, the thumb also curved and the remaining lingers separated and turned upwards.

(Uses) : With this should be represented courage, pride, prowess, beauty, contentment, heavenly |objeets], poise, act of blessing and other favourable states. And this, again, will re- present woman's gathering of hairs or scattering them and looking carefully over their entire body, The preliminaries to the marriage by bride's going round the bridegroom 1 and [marital] union 2 are to be represented by two Arala hands moving around each other and their fingers meeting in the form of a Svastika. And with similar hands should be represented circumambulation, round objects, great crowd of men, objects arninged on the ground 8 . In calling any one, asking any one not to come in, uprooting anything,


4S-+5 US 'J. 43-45). ' hyastam khedam (Ag.).

■ pimam for ptnam (B.G.),

' Mss. rend lidapatra (tail.apatra) meaning a kind of ear-ornament
(tailaitka or lulaiika). it is different kuiiijala from which is also an ear-ornament. 46-52 (IS.40-52, (i 46-51, 53). ! kautukam—vivakiU piirvabhavl vad/ttwaravor aairali anlarvmihali (A?..).

8 vivfiliah—agnau sitkdni panigrahawm (Ag.).

3 Objects sneli as Alpanh and ilowers arranged on the ground.
Jt'or Alpana see Ealpana by Andre at Suzaune Karpellea, Paris, 1930 (?)

* 0. reads after this a couplet defining the Arida hand.


saying too many tilings, wiping off sweat and enjoying sweet smell, abuse, censure the Tripataka hands have been prescribed before by me, but women are to use the Arala hand to represent these.

53-54 Sukatunda (parrot's beak)- the ring-finger -(third finger) of the Arala hand is bent

(Uses) with this should be represented words such as '(It is) not I', '(It is) not you, (It is) not to be done; invocation, farewell, and saying 'Fie (upon you)' in contempt.

55-50. Musti (fist: — fingers have their ends [bent] into the palm and the thumb [is set] upon them.

(Uses) : IJ is used to represent beating, exercise 1 , exit, press- ing 2 , shampooing 3 , grasping sword and holding clubs and spears.

57-58. Sikhara (peak)— in this very hand (mudj) the thumb raised. (Uses) : It is used to represent reins, whip, goad, bow, throwing a javelin (tinnum) or a spike (sa/,//), painting the two lips and feet and raising up hairs.

59-00. Kapittha (elephant-apple)— the forefinger of the
Hikhara hand to be bent and pressed by the thumb.

(Uses) : It is to represent weapons such as sword, bow, discus, javelin (tmiuirn), spear (Inmtii), mace, spike (ivkti), thunderbolt and arrows, true and wholesome deeds.

1-04. Katakfimukha — the ring-finger and the little finger of this Kapittha hand to be raised and bent.

(Uses) : It is used to represent sacrifice 1 ', oblation 2 , umbrella, drawing up reins, fan. holding a mirror, drawing

.13-64 (B.53-54, G.54-55).

.15-56 (B. 55-56, Or. 56- 7). ' Vyayivma according to Asr- moans yuddha (light or duel).

2 'Pressing' of tlio teats of cows and buffaloes while milking'tlicm ; tfanaphlanc—mahisyudidohaiie (Ag).

3 Samvahana according to Ag. means mrtphlana.

57-58 (R.57-58, G.58-59). • 59-60 (B.59-60. G.60-61 ).

61-64 (|>.4l, B.60-63,. G.53-65). ' hotram—srugudi-ttttanena, A«.
2 havyam—ujyadyamukhem (Ag.).


[patterns] 3 , powdering, taking np big sticks, arranging a pearl neck- lace, taking up garlands, gathering the ends of clothes, churning, drawing out arrows, plucking flowers, wielding a goad, drawing out a goad, string and looking at a woman.

65-71. Suciinukha — the fore finger of the Katakamukha hand to be streehed.

(Uses) : I shall tell you briefly of its various uses as the forefinger [in it] is raised and bent, moving sideways, shaking, moving up and down, and moving up without any rest.
By moving the forefinger upwards [in this hand] are to be represented discus, lightning, banners, blossoms, (tarring 1 , zigzag movement, a cry of approbation 2 , young serpent, young sprout 1 ', incense, lamp, creepers 4 , Sikhanda 5 , falling down, curve and round- ness and with the forefinger raised this [hand] again should be used in [representing] stars, nose, [the number] one, club and stick. And [this hand with the forefinger] bent should meet the mouth to represent a being with teeth, and by the circular movement of this hand one should represent the taking away [a man's] every thing. And the forefinger iri this hand should be alter- nately raised and lowered to represent long study and long day. And the same should be curved, moved up and down near the face to represent a sentence. And to indicate 'no' or 'speak' the fore- finger should be stretched, shaken and moved up.

72-75. This hand should be shaken to represent anger, perspiration, hair, ear-ring, armlet and decoration of the cheeks.

3 khamlanam— drawing decorative patterns or designs on anything.
Ag's explanation of this seems to be wrong. Cf. alaka-tilaka patravaliiii khamlantr (draws the alakii-iilaku and patriwali) in the Kirtilata »l
Vidyiipati. See ed. Haraprasiid SSiistri, Calcutta, BS. 1831 UiiM.) pp.
13-14, and the root khw] (to draw) in E. Bengal dialect of Tippers.

65-71 (B.64-71a, 0.66-72). ' karniuidiktt-karnapura (Ag.).

s Saying 'welldone.', 'how beautiful' etc b pallava but B. halymm.

4 The text uses two words valli and lath meaning 'creeper'. Ag. distinguishes between the two as follows : alavu-pmbhrlayo vallyali and drbkm/prabkrtayo latah

J h'k/imiila—fotmiirakamtm khkafnhah (Ag.).
72-75 (B.71b-75a. 0.73-76).


And to represent pride, 'I am,' enemy, 'Who is this', and scratching of the ear it should be held near the forehead. [And two Suclmukha hands] should be united to represent the union
[of men], and be separated to indicate separation, and to represent a quarrel the two hands should be crossed, and to show bondage they are to press each other. The two Suciraukha | hands] facing each other and held separately on the left side will represent the close of the day, and held on the right side they will indicate the close of the night.

76. This hand moved in the front will indicate [any] form, stone", whirlpool, mechanical contrivance and a hill, and to represent the serving up of meals the same movement of the hand pointing downwards is required.

77. To represent Siva this hand pointing downwards is to be held close to the forehead and to indicate Indra this hand is to be raised [to the forehead] and held across it.

78. By two such hands the orb of the full moon is to be represented, and to indicate the rising of Indra (i.e. raising his banner) it should be held close to the forehead.

79. [This hand] moved all around will represent the orb of the moon, and to indicate Siva's [third] eye, it should be held on the forehead and [in ease of] Tndra's [eyes it should be] raised obliquely.

80. Padmakosa (lotus-bud)— the fingers including the thumb to be separated and their ends to bend, but not to meet one another. 81. (Uses) : To represent Bilva and Kapittha (elephant- apple) fruits and the breasts of women [this hand is to be used].
But to represent accepting [these fruits] or flesh, this hand should be slightly bent at its end.

82. [This hand] should bo held [to represent] offering

76 (B.77b-78a, G.77). 77 (B.78b-79a, G.78). 78 (B75b-76a, G.79).
79 (B.76b-77a, Q.80). 80 (B79b-80a, G.81).

81 (B.80b-8la, G.82). ' B. adds one hemistich after this.

82 (B.82, G.83).

"8 THE NATIASASTBA [ ix. 83.

Puja to a deity, carrying tribute, casket, offering the first funeral cake 1 , and a number of flowers, are also to be indicated by the
Padmakosa hand.

' 83. The two sucli hands with moving fingers meeting at the wrist and turning backwards will represent the full-blown lotus and water-lilly.

84. Sarpa&rah (snake-head)— the fingers including the thumb t-i be close to one another and the palm to be hollowed.

85. (Uses) : Tt is used to represent the offering of water, movement of serpents, pouring water [on anything], challenging
[for a duel], motion of the elephant's frontal globes (himbha) and the like.

'80. Mrgasiisa (deer-head)— the Sarpasirah" hand with all its fingers pointing downwards, but the thumb and the little finger raised up.

87. (Uses) : It is moved to represent here, now, "Tt is", to-day, possible, splendour (nllamiw), throw of dice, wiping off' perspiration and pretended anger.

88. Kangula— The middle and the fore-fingers and the thumb to be separated and the ring finger to be bent but the little finger raised.

89. (Uses) : By this are to be represented immature fruits of various kfnds and angry words of women.

90. Alapallava (Alapadmaka)— all fingers turned towards the palm, standing on its side and separated from one another.

91. _ (Uses) : It is to be used for indicating prevention, words like "Who arc you," "It is not", "nonsense" and a woman's allusion to herself.

1 agrapintla-dtma—nandimukhd&raddha {kg.).

83 (B.8.% G.84). 84 (B.84, G.85). 85 (B.85, G.86).

86 (B 86, G .87). 87 (B.87, G.88).

88 (B.88, G.89). » trertagnisamsthitah=viralali (Ag.).

89 (B.89, G.90). ' B. reads one additional couplc*(9.90) after this,
98 (B.91, G.91). 91 (B.92, G.92).


92. Catura— the four fingers stretched and the thumb bent near the middle finger.

93. (Uses) : It is to be applied in representing policy, discipline, penance, cleverness, a young girl, a sick person, spirit, deceit, proper words, welfare, truth and tranquility.

94. By one or two such hands moved round should be represented openness, deliberation, moving, conjecture and shame.

95. By the combined Catura hands are to be represented lotus-petals compared with eyes, and ears of deer.

96-98. Besides these, the Catura hand is to indicate sports, love, brilliance, memory, intelligence, judgement, forgiveness, nutrition, consciousness, hope, affection, reasoning, union, purity, cleverness, favourableness, softness, happiness", character, question, livelihood, propriety, dress, soft grass, a small quantity, wealth, defeat, sexual intercourse, merit and demerit, youth, home, wife and various colours.

99. [To represent] white it (the Catura hand) should be held up ; red and yellow are indicated by moving it round, and blue by pressing [one such hand with another].

100. Bhramara (bee)— the middle finger and the thumb crossing each other, the forefinger bent, the remaining two fingers separated and raised.

101. (Uses) : It is used to indicate the plucking of flowers with long stems such as lotus and water-lily, and ear-ring.

102. It should fall down with a sound to represent rebuke, pride of power, quickness, beating time and producing confidence.

103. Hamsasya (swan-mouth) — the forefinger, middle finger and the thumb close 1 to one another and the remaining fingers stretched. 92 (13.93, G.93). 93 (B.94, G.94). 94 (B.95, 0.95).

95 (B.96, G.96). 4 . 96-98 (B.97-99, G.97-99). 99 (B.100, G.100).
" 100 (R101, d.101). M)l(B.102,G.102). 102 (B.103, G.103).
103 (B.104, G.104). ' nirantarh iti viralalvam nuedhati (Ag.).


104. (Uses) : It with the slightly throbbing end is used to
,. indicate .specially, fine, small, loose, lightness, exit, and softness.

10!). Hamsapaksa (swan-wings)— the threefingers stretched,
^he little finger raised and the thumb bent.

106-108. (Uses) : It is used to indicate pouring libation of water, and it should be held near the cheek to represent acceptance of a gift, Acamana and taking meals by Brahmins, embrace, excessive stupor, horripilation, touch, unguent and gentle massage.
It may again be used to indicate according to the [prevailing]
Sentiment, amorous action of women relating to the region between their breasts, their sorrow and touching of their chin.

109, Sandamsa (pincers)— the forefinger and the thumb of the Arala hand crossed and the palm a little hollowed.

110. The Sandamsa (hand) according to the Sentiments and States, is of three kinds, viz. that [held] in front, that near the mouth and that on one side.

111-115. (Uses) : In representing the plucking of flowers, making garlands of them, taking up grass, leaves, hairs or thread and holding or pulling out an arrow or thorn the Sandamsa should be held in one's front. And to represent taking off a flower from
-.Us. stem, the wick [of a lamp], [collyriumj stick, filling up [any vessel with any thing], in saying 'fie [upon you'], and anger, this should be held near the mouth. To represent the sacred thread, piercing a hole [in pearls and similar sbjects], bow-string, fineness, arrow, and objects aimed at, yoga, meditation and small quantity
[two] such hands should be combined. This shown by the left hand held on one fide and slightly turning its tip is used to re- present softness, abuse and envy. It is used also to indicate pain- ting, colouring one's eyes, deliberation, stem, drawing Patralekha and squeezing of lac-dye by women.

116. Mukula (bud) -the fingers bent and close to one another and their tips meeting together in the Halnsasya hand.

104 (B.105, G.105). 105 (B.106, 6-106).

106-108 (B.107-109, G.lll). 109 (1.110, Q.110)

rw(B.lll,Glll). 1U-1I5 (B.112-U6 G). il6(B.117,G.117).



117-118. (Uses) : It is used to represent the making of offerings in worshipping a deity, bud of a lotus or a water-lily, throwing a kiss (vUa-enmhana), contempt, miscellaneous things, taking meals, counting of gold coins, narrowing of the mouth, giving away [anything], quickness and buds of flowers,

119-120. Urnanabha(spider)— the fingers of the Padmkosa hand [further] bent.

(Uses) : It is used to represent the combing of hair, receiving stolen goods, scratching one's head, skin disease, lions, tigers and such other animals, and taking up [touch] — stone.

121-122. , Tamracuda (lit. copper-crest i.e. cock) — the middle finger and the thumb crossed, the fore-finger bent, the remaining
[two fingers] at the palm.

(Uses) : It should fall down with a sound to represent rebuke, beating time, inspiring confidence, quickness, and making signs. 123. This hand is to be used to indicate small fractions of time such as Kala, Kastha, Niinesa and Ksana as well as talking to a young girl and inviting her.

124. When the fingers in a hand are close to one another, bent and the thumb is set on them, the same is [also] called the
Tamracuda hand.

125. By this hand are to be indicated hundred, thousand and lac of gold coins, and when the lingers in it are suddenly made to move freely it will represent sparks or drops.

120. the best of Brahmins, these are the single hands described by me. Now hear about the combined hands which
I am going to describe.

117-118 (B.U8-U2, G.118-U9). "' vilacumbanam svahhiprayam avf- skartum svahastatn, eva mukulitam vitas cumbant'xti vitacumbanam (Ag.).

119-120 (B.120-121, G.120-121). l Cf. Ag's explanation of caurya- graha. 121-123 (B. 122-124, G.12^-123). 123 (B.124, G-124).

124 (B.125. G.125). ' 125 (B.126, G.126). 126 (B.127, G.127).


127. Afijali— Putting together of the two Pataka hands is called Afijali.

(Uses) : It is used to greet gods, venerable persons (guru) and friend 1 .

128. In greeting gods it is to be held on the head, in ease of venerable persons it is to be held near one's face, and for greeting the friends it is to be placed on the breast, and in case of the remaining persons there is no fixed rule.

1 29. Kapota (pigeon)— The two ( A iijali) hands meeting on one of their sides will make the Kapota hand. Listen about its uses. •

130. (Uses) : It is to be used to indicate an approach with inimical attitude, bowing and talking to a venerable person. To indicate cold and fear, women are to hold this hand on their breasts.

131. 'The hands [showing the Kapota gesture] released after the meeting of fingers will indicate anxious words, or 'This much can be done' or 'Nothing more can be done.'

132. Karkata (crab)— When the fingers of the hands are interlocked the Karkata hand is produced.

133. (Uses) : It is used to indicate the bees-wax, 'niassagin<* of the limbs, yawning just after awakening from sleep, a big body, supporting the chin and holding a conch-shell [for blowing it].'

134. Svastika— The two Arala hands upturned and held together at the wrists will form the Svastika. It is to be used by women. 135. (Uses) : When the hands are separated from the
Svastika position, it will indicate directions, clouds, the sky, forests, seas, seasons, the earth and similar [other] extensive things.

127 (B.128, G.128).

128(B.129b-30a,G.129). ] B. adds one additional hemistich after this. 129(B.l30b-131a,G.13O).

130(B.131b-132n,G.131). 131 (B.132b-132a, G.132).

,132 (B.l33b-184a, G.133). 133 (B.134b-135a, G.134).

134 (B.l85b-I36a, G.135). 136 (B,l*6M37a, G.136).


136. Katakavardhamanaka — When one Kataka (mukha) hand is placed on [the wrist ofj another Kataka [mukha] hand the
Katakavardhamanaka hand will be produced.

(Uses) : It is to be used in movements connected with love-making and in bowing [to a person J*

137. Utsanga — When the Arala hands are contrarily placed and are held upturned and bent, the Uts-anga hand will he the result.

(Uses) : It is used to indicate the feeling of touch.

138. It is also used to indicate anything to be done with great effort, acts, of anger and indignation, squeezing [anything] and women's acts of jealousy.

139-140. Nisadha— The left hand holding the [right] arm above the elbow and the right hand similarly touching the left arm with a clenched fist will make a Nisadha hand. 1

141. (Uses) : It is to indicate patience, intoxication, pride, elegance, eagerness, valour, arrogance self-conceit, haughtiness motionlessncss, steadiness and the like.

142. Dola— When the two shoulders are at ease in a
Karana and the two Pataka hands are hanging down the Dola hand is produced.

143. (Uses) : It is to be used in indicating hurry, sadness, fainting, fit of intoxication, excitement, state of illness and wound by a weapon.

1 14. Puspaputa — The two Sarpasirah hands with their lingers close to one another meeting on one side very closely will give rise to the Puspaputa hand. „*

m (B.137b-138.., G.137). 137 (B.13U, G.138). 138 (B 140, G.139).

139-140 (B 144-145). ' G. omits this passage and 141, and read them differently, but in the footnote to lines 1 1-16 the definition occurs, and the uses too. B. also gives an additional definition and uses of the Nisadha in B.141 143.

141 (B.146). ' See note 1 to 139-140.

142(B.148,G.142). ' 143 (B.149, G.143).

144 (B.150, G.144).. ' - "145 (B.151, G-145).


145. (Uses) : It is to be used to indicate the receiving or carrying of rice, fruits, flowers and foods of various kinds and the carrying and removing of water.

146. Makara— When the two Pataka hands with their thumbs raised are turned down and. placed on each other the
Makara hand is produced.

147. (Uses) : It is used to indicate lion, tiger, elephant, crocodile, shark (mal-ara) and fish and other carnivorous animals.

148 Gajadanti— The two Sarpasirah hands, 'touching the opposite arms between the shoulder and the elbow will give rise to the Gajadanta hand.

149. (Uses) : It is to be used to indicate the carrying of the bridegroom and the bride, excessive weight, clasping a pillar and uprooting a hill or a block of stone.

150. Avahittha— When the two 6ukatundi hands m.ut each other on the breast and are bent and then slowly lowered, the
Avahittha hands will be the result.

151. (Uses) ; It is to be used in indicating weakness, sigh, showing one's body, thinness [of the body] and longing [for a be- loved person"!.

152. Vardhamana— When the Mukula hand is clasped by the Kapittha the result will be the Vardhamana hand.

153. (Uses) : By pressing one hand with the other it is used to indicate grasping, receiving, preserving, convention (or doctrine) truthfulness and abridgement.

154. Or the two Hamsapaksa hands turned down will be the known as the Vardhamana. (Uses) : It is to be used to represent the opening of objects like latticed windows.

155. The two kinds of hands (single and combined)

146 (B.152, 0.146). 147 (B.153, 0.147).

148 (B.154, G.148). H9 (B.155, 0.149).

150 (B.156, G.150). 151 (B.157, 0.151).

152-153. J Ms. 67. of 0. and (la of B. road tho passages as we do but B. and 0. reject this and read thorn differently.

154 (B 158, G.152). 155 (B.160, G.153).


described briefly may be used elsewhere also in conformity with the rules laid down here.

General rules regarding the use of hand gestures

156. In acting, hand [gestures] should be selected for their form, movement, significance, and class according to the personal judgement [of the actor].

157. There is no gesture (lit. hand^that cannot be used in indicating [some] idea. I have profusely described whatever forms
(lit. gestures) are usually seen [to be associated with different ideas]. 158. There are besides other popular gestures (lit. hand) connected with other ideas, and they also are to be freely used along with the movements inspired by the Sentiments and the States.

159. These gestures should be used by males as well as females with proper regard to place, occasion, the play undertaken and a suitability of their meaning.

Different movements of hand gestures

160. I shall now describe the varied movements which these gestures (lit hands) [should] have in connexion with th»,
[different] Sentiments and States.

161-163. [These movements are] : drawing upwards, dragg- ing, drawing out, accepting, killing, beckoning, urging, bringing together, separating, protecting, releasing, throwing, shaking, giving away, threatening, cutting, piercing, squeezing and beating.

164. Hand gestures according to the theory of Histrionic
Representation are to have three kinds of general movements, viz* upwards, sideways and downwards.

165. These movements of hands should at the time of their use, be embellishad by means of [suitable] expressions in the eyes, the eyebrows and the face.

156 (B.161, G.154). 157 (B.162, B.G.155).

158 (B 163, G.156). 159 (B.164, G.157).

160 (B.165, G.158). 161-163 (B.166-168, G.159 161),

164 (B.169, G.173). . 165 (B.l 70, G.162).


Spheres of hand gestures

160. The experts are to use the hand gestures according to the popular practice and, [in this matter] they should have an eye to their movement, object, sphere, quantity, appropriateness and mode.

167. Hand gestures of persons of the superior type should move near their forehead, that of the middling type of [ ersons at about their breasts while the inferior persons [should move their hand gestures in regions] below this.

The quantity of gestures

168. In the superior acting, hand gestures should have scanty movement, in the middling acting medium sort of movement, while the ordinary acting should have profuse movements of hand gestures. 169. To indicate different objects and ideas the hand gestures of persons of the superior and the middling types [in such cases] should conform the definitions given [in the Sastra] while gestures of the persons of inferior type should follow the popular practice and their [own] natural habit.

170. But when [specially] different occasions or times present themselves, wise people should make different uses of the hand gestures.

171-174. While a person is to represent himself as sad, fainting, terrified, overcome with disgust or sorrow, weak, asleep, handless, inactive, drowsy, inert, sick, attacked with fever, seized with panic, attacked with cold, intoxicated, bewildered, mad, thoughtful, practising austerities, residing in a cold region, prisoner under arrest, running very swiftly, speaking in dream, suddenly moving away and cutting nails he is not to use hand gestures, but he should resort to the Representation of the Temperament as well as to the change of voice suitable to the different States and

166 (B.171, G.163). 167 (B 172, 0.164).

168 (B.173, G.166). 169 (B.174, G.166).

170 (B.175, G.167). 171-174 (B.176-179, G.168-171).


175. At the time of verbal acting {i.e. when the actor will enunciate his part) the eyes and the look are to be directed to points at which the hand gestures are moving, and there should be proper stops so that the meaning may be [clearly] expressed (lit. seen) 1 .

17G. The movements of hands in dancing and acting will be of five kinds, viz. palms kept upwards, downwards or oblique, fingers pointing upwards or downwards.

177. These are the hand gestures connected with the various kinds of Histrionic Representations. I shall now speak of Dance- hands (i e. gestures to be used in dance).

The Dance-hands

] 78. Caturasra — two Katakamukha hands held forward eight Angulls apart [from each other] on one's breast, the two shoulders and elbows on the same level.

1 79. Udvrtta — the two Hamsapaksa hands waved like a palm-leaf (fan). Its alternative name is the Talavrnta (palm-leaf).

180. Talamukha— the two hands from the Caturasra position to be held obliquely facing each other.

181. Svastika — the Talamukha hands crossed at the wrists ; but released after this they are called Vipraklrna.

182. Aralakatakamukha— the two Alapallava (Alapad- maka) hands with palms upwards changed into Padmakosa hands.
Its another name is Aralakataka-

183. Aviddhavaktraka— The two hands are to have a graceful (leutila) movement after touching [successively] the oppo- site shoulder, elbow and hands, and the palms [of the hands] moved are to turn towards the back.

175 (B.180, G.172). ' B. repeats hero 164 (B.169)

176 (B.182, G.175). i 77 (B.183, G.176).
178 (B 184, G.177). 179 (B.185, G.178).
180 (B.186, G.179). 181 (B.187, G.180).

182 (B.188, G.181). l B.G. read after this a variant of this definition. , . 183 (B.190, G.183).


184. Sudmukha—The two' S&rpt^ir&h hands with their thumbs touching middle fingers are to stretch their tips obliquely.

185. Recita - the two Hamsapaksa hands swiftly moving with the palms facing upward This is like the ordinary Recita [of the hands].

186. Ardharecita-The left hand should be as in the
Caturasra and the right hand as in the Recita.

187. UttSnavancita— The two Tripataka hands are slightly bent obliquely and the shoulders and the&lbows are moved.

188. Pallava— the two Pataka hand joined at the wrist.

Nitamba— the two Pataka hands taken out from the shoulder
[to the hip].

1K9. Kesabandha— the two hands moved out from the hair-knot (kwbnmUm) and held on the sides.

190. Lata— the two hands to be obliquely stretched sideways. 191. Karihasta— the Lata hand held up and swung from side to side and the Tripataka hand held on the ear.

192. Paksavaiicitaka-ono Tripataka hand placet! on the waist and another on the head.

193. Paksapradyotaka-the Paksavancitaka 'hands chang- ing places (/.,. the hands placed on the waist to be put on the head and vice versa).

194. Dandapaksa-the two Harnsapaksa hands moved alternately and then held out like a staff.

195. Ordhvamandall-the two hands to have circling movement near the upper region {i.,. the upper part of the body).

mfl^a"* ' M -« a *-«"«— ^definition.
185(B.193,G.186). 186 (B.1 H G.187)

187(B.195,G.188X 188(B.196,G.189)

189(B.197,G.190). 190 (B.198,G.I91)

1^.199,0.192). 192(B.200,G.198). '

1»»»1.0.19A IMflUeW-Mft 195(8.203,0.196)-


Partivamandall — the same movement made on one side.

1 96. Uromandall — affer circling movements one hand to be raised up and the other to hang down, and movements to take place near the breast.

197.. Urahparsvardhamandala — the Alapallava (Alapad- maka) and Argla hands moved by turns above the breast and on the sides.

198. Mustikasvastika — the two Katakamukha hands bent at the wrists and moved round.

199. Nalinipadmako&i the hands to be moved by turns with Vyavartita and Parivartita Karana.

200. Allapallava — the two hand to have the Udvestita
Karana in their movements.

Ulbana— the two hands to be stretched up and waved.

201. Lalita — two [Ala]-pallava (Alapadmaka) hands to be moved above the head.

Valita— the two Lata hands crossed at their elbows.

202. The Dance-hands are to be used in forming Karanas and hands such as the Pataka should be used in representing the meaning [of words],

203. [But] sometimes, out of necessity their uses are inter- changed, and the names given are due to their predominant use in drama and dance.

204 The Dance-hands are of two kinds : single and com- bined. I shall now speak of hands in relation to the Karanas. 1

The four Karanas of the hand

205-206. Instructors of hand gestures are to note carefully the four classes into which all such gestures are grouped. The four classes are : A"vestita, Udvestita, Vyavarita and Parivartita.

196 (B.204, G.197). 197 (B.205, 0.198). 198 (B.206, G.199).
199 (B.207, G.200). 200 (B.208, G.201). 201 (B.209, G.202).
202 (B.210). » G. omits this. 203 (B.211). * G. omits this. N
204 (B.212, G.203). ' This - Karana is evidently differently from the
K. mentoned in H& IV. 62ff. 205-206 (B.213-214, G.204-2W).


207. Avestita : When the fingers beginning with the first one (the forefinger) are gradually pointing inwards at the time [the hand] moves round, the Karana [thus produced] is called Avestita.

208. Udvestita : When the fingers beginning with the first one [forefingers] are gradually pointing outwards at the time
[the hand] moves round, the Karana thus produced is called

209. Vyavartita : When fingers beginning with the last one (the little finger) are gradually pointing inwards at the time
[the hand] moves round the Karana thus produced is called

210 Parivartita : When the fingers beginning with the last one (tho little finger) are gradually pointing outwards at the time [the hand] moves round, the Karana thus produced, is called

211. Hand gestures in their [various] movements when applied in drama and dance should be followed by Karanas having
[appropriate expression of] the face, the eyebrows and the eyes.

The movements of arms

212-213. Persons dealing in drama and dance have pres- cribed ten [movements] of arms : Tiryak, Drdhvagata, Adhomukha,
Aviddha, Apaviddha, Mandala, Svastika, Aiicita, Kuncita and

214. O Brahmins, I have now finished the brief description of rules regarding the Karanas and shall speak afterwards about the movements of the breast, the belly and the sides.

Here ends Chapter IX of Bharata's Natyas'astra which treats of the Gestures of Hands.

207 (B.215, G.206). 208 (B.216, G.207).

209 (B.217, G.208). 210 (B.218, G.209).

211 (B.219, G.210). 212 (B.220, G.211).

213 (B.221, G.212). 214 (B.222, G.213).



The breast

1. The breast is known to bo of five kinds : Abhugna
(slightly bent), Nirbhugna (unbent), Prakampita (shaking), Udvahita

(raised) and Sama (natural).

2. Abhugna (slightly bent)— (the bratst) lowered, back high, shoulders slightly bent and at times loose (not stiff).

3. (Uses) ; in hurry, despair, fainting, sorrow, fear, sickness,- broken heart, touching of cold objects, rains and being ashamed of some act.

4. Nirbhugna (unbent)— (the breast) stiff, back depressed, shoulders not bent and raised.

5. (Uses) : in paralysis, having resentment, look of surprise, assertion of truth, mentioning oneself haughtily, and excess of pride. 6. Prakampita (shaken) — the breast incessantly heaved up
[and down].

7. (Uses) : in laughter, weeping, weariness, panic, [fit ofj asthma, hiccough, and misery.

8. Udvahita (raised)— the breast raised up.

(Uses) : in (representing) deep breathing, viewing some lofty
[object], and yawning.

9. Sama (natural)— All the limbs being in the Caturasra and with Saustlmva the breast will be called Sama (natural).

1 (B.IX.223, G.l). 2 (B.IX.224, G.2).

3 (B.IX.225, G.3). 4 (B.JX226, G.4).

5 (B.IX.227, G.5). l B.G. read after this an additionafeouplet-

6 (B.IX.229, 0.1). 7 (B.IX.280, G.8).
8 (B.IX.281, G.9). 9 (B.IX.232, G.10).


The aides

UK I have properly described the variety of the breast movements. And I shall now define here the two sides.

11. The sides are of five kinds, viz., Nata (bent), Samunnata
(raised), Prasarita (extended), Virvartita (turned round) and
Apasrta (drawn away).

12-15. Nata (bent)— the waist slightly bent, one side slightly bent, one shoulder drawn away slightly.

Unnata (raised)— The other side [on the assumption of the
Nata position] will be Unnata (raised), [because in relation of it] the waist, the side, the arm and the shoulder will be raised.

Prasarita (stretched)- the stretching of the sides in their
(respective) directions.

Vivartita (turned round)— the Trika (sacrum) is to be turned round.

Prasrta (drawn away)— the side restored to its original position from the Vivartita movement [described above].
These are the definition of the various kinds of sides.

Uses of the sides
16-17. Nata (bent)— in approaching any body.
Unnata (raised)— in going backwards.
Prasarita (stretched)— in joy and the like.
Vivartita (turned round) -in turning about.
Apasrta (drawn away)— in returning.

These are the uses of sides. Now listen about those of the belly

The belly
18. The belly is of three kinds : Ksama (thin), Khalva
(depressed), and Puma (full). Of these, the thin (belly) is Ksama, the bent is Khalva and the full belly is Purna.

10(B.IX.233,G.ll). ll(B.IX.284,G.12).

12-15 (B.IX.235-238, G.13-16). - B roads nmrtita.
• 16-17 (B.1X. 239-240, 0.17-10. 1 8 (B.IX.241, 0.19).


' Uses of the belly


19-20. JCfama, (thin) : in laughter, weeping, inhalation and yawning. Khalva (depressed) : in sickness, penance (tapas), weariness and hunger.

Purna (full) : in emitting breath, fatness, disease, too much eating and the like.

These are the uses of the belly. Now listen about that of the waist.

The waist

21-24. The waist in dance and drama is of five kinds, viz.
Chinna (turned aside), Nivrtta, (turned round), Recita (moved about), Prakampita =Kampita (shaken) and Udvahita (raised).

Chinna (turned aside)— in turning the middle of the waist.

Nivrtta (turned round)— in turning to the front from the reverse position.

Recita (moved about) — in moving in all directions.

Prakampita (shaken)— in obliquely moving up and down.

Udvahita (raised)— in raising the two sides of the waist slowly. These are the movements of the waist. Now listen about their uses.

Uses of the waist

25-26. Chinna (turned aside) : in exercising [the limbsl hurry and looking round.

Nivrtta (turned round) : in turning round.

Recita (moved about) : in movements [of the general type].

Prakampita (shaken) : in the walking of hunch-backs and persons of the inferior type.

19-20 (BJX,242-243a, 244a, G.20-21). l B.G. read an additional ho- mistieh between 20a and 20b.

21-24 (BJX.244b-248a, G.22-25). > B.G. read differentiy.
25-26 (B.IX.248b-250a, G.26-27X


Udvahita (raised) : in the [movement of] corpulent [persons] and the amorous movements of women.

The thigh

27-30. The thighs have five conditions, viz. Kampana
(shaking) Valana (turning), Stambhana (motionlessness), Udvartana
(springing up) and Vivartana (turning round).

31, Kampana (shaking)— raising and lowering of heels repeatedly. Valana (turning)— drawing the knees inwards [while going].
Stambhana (motionlessness)— suspension of movement.
Udvartana (springing up)— drawing the knee inwards (valita) and moving it.

Vivartana (turning rould)— drawing the heels inwards.
Uses of the thigh

32. Kampana (shaking) : in the frightened movement of persons of the inferior type.

Valana (turning) : in the movement of women at ease.
Stambhana (motionlessness) : in perturbation and despair.
Udvartana (springing up) : in exercising [the limbs] and the
Class Dance.

Vivartana (turning round) : in going round due to causes like hurry.

33. Similar other [conditions of the thigh] as they are found in popular practice, may be assumed. So much about the description of the thigh. Now listen about the shank.

The shank

34-37. The shank is of five kinds, viz Xvartita (turned)
Nata (bent), Ksipta (throwwout), Udvahita (raised) and Parivrtta
(turned back).

27-30 (B.IX.250b-253, G.28-31a).
. 30-32 (B.IX.254-256a, G.31b-33).
33 (B.IX.256b-257a, 0.34). ■ 34-37 (BJX.257b-258a, G.35),


Avartita (turned)— the left foot turning to the right and the right [one] to the left. x

Nata (bent) — the knee bent.

Ksipta (thrown out)— shank thrown out. 1

Udvahita (raised)— raising [a shank] up.

Parivrtta (turned back) — the turning back [of a shank].

Uses of the shank
38-40. Avartita (turned) : in the Jester's walking.
Nata (bent) : in assuming Sthana (standing) and Asaiia
(sitting) postures,

Ksipta (thrown out) ". in the exercise [of limbs] and the
Class Dance.

Udvahita (raised) : in movements like quick (avidtlha) walking. Parivrtta (turned back) : in Class Dance and the like.
These are the movements of the shank. Now listen about the movement of the feet.

The feet and their uses

41-50. The feet are of five kinds, viz. Udghattita, Sama,
Agratalasancara, Ancita and Kuiicita.

Udghattita — standing on the fore part of the feet and then touching the ground with the heels.

(Use) : In practice this is to follow the Udghattita Karana and this should be applied once or more in the high or medium speed. Sama (natural) — [feet] naturally placed on an even ground.
It relates to representing a natural posture.

(Use) : It should be kept still in representing the natural

88-40 (BJX.262b-263a, G.39).

41-50 (B.IX.265b-270a, 273b-278a, G.42-45, 47-52). » B. adds three additional couplets after 45, and G. adds one additional couplet after 44.
9 B. reads si At/a for ksa/a meaning 'wound'.

196 THE NAT* ASASTBA [ X. 51.

position of the body in connexion with the various Kansas, but in the Becaka movement of the feet it should be moved.

Agratalasaucara— the heels thrown up, the big toe put forward and the other toes bent.

(Uses) : This [is to be used] in urging, breaking, standing posture (stli&naha), kicking, striking the ground, walking, throwing away [something], various Recaka movements and walking on the forepart [of the foot] due to an wound at the heel.

Anclta— the heels on the ground, the forepart of the feet raised and all the toes spread.

(Uses) ; It is to be applied in representing a movement with wound at the forepart of the foot, turning round in every way, foot being struck [by something] and in various Bhramarl movements.

KuScita— the heels thrown up, toes all bent down and the middle of the feet too bent.

51. (Uses) : It is to be used in aristocratic (iidatta) going, turning round to the right and vice versa and the Atikranta Cart,

The Carls

52. Persons practising [the Carts] should take up simul- taneously the movements of the feet^ the shanks and the thighs.
[For] in the movement of feet are included all the movements of the shanks and the thighs.

53. The thighs follow the way in which the feet are moved, and these two [limbs] constitute together the Carl of the feet.

54. These are the descriptions and uses of the [various] limbs. I shall now describe the System of the [different] Caris.

Here ends Chapter X. of Bharata's Natya&stra, which treats of the Gestures of other Limbs

61 (BJX.278-279a, G.53). ' B. reads after this three additional hemistichs wich define the Sari foot as follows : The [right foot with its] heel raised resting on the big toe and the left foot in the natural position constitute the Sue! feet. It is used in dance and playing the Napura.
• 52 (B.IX.281, G.56). 53 (B.IX.282, G.57).

54 (B.IX.283, G.58).




1. As the Girls prescribed by rules and connected with
[different] limbs relate to (vyayacchante from vya-yam, stretch out to) one another they constitute (lit arc called) a vyayama
(System) 1 .

2. Cart : The movement [mainly] with a single foot, is called the Carl'.

Karana 1 : The two feet moving [together] is called the Karana.

3. Khanda : A combination of the [three] Karanas is called the Khanda.

Mandala : Throe or four Khandas combine to make up tho Mandala.

Uses of the Carl

4. From the Caris proceed dance as well as movements
[in general] and release of missiles ; and [the stage] fighting [in general] should be made with the Carls.

5. Whatever has been described as Histrionic Representa- tion (nlklya) is included in the Carts, and no part of it can take place without the same.

6. Hence I shall described the rules of the Carts which are to be used in dance, ordinary movements and fights [on the stage].

The thirtytwo Caris

7-9. The following sixteen are the earthly (bhaunii) Carts :
Samapada, Sthitavarta, ^akatasya, Adhyardhika, Casagati, Vicyava,

1 (B.X.2, G.2). * B.G. road one additional couplet before this. i (B.X.S, G 3). l This karana should be distinguished from that mentioned in N& IV. 80, 34-75, 63ff. 3 (B.X.4, G.4).

4 (B.X.5, G.5). 5 (B.X.6/G.6). 6 (B.X.7, G.7). .

7*9 (B.X.8-10, G.8-10).


Edakakridita, Baddha, Urudvrtta, Addita, Utsyandita, 1 Janita,
Syandita 2 , Apasyandita 8 , Sainotsarita-matalli and Matalli.

10-12. The aerial (afcastfo) Carls are sixteen in number.
They are as follows : Atikranta, Apakranta, Parsvakranta,
TJrdhvajanu, Suei, Nupurapadika, Dolapada, Aksipta, Aviddha,
UdvrttS, Vidyudbhriinta, Alata, Bhujaugatrasita, Harirtapluta,
Dandii and Bhramaii.

The earthly Carls

13. Samapada - the two feet close together, the nails [of the toes] meeting, and standing on the spot 1 .

14. Sthit&varta — one Agratalasaiicara foot drawn up to cross the remaing foot and this movement repealed with another foot after separating the two.

15. Sakatasyii— -the body held upright, one Agratalasaiicara foot put forward and the breast being Udvahita.

1C. Adhyardhika— the left foot on the back (i.e. heel) of the right one, the latter to be drawn away [a Tala and half a part]. 1

17. Casagati— the right foot put forward and then drawn back aud at the same time left foot drawn back and put forward afterwards. 1 8. Vicyava — seperating the feet from the Samapada posi- tion and striking the ground with their fore part.

19. Edakakridita — jumping up and down with the Tala-

saiicara feet.

1 G. reads names as Ulspandita, Apaspandita and Spandita and B. as Ulspandita, Syandita, and Apasyandita. I have been taken the root syand as the basis of all these names. Mas. erratically give syand and spand. '■> sec note 1 above. 8 Hid.

10-12 (B.X.11-13, G.ll-13).

13 (B.X.14, G 14). ' On the appropriateness of this name Ag. writes ■. ii wn?r ^ v ^(fa,, _ ^^ft m vm ^ „ mmm i^ft ma wra<t *M«i* iterant m aiq^lftft WW.

14(8X16,0.15). 15(B.X.16,G.l6).

16 (B.X.17, G.17). • The exact measure (1£ tola) is given by Ag,

17 (B.X.18, G.18). 18 (BX19, G.19). 19 (B.X.20, G.20).


20. Baddha — The sideways movement of the thighs when the two shanks are crossed.

21. Urudvrtta — the heel of a Talasaiicara foot placed outwards, one of the shanks to be slightly bent and the thigh turned up.

22. Addita — one Agratalasancara foot rubbing against the fore part or the back of another foot.

23. Utsyandita — the two feet to move gradually side- ways (lit. in and out) in the manner of the Recaka.

24. Janita — a Musti hand held on the breast and another hand movod round, and the feet to be Talasaiicara.

25. Syandita— one foot put forward five TiilaS away from the other.

Apasyandita — the reverse of the Syandita Can (i.e. another foot being put forward five Talas away from the other).

26- Samotsarita-matalli — going back with a circular move- ment and the feet being of the Talasaiicara kind.

27. Mattali— going back with a circular movement and hands being Udvestita and motionless.

28. These arc the Caris used in pesonal combat as well as in the Karanas. I shall now describe the aerial Carls.

The aerial Carls

29. Atikranta— a Kuficita foot thrown up, put forward and caused to fall on the ground.

HO. Apakranta— the Valana posture of the two thighs, a
Kuncita foot raised and thrown down sideways.

31. ParSvakranta— one foot Kuncita and another thrown up. and brought near the side.

20 (B.X.21, G.21), 21 (B.X.22, 0.22). 22 (B.X.23, 0.23).

23 (B.X.24, 0.24). 24 (B.X.25, 0.25). 25 (B.X.26, G.26).

26 (B.X.27, G.27). 27 (BX.28, 0.28). 28 (B.X.29, G.29).

29 (B.X.30, G.30). 30 (RX.31, 0.31). 31 (B.X.32, G.32).


32. TJrdhvajanu--throwing up a Kufieita foot and its knee brought up to the level of the breast, and the remaining knee with- out movement and then this second foot thrown up in the manner of the first, and the first foot kept motionless.

33. Suci— a Kuiicita foot thrown up and brought above the knee of the remaining foot and then to let it fall on its fore part. 34. Nupurapadika— one Aficita foot raised up and taken behind another foot and then quickly caused to fall on the ground.

35. Dolapada— one Kuiicita foot thrown up and moved from side to side and then caused te fall on the ground as an
Aficita foot,

36. Sksipta— one Kuiicita foot thrown off and then placing it quickly on an Ancita foot by crossing the shank of the remaining leg.

37. Aviddha— one Kuiicita foot from the Svjistika posi- tion stretching and falling on the ground quickly as an Aficita foot.

38. Udvrtta— the (Kufieita) foot of the Aviddha Carl taken round [the thigh of the remaining leg] and thrown up and then caused to fall [on the ground].

39. Vidyudbhranta— one foot turned to the back and after touching its top part to be stretched and the head moved in a circle.

40. Alata— one foot stretched backward^ and then put in and afterwards caused to fall in its heel.

41. Bhujangatrasita— one Kuiicita foot thrown up and the waist and the knee being turned round and the thigh [of the remaining foot] to be turned round too.

42. Harinapluta — the foot in the Atikranta Cart to be caused to fall on the ground after a jump and the shank of an
Aficita foot to be put in the Ksipta posture.

32 (B.X.33, G.33). 33 (B.X.34, G.84). 34 (B.X.35, G.35).

35 (B.X.36, G 36). 36 (B.X 37, G.37). 37 (B X 38, G.38).

38 (B.X.39, G.39). 39 (B.X.40, G.40). 40 (B.X41, G.41).

41 (B.X.42, G.42). 42 (B.X.43, G.43).


43. Dandapada : the foot in the Nupura— [padika] Cari to be stretched and quickly to turn.

44 Bhramari : the foot in the Atikranta Cari to be tlirown up and the entire body turned round (lit. the Trika turned round) and then the second foot to be moved on its sole.

45. These are the aerial Cari?, consisting of graceful movements of the limbs. These are to be applied in the release of weapons like an arrow and the thunderbolt (vajra).

46. O, Brahmins, in all these cases the two hands should, according to the circumstances, either precede, go simultaneously with or follow the feet.

47. Where the foot [moves], there the hand [should follow] and where the hand [moves], there the entire body. [Hence] after taking a step, all the minor limbs should be made use of.

48. When in course of a Cari a foot, comes to rest on the ground the [corresponding] hand should bo moved round and brought on the waist.

49. I have fiinished describing the Caris consisting of grace- ful movements of the limbs. I shall now speak of the Sthanas
(standing posture) to be used in the release of missiles of all kinds.

The Sthanas

50. The six Sthanas (standing postured for men are
Vaisnava, Sampada, Vaisakba, Mandaln, A~lidha, and Pratyaltdha.

51-52. Vaisnava — the feet two Tolas and a half apart, one foot in the natural posture and another obliquely placed with toes pointing sideways and the shank bent (ahcita) and limbs with the Sausthava. Visnu is the presiding deity of this Sthana.

53. (Uses) : From this Sthana persons of the superior and the middling types should carry on their ordinary (lit. natural) conversation in connexion with the various duties.

43 (B.X.44, 0.44) 44 (B. X 43, G.45). 45 (B.X.46, 0.46).

46(B.X.47,0.47). 47 (B.X.48, G.4S). 48 (B.X.49, 0.49).

49(B.X.50,G.50). 50(B.X.51,G.51).

51-52 (B.X.52-53, G.52-53). . 53 (B.X.54, G.54).




54. It should also be assumed in throwing a disc, holding a bow, in patient and stately movement of the limbs and in anger.

55*57. On being reversed it is to be used in anger of love.
And similarly in the administration of rebuke, and in love, distress, apprehension, envy, cruelty, assurance, and recollection, it is to be assumed when the Erotic, the Marvellous, the Odious and the
Heroic Sentiments are prominently introduced.

57-58. Samapada — the feet in the natural posture and kept one Tala apart and the body with the natural Sausthava. Brahman is its presiding deity.

58-CO. (Uses) : It should be assumed in accepting blessings from the Brahmins 1 , and in mimicking birds. The bridegroom at the marriage ceremony, persons in the sky, chariot and aerial car
(vimana), persons 2 of marked sects (liiigastlia) and persons practis- ing vows are also to assumethis.

00-62. Vaisakha — the two feet three Talas and a half apart and the thighs without motion ; [besides this] the two feet to be obliquely placed pointing sideways. Kartikeya (Skanda) is its presiding deity.

62-64. (Uses) : This Sthana should be assumed in riding horses, and in exercise, exit [from any place], mimicking large birds, practice of bending the bow and in the Re&ikas [of the feet].

64^65. Mandala : It relates to Indra (i.e. its presiding deity is Indra). In it the feet are four Talas apart and they are obliquely placed and turned sideways, the waist and the knee are in the natural position.

54 (B.X. 55, G.55). 55-57 (B.X.56-58, 56-57).

57-58 (B.X.58-59, 0.58).

58-60 (B.X.59-61, G.59-60). ' vipramahgala—vipraih yatt mahga- lasirvacanadi (Ag.).

2 Uhgasthan—UivHyah vratastha urdhvakayadi trajhahgah (?)

60- 62 (B.X.61-63, G.61-62). 62-64 (B.X.63-65, G.63-64),

64-65 (B.X.65-66, G.65).


65-66. (Uses) : The Mandala Sthana should be assumed in the use of weapons like the bow and the thunderbolt, riding of elephants, and mimicking large birds.

60-67. Slldha : The right foot in the Mandala Sthana drawn five Talus apart [from the other foot] will make the Alidha
Sthana. Rudra is its presiding deity.

67-69. (Uses) : This Sthana should bo assumed in all acts relating to the Heroic and the Furious Sentiments, duel of wrestlers and in the representation of enemies, an attack [on them], and release of missiles.

69-70. Pratyalidha : When the right foot is bent and the left foot is put forward in the Alidha Sthana the Pratyalidha
Sthana will be produced.

70-71. (Uses) : The missiles made ready for throwing from the Alidha Sthana arc to be [actually] thrown from the Pratyalidha
Sthana. The actor should use various weapons from this Sthana-

The four Nyayas iu using weapons

71-72. There are four Nyayas (ways) of using weapons (lit. releasing missiles), viz. Bharata, Sattvata, Varsaganya, and

72-7;5. In the Bhiirata [Nyaya the weapon] should strike
(lit. cut) at the waist, in the Sattvatta at the foot, in the Varsaganya at the breast and in the Kaislka at the head.

73-74. In these Nyayas arising out of the various Carts, the actors should walk about [on the stage] at [the time of] using weapons. 74-75. The Nyayas (way) are so called 1 because fights [on the stage] are nlyante (carried on) with the Angaharas relating to the Nyiiyas and arising out of them.

66-66 (B.X.66-67, G.66). 66-67 (B.X.67-68, G.67).

67-69 (B.X.68-70, G.68-69). 69-70 (B.X.70-71, G.70).

70-71 (B.X.71-72, G.71). 71-72 (B.X.72-73, G.72),

72-73 (B.X.73-74, G.73). • 73-74 (B.X.74-75, G.74).

74-75 (B.X.75-76 G.75). ' prakirliiah B. reads pravartitah.



75.79 Bharata: Putting forward the shield with the left tad and taking the sword (lit. weapon)* actor should walk about on the stage. Stretching the hand forward fully and then drawing It back he should move the shield at his back from side to side and flourish the swovd (lit. weapon) around his head, and it should also be turned round [about the wrist] near the cheek.
And again the hands holding the sword and the shield should be flourished gracefully around the head.

80-81. Sattvata : I shall now speak of walking about in tbc Sattvata Nyaya. In it the same flourishing (/.«. as in Bharata) of the sword and the shield holds good, but this (the flourishing of the weapon) should take place at one's back.

81-82. Varsaganya . The walking about in the Varsaganya
Nyaya will be similar to that in the Sattvata, and the sword (lit, weapon) and the shield also should be flourished similarly, but these should go round the head.

83-84. Kaisika : The flourishing of the sword (lit. weapon) near the breast or the shoulder which is to take place in the
Bharata [Nyaya] will hold good in case of the KaWika. But [in the latter] the sword (lit. weapon) should be made to strike only after being flourished over the head.

84-85. With these graceful movements of the limbs weapons like the bow, the thunderbolt and the sword are to be flourished at the time of their use.

85-87. In the stage-fight there should be no [actual] pier- cing, cutting or flow of blood and the actual striking. The use of weapons (lit. release of missiles) should be done with its mimicry, or the cutting off [of any one's limb] should be represented, according rules, by the use of gestures and postures only.

78-88. The cxerciso should be performed in the Angaharas


76-79 (B.X.76-80, G.76-80). 80-81 (B.X.81-82, G.80-81).

81-82 (B.X.82-83, G.82-83) 83-84 (B.X.84-85, G.83-84).

84-85 (B.X.85-86, G.85). 85-87 (B.X.76-88, G.76-87).

•87-88 (B.X.88-89.G.88). ' B.G. road ono additional couplet after


embellished with* flic Bausthava and accompanied by music with
[proper] tempo and Tala.

The Sausthava
8S-01- Those performing the exercises [in] should tote care of the Saustlmva, for the limbs without it
(Saustlmva) create no beauty (lit. do not shine) in drama or dance. The Sausthava of limbs is to be presented by being still, unbent, at ease, not very upright and not much bent. When the waist and the ears as well as the elbow, the shoulder and the head are in their natural position (mma) and the breast is raised it will be the Saustlmva [of the body]. 1

The Caturasra

91-92. Calurasara : The Vaisnava Stbana with the two hands moving about at the waist and the navel together with the breast raised, is called the Caturasra of the limbs.

The four acts relating to the bow

92-93. There are four acts relating to the bow, viz. prepar- ing (parimarjana), taking an arrow (adam), taking an aim
(mndhana) and shooting (»Wi - *iina).

93-94. The preparing (pai-imarymn) 1 is the bending [of the bow], taking (ijralutna) is the pulling out of [the arrow], taking an aim (sandhana) is to put the arrow to the bow, and shooting
(molcmnd) is the release [of the arrow].

The method of exercise

9 4-95. '. One should perform exercise [in the Angaharas and
Caris] on the floor as well as [high up] in the air and should have beforehand get one's body massaged with the [sesamum] oil or barely gruel.

88-91 (B.X.89b, 91-93, G.89b 90-92). l B.G. read one additional couplet after this.

91-92 (B.X.94-95, G.94). 92-93 (B.X.95-96, G.95).

93-94 (B.X.96-97, G.96). l G. reads samtnarjana.
94-95 (B.X.97-98, G.97).


95-90. The floor is the proper place (lit. mother) for exercise. Hence one should resort to the floor, and stretching oneself over it one should take exercise.

Health and nourishment of persons taking exercise

96-99. For the strength of body one should take [proper] snuff and get oneself purged [lit. resort to the rule regard- ing the abdomen], take agreeable food, [meat-] juice and drink.
For vitality is dependent on one's nourishment and the exercise is dependent on vitality. Hence one should be careful about one's nourishment. When the body is not cleansed and one is very tired, hungry, thirsty, has drunk too much [water], eaten too much, one shonld not take exercise. The wise [teacher] should give training in exercise to his pupil who has a graceful body and square breast and is not covered with [much] garment.

100. These are the rules regarding the Cans in connexion with the exercise of [the limbs]. I shall hereafter speak of the different Mandates.

Here ends Chapter XI of Bharata's Niityasastra which treats of the Rule of Caris.

95-96 (B.X.98-99, G.98).

96-99 (B.X.99-102, G.99-102). 100 (B.X.103, G.103).


Tho Mandates

1. I have now properly described the Caris in connexion with the use of weapons (lit. release of missiles). [Now] learn about the Mandalas arising out of a combination of the Caris.

2-3. The aerial Mandalas are : Atikranta, Vicitra, Lalita- saiicara, Sucividdba, Dandapada, Vihrta, Alata, Vamaviddha,
Lalita and Kranta 1 .

3-5. The earthly Mandalas are Bhramara, Askandita 1 ,
Avarta, Samotsarita, Edakakridita, Ad jitn, Sakatasya, and Casagata.
[Now] listen about their description. 2

The aerial Mandalas

6-9. Atikranta — the right foot [to be moved successively] in the Janita Can and [the Sakatasya Cari in which tho breast is]
Udvahita, the left foot in the Alata Cari and the right foot in the
Parsvakranta Cari. (next) the left foot in the Suci Cari and the right foot in the Apakranta Can, [again] the left foot [successively] in the Suci Cari and [the Bhramari Cari by] turning the Trika 1 ,
(then) the right foot in the Udvritta Cari and the left foot in the
Alata Cari which should be changed (lit. divided) to the Bhramari
Cart, again this left foot in the Alata Cari and the right foot in the Dandapada Can.

10-13. Vicitra — the right foot [successively to be moved] in the Janita Cari and in the Talasancara 1 (Nikuttana), manner

MB.XI. 1,0.1).

2-3 (B.XJ.2-3, 0.2-3). ' B. adds one additional hemistich after this.

3-5 (B.XI.4-6, G.3-5). J Mss. sometimes gives this name as aspan- dita which seems to bo a corruption for askandita. See the Cari olthis name XL 7-9.

s B. roads 5b. differently.

6-9 (B.XI.7, 8b-ll, G.6-2). ' Sec Ag.

10-13 (B,XI,llb-l2a, 13a, 13-15, G.10-13). ' Sec Ag.


(then) the left foot in the Syandita Carl, the right foot in the Parl- vakranta Cari a , (again) the left foot in the Bhujangatrasita Cart and the right foot [successively] in the Atikriina and Udvftta Carta,
(next) the left foot in the Suci Cari, the right foot in the Yiksitpa
(Aksipta) Cari and the left foot in the Apakranta Carl.

11-17. Lalitasancara— the right foot with the knee raised
[to move] in the Suci Can, (next) the left foot in the Apakranta
Cari and the right one in the Parsvakranta Cari (again) the left foot
[successively] in the Suci and the Bhramarl Casis [this latter by turning round the Trika] and the right foot in the Parsvakranta
Cari and the left foot in the Atikranta Carl which to be changed
(lit. divided) into the Bhramari Cari 1 .

18-19. Sucividdha — the left foot [to be moved] in the
Sue! and the Bhramari Carls [the latter by turning the Trika round], the right foot in the Parsvakranta Cari the left foot in the
Atikranta Carl, next the right foot in the Suci, the left foot in the Apakranta Crai and the right foot again in the Parsvakranta

20-22. Dandapada— the right foot to be moved in the
Janita and the Dandapada Calls, the left foot in the Suci and the
Bhramari Caris [the latter by turning the Trika], (next) the right foot in the Urudvrtta Cari and the left foot in the Alata Cari,
(again) the right foot in the Parsvakranta Cari and the left foot [successively] in the Bhujangatrasta and the Atikranta Caris to meet the right foot in the Dandapada Cari and the left foot
[successively] in the Suci and the Bhramari Caris [the latter by turning the Trika].

23-26. Vihrta— the right foot [to be moved] in the Janita
Can (then) its Nikuttana, (next) the left foot in the Syandita
Cari and the right foot in the Urudvrtta Cari, (then) the left foot in the Alata Cari and the right foot in the Suci Cari, again the left

■ B. reads one additional hemistich after 10.
14-17 (B.XI.16-17, 19, G.14-16, 18). l B.G. reads ono additional couplet after 16.

. 18-19 (B.XJ.20-21, G.19-20). 20-22 (B.XL22-24, G.21-23).

23-26 (B.XI.25-28, G .24-27).


foot in the Parsvakranta Cari and the right foot in the Aksipta and the Bhramari [this by turning the Trika] and the Dandapada
Caris, (then) the left foot in the Suci and the Bhramari Caris [the latter by turning the Trika] again the right foot in the Bhujanga- trasita Cari and the left foot in the Atikranta Cari.

27-29. Alata— the right foot [to be moved] in the Sue! Cari and the left foot in the Apakranta Cari, then the right foot in the
ParsVakranta Cari and the left foot in the Alata Cari, after moving by turn in the these [two] Caris six or seven times with graceful steps, again the right foot in the Aprkranta Cari and the left foot
[successively] in the Atikranta and the Bhramari Caris.

30-33. Vamaviddha — the right foot [to be moved] in the
Suci Cari, the left foot in the Apakranta Cari, (then) the right foot in the Dandapada Cari and the left foot in the Suci Cari and right foot in the Bhramari [this by turning the Trika] and the Parsva- kranta, Carls, (next) the left foot in the Aksipta Cari and the right foot in the Dandapada and the Urudvrtta Caris, (then) the left foot
[successively] in the Suci, the Bhramari [this by turning the Trika] and the Alata Caris, (next) the right foot in the Prfws'vakranta
Cari and the left foot in the Atikranta Cari.

34-37. Lalita — the right foot [to be moved] in the Suci
Cari and the left foot in the Apakranta Cari, (then) the right foot in the Parsvakranta and the Bhujangatrasita Caris, (then) the left foot in the Atikranta Cari and the Urudvrtta Caris the left foot and the Alata Cari, and the right foot in the Pars'vakranta Cari, next the left foot in the Atikranta Cari with graceful steps.

38-40. Kranta — the right foot [to be moved] in the Suci
Cari and the left foot in the Apakranta Cari, then the right foot in the Parsvakranta Cari and the left foot too in the same Cart (Pars- vakrama), moving round alternately in these Caris in all directions, again the left foot in the Suci Cari and the right foot in the

27-29 (B.XU9-30, 31b-32a, G.28-30).
30-33 (B.XJ.32b-36a, G.81-34).

34-37 (B.XI 36b-37a, 38-40a, G.85-37). ' G. omits 35a and 36b. •
38-40 (B.XI.40b-43a, G.38-40). '

210 " " THE NATYA8A8TBA [ XII. 41-

Apakranta "Cari. This Mandala is prescribed for the natural gait.
Hence it is willed Kranta (V. going.

41. These are the aerial Mandalas. Now T shall describe those on the earth.

Tho earthly Mandalas

42-44. Bhramara— the right foot [to be moved] in the
Janita Carl and the left foot in the Skandita (Askandita) Carl, then the right foot in the Sakatasya Carl and the left foot to be stretched,
(next) the right loot in the Bhramari Cart [by turning the Trika], again the left foot in the Skandita (Askandita) Can and the right foot in the Sakatasya Cart, then the left foot in the Apakrantii
(Apasarpi) Cari and the Bhramari Cari by turning about the back.

15-17. Askandita — the right foot [to be moved] in the
Bhramari Cari and the left foot in the Addita anil the Bhramari
Carts [the latter by turning the Trika], then the right foot in the
Urudvrtta Cari and the left foot in the Apakrantii (Apasarpit.) and the Bhramari Caris [the latter by turning the Trika then] the right foot in the Skandita Cari, (next) the left foot in the Pakatiisya and the same foot to violently strike the ground.

48-50. Avarta— the right foot [to be moved] in the Janita
Cart and the left foot in the Talasaiicara (Nikuttaka) Cari, then the light foot in the Sakatasya and the Urudvrtta Cari, (next) the right foot foot the Atikranta (Apasarpi) Cari turning backwards and the
Ciisagati Cari, then the right foot in the Skandita (Askandita) Cari and the left foot in the Sakatiisyi'. Cari, again the right foot in the
Bhramari Cari with the Trika turned round, and the left foot in the
Apakianta (Apsarpi) Cari.

51-53. Samotsarita — assuming first of all the Samapada
Sthana, then stretching the two hands with their palms turned upwards, (next) their intermittant Avestana and Udvestana move- ments, [then putting the left hand] on tiie waist, the right hand moved in the Avartita manner [next the right hand to be put on

41 (B.XI.43b-44a, G.41).
' 43-44 (B.XI.44b-47a, G.42-44). 45-47 (B.XI.47b-50a, G.45-47).

48-50 (B.X150b-53a, G.48-50).' 51-58 (B.XI.53b-56a, G.51-53).


on the waist] and the left hand moved in the Avartita manner, moving round alternately with this Cari will rise to the Samotsa- rita Mandala.

54-55. Edakakridita — the two feet on the ground [to be moved successively] in the Siici and the Edakakridita Cari?, (next) the swift moving Bhraraari Cari by turning the Trika, (then) mov- ing [the feet] round alternately in the Suci and the Aviddha Cans.
This will give rise to the Khanda-mandala named Edakakridita.

56-58. Addita — the right foot [to be moved] in the
Udghattita manner and then [simply] moved round, next [to be moved] in the Syandita (Asyandita) Cari and the left foot in the
Sakatasya Cari, next the right foot to be moved backwards in the
Apakriinta (Apasarpl) and the Casagati Caris, (then) the left foot in the Addita Call and the right foot in the Apakranta (Apasarpita)
Cari. (next, the left foot in the Bhramari Cari and the right foot in the Syandita (Asyandita) Carl and to violently strike the ground. 1

59-GO. Sakatasya — The right foot [to bo moved] in the
Janita Cari and next it to move; in the Talasaiieara (Nikuttaka) manner, the same foot in the Sakatasya Cari and the left foot in the
Syandita (Asyandita) Cari, moving round in this manner alternately with the Sakatasya Cari. This Cari Mandala named the Sakatasya is to be used in fight.

61-62. Adhyardba — the right fooot [to be moved succes- sively] in the Janita and Syandita Caris, then the left foot in the
Apakranta (Apasarpita) Cari and the right foot in the Sakatasy.'-
Cari. Moving around alternately in these Caris, will be the Can
Mandala named the Adhyardha to be used in personal combat.

63-64. Pistakutta — The right foot [to bo moved] in the
Suci Cari and the left foot in the Apakranta [then] the right foot in

54-55 (B.XI.56b-58a, Ot. 54-55). l This khanrlamaiid.ala seems to be another name for eclakakfitli ta.

56-58 (B.XI.58b-6la, G.56-58). l asphotana—padatalena bJnmi- tatjana (Ag.).

59-60 (B.XI.61b-63a, G.59-60). " 61-62 B.XI.63b-65a, G.6U62).

63-64 (B.XI.65b-67a, G.63-64).'


the Bhujangatrasita Cart and the left foot too in the same Cari.
Thus going round in the Bhujangatrasita Cart is known as the
Cari Mandala named the Pisfcakutta known to be used in personal combat. 65. Casagata — Going round with feet in the Casagatai Cari is called the Can Mandala named Casagata. It to be used in per- sonal combat.

66. Here I have described in brief the Mandalas arising out of the various Cans. Now I shall describe the Saina Cans.

67. The use of the Sama Carls are known as Sama Manda- las. [An actor] using them is to follow the instruction of the

master actor (acaryabuddhi).

68- These Mandalas to be used in fight aud personal combat, are to be performed with sportiveness and graceful move- ments of limbs, and should be accompanied by [suitable] instrumen- tal music.

Here ends Chapter XII of Bharata's Natyas'astra, which treats of the Rules about the Mandalas.

65 (B.XI.67b-68a, G.65). 66 (B.XI.68b-69a, G-.66).

67 (B.XI.69b-70a, G.67). 68 (B.X1.79b-"la, G.68).



1. So much about the formation of the Mandalas by a combination of the Systems of Cari (cari-vyayama). I shall here- after describe the Gaits suitable for (lit. existing in) different characters [in a play].

Entrance- of dramatis personae

2-3. After the Upavahana in accompaniment of drums and other musical instruments has been performed by observing Kalas suitable to the Marga [adopted in it], and the Dhruvas [to be sung] at the entrance of dramatis personae, have commenced and the curtain has been drawn away, the actors who arc to develop the
Sentiments in the various items [of a play] should enter (lit. be made to enter) the stage.

Posture for superior and middling characters at the entrance

4-7. In case of characters of the superior and the middling types [the actor] should assume the Vaisnava Sthana, his breast being raised, Sama and Caturasra, shoulders at rest and not raised very much, the neck as graceful as that of a peacock, the shoulders eight Angulas apart from the ears, the chin four Angulas apart from the breast, and the two hands (the right and the left) respectively at the navel and at the left waist.

The interval of their feet

8-9. [In the posture described above] the interval between the two feet [of the actor] should be two Talas and a half. Steps

1 (B.X1I.1, G.l). ' On the Gait Ag. says : "The Gait is to be pres- cribed with a view to the person, Sentimout, situation, place and occasion".

2-3 (B.XII.2-3, G.2-3). '-It seems that upavahana gave rise to upo/iana(Pkt) which afterwards was adopted in its place ; for upohana see Ntf. (Ch) XXXI. 235ff, It is defined by Ag. as follows : upohyante samasa-vyasaiah padakalatalasamabhihitali svara yasminn ahge tat lathoktam (I.p.186).

4-7 (B.XH.4-7, G.4-7). 8-9 (B.XH.8-9.G.8-9).


that he will take should according to his own measure [of the hand] be four or two Talas or one Tala wide.

9-10. In case of [characters such as] gods and kings the steps should be four Talas wide, of the middling [type of charac- ters] two T.Jas, and of women and persons of the inferior type one Till a wide.

The timo for their steps

10-11. [And the time required for the steps should be] four or two Kalas or one Kalfi only. [Steps] of the superior [characters] should take four Kalas, those of the middling type two Kalas and those of the inferior type one Kala only.

The tempo of their Gait

12. An expert in the theatrical art should apply three kinds of tempos — slow, medium and quick — to the Gait [of different characters] according to their nature.

13. The Gait of the superior [characters should be] slow, that of the middling [characters should have] the medium [tempo, while the Gait of] the inferior [characters should be] quick and copious. [Thus] should be applied the three tempos according to the spirit [of the different characters].

1-1. So much about the rules regarding the timing and tempo [of the steps], the sinless ones, listen now about the manner of taking steps [suitable to different characters].

The natural • Gait

15. In his natural [Gait] a superior [character] is to raise his knee up to the height of the waist and in case of Ciiris to be used in fighting the same (ie, the knee) is to be raised up to the height of the breast.

16-19. With the graceful steps of the Parsvakriinta Carl and

9-10 (B.XII.9-10, G.9-10). 10-U (B.XII.10-11, G.10-11).

12 (B.X1I.12, G.12). ' B. reads layam budhah

13 (B.X11.13, G.13). l sattvam-cittavHtih (Ag.).
J4 (B.XII14, G.1.4). 15 (B.XII.l^ G.15|
16-19 (BJQI.16-19, G.16-19). •


in accompaniment of instrumental music he should go five uniform steps, towards the corner of the stage and then he should move in the Suci Carl by putting forward his left foot first and the right foot afterwards. Then turning round he should go [five similar steps] towards the second corner of [of stage] and then move in the Suci Cari by putting forward his left foot first and the right foot afterwards. Next time he should [again turn round and] go [five similar steps] towards the musical instruments and then again move in the Suci Cari by putting forward bis left foot first and the right foot afterwards. Thus his movement will consist of twentyonc steps.

20. In an oblong stage the actor (hhnrata) should make elaborate foot movements (lit. coming and going by foot-steps), but in square and triangular stages such movements should respectively be of the Caturasra and the Tryasra types.

2 1. When [a character] is walking along with his equals, • the tempo [of his Gait] will be [according to his own rank in terms] of four or two Kalas or of one Kala.

22. But when any one is walking accompanied by persons of the middling and the inferior types [the tempo of the
Gait of the group] will be in terms of four and two Kalas and one Kala.

23. The wise actors should make the steps four Talas wide in case of gods, Danavas Pannagas (Naga), Yaksas, kings, and

2 !«. All [other] dwellers of the heaven 1 will have steps of medium [width]. But those among them who are haughty 2 should have Gait similar to that of the gods.

' SceV. 70-7 1 . s vedhahr-parxmkaetre sticipadanipata/i (Ag.).

20 (B.X1I.20, G.20). 21 (B.XII.21, G.21).

22 (B.XII.22, G.22).

23 (BX1I.23, G.23). ' B.G. reads here daitya iustead of deva

24 (B.XII.24, G.24). ' By sucfi dwellers devadulas are meant (Ag.).
' inataliprabhrfayah (Ag.). .


Gait of kings
The sages -question :

25-28. 'ill the kings are human beings why should they have a Gait similar to that of the gods ?" It is said [in reply].
"Why should not the kings have Gait suitable for these (i.e. gods) ?
In drama the characters [are of three kinds, viz.] divine, serai- divine (lit. divine-human) and human. Of these, the nature of gods is divine, that of the kings is semi-divine and that of the others is known to the people as human. For'the kings have been described in the Vedas and the Vedanta (Upanisad) 1 as being made up (lit. born) of the parts of [different] gods. Hence there cannot be any fault in kings imitating the gods."

29. This is the rule of the Gait in ordinary walking, but for
Gaits in cases of hurry, insanity and anger the rule about its measure will not apply.

Gait under special conditions

30. [In those cases] the producers of plays are to apply to all the different characters, superior, middling and inferior, Gaits as modified by their peculiar condition.

31. Their Gaits should be of the duration of half of four
Kalas or half of that (i c. two Kalas) on attaining conditions other than the normal ones.

32. [The relative position of the different characters as regards the timing of their Gaits is as follows] : While a superior
[character] will have a Gait of four Kalas, a middling [character] is to have that of two Kalas an inferior [character] of one KalS.

33. When a middling character will have a Gait of a Kala, an inferior character is t% have that of half a Kala. Thus one should make [in different Gaits under special conditions) a redaction of Kalas.

25-28 (B.XII.25-28, G.25-28). l vedadhyatmasu=vedem tatha adhyatnmastresu vedantem (Ag.).

29(B.XII.29,G.29). 30 (B.XII.30, G.30).

31,(B.Xn.31, G.31). 32 lB.XII.32, G.32). ,

33 (B.XII.33, G.33). ' G. read 33 a differently. *


34. The Gait of superior persons is not to be applied to that of the middling type, and the Gait of the middling characters is not to be applied to that of the inferior type. 1

Tempo of Gaits under special conditions

35-37. In case of an attack of fever, hunger, fatigue, due to austerities, [excessive] terror, 1 dissimulation, uneasiness, love [in separation], sorrow and in the sick persons' walking the Gait'should be of slow tempo lasting more, than four Kalas. But in case of anxiety the Gait should be of four Kalas' [duration J. 2

37-40. In case of concealed (lit. uneasy) love, panic, fright, agitation, joy, hurried action, hearing of unwelcome news, haughti- ness or insult, sight of porentuous objects, urgent work, distress, search for enemies, pursuit of an offender and pursuit by a ferocious animal, the wise [actor] should have Gaits with steps of two Kalas'

Gait in the Erotic Sentiment

41-44. The Gait in ordinary love-making should be graceful.
[The lover] is to enter the stage with the female Messenger {dull] showing the way. He is to act his part (lit. meaning connected with the play) by means of the Siica 1 . He should be adorned with lovely garments, perfumes, ornaments 2 and garlands of various sweet-scenting flowers. He should walk with graceful steps in the Atikranta Cari, and his limbs should have the Sausthava, and ho should move with proper tempo and Tftla. His hands should always follow the feet. The former should be raised along with the falling of the latter and with the raising of the latter the former should fall (lit. vice versa)*.

45-48. Now listen about the Gait in case of concealed love.
After dismissing his servants (lit. men) the lover is to walk

34 (BXII.39b-40a, G.34).

35-36 (B.XII-34-35, G.35-36). ' vismaye G. viksate. " G. omits i#a.

37 (B.XII.34-36a, G.35-36). 37-40 (B.XlI.26b-39.», G-37-S9).

41-44 (B.XII.40b-44, G.49b-44a). ." Sec Ni5. XX1V.43.
2 Itoad hrdyair gandhair tatka vaslmir alamkaraib ca.
8 G. omits 44b, 45-48 (B.XIJ.45-48(» i ' G.44b-47),


tat night] along with the female Messenger as his guide. He is to put out the lamp. Ho is to be dressed in [simple] clothes suited to the time day and is to not make his toilet elaborately. In making love secretly a person is to walk with slow and silent steps, and from [any] sounds [heard at the time] he is constantly, to look around and tremble in his body and to have a faltering Gait.

Gait in the Terrible Sentiment

48-54. [In treating the Gait] in the Terrible Sentiment I shall speak only with regard to Daityas, Raksasas and Nagas.
Brahmins, the Terrible Sentiment only is dominant in their case. And this Terrible Sentiment is of three kinds, viz. Terrible in make-up, Terrible in limbs and Terrible by nature. [An ex- ample of] the Terrible in make-up is [a Raksasa] with his body dripping in blood, mouth moistened with it and having pieces of flesh in the hands. An example of the Terrible in limb is a very tall [Raksasa] with a prodigious physical frame, many heads, and many hands holding weapons of various kinds. And an example of the Terrible by nature, is a person with red eyes, tawny hair, black complexion and rough voice and a person who is always scolding [others] and who stands with feet four Tiilas apart and take steps four Tiilas wide. This is the Gait which [characters] resembling them are to have.

Gait in the Odious Sentiment

54-50. The Gait [of a person walking] on the ground which is either a place of cremation or a place gruesome on account of a battle [having taken place there] should be used in acting in connexion with the Odious Sentiment. The feet in the EdakakriditS
Cari falling in quick succession sometimes close to and sometimes wide apart from each other, with the hands following them, will constitute the Gait in the Odious Sentiment.

Gait in the Heroic Sentiment

57. The Gait in the Heroic Sentiment should consist of swift footsteps in the various Caris.

■ 48-54 (B.XII.48b-54, G.48-53).
54-56 (B.XII.55-57a, G.54-55). ' 57 (B.X1I 57b-57a, pl45, G.56).


58. In case of mental excitement the Gait should consist of footsteps of proper Kala and Tala {halo) in the Parsvakranta,
Aviddha and Sucl Cans.

Gait in the Marvellous and the Comic Sentiments

59-00. These are the Gaits prescribed for the superior characters. I shall now describe the Gait for the middling and the inferior characters. In their astonishment and joy they are to take swift and short steps in all directions, and in their laughter too they are to take to this,and similar foot movements.

Gait in the Pathetic Sentiment

61-63. The Gait in the Pathetic Sentiment should be in slow tempo [and it should be connected with] eyes full of tears, drooping limbs, arms thrown up and down, and loud weeping.
Ai.d this Gait is also to contain one and a half times more Kalas and is to have repeated foot-movements [of the same kind]. This
[Gait] is also to be used in case of women and persons of the inferior type.

63-66. [In connexion with the Pathetic Sentiment] the superior characters should be patient, tearful, heaving deep sighs and looking upwards and [their Gait in conformity with these condi- tions] is to be of no [regular] measure and [they are] not to have the
Sausthava [of the body]. In case of death of their beloved persons and relatives they are to bend down on their breast in dejection and to become senseless due to grief, and to walk with the feet not raised very high. When too much beaten the shoulder and the arms are to be made drooping and the [entire] body is to be made un- steady (lit moved round) and walking [should be] by measured steps.

67-69. A [special] Gait is to be assigned to women and persons of the inferior type when they are attacked with cold or are overtaken by a torrential shower. [In such a case] they are to

58 (B.XH.57b-58a, G.57). 89-60 (B.XII.58b-6(Ja, G.58-59).

61-63 (B.XH 60b-62, G.60-62a).

63-66 (B.XH.63-66, G.62D-65).- 1 B. reads one additional hemistich

after 64.

67-69 (B.XI1.67-69,G.66-68)- '


draw all their limbs together, to shiver greatly, to put their two hands on the breast, to bend their body, and their teeth are to clatter and lips are to throb and the chin is to quiver, and in representing an attack of cold the Gait should be slow.

Gait in the Terrible Sentiment •

70-75. In the Terrible [Sentiment] the experts should make the Gait of women, and men of the inferior type who are lacking in spirits, suitable to their nature (lit. in that manner}.

[In the Terrible Sentiment] they are to have wide open and moving eyes, the Vidhuta head and the look awe-stricken and turned alternately to sides, and holding the Kapota hand they are to walk with quick steps, trembling body and faltering Gait.
This [kind of movement] should be resorted to when a person is pursued [by an enemy], threatened or frightened [by any one],
[And the same rule will apply] when they see anything dreadful or hear any dreadful sound. In the terrified state the Gait suitable for wowen, and men who are cowards (lit. have renounced prowess) will consist of movement of the feet in the Edakiikridita Can falling in quick succession sometimes close to and sometimes at a distance from each other, and the hands are to follow them.

Gait of merchants and ministers

70-78. The Gait of merchants and ministers is to be made natural. They should walk in the Atikiv.nt". Cari with steps two Talas wide. Their [left hand] showing the upturned
Katakfunukha should be on the nave), and the right [lit. the first hand | showing the upturned AriMa should be on one side away 1
[from the left one]. They should not make their limbs drooping, motionless or excessively moving.

Gait of ascetics and sectarians

79-86. Yatis, Sramanas, those practising austerities and those observing the vow of Brahmacarya are to have a [special]

70-75 (B.XII.70-75, G.69-74).

76-78 (B.XII.76-78, G.75-77). ' R. reads stananiare for ' tadantare
(G. Utthuntare).

79-86 (B.XIL79-86, G.78-85). * PitUum (B. lidhaya).


Gait [In acting their part] a wise [actor] should have immobile eyes looking only four cubits [in the front], a ready memory, the entire body in steadiness and he is to keep the mind at rest, to assume the marks belonging to his sect and to have modest clothes generally dyed in dark red, and to stand with the Samapada feet and to assume the Sthana of the same name. Then he should make two Catura hands one of which is to be stretched. And assuming a serene appearance in conformity with the performance he should perform the (Atikrama) Cart with natural (lit. not drooping) limbs. The best ascetics of the great vow are to be con- nected with these qualities or others contrary to them. As for the rest of the ascetices they according to the vow [enjoined by their own sects] are to have a Gait confused or stately or sober or mild.
And in case of the ascetics of the Pasupata sect they should walk in the Sakatasya and Atikrant'. Cans with haughty steps.

Gait of a person in darkness or of a blind man

87. The Gait [of a person] in darkness or the Gait of a blind [man] should consist of the feet drawn over the ground and the hands groping for the way.

Gait of one riding a cliariot

88-d2. The Gait of a person riding a chariot should consist of simple (curnn) steps. From the Samapada Sthana (posture) he is to make a mimicry of the being carried in a chariot (lit. go the movement of a chariot), and with the one [hand he is to take up] the bow and with the other the pole [of the chariot]. And his charioteer is to remaian busy with the whip and the reins, and the draught animals according to the class [of the vehicle] should be represented differently. And with quick and simple steps he is to enter the stage. The Gait of one in a celestial car (rimaiia) should be made like that of one riding a chariot. One who is about to

*lihgam i.e. japabhasmakaupimdi (Ag.).

8 Gacched—atikramad (B. gacched vyatikratnad, G. gaeched yatikramad). 87 (B.X1I.87, G.86). ' andha-yane (B.G. read atha yane).
88-92 (B.X1I.88-92, G.87-91). .



in0 unt [these vehicles] is to hold his body up and with opposite of

this [motion] one is to make one's discent [from themj.

Oak while moving in the sky

02-95. The Gait of a character moving through the sky in to include the aerial Caris and looking downwards, and [besides this] one is to move [first] from the Samapada Sthana (posture) with simple steps. The Gait of one who desends from the sky is also to be of this kind. This Gait is to consist of steps straight and wide or high and low, or irregular and round about.

The Gait of a person falling from the sky is to include the
Apaviddha arms, scattered ends of clothes and eyes set on the ground [below].

Gait in ascending any lofty palace

06-98. [In a play sometimes] there is necessity of ascen- ding | stairs of] a palace, tree or hill or any other high object and descending from them or getting down into a river or some lower region and getting up from it. In ascending [the stairs of] a palace a person should move the feet in the Atikriinta Carl, and with the body held up he should put forward his steps in [the flight of] stairs. In descending from the same, the body should be slightly bent and one foot should be in the Atikranta Carl and the other in the Aficita movement.

98-100. This Gait suited to ascending [the stairs of] a palace should be applied in climbing hills. But in the case of hills the limbs are to be thrown up. The climbing of trees [should be represented] by steps in the Atikranta, Sutf, Apakranta and
Parsvakrantfi Carls.

Gait in getting down into lower places

101-104. This should also be the Gait in coming down
[from the trees] and the same should apply in case of getting down into a river. s

92-95 (B.XII.92-95, G.91b-94).

96-98 (B.XII.96-98a, G.95-97). ' gatram anamya (B. gatram asyaiva). '99-100 (B.XU.103-104, G.103 104).
101-104 (B.XlI105a, 98b-101, G.98-101).


The Gait in [case of coming down from the top of] a palace ' will apply only in crossing [a river].

The Gait of a person moving in the river will be according to the depth (lit measure) of the water. In shallow water, with the tuckiug up of one's clothes, and in the deep [water] with the throwing oat of hands one is to move with the fore port of one's body slightly bent. And in case of a person's being carried away by the current (lit. water) he is to stretch out his arms one by one to push forward water repeatedly and during this movement all his limbs are to be busily engaged 'and the mouth filled up
[with water]. y

Gait in travelling by boat

105. The Gait of a person travelling by a boat should be made up of quick steps. According to these rules (lit. this rule) one should observe the various Gaits and movements.

106-107. All these [conveyances] are to represented (lit made) by [suggestive] tokens (namjna) only. [If you ask] "why",
[the reply will be the question], "Will the actors (lit. producers) have to die when the character [to be represented] is said to be dead ?" The elephant will be represented by taking up a goad, the horse by a bit and the other conveyances by a whip.

Gait in riding a horso

108. The Gait of a person riding a horse will consist of the
Vais'akha Sthana and simple foot steps of the various kinds.

Gait of serpents

1 09, The Gait of serpents will be by the Svastika feet, [To represent it the actor] is to move in the Parsvakriinta. Can and then make a Recaka of the Svastika feet.

105 (B.XH.l02a, 105b, G.102b, 105a).

106-107 (B.XII.106-107, G.105-106). ' G. reads 106b as lasman nrtta itiprokte kirn kartavyam. prayoktrbhih. This passage shows that use of painted scenery was not indispensible in the ancient Indian stage
On this point Ag. Bays : Z* PnrcfaWffisfi KJiwiKjfwra'i 1(1)3*1 i AMI'S

108 (B.XII.108, G.107). 109 (B.XII.109, G.108).


Gait of a Parasite

110. The Gait of a Parasite {oiia) should be made graceful.
[An actor] is to represent {lit. go) the Gait of a Parasite by putting forward Akuficita (Kuiicita) feet within one Tala and holding the
Katakavardhamana hands with the proper Sausthava and letting
[these] hands follow the feet

Gait of the Kaiicukiya

112-113. [The Gait] of the Kiificukiya (armour-bearer) 1 should be made [suitable] to his particular age and condition. When he is not old* his Gait should be as follows : With the feet raised half a Tala high and simple steps he should walk carrying his limbs like one who is treading (lit. touching) upon mud.

114 But in case of his being [thoroughly] old he should walk with the trembling body and raise the feet slowly and with
[every] step he is to take his breadth.

110 (RXII.110, G.109). Ill (B.XII.UO.G.llO).

11M1SCRX1L112-113, G. II 1-1 12). ' Tho word kancuhya (Mir- cukin) should bo translated as 'armour-bearer' and not as 'chamberlain' which term should he used for sannidhiitr ; see Kautilya's Arthasastra
(2. 4. 23). BhP. (p. 292) defines the Khltcukiya as follows :

(Passiouless Brahmins who have knowledge and wisdom being in charge of (the king's) armour and crown, and holding the cane-stick (as symbol of their authority), aro called KaTicukiyas by the wise).

2 a-wddhasya. This adjective of the kaiieukiya contradicts the following (probably very late) dolinition : ■w^'ffl ?^ fitft ^iiwPw I
«4*raftf "<*: <*s€taTfatJta?l i sRSwugSiT ft9? iiii wfift i
This passage has been wrongly ascribed to Bharata in Rucipati's commen- tary to the Anargharaghava (cd. in Kavyamala, p. 109). The kaiicukiya in tho plays ascribed to Bhasa (i.e. Svapna, Pratima, Abhi. Paiica.
Duta. and Bala.) does not show any trace of old age. Tho kaiicukin in the
Sak. deplores that the cane-stick which he hail taken up as the symbol of his office, has become in old age the support of his body which he could move with difficulty (V.3.). From this it may be assumed that he was appointed before old a:;o came upon him.

144(B.XII. 144, G113). ' For an old kanekin see Sak. loc.. cit
MudrS, IL etc, % »nd 111. 1.

-Xtfl. 138 ] THE DIFFERENT GAITS 226

Gait of emaciated, sick and fatigued persons

115-117. The Gait of an emaciated person should consist of slow steps. And in case of an attack of fever or other illness, or of fatigue due to austerities, or hunger, a person is to walk with lean and depressed belly, feeble voice, depressed cheek, lusterless eyes, slow movement of the hands and the feet, tremor and affliction of the limbs and with [every] step he is to emit breath.

Gait of a person walking a long distance

118. The Gait of a person walking a long distance is to consist of slow steps, narrowing of limbs and the rubbing of the knees. Gait of a corpulent person

119. A corpulent person is to walk with the feet raised slowly and he is to drag on his body with great effort.

1 20. A person going with [hurried] steps should be copiously breathing, and be covered with perspiration due to fatigue and his steps should be simple.

Gait of intoxicated persons

12 1 . The Gait of persons with light (lit. young) and medium intoxication will be reeling, with the two feet [sometimes going] backwards. 122. The Gait of persons heavily (lit. worst) intoxicated will consist of unsteady feet, reeling body and staggering steps.

Gait of a lunatic

123-130. The Gait of a lunatic will consist of irregular steps, many Caris in imitation of [various types of] men. He has unpolished and dishevelled hair and body covered with dust ; he talks without any reason and talks too much in an unnatural

115-117 (B.XII.115-117, G.114-116).

118 (B.XII.118, G.U7).

119 (B.XII.U9, G.U8). 120 (B.XI1.120, G.119).
121 (B.XII.121, G.120). ]22 (B.X1T.122, G.121).
123-130 (B.XII.123-130, 0.122-129).


manner ; sometimes he sings and sometimes laughs and is not ready to accompany [any one] ; and he [sometimes] dances in joy and [sometimes makes drumming [with any ohject he may find before him], Or.ce he runs swiftly and at other times stands still ;
[again] sometimes he is seated and sometimes lying down. He is to wear rags of different kinds and to make the public road his irregular dwelling place. A lunatic will be of the above description
(lit. this man). His gait will be as follows :

After moving in the Baddha Oari he is to cross his feet.
The i going round in all the four direction with this Cari lie js to perform the Bhramara Mandala outwards and reach one corner of the stage. Then turning the Trika gracefully and holding the Lata hand with irregular movements he is to move with his feet.

Gait of lame men, cripples and dwarfs

131-130. The Gait of lame persons, cripples and dwarfs in connexion with the display of physical defects for the sake of the
Comic Sentiment, will be of three kinds. In one | kind of J Gait of lame persons the feet are to remain stiff. Tn the second one, feet are to be made Agratalasancara and the body is to held up (lit. raised) by the stiff foot. [And in the third] the body is to move on one foot, and to rest on another fool and setting feet in this order
[the lame men] are to go. This will be one's Gait when one has run a thorn in the sole of one's foot. The Gait of cripples will consist of the Agmtalasaficara and the Aficita feet, the steady body and the Nata shanks. During the Gait of dwarfs all their limbs are to be narrowed down and they .should neither move [quickly | nor take [wide] steps.

Gait of tho Jester

137-140. The Jester will have the same Gait consisting of simple laughable steps with feet raised high [and put forward]. And his Gait will relate to three kinds of laughter : laughter due to

131-136 (B.XII.131-136, G.13M35a). ' For trividha G. reads
•oividha and omits 133b. ' *

.137-140 (B.XII.137-U0,. G.135b-138)- l For vnkyakrta B.G. read kavyakrta. -X.II1 146 J THE DIPFBBKNT GAITS 227

limbs, due to words and due to the costume and makeup. Of these the ugly and big teeth, baldness, hunch on the back, lameness and, distorted lace will be objects of laughter due to limbs. When one walks like a crane looking up and looking down and with wide strides, this too becomes an object of laughter due to limbs.

140-141. Talking incoherently, meaninglessly, unnaturally and uttering obscene words arc to be known as [objects of] laughter due to words.

141-142, A. person covered with (altered clothes or skin, or smeared with ink (or lamp-black), ashes or yellow "Oeherc is [an object ol'l laughter due to the costume and make-up. Hence the [Jester] after considering the characters [he will be con frontingj should carefully (lit. essentially) assume [one or more ofj these states.

143-146. The Gait of the Jester should be distinguished according to his different conditions. | For example J in his natural
Gait he is to carry the Kutilaka (kulila) in his left hand and to show the Catura (gesture) with the right hand. Besides this he is lower by turns one of his sides, head, hands and feet observing proper tempo and Tula. The Gait other than this which is natural, will be abnormal His Gait on having some food which was difficult to get, will be arrested.

Gait of the menials

146-148. The Gait to represent the walking of servants of lower order or other persons of the inferior type should be as follows : in the walking of servants, one of their sides or head or a hand or a foot is to be lowered and their eyes fire to move to
[different] objects.

8 For vakavat G. reads khagavad,

140-141 (B.XII.140b-141a, G.139). ' For vakyahasyam B.G. reads kavyahasyam. 141-142 (B.XI1.141b-142, G.140-141a).

143-146 (B.XlI.143-146a, G.141M44). ' B. reads 146a as alabhalabhad bhuktasya etc.

146-148 (B.XIL146b-147, G.146-146).


Gait of the Sakara

148-149. The Gait of the Bakara will consist of proud but ordinary steps, and while walking he will touch his clothes and ornaments and often look at them, and from the unnatural motion of his body his garlands, and suspended parts of the clothes are to move to and fro.

Gait of lowly persons

150. Persons of inferior birth are to walk with eyes looking around, protecting their limbs from the contact of other people.

Gait of the Mleccha tribes

151. The Gait and movements of the men of different
Mleccha tribes such as the Pulindas and the Sabaras should be made according to the lands they inhabit.

Gait of birds

152. The Gait of birds, beasts of pray and other animals is to be made according to the character natural to them.

Gait of lions, bears and monkeys

153. The Gait of lions, bears and monkeys is to be made
[like that] which was assumed by the lord Visrtn incarnated as the
Man-lion. [It is as described below].

151-155. [In this Gait] after assuming the Alidha Sthiina

(posture) with limbs conforming to it, that is, one hand on the

knee and the other on the breast, one is to look all around and

put one's chin on one's shoulder and to walk with feet placed five

' Talas apart.

156. The Gait should be applied to [represent] lions and such other animals at the time of personal combat as well as in entering the stage.

148-149 (B.XII.149-150a, G.147) ' G. omits 141a.
150 (B.XH.150b-15la, G.148). 151 (B.XII. 151b-152a, G.149).
152 (B.XII.152b-153a, G.150). 153 (B.XII. 153b-154a, G.151).

154-155 (B.XII.l54b-156a, G.152-153).

•156 (B.XH.156b-157a, G.154). ' Lions etc here indicate actors with the mack of these animals.


157. As for the rest of animals the Gait and the Sthana
(posture) for them when entering the stage or carrying any one or anything on the back should be made suitable to the occasion.

158. These [different] Gaits are thus to be used by wise
[actors]. The Gaits that have not been described by me, are to be adopted from [the practice of] people.

Walking postures of women

159-160. I shall now speak of the Gaits and movements of women. The Sthana (posture) of women in walking and speaking [to others] will be Ayata, Avahittha and Asvakranta.

160-161. Ayata : Tn the Ayata Sthana (posture) the right foot will be Sama, the left (lit. f he other at- the side) foot Tryasra
(obliquely placed) and the left waist raised.

161-164 (Uses) : This Sthana is to be used in invocation, dismissal, observing carefully, thinking and dissimulation. And first appearance on the stage, scattering handfuls of flowers on the stage, anger due to jealous love, twisting the forefinger, prohibition, pride, profundity, silence, fit of resentment (mana) and looking to the horizon are also to be represented from this
Sthana 1 .

161-165. Avahittha : Tho>Jeft foot will be Sama and the right (lit. the other at the side) foot Tryasra (obliquely placed) and the left waist raised up.

165-167. (Uses) : This Sthana is known (lit. remem- bered) as natural for women during conversation [with anyone], in determination, satisfaction and conjecture In representing

157 (B.XII.157b-158a, G.155). 1 58 (B.XII.158b-159a, G.156).

159-160 (B.XII.159b-160, G.156c-157). ' B. reads five additional hemistichs after this^

160-161 (B.Xn 163b-164a, G.158).

161-164 (B.XII.164b-167a, G.159-161).

164-165 (B.XI1.167b-168a, G.162) ' B.G. read two additional coup- lets after this.

165-1^7 (B.XU.171b-172a, 170b 171a, G.165-166).

280 THE NAT1ASA8TRA [ XIII. 167-

anxiety, amorousness, sportiveness, grace, the Erotic and the like
[Sentiments] and looking towards the way of someone [coming or going] this Sthana is to be used.

167-168. Asvakrsinta : The Sthana in which one toot is raised and the other is resting on its fore-part and [ready for] the
Sue! or the Aviddha Cari is called AsVakranta 1 .

168-169. (Uses) : This Sthana is to be assumed in taking hold of the branch of a tree, plucking a cluster [of flowers] or in the taking of rest by goddesses or women for any purposes.

169-171. The Sthana will be [maintained by a dancer] till any movement begins. For during a dance the Sthana is at an end when the Carl has begun (litis present). This is the rule of the Sthana for women and for men as well. T shall now describe women's Gait in relation to their nature.

Gait of young women

171-176. [Such a Gait will serially include the following
Sthana and movements] : The Avahittha Sthana, the left hand pointing downwards, the right hand with the Katakiimukha gesture placed on the navel, the right foot raised gracefully up one Tiila and thrown on the hilt one and simultaneously with that the left hand with the Lata gesture placed on the navel and the right side bent, placing the right hand on the hip and the Udvestita movement of the left Land, then the left foot put forward, the right hand with the Lata gesture, [After assuming this Sthana and movements] they arc to walk five steps with the body slightly bent and the head gracefully held in the Udvahita posture.

1 76-177. The rules for going about on the stage which have been prescribed for men will apply also for women.

., 167-168 lB.XlJ.172b-173a, G-167). ' B. reads two additional coup- lets after this.

168-169 (B.XU.175b-l76a, G.168).

169-171 (B.XI1. 176b-) 78a, G.169-170).

171-176 (B.XII.178b-183a, G.17L-175).

176-177 (B.XlI.l83b-184a, G.176).


Gait of young women

177-179. The steps of women should not be made of six or eight Kalas duration. Such a step will he irksome for them. This will be the Gait of women in their youth. I shall speak [now] about the Gait of women who are aged {nlhttvi ijina). 1

Gait of aged women

179-181. After assuming the Avahittha Sthiina and putting the loft hand on the waist and the right hand with the Arala gesture upturned, placed between the navel and the breasts, they are to walk gradually with their body neither relaxed nor stiff nor
[much] moved about.

Gait of handmaids

181-183. The Gait of hand-maids should be made bewil- dered (nilliluaiita). They are to walk with slightly raised body and flourishing arms, after assuming the Avahittn Sthiina with the left hand pointing downwards and the right hand showing the Katakamukha hand held on the navel.

Gait of lialf-womeu

183-184. The Gait of the half-women, an admixture of that of men and of woman will consist of stately but graceful movement of limbs and playful steps (lit. feet). >

184-180. The time required for the Gait which has been prescribed for persons of the superior type will be halved in case of women and the inferior types of men. And the Gait [prescribed for persons] of the superior, the middling and the inferior types will apply in ease of women [of those types] except for the foots- teps which will be graceful [for the latter].

177-179 (B.XlT.184b-186a, G.177-178). ' B.G. read stkaniya ya striyas tasam for sthaviyasinam eiasam. The word sthaviyas may well bo a comparative degree form of sthavim. Cf. daviyas for dura. *>

179-181 (B,XIU86b-188a, G.179-180).

181-183 (B.XII.188b-190a, G.181-182).

183 184 (B.XlI.190b-191a, G.188).

184-188 (B.XII.191b-193a, G.184-185).


Gait of children

186-187. The Gait of children will he according to their will and no Sausthava and [fixed] measreuient will be required.

Gait cf hermaphrodites

187-188. The third (ype of person? will he hermaphrodites in whose case women's Gait to the exclusion of their [partial] male character, should be applied.

Gait in the change of role
188-189. A change [of their role] by men, women and hermaphrodites should be represented by assumption on their part of Gaits suitable to those [new roles] to the exclusion of their own
[original] character.

Gait of persons in disguise
189-191. For disguise, sports or deception [of others] a woman assumes the role of a man, and a man that of a woman. [In such cases] the woman should play the role of a man with patient and liberal spirit and intelligence, and with acts as well as dress, words and movement suitable to that [character].

191-192. To play the role of a woman a man is to wear her clothes, speak like her and look at things and abstain from looking at these as she does, and is to assume a delicate and slow Gait.

" Gait of the tribal women
192-193. Women of inferior birth and of the Pulinda and the Sahara tribes are to have Gaits natural to their community.

Gait of women asocctios
193-194. In case of observing a vow or practising austeri- ties or bearing the mark [of religious sects.] or staying in the sky the Samapada Cart is to be used [as their Gait].

186-187 (B.XII.193b-191a. 0.186).
187-188 (B.XII.l94b-l95a, G 187).
188-189 (B.XU.195b-196n, G.188).
189-192 (B.XII.196b-199u. G.189-191).
1'92-193 (B.XII.199b-200;i, G.192).
193-194 (B.Xll.a00b-20la, G-193).


194-195. An expert in dramatic art should not assign the energetic Angaharas, Carls and Mandalas to women.

Sitting postures for men and women

195-199- Sitting posture* (sthana) for men and women should be made conforming "to (lit. combined with) the different
States which they are in, and similar should be their postures while in bed.

Sitting at case

196-197. In sitting at ease the two feet are at rest (vnkam- bhita) and kept doubled up (ahcita), the Trika is slightly raised, and the two hands are put on the thighs on the two sides.

Sitting in a thinking mood

197-198. When a person is to assume [deep] thinking,
[from the easy sitting posture] he is to stretch slightly one of his feet, and the other foot is to rest on the seat and the head is to bend on one side.

Sitting in sorrow

19H-199. When a person is in [deep] sorrow, [from the easy sitting posture] he is to put up his hands for supporting the chilli or his head is to rest on the shoulder, and he is [to look like] one whose mind and the sense-organs are not working (lit. lost).

Sitting in fainting and intoxication

199-200. When a person is fainting or is intoxicated, tired, weakened or sad, ifr-oni 'he easy sitting posture] he is to stretch his arms loosely and to sit depending on [some] support.

194-185 (B.XII.201b-202a, G.194).
195-196 (B.XI1.202b-203a, G.195).
196-197 (B.XlI.203b-204a, G196).
197-198 (B.XII.204b-205a, G.197).
198-199 (B.XTT205b-206a, 01 98).
199.200 (B.XII.206b-207a, 0.199).


Sitting in shame and sleep etc.

200-201. When a person is ill, ashamed, asleep or in meditation he is to lump together his limbs between legs and knees. Sitting on ceremonial occasions

201-202. In offering a libation of water to the spirits of diseased parents, muttering of Mantras, saying the Sandhya prayers and making Aeamana, one is to assume the sitting posture with the hump raised, in which the hip and the heels come together.

Sitting in pacifying a beloved woman

202-20H. In appeasing [the anger of] a beloved woman and pouring ghee into the sacrificial fire and doing similar other acts, a person is to put one of his stretched knees on the ground [from the sitting posture mentioned above].

Sitting in worshipping a deity

203-206. Downcast face and the sitting posture with the two knees on the ground (i.<: kneeling down) is to be assumed in adoring a diety, pacifying the angry | superiors], bitterly crying for sorrow, seeing a dead body, the fear of persons of low spirits, the begging of something by lowly persons and servants, and, attendance during the Homa and the sacrificial work. Ascetics
(mini!) while practising austerities are |also] to assume this sitting posture (lit, rule about sitting).

Seats for different characters

200-207. Now the seats (lit. rules regarding the seats) for males and females in a drama, are twofold : public (I'ahi/a) and private (aJilijiaiit'irii). [These two terms] public and private relate to the royalty (lit. the king).

200-201 (B.XII.207b-208a, 0.200).
201-202 (B.X11.208b-209a, G.201).
202-201 (B XII.209b-210u, G.202).
203-206 (B.XIJ.201b-213a, G.203-205).
206-207 (B.XU.213b-214a, Or.206).


Scats for male characters

208-210. O Brahmins, gods and kings are to be given tlie Lion-seat (i.e. throne), the priests and the ministers the cane-seat, the commander of the army and the crown-prince the
Munda-seat, the Brahmins the wooden seat and the other princes the carpet-seat. This ride of seats should he observed in the royal court.

Scats for female characters

210-214. I shall now speak of the rule of seats for women.
The chief queen should be given the Lion-seat, the female relatives and wives of the king other than the chief queen the
Munda-seat, the wives of priests and ministers the cane-seat, the concubines [of the king] the seat consisting of cloth, skin or carpet, the wives of Bralnnins and female ascetics the seat made of wood (p<itt<t)> t' 10 wives of Vaisyas the seat of pillow (cushion*, and for the remaining women the ground will be the seat. So much about the rule of seats in the inner appartments as well as in public places, While residing in one's own house one can take any seat according to one's liking.

Seats for ascetics and sectarians

215. The seats for the ascetics should be according to the rules [of the order] they are observing. For the members of different sects with special marks the seats will be according to their vows.

216. While pouring ghee into the sacrificial fire or doing the sacrificial duty in general or offering a libation of water to the departed parents one is to sit on a VrSi 1 , Munda-seat or cane-seat.

208-210 (B.XH.214b-217a, G.207-210a). ' A cane-chair.
2 muijjasana is probably nothing other than Bengali mala.
210-214 (B.XII.2l7b-221, G.210b-214).

215 (B.X1I.222, G.215). > For- example, some have tiger-skin as their seat, some deer-skin or a piece of woolen blanket

216 (B.XII.223, G.216). ' a seat made of kusa grass (Apto).

THE NATIASA8TBA [ Xiu. 217 .


General rules about goats
217 Other local people («tf*»yw) who arc of [high] |,j r , h
^posmslgmt^vnw^honldyhononrecl b >' tk ' ki "% ''.>'

/aij ofe 0/ su/'toWeJ stats.

*/& To his equals he 0>- the king) the is to offer seats equal in height to that of his own, to perxon* of medium importance, the seats of middling height, and to persons who are superior to him, should be given a more elevated seat, while the lowly persons are to be seated on the ground.

219. Before the preceptor, the king or the spiritual guide
(guru) wise persons are to sit on the ground or on an wooden seat- 220. Sitting together with the spiritual guide, the preceptor or the king in a boat, on an elephant or in a chariot, is allowed
(lit. not to be objected to).

Lying-down postures

221. Postures in the bed are known (lit. proclaimed) as
Skuncita, Sama, Prasiirita, Vivartita, Udvahita and Nabi.

222. Akuncita : Lying down with limbs narrowed down and the two knees sticking to the bed is called the Skuncita posture.
It is to be used in representing persons attacked with cold.

223. Sama : Lying down with the face upwards and the hands free and turning downwards is called the Sama posture. Tt is the posture in deep sleep.

224. Prasarita : Lying down with one arm as the pillow and the knees stretched, is called the Prasiirita posturc. ft is to be used to represent one enjoying a sleep of happiness.

225. Vivartita : Lying down with the face downwards is called the Vivartita posture. It is to be assumed in [representing ,

217 (B.XII.224, G.217). 218 (B.XII.225, G.218).

219 (B.XU.226, G.219). 220 (B.XU.227, G.220).

221 (B.XM.228, G.221). 222 (B.XD..229, G.222).

223 (B.XH 230, G.22H). 224 (B.XH.821, G224).
' 225 (B.XII.832, G.225).


wound from any weapon, death, vomitting, intoxication and lunacy. 226. Udvahita : Lying down with the head resting on the hand and making a movement of the knee, is called the
Udvahita posture. It is to he used in sports iind on entrance of the muster.

227. Nata : Lying down with tlw lugs (lit. shanks) slightly stretched and the two hands loosely resting is called the
Nata posture. It is to he used in laziness, fatigue and distress.

228. This is the [rule of] Gait and movements J was to tell you. Whatever remains unsaid should he devised accord- ing to the demand of circumstances. I shall lira rafter ,«peak about the division of the stage into Zones in connexion with going about on it.

Here ends Chapter XII f of Bharata's Natyasastra which treats of the Gaits and other Movements.

220 (B.X 1J.::W, G.22'.). 227 (B.XH.2 .'-J, 0.527).

228 ( RXJJ.235, G.228).


1. One should fix the Zones [of the stage] after knowing the division of the three [kinds ofj playhouse, that have been men- tioned before by me.

The arrangement of drums

2. The producer [of a play] should arrange the drums between the two doors of the tiling room, which I have described before.

The Zonal division

3. The Zonal division 1 is to lie indicated by going about on the stages [When one is in a particular] Zone [of the stage, it] will change [lit. be another] with his walking out of it.

Utility of the Zonal division

l-(i. [It is] from the [convention of] the Zonal division that one is to know [whether the place in which the scene has been laid] is a house, a city, a garden, a pleasure resort, a river, a hermitage, a forest, the earth, the sea, Lany part of] the Three worlds, any one of the Seven great divisions of (he earth or its continents, any of the different mountains, the sky (lit. light), the [surface ot the] earth or the nether world (ra«oW»), the places of rest, cities or palaces of the Daityas 1 .

7. The Zones should be fixed with reference to places such as a city, a forest, a continent or a mountain in which the scenes have been laid (lit. the event occurs).

1 (B.XHI.1, G.l). ■ See NW. II. 63ff.

2 (B.XUI.2, G2).

3 (B.XIII.3, G3). l As modern devise of the change of scenes was absent in the ancient Hindu theatre, the convention of the Zonal division indicated the locality in which different characters met

,4-6 (B.XIH.4-6, G-4-6), ' B. reads daityamgalayas for daityamam aiayas. 7 (B.XIIJ.7, G.7).


Indicating relative location

8. [The Zonal] division should relate to location inside, outside or in the middle and to a place far or near.

9. According to the convention of the Zonal division those who have entered [the stage] earlier, should be taken as being inside [a house], while those entering it later are to be known as remaining outside it.

10. He who enters the stage with the intention of seeing them (/. r. those entering earlier) should report himself turning to the right.

The east on the stage

11. The direction which the drums and the two doors of the tiring room face, should always be considered as the east in course of the dramatic performance.

The rule of exit

12. If any person will go out from the place (lit. there is. inside the house) on any business he is to make his exit by the very door he used when entering 1 .

li!. Tf after going out he is lore-enter that house he will make his exit |if neeeseary ] by the door through which the men
[who enter later] came.

14-15. If out of necessity he goes along with latter, [re-] enters the house with the latter, or by himself alone, another Zone should be prescribed for the two. This other Zone will be indicated by their [order in] walking.

Indication of rank in group walking

10. With the equals, one is to walk side by side and with one's inferiors one is to walk surrounded [by the latter], and hand- maids are to be known by their walking before [the master].

8 (B.X11I.8, G.8). 9(B.XIII.9,G.9). 10 (B.XIII.10, GfHO).


12 (B.X1JI.12, G.12). * B. reads the couplet differently.

13(B.XJU.13,G.1S). 14-15 (B.XJ11 14.G.14),


Indicating distance great, small and medium

17. The same place if much walked over will be taken as a distant land. And near by lands or lands ot medium distance are to be indicated likewise (in the same principle) 1 .

Movement of gods and demigods

18-20. According to the various needs of the plot (lit. play) gods and demigods are to move to cities, forests, seas or mountains through the sky, by an aerial car, by their occult power or by different other acts. But while in disguise in a play they (/. e gods and demigods) are to move on the ground, so that they may be visible like human beings (lit. through human causes) 1 .

Movement of men in Bharatavarsa

21. The gods and demigods can at their will move to any of [the nine] divisions [of the Jambudvipa], but it is prescribed that men are to move in Bh'.rata [varsa] (India) alone.

Departure for a distance place

22. If a person departs on business to a distant place this is to be indicated by closing the Act [with his departing] and mentioning again this fact in an Introductory Scene (yxwiM'a).

Time allowed for the events of an Act

23. To indicate the attainment of an object one is to traverse a measure of distance. But in ease of failure in this matter (lit. in non-attainment of the object) (he Act should be brought to an end.

24. [Incidents in a play occurring for] a Ksana, a Muhnrta, a Yama and a day are to be accommodated in an Act in pursuance of the Germ (rijn) [of the play].

25. But a month or a year is [to be considered] finished with the end of an Act ; and events occurring more than one year after, should not be put. in an Act.

16 (B.XII116. G.16).

17 (B.XJII.17, G.17). ' For an oxample of this see Uttara I.
18-20 (B.XIII.18-20, 0,18-20).' B.G. add one couplet after this.

21 (B.X1II.21, 0.22). 22 (B.XUJ.23, 0.23). 23 (B.X1II.24, 0.24 .
24 (B.XIII.25, 0.25). ' 25 (B.X1 1126, 0.26).


26. The Zones of the • stage [and allied conventions] con- cerning the movements of men are thus to be observed in a play in connexion with Bharatavarsa (India). Now listen about that of gods and demigods.

27-32. Yaksas, Guhyakas, the follow ers of Kuvera, (lit. the giver of wealth), Riiksasas, Bhutas and Pisacas who live on the best mountain KailFuui included in the Himalayas, are known as dwellers of the latter mountain. Gandharvas, Apsarasas and
Ganas are known to live on the Hemakuta. On the Nisadha live all the Niigas (serpents) such as Resa, Vasuki and Taksaka. The thirty-three groups of gods dwell on the great Meru, and Siddhas and Biahmarsis on the Blue [Mountain] full of lapis lazuli
The White Mountain is the abode of Daityas and Danavas, while
Pit re resort to the Srftgavat [mountain]. These are the best moun- tains where gods and demigods dwell. With reference ot the
Zonal division they should be [placed] in Jambudvlpa [where these mountains exist].

Movements of gods

32-35. Their exploits should be represented (lit. made) according to their habits and powers, but their costumes and make- up should be like that of human beings. All the conditions of gods are to be made human. Hence they should not be represented (lit. made) as winkless [which they traditional! , are]. For the States and the Sentiments [in a play] depend on Glances. And the
States are [first] indicated by Glances and then represented by gestures and postures (lit. by limbs). This is all about the Zonal division. The four Local Usages

36. I shall now resume the description of the Local Usages
(prarrtti) which according to the experts in drama are four : Avanli
Daksinatyi^, Pancal! and Odhra-Magadhi 1 .

. «r

26 (B.XI1I.27, G.27). 27-32 (B.XIU.28-33a, G.28-33).

32-35 (B.XlII.33b-36r, G.35-37a). ' For tu iaiyam B. reads na karyam. 36 (B.XIII.36b-38, G.^7b-38). ' The passage following this till tl.e beginning of 37 is in prose.


[Now comes the question] : Why is [it called] pravrtii
(report) [of the Local Usages] ? [In answer to this] it is said that
■pmvrtti is so called because it informs [one] about the Local
Usages regarding costumes, languages, manners and professions in different countries of the world. Vrtti and pmvrtti mean
'information', There arc many countries in this world. Hence it is' asked, "How a fourfold division of these (('.«. the four pravrttis) [can be] proper ? And an observance of all these pravrttis possess [some] common characteristics." [In reply] it has been said, "It is true that their observance has [some] common characteristics; but as people hive different native countries, costumes, languages and manners, I have prescribed a fourfold classification of the dramatic performance which is attached to four different Styles according to the preference of [different] people. [Hence] countries are connected with the performance which relate to the Styles such as the Verbal
{bharati) the Grand (sattmtli), the Graceful (kai&iki) and the
Violent (arabluiti). And from these [countries] arise the four pravrttis (Local Usages) and also the [entire] performance including them.

The Daksinatya Local Usage

Now [it is said] in that connexion (lit. there) that the
Southern [countries] favour various kind of dances, songs and instrumental music, an abundance of the Graceful (kaisiki) Style and clever and graceful gestures. They are as follows :

37 Countries adjacent to mountains named the Mahendra, the Malaya, the Sahya, the Mekala and the Kalapanjara 1 , are known as the Daksinapatha (Deccan).

• 38-39 [But] Kosala, Tosal.i, Kalinga 1 , Yavana, Khasa, and countries like Dramida, Andhra, Malrrastra 3 , Vainna and Vana-

37 (B.X1II.39, G.39)' ' Kalapa jara seems to be same as modern
Kalirjara (=Kalapi jara) j pinjara is a variant of paltjara ; see
Paia-saddamaliannavo, sui voce.

38-39 (B.xilI.40-41, G.40-41). * See note 1 to 43-45.
• ' Andhra-Mahara§tra may also be taken 'as the name of the great
Andhra empire (maha-rasira).


vasika which lie between the Southern OceaD and the Vindhya
[mountain] are always to take to the Daksinatysi Local Usages 8 .

The Avanti Local Usage

40-41. Avanti, Vidisa, Saurastra, Malava, Sindhu, Sauvira,
Arvudeya 1 Dasarna, Tripura, and Mrttikavat always take to the
Avanti Local Usage 2 .

42. The performance [of a play] by [people of] these [coun- tries] should depend on the Grand (s&ttvati) and the Graceful
[kaisilci] Styles and [such a procedure] should be adopted by the producers.

The Odhra-Magadhi Local Usage

43-45. Eastern 1 [countries such as] Anga, Vanga, Kalinga*,
Vatsa, Odhra (Odra), Magadha, Pundra, Nepala, Amtargira, Bahi- rgira, Plavamgama, Malada 3 , Mallavartaka,* Brahmottara," Bhar- gava, 8 Margava, 7 Pragjyotisa, Pulinda, Videha and Tamralipta, adopt the Local Usage known as the Odhra-Magadhi.

46. In relation to other countries too known in the
Puranas as belonging to the East the Odhra-Magadhi . Local
Usage is applied.

3 . Geographical names mentioned in this passage and the passages that follow, arc mostly to be met with in the Puranas (sometimes with variant readings). For a discussion on the same see Dines Chandra
Sircar, 'Text of the Puranic Lists of Peoples' (IHQ. Vol. XXI. 1945 pp. 297-314).

40-41 (B.XIH.42-43, G.42-43). ' Arvuda or modern Ibu in Raj- putana is probably meant by this name.

42 (B.XKL44, G.44).

43-45 (B.Xni.45-47, G.45-47). ' B. prahga pravrttayah.

2 The twofold mention of Kalinga requires an explanation. It is possible that the two different Usages were current in this region.

8 Malada be may modern Maldah District of Bengal.

' Mallavartaka may be modern Mallabhum (Bankura in Bengal.

6 For Brahmottara see Visvabharati Patrika, Vol. IV. pp, 250ff.

6 Bhargava remains unidentified,

' Margava remains unidentified.

46 (B.XIIL48, G.48).


The Paiicala-Madhyaina local Usage

47-48. Countries such as PancJa, Surasena, Kasmira,
Hastinapura, Vfilhika, Si'kala 1 , Madra and Uslnara which are contiguous either to the Himalayas or to the Northern bank of the Ganges, take to the Paficala-madhyma Local Usage. I

49. In this Usage the Grand (sattvatj) and the Violent
(ardbhati) Styles are known [to predominate]. The application of these [means] paucity of song and excessive movement and extraordinary Gaits and steps.

The twofold entrance in observing Local Usages

50. Going about on the stage in [observing] Local Usages, will be in two ways, viz. by entering from the right and by entering from the left.

51. In the Avanti and the Daksiniitya Local Usage the going about [on the stage] will be from the right, and in the Piiiieali and the Odhra-Magadhi it will be from the left.

52. In ease of the Avanti and the Daksinatya Local
Usages the door to be used in entering should be the Northern one, while in case of the Paficali and Odhra-Magadhi Local Usages the Southern door should be used.

oI3. But in view of the special assembly, place, occasion and expression of meaning these rules may be combined (lit. be made into one).

54. Experts should apply to plays the Local Usages which have been prescribed before for different countries.

55. In musical plays (ganakadi) these rules sho»ld be simplified. One should produce them (lit. practice those acts) in disregard of the multiplicity of Local Usages.

47-48 (B.XITI.49-50, G.50-51). ' The reading Salyaka of some mss. may be a variant of Salvaka. As in the Puranas an expression like ialval} iakalavasinah is met with, Salvas or Salvukas might have been the name of a tribe residing in the ancient Sakala region.

49 (B.XIU.51, G.49). 50 (B.XHI.52, G.52).

, 51 (B.Xin.53, G.53). 52 (B.Xm.54, G.54).

53 (B.XIIL55, G.55). 54 (B XZII.56, G.56). 55 (B.XIII.57, G.58).


The two general types of plays

56. The production of a play in conformity with the rales of dramatic practice is' of two types : delicate (sukwniaru) and violent (avbldhii).

The violent types
57-58. The play which requires violent (arihlha) gestures and movements {aivjaliaiv) to represent, cutting, piercing and challenging! and contains the use of magic and occult powers as well as artificial objects and make-up, and lias more men and less women [among its ilmimiti* /*/.'ivsu/n/«] and applies [in its production J mostly the Grand and the Violent Styles, is of the violent type.

59. According to the [expert] producers, [plays otj the l)ima. the. Samavakara, the Vyayog;i and the Iliamrgu [classes] are known to be of the violent type.

60. Production of plays of this type should be made by
[an impersonation of] gods/Danavas and Rakaasas who are majestic and haughty, and have herorism, energy and strength.

The delicate type

61. The Nataka, the Prnkarana, Vltlii and the Anka are plays of the delicate type, and they depend [for their production]
[on an impersonation of] human beings only.

The two Practices

62/ I shall now define (lit. relate the characteristcs ol) the two Practices (dlurnni) which have been mentioned before.

The realistic Practice

63-64. If a play depends on natural behaviour [in its characters] and is simple and not articial, and has in its [plot]

56 (B.XI1I5 9 ; G.59) 57 (B.XIH.60-61, G.60-61).

59 (B.XI11.62, G.62). 60 (B.XI1I 63, G.63X

61 (B.XII1.64, G.64). ' B. adds five additional couplets after this.

62 (B.XI1I.70, G.65). ' For a discussion on Dharmis see V. Ragha- van, Niitya Dharmi and Loka Dharral (Idealism and Realism of Bharata's
Stage), Journal of (Oriental Researches. Madras, Vol. VII. pp. 359-375.

68-64 (B.XU1.71-72, G.66-67). ' See note 1 to IX. 1-3.


professions and activities of the people and has [simple aeting and] no playful flourish of limbs and depend* on men and women of different types, it is called realistic (l-iMhtmuj) 1 .

The conventional Practice

65-IJ6 Tf a play contains speech, activity, beings and states of the extraordinary kind, and requires acting with playful flourish of limbs and possesses characteristics of dance, and requires couventiona! enunciation, and is dependent on emotionally earned parsons (lit.) characters it is to be known as conventional
[iiaijadkarm'i) 1 .

07. If anything used by (lit. among) people, appears
(lit. set foot) 1 in a play (lit here) as endowed with a corporal from and speech 2 the practice is [a]so| called conventional
(naJtijadhannl) 3 .

U8. [The practice in a play according to which persons arc supposed] not to hear words uttered in proximity, or to hear what has not been uttered at all, is [also] called conventional.

69. If objects like a hill, conveyance, aerial car, shield, armour, weapon or banner-staff are made to appear on the stage
(lit. are used) in [human] form, it is known as an [instance of] the conventional Practice.

70. If after appearing in a role, one assumes a different role [in the same play], on account of his being an expert in both the cases or being the sole actor available for both the roles, it is known to be an instance of the conventional Practice.

71- If after a person has been employed (lit. being) in the role of a woman for whom marital connexion with a particular character is forbidden by the Sastras, is made to appear in the

65-67 ( H.XI1I.75, G.70). ' padant • G. reads bhadram.
* mitrtimai sabhibhasam (B. murtimat sabhilasam).
' Au instance of this is the personification of the Bhrama&apa in
Miiyapu§paka (Ag.).

68 (B.XIII.76, G.7I). ' For amnnoktam, G. reads atroktam caiva.

69 (B.XIII.77, G.72). '' G. omits two couplets (70 and 71) after this. ■ 70 (B.XIII.78) 71 (B.XIII.79).


role of another woman with whom such connexion is permitted, it becomes an instance of conventional practice. The same will be the result if the situation in the above case is reversed.

72. That, [in a play instead of simple walking] one dances or goes with graceful movement of the limbs as well as with similarly made steps is known as conventional Practice.

73. Tf the [ordinary] human nature which has acts of joys and sorrows as its essence (lit. soul) is represented by (lit. combined with) [special] gestures it becomes [an instance of] the conventional Practice.

74. The Zonal division which includes (lit. depends on) many rules, is also [an instance of] the conventional Practice

75. A play should always be produced with the conven- tional movement [of limbs], for without the [use of] Gestures [by the actors] no pleasure occurs [to the spectators].

7C. All the States are natural to all [persons] and all the gestures [in connexion with them are used] from necessity
(arthnlah) ; [hence] a decorative movements of limbs [in producing a play] has been considered as [an instance of] the conventional

77. So much about the Zonal Division, [the two] Practices and the [four] Local Usages. Experts in dramatic production should know these and put them properly into practice.

78. I have described here the Histrionic Representation by means'of the Sakha and the Angahara- I shall afterwards speak about such Representation depending on Words which consist of vowel and consonantal sounds.

Here ends Chapter XIV of Bharata's Natyasastra which treats of the Local Usages and the Practices.

72 (B.XIII.80, G.73).

73 (B.XIII.81, G.74). » B rends one additional couplet after this.

74 (B.XIII.82, G.75). l B. reads one additional couplet after this.

75 (B.XHI.84, G.76). 76 (B.X1II.35, G.77).
77 (B.XIII.86, G.78). 78 (B.X1H.87, G.79),



The actor's speech

1. O the best of Brahmin?, I shall now speak about the nature (lit characteristics of) the Verbal Representation which has been mentioned before 1 and which relates to (lit. arises from) vowels and consonants.

Importance of speech in drama

2. One should take care of words 1 . For these are known as the body of the dramatic art (/<«///«). And < lestures, Costumes and Makeup and the Temparamental (*al'vil;n) acting [merely J clarify the meaning of words.

3. In this world (lit. here) the Sastras are made up of words and rest on words; hence there is nothing beyond words, and words are at the source of everything 1 . ,

4. The Verbal representation is related to [a knowledge of] nouns (nama), verbs (aklu/ta), particle (ni^atu), preposi- tion {ii)MHtirtja), nominal suffix (tahlkHu) compound words
(mimasn), euphonic combination (xnn<lhi) and c.ise-eiidim's
( vibhakti ).

The two kinds of recitation

5. The Recitation Qiathja) [in a play] is known to be of two kinds : Sanskritic and Prokritic. I shall speak of their difference in due order.

1 (C.lj B.XIV.l). > For the four kinds of Histrionic Representation which includes the Verbal one see N8. VI. 23.

2 (C.1;B.XIV.2), "This rule applies to the actors as well as to the play-wright. On this Ag. says : vfa nw *a*i ifit Mifon fr»tf<ii<in% are* n*<rarrtt.

3 (C.3; B.X1V.3). ' Tiiis view is also held hy Bhatrhari (circa
600 A.'C.) in his Vakyapadiya (XgamakandaXSee B. p. 224, foot note.

4. (C.4; B.X1 V.4). 5 (0.5; B.X1V.5).


Different aspects of Recitation ,.

0-7. [They consist of] vowels, consonants, euphonic combi- nation, case-endings, nouns, verbs, prepositions, particles and nominal suffixes. The Sanskritic Recitation is characterised by [a due regard to] these aspects and compound words, and includes various verbal roots 1 . Now listen about its application.

The speech-sounds

8 The fourteen founds beginning with a and ending in au, are known as vowels, and the group of sounds beginning with ka and ending in ha are known as consonants.

Vowles are fourteen in number 1 . A, a, i, i, u, u, r, r, I. ], c, ai, o and au are to be known as the vowels.

The group of letters beginning with ka, are consonants. Ka, kha, ga, gha, na, ca, cha, ja, jha, mi, ta, tha, da, dha, n.a, ta tha da, dha, na, pa, pha, ba, bha, ma, ya, ra, la, va, (5a, sa sa and ha 2
[constitute] the group of consonants 3 .

Consonants : their articulation

9. The first two sounds of each group [of the stop consonants] are known as unvoiced (<ujlw*n) and the rest [of the group] are called voiced (ijhoMt).

6-7 (0.6-7; B.XIV.6-7). ' R-ad mmadhatu-sammrayam, C.

8 (C.8; B,X1V.8). ' Different aiksfis and Priitisakhyas enumerate vowels differently. According to the PS. they are 22 in number, while the
Atharva, Taittirlya, and Vajasaneyi, Prutifcikhyas and the Rktantra
Vyakarana (Samavcda Pr.) give their number respectively as 13, 13, 16,
23 and 23. See VS. (ed. Manomohan Ghosh) p.51. .

3 PS. counts anusvara, visarga, jihvamvliya and upadhtmnlya among consonants. Sec ed. Ghosh, p. 50.

8 B. reads after this a couplet (B.10) from PS. see ibid, p. 59. Not occurring in most of the tnss. this may be taken as spurious. This is followed in B. by a prose passage which also seems to be spurious. The same is our view about the couplet B.ll which follow this prose passage.
The substance of tMs couplet (B.ll) occurs in 9 below-

9 (C.9 ; B.XIV.12). ' In C. this couplet occurs after 8 and before the prose passage that follows it.


10. These 1 [consonants] are to be classified into (lit. known as) voiced and unvoiced, velar, labial, dental, lingual (jihvya)*, nasal, sibilant, palatal and Visarjanlya.

'11 In these groups [of consonants] ga, gha, na, ja, jha, n, da, dha, na, da, dha na, ba bha, ma, ya, ra, la and va are voiced, while ka, kha, ca, cha, ta, tha, ta, tha, pa, pha, sa, sa, sa and ha are unvoiced. 12-14. Ka, kha, ga, gha, and na, are velar (kanihastlia) 1 ca, cha, ja, jha, Fia, i, i, ya and sa palatal, ta, tha, da, dha, na, r, ra, and sa cacuminal (murdhawja), ta, tha, da, dha, na, la, and sa dental, pa, pha, ba, bha, and ma labial; a and ha are from the throat (kardhoxtha), o and au are throat-labial (kanthyostlia,- xthana) 2 , e and ai, throat-palatal {kntaha-talavya).

14-15. The Visarjanlya is from the throat, and ka and [kha] are from the root of the tongue 1 . The place of articulation for pa and pha are lips, and the same will be for the closet! (arivrta) vowels u and u 2 .

15-16. [The group of sounds] beginning with ka and ending in ma are called stops (sparsa), sa, sa sa, and ha are open

10 (CIO; B.XIV.13). ' Read the first hemistich as <tf ^nwfor,

8 Thejihvya docs not seem to occur in any well-known grammatical work. This is perhaps synonymous with murdhanya; for in the pro- duction of murdhanya sounds jihva (tongue) plays the most important part,
The Taittiriya. Pr. describes the manner of their production as follows ;
Jihvagrena prativeslya murdhani ta-vargasya (11.37), Curiously enough this term has never again been used in the Ntt.

11 CC.11; B.X1V.14).

12-14 (C.l2-14a; B.X1V.15, 15 of p.230 and 16). ' For different tradi- tional views about the places of articulation of consonants see P8. p. 62.
Read lib as follows : — qre^f zstrnTO-siw tftr qSmta:.

* Read 12a as follows :— wm^i: ^WIWJIWII fltriw tnsatwn:.

8 Read 13b as follows :— -nrasir i^mr: ro^'zw $f» farat itai:.

1 Read 14a as follows : ^ "ft *»ra»ili!ft 1 § qrtft ^ wwwft.

14-15 (C.l4b-15a, B.XIV.16b-17a). ' See noto I to 12-14 above.

8 Read 14b-15a, as follows i »ro) fw&SWt fcrnqjIi'SftiwSl: I liffit-

15-16 (C15b-16a, B.XIV.17b-18a). • C. sarnvrtali for samvrtajah.


(vivrta) while semivowels (airfahitha) are erosed (samvrta), na, iia, 9a, na and ma are nasal [sounds].

16-17. Sa, sa, and sa and ha are sibilants (imiim-h, lit. hot) ; ya, ra, la and va arc semivowels (aiUiihithii, lit. intermediate), hka from the root of the tongue (jihnamidltja) and hpa from the
Upadhma (nparfhmaniya).

17-18. Ka, ca, ta, ta and "pa are [simply] uttered (nmrite), and kha, cha, tha, tha and pha are uttered [markedly] from the throat, and ga, gha, ja, jha, da, dha, da, dha, and ba, bha from the throat as well as the breast (kanihuiasya) 1 -

18-19. The Visarjaniya should be known as a sound from
[the root of] the tongue 1 . These are the consonants which have been briefly defined by me. 1 shall now discuss the vowels with reference to their use in words.

Vowels : their quantity

20. 1 Of the above mentioned fourteen* vowels ten constitute homogenous pairs (winaiw), of which the first ones are short and the second ones long.

The four kinds of word

21. Constituted with vowels and consonants [described above] the words include verbs (skhyata), nouns (nclma), roots
(tihatu), prepositions (npaxarya) and particles (niyafa), nominal affixes (taihUuta), euphonic combinations (nandhi) and case- terminations (vibhakti).

16-17 (C.16b-17a; B.XIV.18b 19a).

17-18 (C.17b-18a, B.XIV.19b-20a). ' Read this couplet as follows :

18-19 (C.18b-19 ; B.XIV.20b-2l). '.See note 1 to 12-14 above.
Read 18b as follows : tat fafl«^Wt fsiIT5«rf¥tf ^:. See the foot-note in B. under B. 20b.

20 (C.20; B.XIV.22b-23a). ' B. reads one additional hemistich
(B 22a), before this.

3 About the number of vowels see 8 note 1 above.

21 (C.21j B. foot note 4 in p. 231).


22. The characteristics of vocables have been mentioned in detail by the ancient masters. I shall again discuss those charac- teristics briefly when an occasion will arise 1 .

The noun

28. The noun 1 has its functions determined by the case- endings such as 'su' and the like, and by special meanings derived therefrom 2 ; and it is of five 8 kinds and has a basic meaning
(pratipntlikartha) and gender*.

24. It (the noun) is known to be of seven 1 classes and has six cases, and [sometimes] it is well-established ([irathittt) 2 and

22 (C.22; B. foot-note 5 in p. 231).

23 (C.25; B X1V.28). ' This couplet has evidently boon misplaced in 0. as well as B. Begin it as svadyudya" .

' The second hemistich should be emended as follows : nfinnfiwitfef-

8 The five kinds of noun have been enumerated as follows : 3"»ra«i
K?4 * ftfjTW wmn i st^iijsw mi mq lliw wtffl il Goylcandra, Samksip- tasara-vivarana (Rrf. Haldar, Itihiisa, p. 174).

* There is a difference of opinion about the number of basic meanings
(pridipadikartha) of a word. According to Panini they are-two : chareteris- tics of a species (jitti) and object (dmvya). Katyayana adds one more to the number which is gender (likga). But Vyighrapit— a rather less kuown ancient authority— took their number to bo four. According to him they arc : characteristics of a species, object, gender and number (samkhyu).
Pataiijali however considered them to be live in number, e.g. characteristics of a species, object, gender, number and case [karaka). (Haldsir, Itihiisa
p. 447-48.

24 (C.23; B.XIV.25b-26a). l The seven classes probably relate to the seven groups of case-endings.

* The words Prathita and sudhya as grammatical terms an- scarcely well-known. Prathita seems to relate the well-known words as a whole, which cannot be conveniently analysed into component parts.
(Unadi derivation should in this connexion be considered as the most artificial). It may be in contrast to these that the words which can be built up from the verbal roots and affixes etc. are known as sadhya O be.madc). These two terms may therefore be taken as synonymous with rGjAa and yaugika respectively. _«,


[sometimes] is to be constituted (sa/lhya)* [and when combined with different case-endings] it may imply* indication (nirdega) 3 , giving to (sampradana), taking away (ai>Wlantt) and the lik*. s

25. 1 The verbs relate to actions occurring in the present and the past time and the like ; they are sometimes well-established
(l>rathita) 2 and sometimes to be constituted (sailhya)*, are distin- guished and divided according to number and person.

The verb

26. [A collection of] five hundred roots divided into twenty- five classes are to be known as verbs (akhyata) in connexion with the Recitation, and they add to the meaning of the nouns 1 .

27. Those that iipaxtjnnti (modify) the meaning of the verbal roots in connexion with the meaning of basic words 1 are for that [very] reason called it/nutti nja- (preposition) in the science of grammer (xttmskara-iastra).

3 Nirdesa seems to to relate 'nominatives ; for it is one of the meanings of the case-endings. Enumerating these some grammarian says : ftw. <mii %A R?T"5m$iif( i ^rarafsqfa^ii ftwwttf: R^tfflJU: .- (Haldar,
Itihasa, p. 170).

25 (C.24; B.XIV.26b and cf. 29b). ' Read the couplet as follows :—

B. 27a seems to be corrupt and redundant.

2 In case of verbs prathita seems to relate to irregular froms like prmya in place of drg, and sadhya to regularly constructed ones. Sec also note 1 to 24 above.

26(C.26a;B.XlV. 27b, 29a). l C. omits 26a and gives only 26b as C. 26a. There are different number of roots in lists (DhatupStha) attached to different grammatical works. It is not known which give their number as five hundred. Dhanapala (970 A.C.). in his commentary to Jaina Sakatiiyana's Dhatupatha says on the subject as follows :
*3*«jJWr*rf'M»ri<.'i* w * i toj: Sferiw* vnfli ^f<u wn: ll ' (Ref. Haldar,
Itihasa, p. 44). Verbal roots are divided according to Panini into ten classes
(gatta). Their division into twentyftve classes does not seem to occur in any well-known work.

27 (C.26, B.XIV.30). ' This definition of the ufiasarga follows
Sakatayana's view on the subject as expressed in the Nirukta 0,. 1.3-4).
According to this authority upascrgas have no independant meaning and

361 THE NATYA8A8TRA [ XV. 28-

The particle

28. *As they nipatmti (come together) with declined words
(pada) to strengthen their basic meaning, root, metre" or etymo- logy*, they are called nipatas (particles).

The affixes

29, 1 As it distinguishes ideas {pratyaya) and develops the meaning [of a root] by intensifying it or combining [it with another] or [pointing out] its essential quality {mitva), it is called

pratyaya (affix).

The nominal affix

30- x As it develops the meanings [of a word] by an elision
[of some of its parts], a seperation of its root and affix, or their combination and by pointing out the abstract notion [indicated by it], it is called taddldia (nominal affix).

they are merely auxiliary words modifying the meaning of the verbal roots. On the different ways in which such modification takes place one grammarian says : sfcfillffl wati «finmj*4* I fafitlfe ?l»m$>!<re9'iiftlfcroT.
Haldar, Itihasa, p. 346).

28(C27;B.XIV.3l). ' According to Panini indecliuables (avyaya) of the ca-group are particles (nipaia). See I. 5.57. According to
Patanjali nipiitas do the function of case-endings and intonation (svara= pitch accent). He says : farffatswfTOwra wftfit rinra«^r:...(on P.II1.4.2).
The author of the Kasika too accepts this view in his comments on P.I. 4.57.

2 Ca, vat, tu, and hi are instances of such nipatas.

s It is not clear now nipatas, strengthen the etymology given here.- Probably the reading here is corrupt.

29 (C.28; B.XIV.32). ' Such an elaborate definition of the pratyaya doer! not not appear to occur in any exant grammatical work. Ag. seems to trace it to the Aindra school of grammarians. The meaning of the definition is not quite clear. According to the common interpre- tation the pratyaya means that which helps to develop a meaning from root ( 3tre: q?fta^ q s«tt: ).

30 (C.29; B.XIV.33). ' This definition of the taddhita does not seem to occur in any well-known grammatical work. It describes the processes through which the taddhita suffix will transform a word.


The case-ending

31. As they vibliajanti (distinguish between) the meanings of an inflected word or words with reference to their roots or gender, they are called vihhahti (case-endings).

The euphonic combination

32- Where separated vowels or consonants sandhtyate
(combine) 1 by coining together 2 (i/ogatah) in a word or words it is called [an instance of] sandhi (euphonic combination).

33. As due to the meeting of two sounds (lit. letters) or of two words, their sequence (krama)*- sandhlyate (result in a combi- nation), it is called mndhi (euphonic combination).

The compound wordB

34. The Samasa (compound word) which combine 1 many words to express a single meaning an.l suppresses affixes, has been described by the experts to be of six kinds such as Tatpurusa and the like.

31 (C.30; B.XIV.34). l This definition follows the etymological sense of the term {vibhakii). Diu-gasimha of the Kalapa school says the case-endings are so called because of their giving distinctive moaning to a word (i*!"! fmitl? fffl%). See Halclar, Itihasa, p. 169).

32 (B.XIV.35) C. omits this. Road vtsltsta for vitista. ' The sandhi in strictly speaking, not merely a combination of two sounds (vowels or consonants), in a great number of cases their mutual phonetic influence, constitutes a sandhi. This is of live kinds, and relate to savara-s, vyanjana-s, prakrli-s, anusvara-s, and visarga-s.

' This 'coming together' depends on the shortness of duration which
Roparate the utterance of the two sounds. According to the ancient authorities sandhi will take place when this duration will not be moro than half a maim. It is for this reason that the two hemistichs in a couplet are never combined.

«jfa: i *WRrf(<"s*wq^fl^rat^^flSl!i , !. (USldar, Itihasa p. 166).

33 (C.31; B.XIV.36). " C. reads 33a, as ^m *«w <rJ*ifrihimM|irrt.

34 (C.S2; B.XIV.37). ' Reads somharat samato'fli (B.) for sfimha* rand samk»ej>at (C-). • -


35. Observing such rules of grammar (iabda-vidhfflia) one should compose series of inflected words ([>ada) combined in verse or in prose, which have the quality of suggesting extensive meaning
(lit. extensiveness ) l .

Two kinds of word

36 Padas are inflected words 1 and are of two kinds, viz. those used in verse, and those in prose, Now listen 2 [first] about the characteristics of words used in prose.

Words in prose

37. Words used in prose are not schematically combined, have not the number of their syllables regulated, and they contain as many syllables as are required to express the meaning [in view] 1 .

Words in verse

38 Words used in verse consist of schematically combined, syllables which have caesura and stops 1 and which have their number regulated 2 .

Syllabic metres

39. Thus arises a Rhythm-type (''lunulas) called Vrtta
( syllablic metre ) made up of four feet 1 which expresses different ideas and consists of [short and long] syllables.

Rhythm typos

40. Rliythni-lypcs in feet are twenty-six in number.
Syllabic metres with these Rhythm-types are of three kinds, viz. even (mma), semi-oven (unlhu-muwi) and uneven (cixitum).

35 (C.3:*; B.X1V.38). ' Read the couplet as follows :— nfir. sreflrapt fawarairaigs?: i q^wt: i^ait: wrflmrtw *,ii «'.

36 (C.34; IS.XIV.39?. ' 0. vibhajykapadam for vibhaktyantam ; ('. bahir-bodhala for samvibodhala.

37 (C.35i.B.XIV.40). ' B. anibaddhapadam .chandas for anibad- dhapadavrnda ; G. arthopekmkmrayutam and TV °syntam for arthapcksyakmraytitam. 38 (C.36; B.X1V.41) ■ V, padaccheia for yaltcihcda.

39 (C.37; B.XIV.42). ' B. pramuna-niyatuttmkam for pramaya- niyatakmram; Read phdair-vamair for pmfoirvarnair,

40 (C.38 ; B.X1V.43).



41-42. This Mylhm-type which assumes the form of different syllabic metres is the body of words. There is no word, without rhythm and no rhythm without word. Combined with each other they are known to illuminate the drama.

Twentysis Rhythm-types

43-49. [The Rhythm-type] with one syllable [in a foot] is palled Ukta, with two syllables is Atyukta, with three syllables
Madhya, with four syllables Pratistha, with five syllables Supra- tisthii., with six syllables Gayatri, with seven syllables Usnik, with eight syllables Anustup, with nine syllables Brhati, with ten syllables
Pankti, with eleven syllables Tristup, with twelve syllables JagatI, with thirteen syllables Atijagati, with fourteen syllables Hakkart, with fifteen syllables Atisakkari, with sixteen syllables Asti, with seventeen syllables Atyasti, with eighteen syllables Dhrti, with nineteen syllables Atidhrti, with twenty syllables Krti, with twentyone syllables Prakrti, with twentytwo syllables Akrti, with twentythree syllables Vikrti, with twentyfour syllables Samkrti, with twontyfive syllables Atikrti 1 , and with twentysix syllables

Possible metrical patterns

49-51. Those containing more syllables tban these are known as Malfi-vrttas. And the Rhythm-types being of many different varieties, metrical patterns according to the experts 1 are innumerable. The extent of these such as Gayatri and the like, is being given [below] But all of them are not in use.

51-76. [Possible] metrical patterns of the Gayatri [type] are sixtyfour, of the Usnik one hundred and twenty-eight, of the
Anustup two hundred and fiftysix, of the Brhati five hundred and twelve, of the Pankti one thousand and twentyfour, of the
Tristup two thousand and forty-eight, of the Jagati four thousand

41-42 (C.39b-40 ; B.>aV.44b-45).

43-49 (C.41-47a s B.XIV.46-52a). ' also called abhikrti.

49-51 (0.47b, 58b-59a, B.XlV.52b-54a). ' These experts are mathe- maticians like Bhaskaraearya. Sec Litavati, section 84, (ed Jiviinanda,
P. 50). 51-76 (G,59b-80a; B.XlV.54b-79),



and ninetytwo, of the Sakkari sixteen thousand three hundred and eighty-four, of the Ati&kkari thirtytwo thousand seven hundred and sixty-eight, of the Asti sixtyfive thousand fiive hundred and thirty-six, of the Atyasti one lac thirty one thousand and seventy-two, of the Dhrti two lacs sixty-two thousand one hundred and forty- four, of the Atidhrti five lacs twenty-four thousand two hundred and eighty-eight, of the Krti ten lacs forty-eight thousand five hundred and seventy-six, of of the Prakrti twenty lacs ninety-seven thousand one hundred and fifty-two, of the
Akrti 1 forty-one lacs ninety-four thousand three hundred and four, of the Vikrti eighty-three lacs eighty thousand six hundred and eight, of the Sainkrti one crore sixty-seven lacs seventy-seven thousand two hundred' and sixteen, of the Abhikrti (Atikrti) three crores thirty-five hies fifty-lour thousand four hundred and thirty-two, of the Utkrti six crores seventy-one lacs eight thousand eight hundred and sixty-four.

77-79. Adding together all these numbers of different metrical patterns we find their total as thirteen crores forty-two laes seventeen thousand seven hundred and twenty-six. 1

Another method of defining metres

79-81. I have told you about the even metres by counting
[their numbers]. You should also know how the triads which make up the syllabic metres. W hether these are one, twenty, thousand or a crore, this is the rule for the formation of all the syllabic metres or metres in general.

81-82. Triads are eight in number and have their own definitions. Three syllables heavy or light, or heavy and light make up a triad which is considered a part of each metrical pattern. 1 ttlokas giving the numbers of metres of the akrti, vikrti, samkrti, a&hikrli (atikrti) and utkrti classes seems to be corrupt in C.

77-79 (C.80b-82a;B.XlV.80-82a). > Readings of B. and not literally agree.

79-81 (C.82-84a; B. foot note 4 in p. 241). ' C. omits 79b,
' 81-82 (C.84b-85; B.XIV.83b-84).


83-84. [Of these eight triads] bha contains two light syllables preceded by a heavy one (— w <J), ma three heavy

syllables ( ), ja two light syllables separated by a heavy

syllable (<j — ,_,), sa two light syllables followed by a heavy syllable
(v \j — ) ra two heavy syllables separated by a light one (— u — ),

ta two heavy syllables followed by a light one ( «>), ya two

heavy syllables preceded by a light one and (kj ), na three

light syllables ( u v/ v/).

85-80. ^ These are the eight triads having their origin in
Brahman. For the sake of brevity or for the sake of metre they are used in works on prosody, with or without [inherent] vowels
(i. e. a y

86-87 A single heavy syllable should be known as ga and such a light syllable as la.

Separation of two words [in speaking a verse] required by rules [of metre] is called caesura (yati).

87-88. A heavy syllable is that the which ends in a long or prolated (pluta) vowel, Anusvara, Visarga or comes after a con- junct consonant or sometimes occurs at the end [of a hemistich].

88-89. Eules regarding the metre, relate to a regular couplet (mmpat), stop, foot, deities, location, syllables, colour, pitch and hyper-metric pattern.

The regular couplet

89-90. A couplet in which the number of syllables is neither in excess nor wanting is called a regular one (sampat).

The stop

90-91. The stop (virama) occurs when the meaning has been finally expressed.

83-84 (C.86-87; B.X1V.85-86).

85-86 (C.88-89a; B.X1V.87, 88b). ' B. roads one additional hemistich between 85b and 86a.

86-87 (C.89b-90a ; B.X1V.89).

87-88 (C.90b-91a; B.XIV.90).

88-89 (0.48; B.XTV.102). 89-90 (C.49, B.XIV.103).

90-91 (C.50; B.XIV.104).


The Foot
The foot (pmla) arises from the root jnd, and it means one quarter [of a .couplet].

The presiding deities of luetics

91-92. Agni and the like presiding over different metres are their deities.


Location is of two kinds, viz, that relating to the body and that to a [particular] region.

Quantity of syllables

93. Syllables are of the three kinds, viz. short, long and prolated {pinto).

Colours of metres

Metres have colours like white and the like.

Pitch of vowels

94-95. The pitch of vowels is of three kinds, viz- high, low and medium. I shall speak about their character in connexion with the rules of Dhruvas Rules [about their use] relate to the occasion and the meaning [of thing sung or recited]

TJiree kinds of syllabic meters

95-97. Syllablic metres are of three kinds, viz. even (mma), semi-even (ardha-sama) and uneven vwama).

If the number of syllables in a foot of any metre is diffident or in excess by one, it is respectively called Nivrt or Bhurik. If the deficiency or excess is of two syllables, then such a metre is respec- tively called either Svaiftt or Viriit.

91-92 (C.51; B.XJV.105).

93 0.53b-54a, B.XJV. (107b-10Sa). This couplet is preceded by in B. three hemistich* which do not occur in some versions, and which seem to be irrelevant. 94-95 (C.53b-54a, B,XIV.108b-109).

95-97 (C.54b-58a, B.XIV.110-llfl»).

-XV. 102 ] BULBS OF PBOSODt 261

98. All the syllabic metres fall into three classes such as divine, human and semi-divine.

91). Gayatri, Usruk, Anustup, Briiati, Tristup and JagatI belong to the first or the divine (divi/a) class.

100. AtijagatI, Hakkari, Atisakkari, Asti, Atyasti, Dhrti and
Atidhrti belong to the next (i.e. human) class.

101- Kyti, Prakrti, Vyakrti (Akrti), Vikrti, Sainkrti,
Abhikrti (Atikrti) and Utkrti belong to the semi-divine class 1 .

102. O the best of Brahmins, now listen about the metrical patterns which are to be used in plays and which are included in the Rhythm-types described by me 1 .

Here ends Chapter XV of Bharata's Natyalastra which treats of the Rules of Prosody.

98 (C.91b-92a, B..XIV.112b-113a).

99 (C.92b-93a, B.XIV.113b-114a).

100 (93b-94a, B.XIV.114b-115a).

101 (C.94b-95a, B.XIV.115b-116a). l The seventeen couplets after this (C.101a-118a B.XIV, Il6b-l32a) seem to be spurious. For a discus- sion on this point see the Introduction.

102 (0.118-119, B.X1V.13 :-134). ' Some versions of the NS. read this couplet as the beginning of the next chapter.


1. 1 Tanu-mdhya is a variety [of metres] of the Gayatri class. [In each of its feet] the first two and the last two syllables are heavy 3 .

Example :

2. santyakta-vibhusa bhrastaiijana-netra I

hastArpitaganda kiin tvam tanu-madhya II fair lady (lit. slim-waisted one), why 1 have you cast off your ornaments, why are your eyes without collyrium and why are you resting the cheek on the palm of your hand ?


3. [Of the same class is] Makaraka-s'irsa which has [in each of its feet] the first four syllables light and the last two


4. svayam upayantam bhajasi na kantam I

bhayakari kim tvam makaraka-slrsa II

You are not' greeting the beloved one who has .come to you of his own accord terrible one, why 1 are you so dull-

1(C.2,'B.XV.2). ' This is preceded in B. and C by a couplet which rightly belongs to the Chapter XV. (XIV. in B.)

a Scheme (- - u, u - -). The definition of this metre is also its example though an independent example also follows. Such is the east' with many other metres defined in the MS.

2 (C.3, B.XV.3). > Km ham— why ( are ) you...? Cp. Km akaranam eva dar&anam rat aye na diyate, Kumar. IV. 7.

3 (C.4, B.XV.4). ' Scheme (uuo.u- -). This is called Sasivadana by Pr. P. Vr. R. and Srv.

. 4 (C.5, B.XV.5). ' See above 2 note 1.
■ Makarakaiiiira— having a head («'.«. brain) like that of a makara.



5. [The metre with] the feet of six syllables of which the second and the filth are light and the rest heavy, is called
Malati 1 .
Example :

6. sobhate baddhaya satpadaviddhaya l

lnalatlmalaya manini lilaya II
The offended woman wearing the Malati garland in which the bees are clinging looks charming.


7. [The metre with] the feet of six syllables of which the second one is light [and the rest heavy] is called Malinl. 1

Example :

8. snana-gandha-srngbhir vastra-bhiisayogaih I

vyaktam evaisa tvam malinl prakhyata II
By your perfumed bath, [wearing of] garlands, [good] dress and ornaments you are clearly recognised as the wife of a garland- maker. Uddhata

9. [The metre with] the feet of seven syllables of which the second, the fourth and the fifth are light [and the rest heavy] is called Uddhata 1 .

The allusion is perhaps to the foolish mokara in the Vanara-makara-katha in the Piiiicatantra, IV. which really believed that the monkey had left its heart behind in the tree on the river-bank. Hence I translate the word as "dull-headed one."

5-6. (B.XY.9-10). l Scheme (- u -, - v -) C. omits this metre.

7 (C.&, B.XV.6-7). ' Scheme (- u -, ). This is quite different

from the metre Malyai defined by Pii'igala and his followers. The N8. calls this second Malini (with 15 syllables in each pada) Nandimukhi.
See below 73-74.

8 (C.7, B.XV.8).

9 (C.8, B XV.11-12). ' Scheme (- u-,uu -, -).

10 (C.9, B.XV.13).


10. danta-kunta-krtankam vyakulAlaka-sobham I <

samsativa tavasyam nirdaynyam rata-yuddhara II

Your face which bears the marks of spear-like teeth [of the beloved] and is strewn over with your dishevelled hair, indicates indeed an unrelenting fight of love.


11. [The metre with J the feet of seven syllables of which the first two and the last two are heavy [and the rest light] is called Bhramara-malika 1 .

Example ;

12. nana-kusuma-citre prapte sural ihi-mase I

esa bhramati inatta kiinte bhramara-mala II

beloved one, this being the month of Caitra which is varigated with different flowers, cluster of bees are flying about intoxicated [with their smell].


13. [The metre with] the feet of eight syllables of which the first, the third, the fifth, the seventh and the last [the eighth] are heavy [and the rest light] is called Simha-lekha r .

Example :—

14. yat tvaya by nneka-bhiivais cestitain rahah sugatri i tan mano mama pravistam vrttam atra simha-lekham 1

That you have planned the love's embrace in various ways, fair-limbed one, has been inscribed in my mind with the scratch of a lion's claws 1 .


15. [The metre with] the feet of eight syllables of which the

11 (CIO, B.XV.14-15). 1 Scheme (--v,vv -,- ).

12 (Oil, B.XV.16).

13 (C.12, B.XV.19). ' Scheme (- «j -, v, - u, - u -) C. gives the name as Sirnhalila.

14 (C.13, B.XV.17-18). ' The translation follows Ag.

, 15 (C.14, B.XV.20, 21). l Scheme (v; - u, - u -, U -). Tnis-metre is named as Pramanika in Pr P.

-Xtl.20] MEfcBIOAL PATTERNS 265-

second, the fourth, the sixth and the eighth are heavy [and the rest light] is called Matta-cestita. 1
Example :

16. carjlvaghumit^ksanani vilambitsikulalakam I asamsthitaih padaih priya karoti matta-cestitam II

The beloved one with her eyes restless and rolling, hairs hanging down dishevelled, and footsteps unsteady, is behaving like a person who is intoxicated.


17. [The metre with] the feet of eight syllables of which all are heavy, is called Vidyul-Ickha. 1

Example :

18. silmbho-bharair anardadbhih syiimambhodair vyapte vyoinni I adityamsu-spardhiny esa diksu bhranta vidyul-lekha II

The sky being overcast with dark clouds which are roaring and are laden with masses of water, a flash of lightning which rivals the sun-beam is running in [different] directions.


19. [The metre with] the feet of eight syllables of which the fifth, the seventh and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Citta-vilasita. 1

Example :

20. smita-vasa-viprakasair dasana-padair amibhih I varatanu purna-candram tava mukham avraoti i

fair lady (lit. fair limbed one) ', your face with the teeth

16 (C.15, B.XV.22).

17 (C.16, B.XV.23, 24). ' Scheme ( , , - -). B. gives

the name as Vjdyun-mala. This is the name in Pingala and Sr. B.

18 (C.17, B.XV.25).

19 (B.XV.26). ' Scheme (u v u, u - u, - -). C. omits this metre.

20 (B.XV.27). l This mode of addressing a beloved woman is as old as the time of Pataiijali who quotes the fragment of a poem as follows :
■varatanu sampravadqnti kukkufih (Ref . Apte's Guide to Skt. § 319).



revealed on account of your smile, outshines (lit. covers) the full moon. Madhukari

21. [The metre which has] the feet of nine syllables of which the last three are heavy [and the rest light] is called Madhukari. 1

Example :

22. kusumitam abhipasyanti

vivid ha-taruganais' channam I vanam ati&iya-gnndhitdhyam

bhramati madhukari hrsta II
Seeing the woodland covered with various trees full of flowers and rich in exuberance of [pleasent] odour, the female bee is flying about in delight.


23. [The metre which has] the feet of ten syllables of which the first and the last three are heavy [and the rest light] is called
Kuvalaya-malii 1 .

Example :

24. asinims te s"irasi tada kSnte

vaiduraya-sphatika-suvarnadhye I sobham svani na vahati tSra

baddha suslista kuvalaya-maleyam II dear one, this well-made garland of Kuvalaya 1 flowers fastened at that time on your head which has been richly decorated with lapis lazuli, quartz and gold, does not bear [any more] its naturalbeau ty.


25. [The metre which has] the feet of ten syllables of

21 iC.18, B.XV.28, 29). » Scheme u u U, u u u, ). This

metre is called BhujagaSiiinbhttii ("yuta, vrtii) by Pingala and his followers.


2) (C.20, B.XV.31, 32). > Scheme (- - -, V U u, w - -, -). This is called Panava by Pingala and his followers.

. 24 (C.21, B.XV.33). * Kuvalaya is a blue aquatic flower of tho of the lotus class. 25 (C.22, B,XV.H 35).

•XVI. 29 j MfiTBIOAL PATtERtfS 26?

which the second, the fourth, the sixth and the eighth are light
[and the rest heavy] is called Mayurasarim 1 .
Example :

26. naiveute'sti samgamo m'Snusair

nasti kamabhoga-cihnain anyat I garbhiniva drsyase hy anarye

kim mayura-sarini tvam evam II
O ignoble one, you have no union with men, neither have you any sign of love's enjoyment. Still you look like one who is enceinte. You indeed behave like a pea-hen. 1


27- [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which the first, the fourth, the seventh the tenth and the last are heavy
[and the rest light] is called Dodhaka. 1
Example :

28. praskhalititgrapada-pravicaram

matta-vighurnita-gatra-vilasam I pasya vilasini kunjaram etam

dodhaka-vrttam ayam prakaroti II merry lady, look at this elephant which with its faltering steps of the front legs, and with the body playfully moved about
[as if in] intoxication, is imitating the manner of a calf (?) 1


29. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which the first two, fifth, the eighth, and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Motaka.

1 Scheme (- *J -, \j - kj, - \j -, -), ' Piiigala gives the name as
Mayurasa and so does Vr. R.

26 (0.23, B.XV.36). ' This relates the belief that the pea-fowls' sexual union take place in complete seclusion.

27 (C.24, B.XV.37, 38). i Scheme (- u v, - \j vj, - u u, - -).

28 (C.25, B.XV.39). *' Wo are not sure of the meaning of theft word dodhaka. Ag. writes dodhakena giyatnanam vrltam dodhaka-vrttam.

29 (C.26, B.XV.40). ' Schcmfi. (- - v, kj - U, u - U, U -). This is named as Motanaka by Gangadasa in'Ch. M.

jgg 28BNAI1TA8AST8A tXVL36.

Example s

BO. eso'inbuda-nisvana-tulya-ravah

ksibah skhalatnana-vilamba-gatih I srotva ghana-garjitam adri-tate

vrksan prati motayati dviradah II
This elephant hearing the clouds roaring in the mountain valley, is trumpeting in excitement as loudly as the [rain] clouds and is rushing with faltering steps to the trees.

31. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which the third, the sixth, the seventh and the ninth are light, [and the rest heavy] is called Indra-vajra 1 .

Example :

32. tvatp durniriksya duratiprasada

duhkhaika-sadbya kathinaika-bhava I sarvasv avasthasu ca kama-tantre' yogyasi kim va bahunendravajra II

You are hard to be looked at, difficult to be pleased and won over, and you have an unmixed ( lit, one ) hard feeling, in the practice of love, you are unfit (ajioijija) at every stage ; and in short you are [like] the thunder-bolt of Indra.


33. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which the first, the third, the sixth, the seventh, the ninth are light [and the rest heavy] is called Upendravajra 1 .

Example :

34. priye sriya varna-visesanena

smitena kantya sukumar-bhavat I ami guna rupa-gunanurupa

bhavanti tc kim tvam upendravajra II


30 (C.27, B.XV.41).

31 (C.28, B.XV..2). ' Scheme (- - U, - - u, U - U, - -).

.33 (G.30, B.XV.-W). ' Scheme (u - u, - - u, o - u, - -).
3.(0.31, B.XV..5).

.*%!?} UmSHChb PATTERNS <m

beloved one, due to your beauty, the special colours
[of your dress} smile, grace and delicate bearing, these qualities ol yours have matched the qualities of the [beautiful] form. Are you the bow of Indra ? I


35. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which the first, the third, the seventh, the ninth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Rathoddhata 1 .
Example :

30. kim tvnyFi subliafca dura-var/itaui

natrnana na suhridSm pn'yam krtam I yat paJayanaparayanasya tc

yati dliulir adhuna rathoddhata II

O good soldier, why have you left the battle-field com- pletely. You have done neither any good to yourself nor to your friends, for while runing away [from the battle field] the dust [in your road] rises now [as if] scattered by chariot. 1


37. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which the first, the third, the seventh and the tenth and the last are heavy
[and the rest light] is called Svagata 1 .

Example :

38. adya me saphalam ayata-netre

jivitam madana-samsraya-bhavam I agatasi bhavanain mama yasmat svagatam tava varoru nislda II

Today the two large eyes of mine have attained their object and so has my life and love, because you have come to my house ; fair lady, you are welcome, please be seated.

1 Upendm-vajmmlu indra-dhanum upamitam etc. (Ag.).

35 (C.32, B.XV.46). > Scheme (- u -, v u u, - u -, u -\

36 (C.33, B.XV.47). ' B. gives au additional example of this metre (B.XV.48).

37 (C.34, ' Schema (- v -, kj u U, - o u, - -).



39. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which the sixth and ninth are light [and the rest heavy] is called Salini. 1 .

Example ■.

40. duh&lam va nirgunam papakam va

loke dhairyad apriyam na bravisi I aryani Slam sadhvi he te'nuvrttam

niadhuryadhya sarvatha Salini tvam II
On account of your patience with the people you do not, utter a harsh word to any one who has bad manners or is without any merit or is wicked. good lady, you have followed a noble manner, you are a housewife full of sweetness in every respect. Totaka

41. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which the third, the sixth, the ninth and the last. are heavy [and the rest light] is called Totaka. 1

42. kim idam kapatasraya-durvisaham

bahu-sathyatii athdlbana-ruksa-katham I svajana-priy a- saj j ana-bhedakaram nanu totaka-vrttam idam kuruse II

Why is this crooked and insufferable conduct full of villainy, and unambiguous (lit. direct) and harsh words hurting the relations, dear ones and [other] good people ? You are indeed behaving like a cutter.


43. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which

38 (0.35, B.XV.50).

39 (C.36, B.XV.51). ' Scheme ( , - - u, - - U, - -).

40 (0.37, B.XV.52).

41 (0.38, B.XV.53, 54). ' Scheme (u u -, u u -, u u -, u kj -).

42 (C.39, B.XV.55).

43 (C.40, B.XV.59),


the first four, the. eighth and the tenth are light [and the rest heavy] is called Kumudanibha T .
Example :

44. kumudanibha tvam kama-brina-viddha

kirn asi-natabhruh s"ita-vata-dagdha I mrdu-nalinivApandu-vaktra-Kobha katham api jata agratah sakhinani II

fair-eyed damsel, being like a Kumuda flower why have you been struck with cupid's arrow and why do you appear pale before your friends like a delicate Nalini blasted by the cold wind.


45. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which the-ftrst-five, the seventh and the tenth as are light [and the rest heavy] and the caesura falls after the fiivt five syllables, is called
Candra-lekha 1 .

Example :

46. vaktram saumyam tc padma-patrayat&ksam

kamasyitvasam svabhruvos c&vabhasam | kamasyjlpidam katnam ahartukarnam

kantya tvam kiinte candra-IekhSva bhasi II beloved one, your sweet face with eyes as large as lotus- petals and the splendour of your eyebrows, are the abode of love, and they are ready to bring love even to the god of love ; you shine as it were like a phase of the moon.


47. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which

1 Scheme (wuu,u— ,- v» -, v; kj). B. gives another metre of this name with a different scheme (- \> -, «.; — , uuu,u — ) and an example of this (B.XV.56-58).

44 (C.41, B.XV.60).

45 (C.42, B.XV.61). ' Scheme ( , , u - -, u - -),

46 (C.43, B.XV.62). 47;(C44, B.XV.63).


the third, the fifth, the ninth and the last are- heavy [and the rest light] is called Pramitakarsa 1 .
Example :

4S. smita-bhasini hy acapaMparus".

nibhrtapavada-vimukhi satatam I yadi kasya eid yuvatir asti snkha prainitaksara sa hi pivmaii jayati II

If any one has a pleasing young wife with restrained speech, who is always smiling and averse to speaking ill of him [even] secretly, and is never fickle or harsh, that person verily thrives.


49. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which the second, the fourth, the fifth, the eighth, the tenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Vamsasthii. 1

Example :

50. na me priyii yad bhumiina-varjita

krtapriya te parusabhiblrsanaih I tatha ca pasyamy aham adya vigraham dhruvam hi vamsastha-gatih karisyati H

You are not dear to me, for you are wanting in esteem [for me] and your harsh words [also] have made you displeasing [to me]. So I see that the natural habit will surely bring a quarrel today. Harina-pIutS

51. [The metre with] feet of twelve syllables of which the fourth, the seventh, the tenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Harina-pluta 1 .

1 Scheme (o <j -, u - k>, u \j -, u u -).

48 (C.45, B.XV.64).

49 (C.46, B.XV.65, 66). ' Scheme (u - w, - - v>, u - v, - u -).

50 (C.47, B.XV.67).

51 (C.48, B.XV.68). 'Scheme (w u v, - u v, - u u, -u-).
This is called Druta-vilambita by Pingala and his Mowers.


Example :

52. parusa-vakya-kaafabhihata tvaya

bhaya-vilokana-pars'va-nuiksa^a I varatanuh pratata-pluta-sarpanair anukaroti gatair harina-plutam'H

The fair lady (lit. fair-limbed one) 1 , smitten by the whip of your harsh words, and looking in fear to her sides and riming away continously with quick steps is imitating by her movements a deer's gallop. Kamadatta

53. [A metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which the seventh, the ninth, the eleventh and , the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Kamadatta 1 .

Example :

54. karaja-pada : vibhusita yatha tvani

sudati dasana-viksatadhara ea i gatir api caranavalagna-manda

tvam asi mrga-samaksi kamadatta ll

fair lady 1 , you have been adorned with the marks of nails, your lips have been bitten by teeth and your gait also is faltering and slow. It seems, deer-eyed one, that you have given [yourself up ] to [the enjoyment of] love.


55. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which the first, the fourth, the seventh and tenth are light [and the rest heavy] is called Aprameya 1 .

52 (C49, B.XV.69). See above 20 note I.

53 (C.50, B.XV.70). ' Scheme (uuu,uuu,-U-,u- -). C. calls this Kama-matta.

54, (C.51, B.XV.71). Sudati- O fail-toothed one.
55 (C.52, B.XV.72). ' Scheme (v - -, U - -, \J - -, u - -). This is called Bliujanga-prayata by Pingala and his.foUowers.


Example :

56. na te k8 cid anya samS drsyate strt

nr-loke vislsta gunair advittyaih I trilokyam gunigryan samahrtya aarvan jagaty aprameyasi srsta vidhatra II

Nowhere amongst the mortals (lit. in this world) is to be seen a woman who is your equal, and is distinguished by. singular accomplishments. The creator has made you matchless by putting together [in you] all the best virtues of the three worlds.


57. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which the second, the fifth, the eighth and the eleventh are light [and the rest heavy] is called PadminI 1 .

Example :

deha-toyasaya vaktra-padmojjvalii

netra-bhrngakula danta-harasaih smita I kesa-patrac-chad;":. cakravaka-stani

padminiva priye bhasi me sarvada H

58. dear lady, you always appear to me like a lotus-lake, for your body is a pool of water which shines by the lotus-face, and your eyes arc the restless bees [there] and you smile with the swan-like teeth and your hairs are [the lotus] leaves, and the breasts are like the Cakra-vakas 1 [swimming there].


59. [The metre with] the feet twelve syllables of which the first six and the tenth are light [and the rest heavy] is called
Patuvrtta 1 .


57 (CM, B.XV.74, 75). ' Scheme •(- u - - u - - u - - u -).
This is called Sragvini by Pingala and his followers.

58 (C.55, BXV.76). ' B. giveg a second example (B.XV.77) which seems to be a variant of this.

. 59 (C.56, B.XV 78, 79). ' Scheme, (u u u, U u kj, - - -, u - -).
This is oalled Puta by Pingala and his followers.


Example :

60. upavana-salilanara bala-padmair

bhramara-parabhytanam kantha-nadaih I samada-gati-vilasaih kaminlnara

kathayati patuvrttani madhu-masah II

The month of Oaitra (lit. honey-month) with lotus-buds in the garden-lakes, songs of bees and cuckoos and the playful movements of intoxicated women, is anouncing its smart manners 1 .


61. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which the second, the fourth and the ninth the eleventh and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Prabhavati. 1

Example :

62. katham nv idam kaniala-visala-loeane

gi'hani ghanaih pihita-kare nisakare I acintayanty abhinava-varsa-vidyutas

tvam agata sutanu yatha prabhavati II

fair one, with eyes as large as a lotus, how have you come like a radiant being to this house [of mine] when the rays of the moon have been covered by clouds and you have not cared for the impending (lit. new) rains and the lightning ?


63. [The metre with the] feet of thirteen syllables of which the first three, the eighth, the tenth and the twelfth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Praharsini 1 .

60 (C.57, B.XV.80). ' I am not certain about the exact meaniDg of the term fnfavrtta. One ma. gives it as pa\uvrtta (see B.) which I adopt.

61 (C.58, B.XV.81 ). ' Scheme (u - o, - <j k>, u \j -, u, - -).

62 (C.59, B-XV.82).

63 (C.60, B.XV.83). ' 8cheme.( > uuu,u-u,-u-,-).



Example :

64. bhavasthair madhura-kathaih subhasitais tvam

satopa-skhalita-vilambita-gatais" ca I s'obhadhyair harasi mangmsi kamukanam suvyaktara hy atijagati praharsinl ca II

[0 fair one], by >your loving and sweet words, witty sayings, beautiful, majestic, faltering and slow steps, you capti- vate the mind of lovers. It is apparent that you are enrapturing beyond [anything else in] this world.


65. [The metre with] the feet of thirteen syllables of which the sixth, the seventh, the. tenth and the eleventh are light [and the rest heavy] is called Matta-mayura 1 .

Example :

66. vidyun-naddha sendra-dhanur-dyotita-deha"

vatoddhutah sveta-balaka-krta-sobhah I ete meglia garjita-nadojjvala-cihnah

pravrt-kalam matta-mayuram kathayati II

These clouds [characterised] by a thundering noife and brilliant signs containing lightning and rainbow, moved about by the wind, and adorned with white cranes speaks of the [arrival of the] rainy season which maddens the peacocks.


67. [The metre with] the feet of fourteen syllables of which the first two, the fourth, the eighth and the eleventh and the thirteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called
Vasanta-tilaka 1 .

64 (C.61, B.XV.84).

65 (C.62, B.XV.85). - 1 Scheme ( , - - v, u - -, u u -, -).

66 (C.68, B.XV.86).

67 (0.64, B.XV.87). x 8oaeme.(- - u, - u v, o - u, u - v, - -).

■XVl.4i } MfiTSlCAL PATTBBN8 2??

Example : *

68. citrair vasanta-kusumaih krta-kesa-hasta

srag-dama-malya-racana-suvibhiisitangi I nanavatamsaka-vibhusita-karnapasa saksad vasanta-tilakeva vibhati nan u
This well-dressed woman who has adorned her braid of hairs with the many-coloured vernal flowers, and the rest of her body with various types of flower-garlands 1 and her ears with various ornaments, looks indeed like the decoration (tilaka) on the forehead [of the goddess] of spring.


69. [The metre with the] feet of thirteen syllable, of which the first five and the last three are heavy, [and the re.-t light] is called Asambadha. 1

Example :

70. mani lokajnah sruta-bala-kula-siladhyo

yasmin sammanam na sadrsam anupasyed dhi I gaccet tarn tyaktva druta-gatir aparam desam kirna nanarthair avanir iyain asambadha II

A proud person who knows the world and is learned, strong, of high birth and character, must leave [a country] in which he does not find adequate honour, and quickly goes to a different country ; for this world is scattered over with wealth of many kinds and offers no obstruction [to such a person],


71. [The metre with the] feet of fourteen syllables of which the first four, the tenth, the eleventh the thirteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Sarabha 1 .

68 (C.65, B.XV.88). ' Srak and malya are used here probably to indicate two different kinds of garlands.

69 (C.66, B.XV.89). - 1 Scheme ( , - - u, v \j kj, u &-, - -).

70 (C.67, B.XV.90).

71 (C.68, B.XV.91). - 1 Scheme ( , - \j kj, u U u, - - u," - -).



72. ess kanta vrajati lalitam vepamana

gulmac-channam vanam uru-nagaih sainpraviddham I ha ha kastam kim idara iti no vedmi rmidho vyaktaip krodbac-charabha-lalitam kartu-kama II
This beloved lady goes trembling in a graceful manner to the forest covered with shrubs and interspersed with high hills. Ah, what a pity, the fool that I am, I could not understand that due to anger she is openly playing the graceful role of an young elephar.t. Nandimukhi

73- [The metre with] the feet of fifteen syllables of which the first six, the tenth, and the thirteenth are light [and the rest heavy] is called Nandimukhi. 1 ;
Example :

74. • na khalu tava kadacit krodha-tanmtyataksam

bhrukuti-valita-bhangam drsta-purvam mayasyam I kim iha bahubhir uktair ya mamaisa hrdistha tvam asi madhura-vakya devi nandimukhiva II
Never before have I seen your face with eyes red in anger and with eyebrows curved in frowning ; lady, what more shall I say ? Are you the [same] sweet-tongued one who resides in my heart and is like Nandimukhi ?


75. [The metre with] the feet of sixteen syllables of which the first, the fourth, the sixth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Gaja-vilasita.


73 (C.70, B.XV.93). x Scheme (uuu,uuu, , o - -, u

- -). This is called Malim by Piftgala and his followers.

74 (C.71, B.XV.94).

75 (C.72, B.XV.95, 96). - 1 Scheme (- u U, - u -, u V V, u u u,
UUv, -). This is called Rsabha-gaja-vilasita by Pingala and Ms followers. .XVI. 79 ] METRICAL PATTERNS 279

Example :

70. toy&dhariah sudhira-ghana-patu-pataha-ravaih sarja-kadaraba-nlpa-kutaja-kusuma-surabhim I kandala-sendragopaka-racitam avanitalam viksya karoty asau vrsabha-gaja-vilasitakam II
On seeing the surface of the earth adorned with the Kandala rind the Indragopa, and perfumed with the flowers of Pal,
Kadamba T , Nipa 2 , and Kutaja, which open at the loud and clear drum-like peals of thunder (lit. sounds of the clouds) this [man] imitates the sportful movement of a bull-elephant.


77. [The metre with the] feet of sixteen syllables of which of the second, third, the fourth, the fifth, the sixth, the twelfth the thirteenth, the fifteeth and the last are heavy [and the rest light]

.is called Pravara-lalita, 1
Example :

78. nnkhitlidham giitram da&ma-khacitam costlui gandam sirah pusponmisYam pravilulita-ke&ilaka'ntam I gatih khinnfi ceyam vadanam api sambhranta-netram alio slaghyam vrttam pravara-lalitam kama-cestam .»

Her body has been scratched by nails, und lips and the chocks are bitten by teeth, the head is set with flowers, hairs have their ends dishevelled, and her gait is languid, and the eyes are restless. Ah, a very graceful exploit of love, has taken place in a praisworthy manner.


7!). [The metre with] the feet of seventeen syllables of which the second, the third, the fourth, the fifth, and sixth, the twelfth,

78 (C.73, B,XV.97). T Kadamba and nijki are usually considered synonymous. It is just possible that there are two different trees with these two names and later writers have ignored the difference which may be very slight. It may be- noted here that the Concise Oxford Diction- ary defines nipa as a "kind of E. Indian palm'.

' See note 1 above,

77 (0.74, B.XV.98, 99)/ Scheme (u - -, , o u yj,Kj\} -,' - w

-, - ). . 78 (C.75, B.XV.100). ' 79 (C.76, B.XV.101, 102).


'the thirteenth and the hut are heavy [and the rest light] is called
Sikharigl. 1

80. mahanadydbhoge pulinam iva te bhati jaghanam tathasyam netrabhyam bhramara-sahitam pankajam iva I tanu-spars'as' diyam sutanu sukumaro na parusah stanabhyittn tungabhyiim sikhari-nibha bhasi dayite II

Your hip is like the sand-bank at the margin of a river, your face together with the eyes, is like a lotus with the bees, the touch of your body is soft and not rough ; with your two elevated breasts you look like a hill with [two] peaks, dear one.


81. [The metre with the] feet of seventeen syllables of which the first five, the eleventh, the thirteenth, the fourteenth and the sixteenth are light [and the rest heavy] is called Vrsabha-eestita. 1

Example :

82. jalada-ninadam srutva giirjan madoccaya-darpitah vilikhati malum smgaksepair vrsah pratimmlya ca I sva-yuvati-vrto gosthad gostham prayati on nirbhayo vrsabhalalitam eitram vrttaui kuroti ca sadvale II

On hearing the thundering noise of the clouds the bull maddened with an excess of rut, is striking the earth with its horns and is bellowing in reply. And then, surrounded by young females of its class it goes fearlessly from one cow-pen to another and has the various sportive exploits on the giwn [pasture].


83. [The metre with] the feet of seventeen syllables of which the first four, the tenth, the eleventh, the thirteenth,

' Scheme (u - -, , u u u, v; u -, - u v, u -)•


81 (C.78, 15.XV.104, 105). ' Scheme (u U u, vv-, - - -, - u -,
«; U-, u -). This is called Harim by Pingala and his followers.
• 82 (€.79, B.XV.106). 83 (C.80, B.XV.107-108, 109).


the fourteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called
.Sridhara. 1
Example :

84. snanais curnaih sukha-surabhibhir ganda-lepais ca dhupaih puspais' canyaih slrasi-racitair vastra-yogais" ca tais taih I nana-ratnaih kanaka-racitair anga-sambhoga-samsthair vyakam kiinte kamala-nilaya sndharev&ti bhasi II
O beloved one, by your batliing, powders, pleasently fragrant paste smeared on your cheek, tlio [hair- perfuming] incense, flowers set on the hair (lit. head), various clothes and many jewels com- bined with gold worn on the limbs, you shine indeed very much like the lotus-dwelling [one] who is the goddess of beauty.


85. [The metre with] the feet of seventeen syllables of which the first, the fourth, the tenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called the Vamsa-patra-patita. 1

Example :

86. esa gajo'dri-mastaka-tate kalabha-parivrtah kridati vt'ksa-gulma-gahane kusuma-bhara-nate I megha-ravam nisamya muditah pavana-java-samah sundari vamsa-patra-pntitam punar api kurute II

O fair lady, this elephant which surrounded by young ones is playing near the peak of the hill in the thick forest of trees and shrubs bent with flowers, is delighted to hear, the roaring of clouds and is moreover causing, like the wind, the bamboo leaves to fall [on the ground],


87. [The metre with the] feet of seventeen syllables of which the second, the sixth, the eighth, the twelfth, the fourteenth,

1 Scheme ( , - u u, o w u, - - v, - - w, - -). This is called

Mandiikriinta by Pingala and his followers.


85 (C.82, B.XV.111). J- Scheme (- u u, - o -, w u u, - w v,, uuu,u-), 86(0.83, B.XV.U8). 87 (C.84, B.XV.113-114, ll5),


the fifteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called
Vilambitagati. 1

Example :

88. vighurnita-vilocanii prthu-vikirna-hara punah pralamba-rasana calat-skhalita-pada-manda-krama I na me priyam idam janasya bahumana-ragena yan madena viva^a vilambita-gatih krita tvam priye II

beloved one, your eyes are rolling, the large necklace is displaced, the girdle is hanging loose, and your slow steps are faltering ; I indeed like 1 this your slow gait that you assume out of overwhelming pride due to this man's love and respect [for you],


89. [The metre with the] feet of eighteen syllables of which the first five, the eleventh, the twelfth, the fourteenth, the fifteenth, the seventeenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Citra-lekha 1 .

Example :


nana-ratnadhyair bahubhir adhikam bhusanair anga-samsthah nana-gandhadhyair madana-jananair anga-ragais' ca hrdyaih I kesaih snan&rdraih kusuma-racitair vastra-ragais - ca tais taih kante samksepat kim iha bahuna citra-lekhS va bhasi II
O beloved one, you shine very much witli the many be-
'jewelled ornaments worn in your limbs, various pleasant cosmetics rich in passion-inspiring scents, hairs clean after bath and decorated with flowers, and varied colours of your clothes. What shall I say more ? To be brief, you appear like a painted picture.

1 Scheme (<j - u, u u -. «j - w, w -, u - <-», <j -). This is called Prithvi by Pingala and his followers.

88 (C.85, B.XV.116). > lit. Is it not dear to me ?

89 CC16, B.XV.117). l Scheme ( , - - <J, <J \j <j, u - -, o - -.

O - -). This is called Kusumita-lata-vellitS- by Pingala and his followers.



91-92. [The metre with] the feet of nineteen syllables of which the first three, the sixth, the eighth, the twelfth, the thir- teenth, the fourteenth, the sixteenth, the seventeenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Sflrdulavikridita 1
Example :


nana-siistra-sataghni-tomara-hatah prabhrastn-sarvayudliah nirbhinnodara-padn-bahu-vadana nirbhartsitah 6atravah I dhairyotsaha-parakrama-prabhrtibhis tais tair vicitra-gunaih vrttam te ripu-ghati bhati samare sardulavikriditani II

The enemies have been repelled after [some of them have been] killed with various weapons, Sataghni and Tomara and [some have] their bellies, arms, feet and face pierced and [some have] lost all their weapons. Your enemy-killing exploits in battle comparable to the tiger's sports and characterised by virtues such as, patience, energy and valour, are splendid. 1


94-95. [The metre with/ the] feet of twenty syllables of which the first four, the sixth, the seventh, the fourteenth, the fifteenth, the sixteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Suvadana. 1
Example :

96. netre lil&las&nte kamala-dala-nibhe bhrfl-capa-rucire gandostham pina-madhyam sama-sahita-ghanah snigdhiis' ca'analt I karnav amsa-pralambau cibukam api natam ghona surucira vyaktanx tvam martya-loke varatanu vihitasygka suvadana II

91-92 (C.88-89. B.XV.119, 120, 121 . l Scheme ( , v; i*-,\u -

U,Uu-,"U,--U, -).

93 (C.90, BXV.122). ' B. gives an additional example of this

94-95 (C.91-92, B.XV.124-125, 128). ' Scheme ( , - v/ -,*r v u,

U\J\j, O - -, - V KJ, u -).

96 (C.98, B.XV.127).


Your eyes are like lotus-patals, beautiful with the bow-like eyebrows and their ends are playfully lazy ; the cheeks and lips are plump in their middle, the teeth are all equal, in a line, thickly set and shining, the ears are hanging down as far as the shoulders, the chin is bent and the nose is beautiful, fair lady, in this mortal world you are indeed the only fair-faced woman whose face has been [carefully] fashioned.


97-98. [The metro with] the feet of twentyone syllables of which the first four, the sixth, the seventh, the fourteenth, the fifteenth, the seventeenth, the eighteenth, the twentieth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Srcigdhra. 1

Example :


cut&sokaravindaih kuruvaka-tilakaih karnikaraih sirisaih punnagaih parijatair vakula-kuvalayaih kjmsukaih sittimuktoih I etair niina-prataraih kusuma-surabhibhir viprakirnais ca tais tail* vasantaih pnspa-vrndair naravara vasudhii sragdharevadya bhati H

O king (lit. best among men), due to the many and various sweet smelling vernal flowers such as, Cuta, Asoka, Aravinda,
Kuravaka, r Pilaka, Karnikara, Sirisa, Punnaga, Parijata, Vakula,
Kuvalaya, Kimsuka and Atimukta, this earth looks today like a woman wearing [many] garlands of flowers.

100-101. [The metre with] the feet of twenty two syllables of which the first, the fourth, the sixth, the tenth, the twelfth, the sixteenth, the eighteeenth, and the last are heavy [and the rest liglitpis called Madraka 1 .

97-98 (C.94-95, B.XV.128-129, 130). > Soliome (- — , - u -, - v w,

uuO,u.-,u-u- -). 99 (C.96, B.XV.M).

•100-101 (C.97-98, B.XV.182-133, 134). l Schema (- O U, - u -, u u v, - u -, u u w, - kj -, u u v, -). ■


Example :
udyatam eka-hasta-cai'anam dvitiya-kara-recitam suvinatam vamsa-mrdanga vadya- madhuram vicitra-kararutnvitam bahu vidham I, madrakam etad adya subhagair vidagdha-gati-cesitiah su-lalitnir nrtyasi \ibhramakula-pndam vivikta-rasa-bhavitam ,<asi-mukhi II

fair lady (lit. moon-faced one), you are dancing to- day in accompaniment of sweet sounds of flutes and drums the Madraka T dance with one of your hands raised up and another bent, and your feet are restless in a hurry- And you are making happy, clever and graceful movements in pursuance of many and various Karanas, ;md this dance is imbued with a distinct Sentiment {rami).


108-104. [The metre with] the feet of twentythree syllables of which the fifth, the seventh, the eleventh, the thirteenth, the seventeenth, the nineteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Asvalalita. 1
Example :

10f>. vividha-turaaga-naga-ratha-yaudha-

samkulam alam balain samuditam sara-sata-sakti-kimta-parighiW- yasti-vitatam bahu-praharanam i ripu-sata-mukta-sastra-rava-bhita- samkita-bhatara bhayakulam idain krtam abhiviksya samyuga-mukhe

samipsita-gimam tvayas'valalitam II

[Even after] seeing this completely assembled army consisting

of many horses, elephants, chariots and lighters, the manifold

assaults spread by hundreds of arrows, darts, javelins, club's find

swords, and the foot-soldiers terrified and afraid on account of the

102 (C.99, B.XV.135). ' Sec NS. IV. *

103-1 04 (C.100-101, B.XV.136-137, 138). ' Scheme (u O v, u - u,
-uv,u-u, -uu, u-u, -yy,u-),
105 (C.102, B.XV.139).


noise of released missiles, and the terror-stricken directions, you have practised in the forefront of the battle the sportful movements of a horse, the merit of which is very much desired [by people].


106-107. [The metre with] the feet of twentyfour syllables of which the first six, the eighth, the eleventh, the fourteenth the seventeenth, the twentieth and the twentythird are light [and the rest heavy] is called Megha-miila. 1
Example :

• 108. pavana vala-sam&hata livra-ganibhira- nadii balakavali-mekhala ksUidlmra-sadrsocca-rupii mahanila-

dhumafijan&bhambu-garbhodvaha I sura-pati-dhanur-ujjvala-baddha-kaksya tadit-dyota-sannaha-pattojjvala- gagana-tala-visarini pravrsenyii

drdham megha-mala 'dhikam sobhate II

The sky-covering mass of clouds of the rainy season, having deep and piercing sounds, wearing a flight of cranes as their girdle, carrying in their womb water of deep blue colour comparable to that of smoke and collyrium, girding the waist with the rainbow as the belt, having their armour-plates illumined by the flash of lighting looks indeed vciy beautiful.


109-110. [The metre with] the feet of twentyfive syllables of which the first, the fourth, the fifth, the sixth, the ninth, the tenth, and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called
Karunca-padi. 1

106-107 (C.103-104, B.XV.140-141, 142). ' Scheme (uuu.UuU,
- \J -, - u -, - o -, - u - - U -, - \J -).


109-110 (C.106-107, B-XV.144-145, 146). ' Scheme (- u kj, ,

U O'-j -uw,uuu,uuu,uuu, u u u, -).


Example : •

111. yah kila daksaip vidruta-somani kratuvaram

a-camasam apagata-kalas"am patita-yupam ksipta-casalam vicayanam

a-samidham a-pas*ukam acarukam I karmuka-muktenas'u cakiira vyapagata-

suragana-pitr-ganam isuiia nityam asau te daitya-ganilrih pradahatu

makham iva akhilam t

Let Siva (lit the foe of the demons) who by arrows dis- charged from his bow quickly spilled the Soma-juice, threw away the Camasa, broke the Kalasa, felled the Yupa, dislodged the
Casala, put out the fire, destroyed the fuel, scared away the
[sacrificial] animals, spilled the Caru and put the gods and the
Fit-Is to flight in Daksa's great sacrifice, always destroy all your enemies like the same (sacrifice). 1


112-113. [The metre with] the feet of twentysix syllables of which the first eight, the nineteenth, twentyfirst, twentyfourth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Bhujanga- vijrmbhita. 1
Example :

11-1. rupopetam devaih srstam samada-gaja- vilasita-gatim niiiksya tilottamam priidaksinyat praptam drastum bahu-vadanam

aculu-nayanam firah krta-van harah I dlrgham nihsVasyantar-gudham stana-vadana- jaghana-rucirain niriksya tatha punah prsthe nyastaip devGndrena pravaramani

kaijaka-valayam bhujanga-vijrmbhitam H

111 (C.108, B.XV.147) ' B. gives one additional example (B.XV.148) which occurs in Halayadha's commentary to Pingala.

112-113 (C.109-I10, B.XV.149-150). A Scheme ( ,---?-- u,

o \j \j, v u u, v yj u, - u -, u u -, \j -),

114 (C.lll, B.XV.151).


Seeing the- beautiful TilottamS created by the gods with the gait of an elephant in rat, 'while afce. came to circumam. bulate him, &va fixed all the eyes on, her and kept his heads and mouths motionless. And- then tne lord of gods
(Siva) on seeing -her who was beautiful on account of her breasts, face and the hip, sighed silently and put away on his back the golden bangles set with the best of jewels in which snakes were yawning.

The uneven and the semi-even metres

115- These are, the best of Brahmins, the ev§n metres
I mentioned [before]. Novv listen about the uneven and the semi-even metres.

116. The metres of which the feet belong to different, metrical types and are dissimilar, are called uneven (v'mmn),

117-118. The metres in which the two [alternate] feet are similar while the two [contiguous] feet are not similar, are called semi-even (ardluisanw). And the metre in which all the feet are dissimilar is called uneven. The semievcn metre is to have its even and odd feet dissimilar and the first of such groups of feet may be shorter or longer than the rest or one of them may be longer and the other shorter than the rest.

Even metres

119. An even metre is defined by defining one of ils feet while uneven metre requires the definition of all its feet. And from a definition of the two feet the semi-even metre is known.
This is the division of feet [in different semi-even metres].

120. I have described the even metres with reference to their divisions of feet. Now I shall describe the characteristics of the uneven metres in terms of triads, {i.e. yams).

114a, (C.112, B.XV.153). ' According to B. it is spurious.

114b (C.118, B.XV.154). 115 (C.U4, B.XV.155).


11-118 (C.116-U7, B.XV.157 158).

•119 (C.118, B.XV.159). * 120(C.U9,B.XV.160)


Pathya "

121. If [in Anustup], the first foot contains sa, sa, ga, ga, and the second sa, ra, la, ga and such will be the remaining even and odd feet 1 , it is called Pathya*.

Example :

122. priya-tlaivata-mitrilsi priya-sambandhi-bandhav^ 1 I
3 priya-dana-rata pathya dayite 3 tvam priyM me >

You respect the gods and the friends, you lore the matri- monial relations and the kinsmen, you are disposed to make affectionate gifts and you are agreeable, beloved one, you are dear to me.

Uneven Pathya

123. [The Anustup metre of which] the first foot contains ma, ra, ga, ga, the second ya, sa, la, ga, the third ra, bha, la, ga and the fourth ja, sa, la, ga [is called an all-uneven (sarva-vimma,)
Pathya] 1 .

Example :

124. naivacaro, na te mitram na sambandhi-guna-kriya 1 I sarvatha sarva-visama pathya na bhavasi priye ll

dear one, you have no [good] conduct, no friend and you have no good action towards the relatives and are in every way very rough ; so you are not agreeable.

121 (O.120, B.XV.162). ' 0. gived the correct reading yugmau- jakau 'even and odd' (feet).

2 (I & III) kj y> - u u - - - and (II A IV) u w - - yj -, ^ -

122(0.121, B.XV.163). ' Cdaivalafov sambandhi,

2 C. vara for rath.

8 C. yadyapilov dayite.

123 (C.I33, B.XV.164). ' (1) , - u -, - -, (II) w - -, u u -,

w -, (III) - kj -, - u u, u - (IV) --u,ou-,u-.

124 (0.134, B.XV.165). l B. priya for kriya-


Inverted Pathya

125. These are the characteristics of the first and the third feet 1 . They being" inverted ie. the second and the fourth being of this description, the metre will be called the inverted Pathya.

126. krtena ramanasya kim sakhi rosena te' pyarthain I viparita na patbyasi tvam jade kena mobita 1 II

What is the use of this anger shown to your beloved one ?
[It seems that] you are foolish and have been deluded by some- body and have been upset, [so] you are not agreeable.

127. [The metre with the feet of eight syllable of which] the fourth, the fifth and the sixth [in the heinistictis] are short, is called Anustup Capalii. 1
Examples :


- na khalv asyah priyatamah srotavyam vyahrtam sakhyS I nSradasya pratikrtih kathyate capala hiyam II

[He] is not this girl's dearest one. This [information] to be heard [privately] was proclaimed loudly by the female friend.
This fickle woman is indeed [to be] called an image of Narada
(the deity of quarrel).


129. [If a metre with the feet of eight syllables has] the seventh, syllable short in its second and the fourth feet, it is

125 (C.122, BXV.166). ' A passage before this seems to be lost.
C. reads yugmayor—oi the two even (feet). B. lias ayujor—oi the two odd (feet).

126(C.123," B.XV.r67). - ' We udopt B's reading. (I) v-v, u u -, \j -, (II) \j u -, - KJ -, - -, (III) - v -, - u -, u -, (IV) v v -i

127(C.124,B.XV.168). J C v&ula for capala.
128 (0.125, B.XV,169). 129 (C.126, B.XV.170).


called [Anustup] Vipula. According to some 1 the seventh syllable in all the feet will be short in [such] Vipula.
Example :

130. sainksipta vajravan-madhya heraa-kumbha-nibha-stani I vipulasi priye sYonyam purna-chandra-nibhanane II

dear one, you are thin [in bodyl your waist is slender in the middle like a Vajra, your breasts are like golden pitchers, your hips are large and your face is like the full moon. -

131. gangeva tvam meghagame aplfivita-vasundhar^ I kula-vrksan arujati sravanti vipulacalat 1 II

You arc like the Ganges at the advent of the rains, flooding the earth, destroying the trees on the bank arid flowing down from a highsnountain

1 32. The feet of Pathya are thus of various types ; in the remaining [types of AnustupJ even <ind odd feet may be made up with other triads (irikay.

133. In this metre a triad ending in a heavy syllable (i.e. ma, ra, ya, sa) or consisting of light syllables {i.e. na) is never to occur (lit. desired) after the first syllable while after the fourth syllable a short syllable must occur (lit. is prescribed).

134. It in the feet of a Pathya there are three heavy syllables at the end it is called [Anustup] Vaktra.

Example :

135. danta-ksatadharam subhru jagara-glana-netrantam I rati-sambhoga-khinnam te darsaniya-taram vaktram II

fair lady, the lips being bitten by teeth, eyes being languid due to keeping awake, your face has become more charming, after its exhaustion in lore's enjoyment.

1 Saitava— mentioned in Pingala and Agni P. See CSS. p. 38.
130 (C.127, B.XV-171).

181 (C.128, B.XV.172). ' B. C. vattat for calai. ^

132 (C.129, B.XV. 174). l We follow B. 133 (C.130, B.XV.1 75).
184 (C.131, B.XV.176). • 135 (C.132, B.XV.177).


136. These are all-uneven metres of the Anustup class.
The authorities differ from one another as regards [the arrange- ment of] the triads and syllables. 1


137. The metre which has its feet consisting of sixteen
Matras as parts of Gatha to be divided into four sections in terms of triads and the part of a triad, is called Vanavasika. x

Example :

138. asarathita-pada suvihvalangi

mada-skhalita-cestita-manojna I kva yasyasi varoru surata-kale

visama kim vanavasika tvam n

fair lady, your gait is unsteady, limbs are agitated, and your faltering movements due to ardent passion are charming.
Where are you going at the time of love's enjoyment ? Are you a perverse woman of Vanavasi ?


139. The metre of which the first and the third feet consist of sa, ja, sa, ga and the second and the fourth bhn, ra, na, ga, is called KetumatI. 1

Example :

140. sphuritadbaram cakita-netram

rakta-kapolam ambuja-dal&ksam I kim idam rusapahrta-Sobham

ketumatt-samam vada mukham te II

Yonr lips are throbbing, the eyes which are like lotus-petals are trembling and the cheeks are red. Tell me why has your face robbed of its beauty by anger, become like KetumatI (flame) ?

136 (B.XV.178). l C. omits thin.

137 (0.146, B.XV.179). ' Pingala calls this Matrasamaka. His
Vanavasika is simply a variety of this. See 088. p. 21.

188 (C.U7, B.XV.180).

139 (O.140, BXV.181). ' Scheme : (I & III) u -, o - U, u v -,
-, (II 4 IV) - u u, - u -, \j u <j, - -



141. In* the metre called Aparavaktra the first and the third feet consist of na, na, ra, la, ga and the second and the fourth of na, ja, ja, ra. 1

Example :

142. sutanu jala-parlta locanam

jalada-niruddham ivendu-mandalam I kirn idam apara-vaktram eva te

sasi-vadane'dya mnkhatn paran-mukham II
O fair lady (lit. moon-faced one) why are your eyes full of tears and why do you look like like the orb of the moon obscured by the clouds and why has your face turned today like some one else's face ?


143. In Puspitagra metre the first and the third feet consist of na, na, ra, ya, and the second and the fourth of na, ja, ja, ra, ga. 1

Example :

1 44. pavana-raya-vid huta-caru-sakham

pramudita-kokila-kantha-nada-ramyam I madhukara-parigiyam^na-sabdam varatanu pasya vanam supuspitSgram II
O fair lady, look at the top of the blossoming forest in which the wind is shaking the beautiful branches of trees, the gladdened cuckoos are singing with sweet voice and the bees arc humming all around.


145. In Udgata metre the first foot consists of sa, ja, sa,

141 (C.142, B.XV.183, 184). » Scheme : (I & III) v u U, u u U, u -, (II & IV) uw, yj-u, \j-kj , - v - .

142 (C.132, B.XV.177). „

143 (C.144, B.XV.186). ' Scheme (I & II) u u v,, u\J\j,-v~. u - -, (II & IV) u u \j, u - u, «~» - u, - u - -

144 (C.146, B.XV.187). .' 146 (C.135, B.XV. 188).


la, the second of na, sa, ja, ga, the third of bha, na, ja, la, ga and

the fourth of sa, ja, sa, ja, ga. T

Example :

146. tava roma-rajir atibhftfi

sutanu madanasya manjarim I nabhi-kainala-vivarotpatita- bhramar&vultva kusumat samudgata II

fair one, the hairs which rise from the hollow of your lotus-like navel are comparablo with a swarm of bees coming out of flowers and they exceed in beauty Cupid's blossoms.


147. The metre Lalita has its first foot consisting of sa, ja, sa. la the second foot of na, sa, ja, ga, the third foot of na, na, sa, sa, and the fourth foot of sa, ja, sa, ja, ga. 1

Example :

148. lalita kula-bhramita caru-vasana-kara-caru-pallava I pravikasitakamala-kantiraukhipravibhilsi-devisurata-iSramaturiiil lady, hurriedly but gracefully moving the beautiful clothes and the delicate hands and having a blooming lotus-like face you look charming after the fatigue of love's sports.

149. These are the syllabic metres of the even and uneven types, to be used in dramas and poems.

150. There are besides many other syllabic metres which have been mentioned here collectively. They are not to be used because they do not embellish [a composition].

1 Scfieme (I) \j u -, <j - u, \j kj -, V, (11) uyu,yu-,u-u,
-, (111) - yj U, <j «j \j, v - \j, v -, (IV) o vj -, \j - v, o u -, \j - V, -

146 (C.136, B.XV.189).

147 (C.137, B.XV.190). * Scheme (1 & II) same as in Udgata. (Ill) uuu, uuu,.uu-, \jKt-, (IV) uu-,u J 0, u u «-, u - u,
Piiigala's Laliia has the fourth foot similar to that of Udgata

148 (C.133, B.XV.191).

1*49 (C148, B.XV.IS2). 150 (C.149 B.XV.193). .


151. The syllabic metres forbidden here after may be used in songs. I shall describe their varieties while treating the

Irya metres

152- This is the definition of various syllabic metres briefly treated by me. Next I shall give the definition of the

153. The Aryas are of five types, viz, Pathya, Vipuli,
Capalii, Mukha-capala, and Jaghana-capala.

154. I shall speak about their caesura and division of
Matras and their varieties depending on Ganas which have been prescribed as characteristics of these.

155. In these metres the caesura marks the division [of feet]; the Gana consists of four Matras, the second and the fourth
(lit. the last) feet are the even ones, and the first and the third
(lit. the rest) odd ones.

156. [In an Arya] the odd Ganas consisting of four
Matras should have no ja and the even Ganas maybe of any type according to the choice [of the poet].

156 a. The eighth Gana in every Arya is to be known as half a Gana {i.e. two Matras).

157. The sixth Gana may be of two alternative types and the eighth will consist of one [syllable]. The sixth Gana in the second hemistich will consist of one Matr3 only 1 .

158. In one alternative is that the sixth Gana will be ja,
(u - v.) mid in the other it will consist of four short syllable,
{o^jKjyj) and these relate to the caesura (yati).

151 (C.150, BXV.194). 152 (C.151, B.XV.195).

153 (C.152, B.XV.196). 154 (C.153, B.XV.197).

155 ("C.154, BXV.198). 196 (C.155, B.XV.199, 211, 2f8a).

157 (C.156, B.XV.200, 208b-209a). 'Read 157b (with C) as <njra

• 158 (C.157, B.XV.201, 209b-210a).


159. The caesura may occur when the second la after the fifth Gana has been completed or it may occur from the first syllable [of the sixth Gana], or after the fifth Gana [has been completed]. 1

Pathya-Irya and Vipula-5ryi

160- The Arya metre of which the caesura occurs after the three Ganas (lit feet are made up of three Ganas) is called Pathya.
The Vipula Arya is different from this, only because it observes

no caesura (yaii) of any kind [within its hemistichs]. 1
Examples :

Pathya Arya


rakta-mrdu-padma-netrasita-dirgha-bahula-mrdu-[kutila]-kesll kasya tu pithumrdu-jaghana tanu-bahvamsodari [na] pathya II

To whom is not agreeable a woman with lovely and lotus-like soft eyes, copious long, black and [curled] hairs, large and soft hip, slim arms and abdomen ?

Vipula Arya

1G2. vipula-jaghana-vadana-stana-nayanais tamradharostha-kara-caranaihl fiyata-nasa-gandair laliita- caranaih s"ubhii kanyii II
A maiden is auspicious when her hip, face, breasts and eyes arc large, lips, palm and feet are red and nose, cheeks, forehead and ears are prominent.

Capala Srya
163. In the Capala (Arya) the second and the fourth

159 (C.158, B.XV.202, 210b). ' Read 159 a B ftSfeif* «$ta wn» «<tf

160 (C.159, B.XV.203). l Bead the couplet as «*j fits q[?: <aiq vm q *ir n m *i*i i ^m fow*» 3 fiswrtfiww.

161 (C.160, B.XV. 213).

• 162 (BJCV.2H). 163 (B.XV.215, 204).


Gagas in each hemistich are to consist of a ja (lit Gana with a heavy syllable in the middle).
Example :

164. ^dbhartr-ggmini parusa-bhasini kama-cihna-krta-vesa I
*ya nati-mamsa-yukta sura-priya sarvatas capala II

The woman who goes defying her husband, speaks harshly, has erotic signs in her dress, is not very fleshy and is fond of meat, is inconstant in every respect.

Mukha-capala and Jaghana-capala Arya

165. When the definition of a Capala applies to the first hemistich [onlyj of an A~rya it is called the Mukha-capala. And when the same applies to the second hemistich [only] it is called

Examples :

Mukha-capala 5rya

166. arya mukhe tu capala tathapi earya na me yatah sa tu I daksii grha-krtyesu tatha duhkhe bhavati duhkharta II

My lady is talkative, but still her conduct [in general] is not bad, for she is an expert in my household work, and in my misery she feels miserable.

Jaghana-capala 5rya

167. vara-mrga-nayane capalasi

varoru sasanka-darpana-nibhasye I kamasya sarabhutena

purna-mada-caru-jaghanena II

fair lady with the eyes of the best deer, and a face like the moon or the mirror, by your hips which constitute the best prize of love and which are charming on account of your swelling passion, you are [marked as] faithless (lit. inconstant).

164 (B.XV.216). ' B. reads udbhata.

4 B. reads janati, for ya nTtti. Prof. S. P. Bhattacharya suggested this emendation 165 (B.XV.2I7). 166 (B.X.V.218). 167 (B.XV.219).



168. When the two hemistiehs of a CttpalS have (he same characteristics it is called the all-round Capala.

169. This metre is known have thirty Mate's in its first hemistich and twenty-seven in the second 1 .

170. Following these rules (lit. thus) one should compose plays (lit. poetical composition) utilising (lit. having) therein diffeient metrical patterns belonging to (lit. arising from) different
Rhythm-types, and such plays are to have the thirtysix character- istic marks (lakmiyi).

Here ends Chapter XVI. of Bharata's Niityasastra which treats of the Metrical Patterns.

168 (B.XV.220 ; 0.162b- 163a).

169 (B.XV.205, 201 ; 0.163b-164a,). ' The five couplets after this
(B.XV.222-226) are corrupt and appear to be spurious. These will be discussed in the Introduction.



Thirtysix marks of a good play

1-5. The thirtysix characteristic marks {laksawi) 1 of
(a good] dramatic composition (kavtja) 2 arc as follows : Onateness
(lihnsann), Compactness (aksam-ximtili&tn), Brilliance (soliha),
Parallelism (wiaharana), Causation {k>-tn\ Ho.-itation (nommjnX
Favourable Precedent (tlrafauta), Discovery (prapti), Fancy
(abhipraijii), Unfavourable Precedent (uhlariana), Convincing
Explanation (uinil;ln), Persuation, (siiltlhi), Distinction (vfo'Mwi),

1-5 (C.l-5, B. p.348-350, XVI.1-5). x About the significance of the the term laksana, the commentators of the NS. are not at all unanimous.
Ag. mentions no less than ten different views on the subject. Evidently some of these are far-fetched and off the mark. It seems that laknana in this connexion is comparable to the same word occurring in the com- pound word makapurusa-laksana (characteristic marks of a superman).
Accordiug to one view this laksana differs from the alamkara (ornament) and the guna (qualities) of a person as figures of speech (alamkara) and excellences (guna) of a composition differ from its characteristic marks
(laksana). The composition in this connexion is evidently a dramatic one though some of the commentators think otherwise. For a discussion on the position of laksanas in the history of the Alamkara literature see 8. K. De, Skt. Poetics, II. pp. 4-5 ; see also Ramakrishna Kavi,
(B.II.pp. 348 349) and V. Jtaghavau's paper on Laksanas in the Journal of
Oriental Research, Vol. VI. pp. 70, 71, 81, 82. Mas. of the NS. fall into two distinct recensions as regards the. text treating the thirty-six laksanas. One receasion followed by older commentators, and late writers like Visvanatha, and Singabhftpala, uses Anustnp verses for the enumeration of laksanas We have adopted this as the basis of our translation. The second recension which seems to be later, has been followed by commentators like Kirtidhara, Abhinavagupta and late writers like Dhanajaya and others. This greatly varies from the other recension with which it has not more than seventeen names (of laksanas) in common, and among these, definitions of eight only are similar in both the recensions.

3 Kavya in this connexion means the drsya-kavya or dramatic composition. 300 THE NATTASASTSA [ XVII. 6-

Accusation of Virtue (gmaiipata), Excellence (gun&tifaya),
Inference from Similitude (tulyartarka), Multiplex Predication
(padoccaya), Description (dista), Pointed Utterance (upadida),
Deliberation (ricara). Inversion (viparyaya), Slip of .Tongue
(bhramia), Mediation (annnaya), Series of Offers {mala), Clever
Manner (dahinya), Censure (garliana) Presumption (arth&patti),
Celebrity (pnwiddhi), Interrogation (prccha), Identity (sarupyn),
Indirect Expression of one's Desire (manoratha), Wit (Ma),
Concealment (»i»b«/iii) s , Enumeration of Merits (ynna-kirtana),
Semi-uttered Expression (aunkta-xiddhi) and Compliment (/>«- yavacam = prioldi),


G. 1 To adorn the composition with many figures of speech (alamkara) and Gunas as if with ornaments, for creat- ing manifold meanings is called Ornateness (lifrumm, lit. ornament) 8 .


7. 1 When an wonderful sense is expressed by means of a small number of syllables with double entendre, it is called themark named Compactness (ahara-sanujhata, lit. assemblage of syllables) 2 .

8 Emood samhobho to samksepo. See below 38 note 1.

6 (C.6; B.p 350, XVJ.6) ' A close study of Ag's. commentary on passages dealing with lakmnas is liable to give one an impression that the exact meaning of some of the terms at least relating to this subject, has been to some extent lost, and various explanations have been partly based on guess. But in the absence of anything better we are to depend on them though very cautiously. Definitions of various laksanas are mostly not at all clear without examples which have been very liberally given by Ag. To avoid prolixity wo refrain from quoting them here. Interested persons may sec them in the Baroda ed. of the NS. (Vol. II pp. 294ff,). For an example of bkvsana. Sec
Kavi. As any old commentary to these (NS.) passages dealing with laksanas, has not come down to us, we used in this connexion the one prepared by M. Ramakrishna Kavi. See B. II pp. 348ff. (Referred to as Kavi).

7(C.7;B,p.350,XV1.7). ' See. Kavi.



8. 1 Ii a charrhing and novel meaning [arises] when a less known object is referred to by likening it to a well-known one, and a wonderful sense is expressed through double entendre 2 it is called Brilliance (sobka, lit- beauty)


9. When by words expressing similar circumstances 1 a suggestion is cleverly made to accomplish an object, it is called
Parallelism (wlaharana, lit. example) 1 .


10. When brief and pleasing words by the force of their
[tactful] use achieve the desired object, it is called [an instance of]
Causation (hetu) 1


11. When due to many considerations a sentence is brought to an end without fully communicating the essential theme
[in view], it is [an instance of] Hesitation {> lit. doubt). 1

Favourable Precedent

12. That which suppoiting the case in hand 1 is an example of its reason and is pleasing to all people, is a Precedent
Favourable to the speaker (drstanta, lit. example). 2

8 (0.8; B.p 350, XV1.8). ' 0. yatra slMam vixidyarlham for yatra sh'st/i vicilrartha. See Kavi.

9 (C.9-, r>.i>.»51, XV1.9). ' 0. tvalphrlha for tulyartha. Cf. SD.438
Ag'a dclinition in trans, is as follows. When from the occurrence (lit. sight) of a single word good many unmentioned ones can be inferred (lit. accomplished) it is called Sample (udaharana).

lO(C.lO;B.p352, XVI.10). ' Cf. SD. 139. Ag. reads this defi- nition as follow* : **it smwi! iJwirafliMwi i faatawrw Wwfwnfinwi
(B.XVI.14). Its meaning is not clear, Ag.'s explanation does not seem to be convincing. Possibly there is textual corruption in this.

11(011; B.p.352, XVI.ll). ' Cf. SD. 440.

12 (C.12; B. p.352, XVI.12). ' C. paksapaksartha for yastu aksartpha. Cf. SD. 341. Ag.'s text in translation is as follows ; That a



13. When on seeing some indications, the existence of something is assumed it becomes [an instance of] Discovery
(\>rajif), lit. attainment) 1 which is included among the marks of :i [good J drama.


1 1. When an idea interesting to people [but] hitherto non- existent, is conceived on the basis of similarity [of two objects], it is [an instance of] Fancy (a^hijirwja, lit. belief) 1

Unfavourable Precedent

15. When well-known instance are mentioned for rejecting the contrary view it is [an instance of] Unfavourable Precedent
(niilav'saita, lit example) 1

Convincing Explanation

10. Words that are spoken in support of the meaning of some faultless statement made before, constitute Convincing
Explanation (iiinikla, lit etymology)'.

/earned person discovers similarity [of anything] with something per- ceived by him earlier, is called Illustration (distanta). Of. the figure of speech of this name in HI). 697.

1 3 (0. 1 j H.p.353, XV!. l;i). ' Cf. SI). 446, Ag. similar (Ti.XVJ.32 ).

1-KC.Uj B.p.353; XVI.14). 'SI). 445, Ag. reads this as a variant of yukti (B.XV1.3S) wliicli in translation is as follows: The meaning which is made up only of many mutually compatible objects combining with one another, is called Combination (yukti). (If.
SI). 51)1.

1 5 (C.15; ]i.p.2o4. XVI.15). See SD. 444. Ag. reads this as a variant iixih (T5.XVI.-i8). The meaning of thisdef. is not clear. Ag. offers no explanation of this, but gives an example, which it is vory difficult to fit in with the definition. Cf. SD. 471.

16 (0.16; B.p.254, XVI.16). ' Cf. SD. 453. Ag.'a text in translation is as follows : Explanation (nirukta) is two kinds : factual and non- factual. [Of these] ihe factual {explanation] is thai which is well- known (lit. accomplished before), and the non-factual is that which has not been so (lit. not accomplished)'.



17. When name of great* persons are mentioned with a view to accomplish the object aimed at, it is [an instance of]
Persuation (dddhi, lit. success) 2 .


IK. When after mentioning many well-known great objects something is said distinguishing a thing from them, it is [an instance of] Distinction (visemna) 1 .

Accusation of Virtues

19. When virtues are mentioned with sweet words of harsh import 1 which carry the contrary implication, it is [an instance of]
Accusation of Virtues (gunatipata, lit. opposition of virtue) 2 .


20. When after enumerating the qualities available in common men, one mentions some special qualities, it is [an instance of] Excellence (atisaya) 1 .

Inference from Similitude

21. When an object directly perceived is inferred from a mataphor or simile applied in an identical sense, it is [an instance

17 (C.17; B.p.354, B.XVI.17). ' C. pravaktanim for pradhananiim.
Of. SD. 454. Ag. roads this with a slight variation.

18 (C.18; B.p.355, XVI.18). l Of. SI). 452. Ag. roads this as a variant of kxama (B XV1.IU) which in translation is as - follows : When one being hurt by harsh and provoking roirds uttcrred by a wicked person in the presence of good people, remains without anger, it is [an instance of] Forgiveness (ksania). •

1 9 (C.19; B.p.355, XVI.19) ' 0. madhuro nisthumrtho for madhu- rair niMurarthair. Cf. SD. 450. Ag. roads this as a variant of gunaniwiida (B.XVI.13a) which in translation is as follows : Eulogy
(gimanuvada) relates to inferior subjects compared with superior ones.

20 (C.20; B.p.355, XV1.20). ' Cf. SD. 451 Ag.'s reading (B.XV.13) in translation is as follows : When anything compares favourably to the best thing [to which it can be compared] it is [an instancfrof]
Erce Hence (atisaya). 21 (0.21; B.p.356, XVI.21).


of] Inference from Similitude (tultja-tarka, lit. reasoning from the comparables) 1 . .

Multiplex Predication

22. When a number of words are used along with a number of other words to form different groups for the same purpose, it becomes [an instance of] Multiplex Predication (pmlormya) 1 .


23. When any object or incident directly seen or not, is described in harmony with locality, time or from related to it it becomes [an instance of] Description (ilistu) 1 .

Pointed Utterance

24. When one says something of his own on the basis of Sastras and thereby pleases the learned, it is a Pointed Utterance
(upadida, lit. utterance) 1 .


25. That which establishes something not directly perceived and is in harmony with the meaning expressed earlier 1 and

1 Cf. SD. 442. Ag. reads this is as a variant of the definition of
Exhortation ( B.XVI.19 ) which in translation is as follows : To say something very pointedly through suggesting one's own idea by means of likening it to others' actions, is called E-eltortation (iikrauda).
Cf. SD. 472.

22 (C.22 ; B.p.356, XVI.22). l Cf. SD. 443 Ag.'s reading in transla- tion is a? follows : When anything is described as possessing differ- ent aspects by means of many words of similar import, it is [an instance of] Multiplex Predication (padoccaya) which puts together many objects.

23 (C.23; B.p. 356, XVT.23). ' BC. drsla for dista Cf. SD. 448. Ag. reads this" as a variant of sarupya (B.XVJ.15) which is different from
XVI.35 and is as follows :

24(C.24 ; Bp.357, XVI.24). ' Cf. SD.449; Ag. reads this is as a variant of Argumentation {upapatti, B.XVI.35). The translation is as follows: When faults discovered are explained away as being otherwise it is called Argumentation (upapatti) in connexion with drama. Cf. SD. 482.

25 (C.25; B.p. 357, XVI-25). » C. fmrvadeW for pnrvaZaya; B. anekopiidhi for anekapoha. Cf. SD. 447. Ag.'s reading of the definition in


includes much elimination of errors (apoha), is called Deliberation


26. When due to seeing [something] an alteration of
Deliberation, takes place on account of a doubt, it is called
Inversion (viparyayq,) 1 .

Slip of Tongue

27. Manifold deviation of proud and similar other persons from the intended words to something else is called Slip of
Tongue (bhramsa, lit. lapse) 1 .


28. [Words] which please the two persons with mutually opposed resolution and [are aimed at] accomplishing some object, constitute Mediation (anunaya, lit imploring) 1 .

Series of Offers

29. When for the purpose of accomplishing an object one
(lit. learned men) suggests to a person his many needs [which may be fulfilled], it is [an instance of] Series of Offers (mala, lit. garland) 1 .

translation as follows : Deliberation (vicara) is the critical examination of many things (under B.XVI.33).

26 (C.26; B.i>. 357, XV126). ' B. dntopadhtayoh for drsiopayogatah
Cf. SD. 456. Ag. reads this as a variant of the def of Wrong Perception
(mithyadhyavasaya B.XVI,16) which in translation is as follows :
When in place of a non-existent object one takes for certain some- thing similar to it, it [becomes an instance of ] Wrong Perception

27 (C.27; B.p.358, XVI.27)- ' Emend drstiidibhir to drptddinam
Cf. drptadinam hhaved bhramgo vacyud anyalarad vocal). SD. 455. Ag. reads this as a variant of the def. of Witty Compliment (priyavacand) which in trans, is a3 follows : That which is apparently liable to provoke anger but brings joy in the end and includes a blessing, is called
Witty Campliment (priyavacana=priokti) B.XVL29.

28 (C.28, B.p.358, XVI.28). ' Cf. SD. 458 Ag. reads this as a variant of the dof. of. Subservience (anuvrtti) which in trans, is as follows :
To follow with a purpose another person as a matter of courtesy, love or favour, is called Subservience (anuvriti) B.XV1 34. Ag. reads %his differently. Cf.SD.494.

29 (C.29; B.p.359, XVI.29). ,' Cf. SD. 459-


Clever Manners

30. When one attends another person with a happy and pleased face, [sweet] speech and [agreable] movements, it [is an instance of] Clever Manners (dahinya). x


31. If any one mentions [someone's] .faults and explain them as merits, or decries his merits and calls them faults, it becomes [an instance of] Censure {yarhana) 1 .


32. When from a sweetly- worded mention of something, some other object is to be understood, it is [an instance of]
Presumption {athapatti). 1

33- That which is expressed with excellent words mentioning many well-known exploits, gives rise to Celebrity {prasiddhi) 1 .
34. When by courteous (lit. proceeding from courtesy) 1 words one questions oneself or another [imaginary person] it is [an instance of] Interrogation (jirccM).

30 (C.30; B.p.359, XVI.30). ' Cf. SD. 457. Ag. reads this as a variant of the def. of Clover Request (yacTia) which in translation is as follows ; Words which are apparently liable to provoke anger, but bring joy in the end' and turn favourable are called. Clever Request (yaciia)

31 (C.31; B.p. 359, XVI.31). ' Cf. SD. 461, Ag. reads this as a variant of the dof. of Deceit (kapatasamgfuda) (B.XVL30) which in translation is as follows : Application of some stratagem for the decep- tion or defeat of others, is called Deceit (kapata). When two or three
{stratagems) are applied together it becomes . a Multiplex Deceit
(kapata-satnghata) Cf. SD. 473.

32 (C.32; B.p.360, XVI.37), ' Cf. SD.460. Ag. reads as a variant of the def. of Embellishment {karya, B.XVI.37) which in translation is as follows : When defects of an object are explained as merits or merits are derived from t/ie defects it is [an instance of] Embellishment (karya).

33 (C.33; B.p.360, XVI.33). ' Cf. SD. 463- Ag. reads this as a variant of the def. of Submission {anunili, B.XVI.38) which in translation is as follows : Sweet words which are uttered, to please one after forgiving one's singular offence due to anger, is called submission (anuniti). Sec also under B.XVL 21.

34 (C.34; Bp.361, XVI.34). > Emend okrod {akarod C) to wand

-XVII. 38 ] . -DICTION OF A PLAY 307


35. When from seeing or hearing something [suddenly] one is confused by its suspected identity [with another it is an instance of] Identity (sarupya) 1 .

Indirect Expression of Desire

36. Expressing one's secret desire of the heart 1 by a pretence of referring to somebody else's condition, is called Indirect
Expression of Desire (manoratka, lit. object of the mind).


37. Words which are addressed in a [clever] manner by expert disputants and which relate to accomplishment of similar objects 1 , constitute Wit (leia).*


38. When being faultless one declares to be taking upon oneself various faults of another, it [is an instance of] Concealment
(samlcsepa, lit. taking away)- 1

Of. abhyarlhanaparair vakyair, SD. 462. Ag. (B. XVI.24) reads this identically. 35 (0.35 ; B.p.361, XVI.35). ' Of. SD. 464. Ag. reads this as a variant of the def. of Wounded Self-respect (abhimana, B-XVI.8) which in translation is as follows : When one is not pacified even when one is consoled by means of many words and acts, it is [an instance of]
Wounded Self-respect (abhimana). Cf. SD. 493.

36 (C.36; B.p. 362, XVI.36). ' Cf. SD. 468. C. hrdayarthasya for hrdayasthasya Ag. reads this in substantially identical manner

37 (C.37; B.362, XV1.37). ' C. sadrmrtha-vinispannah for "bhinis- patya, Cf. SD. 467, Ag. reads this as a variant of the def. of Obs- truction (pralisedha B.XVI.23) which in translation is as follows :
When one sets out to do something contrary to another's desire and is opposed by clever persons {lit. those who knoiv the businecs) it is called Obstruction (pratisedha).

38 (C.38; B.p.363, XVI38). ' Emend tu ksobha to samhsepa. C. tu doKd) Cf, SD. 465, samksepo yat tu samksepad atmanyarthe .prayujyale.
Ag. reads this as a variant of the def. of paridevanam (parivudanam of Bhoja, parivada of SSradatanaya, parivedana of Sarvesavara) See
B.XVX39 foot note (•). The meaning of its def. is pot clear.



Enumeration of Merita

39. When merits of men who excel [others] in qualities in this world, arc ascribed to one single person it [is and instance of]
Enumeration of Merits {qiina-kirtana) 1 .

Semi-uttered Expression

40. When from the mere commencement of a subject the rest of it is comprehended without being actually expressed in words 1 it [is an instance of] Semi-uttered Expression (annleta- siihlhi, lit. unuttered achievement) 2 .


41. When words are uttered in a pleasant mood to honour an honourable person and to. express joy [for his acts] it [is an instance of] Compliment (priyoHi, lit. pleasing utterance) 8 .

42. These tliirtysix characteristic marks of a dramatic (lit. poetical) composition conducing to the object in view (i.e. writing plays) will beautify a play (lit. composition) 1 and [hence they] should be properly used according to the .Sentiment 2 [intro- duced in itj.

Pour figures of speech

43. Four figures of speech available in drama 1 are : Simile
(npama,) Metaphor (lupalca), Condensed Expression {dlpahi, lit. lamp) and Yamaka.

39 (C.39 ; B.p.363, XVI.39). l Cf. SD.466. Ag. reads this def. in translation as follows : When a proclamation of various qualities of a person takes place, but his faults are not given out, it is {called an instance of] Enumeration of Merits (guna-kirtana). See B. XVI. 9.

40 (C.40; B.pp. 363-64, XVI.40). ' 0. vijanatu for vimnukta.
Cf . SD. 469. Ag. reads this as a variant of the def. paridevana etc.
(see 38 note above).

41 (C.41; B.p.364, XVI.41). ' Cf. SD. 470. Ag. reads this differently, see above 27 note 1.


' C. kavyesu sodaharatiani for prabandhaiobhakarani, C. balimu- rupam (rasanurufiam), C. for yaiharasani.

, 43 (C.43; B.XV1.40). ' B. reads the second hemistich as kuvyasy ete hyalainkarm catvaralp parikirlitafo.


44. When in a poetical composition anything is compared on the basis of some similarity it is [an instance of] Simile (upama)
It relates to quality and form.

Number of objects compared
45-49. This comparison may be of one with one or many, or of many with one, or of many with many. (Examples of these are as follows): your face is like the moon (one compared with one) 1 , stars shine like the moon (many compared with one), having an 'eye like 1 that of a hawk, a peacock and a vulture (one compared with many) ; and elephants are like clouds .(mny com- pared with many).

Five kinds of simile

50. Simile is of five kinds, viz. [that of] praise (praiamHci),
[that of] censure (nimla), [that of] conceit {kalpita), [that of] uniqueness ,-(««</«•*. lit. similar looking) and [that of] partial likeness (Idmcit xadtii).

Simile of praise

51. The king was pleased to see that largt.-eyed lady just as the sages are pleased to see the success incarnate after it has been achieved with austerity.

Simile of censure

52. The woman clung to that rough-looking person devoid of all good qualities just as a creeper clings round a thorny 1 tree which has been [partially] burnt by the forest-fire.

Simile of conceit
i)ii. The Elephants exuding ichor and moving slowly with gracefulness look like mobile mountains.

44 (C.44j B.XVI.41).

45-49 (C.45-49; B.XVI.42-45). .' ekasyanekavisaya should be emended to anekasy ckavisaya (47b).

2 tulyukm (ins. na in B.) for tulyartha (B. C).

50 (C50iB.XVI.46). 51 (C.51; B.XVJ.47).

52 (C.52; B.XVI.48). * Read kantakinam for kanthagatam, C.

53 (C.53; B.XVI.49).


Simile of uniqueness

54. What you have done today to satisfy someone else's desire, is comparable only to your [other] superhuman 1 deeds.

Simile of partial likeness

55. Here is come my lady friend whose face is like the full moon, eyes are like the petals of a blue lotus and the gait is like that of an elephant in rut.

56. These briefly are the varieties of similes. Those not described here are to be gathered from [different] poetical works

■ and from the popular speech (lit. the people).
Condensed Expression

57. When words agreeing with different [sets of] words are combined into one sentence by way of illuminating them together it is [an instance of] Condensed Expression (dijmka, lit. light) 1 .

Example :

58. In that region (lit. there) fuilness (lit. want of emptiness) was always effected 1 by swans in the lakes, by flowers in the trees, intoxicated bees in the lotuses and by friendly groups [of men and women] in the parks and the gardens.


59. An image of slight likeness which is conceived due to indecision [from objects] characterised by similar limbs, is called
Metaphor (/•ftjwfei)- 1 -

Example :

60. The pool of water and women, with their lotus-faces,
Kumuda- smiles, beautiful and open Nilotpala-eyes and swans cackling around, seem to be talking to one another.

54 (CM; B.XVI.50). ' Read atinmnusta for iti manusa. B.

55 (C,55; B.XVJ.51). 56 (C.56; B.XVI52).

57 (C.60; B.XVI.53). ' B. gives an additional def. (XV1.54).

58 (0.61 ; B.XVI.55). l Tho plain meaning is that the lakes were full of swans, the. trees full of flowers, lotuses full of bees, and the.parks and gardens full of friendly groups of people.

59 (C.58j B.XVI.56). ' (B.XVI.57) and (C.57) give a second def. which does not appear in all mss.

• 60 (C.59; B.XVI.58).



61. Repetition of words at the beginning of the feet and the other places constitute Yamaka (lit. twin). Listen to their characteristics which I am going to tell [you] 1 .

Ten kinds of Yamaka

62-64 Yamakas are of the ten kinds : Padanta Yamaka,
Kafici Yamaka, Samudga Yamaka, Vikranta Yamaka, Cakravala
Yamaka, and Sandasta Yamaka, Pfidadi Yamaka, Araredita
Yamaka, Catur-vyavasita Yamaka and Mala Yamaka.

Padanta Yamaka

65. When similar syllables occur at the end of all the four feet they constitute Padanta Yamaka.

Example :

66. dina-ksayat samhrta-rasmi-mandalaiu

diviva lagnam tapaniya-mandalam | vibhati tamram divi surya-mandalam

yatha tarunyah stana-bhara-mandalam u

At the decline of the day, the reddish (lit. copper-coloured) orb of the sun shorn of its cluster of rays, shining like a golden disc in the heavens, looks like a big round breast of a maiden.- 1 .

Kafici Yamaka

67. Two similar words occuring at the beginning and at the end of each foot constitute Kauci Yamaka.

61 (C.62; B.XVI.59). ' For an old definition of Yamaka see
Bhamaha, II. 17.

62-64 (C.63-65; B.XVI.60-62). ' Bhamaha mentions a fivefold division of Yamaka See II. 9. He seems to have known the tenfold division of the NS-, and is of opinion that his fivefold division includes at least
Sanda?ta and Samudga Yamakas. See II. 10.


66 (C.67; B.XVI64). ' B. gives an additional def. (B.XVI.65). .

67 (C.68: B.XVI.66). ' •


* Example :

68. yamayamas - candravatinam dravatinam

vyakt£vyakti sara-janinam rajamnam I phulle phulle sa-bhramare va'bhramare va'rama vismayate ca smayate ca 1 II

The length of hours (yama) of the moon-lit. nights, passing swiftly in the company of young women are scarcely perceived.

Flowers having blown whether with or without bees, the fair lady looks at them admiringly, and the park smiles [with their beauty]. Samudga Yamaka

69- When the same hemistich by its repetition completes the verse it is [an instance of] Samudga Yamaka.
Example :

70. kotakl-kusuma-piindura-dantah

&>bhate pravara-kiinana-hasti I ketaki-kusuma-pandura-dantah sobhate pravara-kiinana-hasti II
The very big wild elephant with its tusks as pale-white as
Ketakl flowers, looks beautiful ; and the elephant-like large forest looks beautiful with Ketaki flowers as its pale-white tusks.

Vikranta Yamaka

71. When two alternate feet are similar, it is [an instance of] Vikranta Yamaka.

72. sa purvam varano bhutva dvifraftga iva parvatah I abhavad danta-vaikalyad-vi^rnga iva parvatah II

Formerly being an elephant comparable to a two-peaked mountain, [now] its two tusks being broken it has become like a mountain without any peak.


69 (C.7.0; B.XVI.68). ' Road yama-yamus for yamam yamam{B) and maya muya (C). This Yamaka occurs in Bhamaha, II. 10^ and
Dandin,IH.58-54. 70 (C.71; B.XVI.69).

71(C.72;B.XVI.70). . 72(C.73iRXV1.71).

■XVII. 77 ] DICTION Off A PLAY 313

Cakravala Yamaka

73. When the word at the end of a foot is similar to the word at the beginning of the next foot it is [an instance of]
Cakravala Yamaka 1 .

Example :

74. sarais 1 tatha satrubhir ahata hata.

hatfis ca bhuyas tv anupmnkhagaih khagaih I khagais ca sarvair yudhi saficitas citas citadhirudha nihatas talais talaih. II
Thus they were killed after being struck by arrows of the enemies as well as by birds of prey flying closely behind such missiles ; the battle-field was swamped with such birds by which dead bodies placed on the funeral pyre were being pounced upon with their [sharp] talons. 2

Sandasta Yamaka

75. When the two words at the beginning of a foot are similar, it is [an instance of] Sandasta Yamaka. 1

Example :

76. pasya pasya me ramanasya gunan

yena yena vas"agam karoti mam I yena yena hi mamaiti darsanam tena tena vasagam karoti mam II
Look at the qualities of my lover, by which he makes me bow to him, and he charms me by those qualities with which he comes to my view.

PadSdi Yamaka

77- When the same word occurs at the beginning of each toot, it is [an instance of] Fadadi Yamaka.

73 (C.74; B.XVI.72. l B. has an additional definition (B.XVI.73) of of Cakravala Yamaka.

74 (C.75; B.XV1.74). ' Emend iailas to sarais.
2 C. reads citfuthirlitlha hi hata hata narah.

75 (C.76; B.XVI.75). ' This term occurs in BhSmaha, 11.10, a«d
Dandin, 111.51-52. But the lattnr's def. is different.

76 (C.77; B.XVI.76). 77 (C.77; B.XVI.77).


Example :

78. visnuh srjati bhutani visnuh samharate prajah I

visnuh prasute trailokyam visnur lokadhi-daivatam II

Visnu creates all living beings ; Visnu destroyes all creatures;
Visnu creates (lit. gives birth to) the three worlds and Visnu is the over-lord of [all] the worlds.

Jmredita Yamaka
70. When the last words of a foot are reduplicated, it becomes [an instance of] Amredita Yamaka.
Example :

80. vijrmbhitam nihsvasitam muliur mulmh

katham vidhcya-smaranam pade pade I yatha ca tc dhy.'inam idam punah punah dhruvara gata tain 1 rajani vina vina II
[You had] deep repeated sighs, [yon] remembered [her] as you uttered her name frequently and thus as [you were] in cons- tant meditation [of her] your [sad] night passed without her. 2

Catur-vayavasita Yamaka

81. When all the feet consist of similar syllables it is [an instance of] Catur-vyavasita Yamaka.

Example :

82. varan anam ayara eva kalo viirananain ayam eva kalah | varananam ayam eva kalo vfi rananam ayam eva kalah II

This is the time of the Varana [Hovver] ; this is the season when the elephants (Warn) are free from disease. This is the time [for] the enemies to come ; or this is the time for
[going to] battle.

Mala Yamaka

83. When one consonant with different vowels occurs in various words it is [an instance of] Mala Yamaka.

78 (C.78; B.XVI.78). 79 (C.79; B.XV1.79).

80 (C.80; B.XVI.80). » Emend ie to tarn.
* The trans, is not very literal .
.81 (C.81; RXVI.81). 32 (C.82; B.XVI.82). 83 (C.83; B.XV1.83).

-XVII. 88 ] DIClION OF A PLA¥ 516

Example :

84. hall bali hali mali suli kheli lali ja.ll I balo balocca-lol&kso musall tv abhiraksatu II

Let the strong Balarama, the garlanded Balarama, who holds a a spike, is sportive, faltering [in gait] and is full of
Sentiment, and Balarama who is high in strength and who has his eyes rolling and who holds a club, protect you.

85. asau hi r&raa rati-vigraha-priya

rahah-pragalbha ramanam raho-gatam I ratena ratrau ramayet parena vii

no ced udesyaty ariinah puro ripuh II '
This beautiful woman who is fond of love's fight and is unashamed in it, will secretly please her lover at night with the best embrace, till the sun will rise in the east as her enemy.

86. sa puskaraksah ksatajdksitaksah

ksarat ksatebhyah ksatajam duriksam i ksatair gaviiksair iva samvrtangah saksat sahasraksa ivavabhati li

The lotus-eyed one having his eyes bathed in blood, letting fall from his wounds awful blood and [having his body] covered with window-like wounds looked like the thousand-eyed god
(lndra) in person.

87. A play (lit poetical work) should be composed by
[introducing] these | characteristic] marks after considering their objects and functions. I shall speak hereafter about faults (<losa) in such works.

Ten faults

88. Faults in a play (lit. poetical work) may be'of ten kinds such as, Circumlocution (ijufoartha), Superfluous Expression
(atlhaiitam), Want of Significance (arthahjua), Defective Signi- ficance (bhinnarthn), Tautology (ekartha), Want of Synthesis

84 (C.84: B.XVI.84). 85 (C.85; B.XVI.85).

86 (C.86; B.XVI.86). 87 (C.87; B.XVI.87).

88 (C.88j B.XVL88).


(abhiplutavthi), Logical Defect (mjaijadi/prta), Metrical Defect visama), Hiatus (mmdhi) and Slang {kbdaeijnta) 1 .

89. Mentioning [anything] by means of a [manufactured] synonym, is to cause Circumlocution {ijU4haHha, lit. hidden meaning) 1

Superfluous Expression
When anything not to be mentioned is described it is [a case of] Superfluous Expression (adhantara)* .
Want of Significance

90. An expression which is irrelevant 1 or which remains incomplete 3 is [an instance of] Want of Significance (arthahlna)*.

Defective Significance
Defective Significance {hhkmiihu, lit. broken meaning) includes an expression which is not refined, or is worthy of a rustic.

91. When the intended sense is changed into another sense it is also called Defective Significance.


92. Tautology (I'karllia), means [indiscriminating] use of
[many] words for a single purpose 1 .

1 For a discussion of the faults in NS. see S- K. Do, Skt. Poetics,
II, pp. 19.

89 (C.89j BXVI.89). ' An example of such a synonym is FJkadhika- nava-vinuma for Doaamiha, Cf. Bhiiinaha (1.37.) seems to be using gitt],haxa&:IMidhana in an identical sense. Sen 1. 45-46- S. K. I)e trans- lates this term as "use of difficult expressions" (Joe cit),

a An example of such an expression is fiwi'it'Pi Wl ,5f "^ V*.
'The beautiful lady's look injects (lit. spreads) indeed love as well as anxiety and insensibility. Here "anxiety and insensibility" arc superfluous, for love includes these two states of the mind (Ag.).

90 (C.90; B.XVI.90). ' An example of such an expression is
■*raifo «nfa (wfii) mmn xt") it g*Ji!iT wsg'tfa. To say that a mugdlm heroine can be sainara-calura (expert in love) as well, is incoherent. (Ag.).

2 The example of suvaiexa is « win wmw^ wq«tn sqwr.

* For mahatma bhiigyavdsid may be construed as mahiitma abhagya- va&ai and thereby its moaning may remain incomplete or undecided without a reference to the context. 91 (C.91; B.XVI.91).

• >; 92 (C.92; B.XVI.92). ' An example of Tautology (ekaHha) i» kundendu-hara-hara-hasa-sitam. White like a Kuuda flower, the moon


Want of Synthesis
[When a sentence is] completed within [each] foot [of a verse] it [is an instance of] Want of Synthesis (abhiplutartha) 2 .

Logical Defect

93. Anything devoid of reasoning is an example of Logical
Defect (nyayad-apeta) 1 -.

Metrical Defect
Lapse in the metrical structure is called Metrical Defect
(vi&ama, lit. unevenness).


94. When words [which should combine in Sandhi] are kept separate it is [an instance of J Hiatus (rimndhi).

When a sound or accent is dropped it is an instance of slang
(sabdacijida, lit. lapse in a word) 1 .


95. These are tins faults of a poetical work properly des- cribed by me. Gunas (merit) are their negation and are characterised by sweetness and deptli of meaning 1 -

The ten Gunas

96. The ten Gunas are : Synthesis (slew, lit, union), Pers- picuity (i>ra*adii), Kmoothness (*t iiiata), Concentration (xamailhi),

and the laughter of Siva. Any one simile would have been enough.
Each simile here serves the same purpose and hence Tautology has occurred (Ag.). See Bhamaha, IV. 12.

s Read samapyate (ms. na. in B.) for samasyate. An example of this is i *mr jftfii W. «c; $g?sitfHnn ' «$fa a T *m*t^t ^ nwfiwwur.. Here all the four feet contain four complete sentences which are not connected with one another by sense.

93 (C93; B.XVI.93). ' nyayvad-apetam=dettakala-viruddham etc.
(A;;.) 'defying the limitation of place and time'. Bhamaha's deia-kula- kala-lokanyayagaPM-virodhitu (lV.28ff ) seems to be included in this.

94 (0.94; B.XV1.94). ' Such dropping occurred probably due to the Prakritic habit in speech.

95 (0.95; B.XVI.95). l Vainana holds the opposite view (funa- viparyayatmimo dosahAL 1.1.) and according to him Gunas are positive entities (kava-sobfutyali kartaro dharmi, gunah, III, 1. 1).

96 (0.96; B.XVI.96). A Bhamaha, HI. 1. 4., aud Dandia, '1.41-94.,


Sweetness (mUhwya), Grandeur (o/'as), Agreeableness (saaku-

marya, lit. delicacy), Directness of Expression (artha-vyakti, lit

expression of meaning), Exaltedness (udara, lit. deep) and

Lovelines (frgjrfi).


97. Union of words connected through meanings intended is called Synthesis (slesa) 1 .


98. Where the unexpressed word or sense is comprehended through a use of easily understood words and sense, it is [an instance ofj Perspiciuty {[nimvhi) 1 .


99. When a composition does not contain too many un- compounded words, redundant expressions and words difficult to understand it is [an instance of] Smoothness (xamatd) 1 .


100. Possessing some special sense which the men of genius can find out in a composition (lit. here) is called Concentration
(sama'IM) 1 .

have ten Gunas and name them similarly But their descriptions are different. Of. De, Skt. Poetics, II. pp.l5ff. Nobel, Foundations, pp. 104ff.

97 (C.97; B.XVI.97). 1 Cf. Vsimana, III. I. 11 ; Dandin I. 43-44.
BC. Hive another description (C.98, B.XVI.98) of this Guna, which in translation is as follows : A [composition} which is, imbued with deep logic hut from its nature is [very] plain and is very well-knit-together is called Compact (slista).

98 (C.99; B.XVI.99). l Cf. VSmana 111. 1. 8; Dandin L45.

99 (C 100; B.XVI. 100). ' Cf. VSmana ffl. 1.12; Dandin 1-47-50.
(B.XVI.101) and C. (100) gives an additional description of this Gun a which in translation is as follows : When alamkaras and gunas match and illuminate one another it is called [an instance of] Smoothness

100 (C.p.212 f.n. 1. B.XVI.102). > Cf. Vamaua, III. 1.13; Dandin
1.93-94. B.(XVI.103) and C (101) gives an additional description of samadhi, which in translation is as follows : Careful condensation of meanings suggested by and derived from similes, is called Concentration



101. When a sentence heard or uttered many times does not tire or disgust [anyone], it [is an instance of] Sweetness
(martharya) 1 .


102. When a composition consists of a use of many and varied compound words exalted [in sense] and agreable [in sound], it is [an instance of] Grandeur (o/rts) 1 .


103. When a composition consists of words easy to pronounce, euphonicaliy combined, and giving agreeable impression [even when treating some unpleasant topic], it is [an instance of J Agreeableness
(sauhmavya) 1 .

Directness of Expression

104. It any subject (lit. action) relating to the [common] events occurring in the world gets expressed by means of well- known predicates, it becomes [an instance of] Direct Expression
(artha-vijalcti) 1 .


105. When in a composition superhuman characters are

101 (C.102; RXVI.104). ' Cf. VSniana III. 1. 11-21; Dandin I.

102 (C.p.212, f. n. 2; B.XVI.105). ' Cf. VSmana 111.1.5; Dandin
1.80-85. B. (XVI.106) and C. (103) gives a second definition of this
Guna which in translation is as follows : If a [composition otherwise] censured and deficient in quality reflects an exalted sense through its words and is rich in sound and sense it becomes [an instance of]
Grandeur (ojah). Hemacandra utilised this definition (Ch. IV.)

103 (C.104; B.XVI.107). ' Cf. Vfimana III. 1. 22; Dandin calls this sukumarata.

104 (C.p.212. f. n. 3; B.XVI.108). '' C. suprasiddhadhntuna for suprasiddhabhidhana, (B.XVI.109) and C.(105). gives a second definition of this Guna, which in translation is as follows : When the meaning of a composition can be grasped by the penetrating mind just after its recital (lit. use) it is [an instance of] Directness of Expression
(arthavyakti). 105 (C.p.2l2, f. n. 4; B.XVI.101).


described in relation to the Erotic and the Marvellous Sentiments and the various States, it is [an instance ofj Exaltedness («&*«)*.

106. That which [in a composition] while describing the sportive movement of [a character] delights the ear and the mind just as the moon [pleases us], is [an instance of] Loveliness (I'&at*) '•

Alamkaras, and Guuas according to Sentiments

107. These are the figures of speech, faults and Gunas
[available in a poetical composition] ; I shall now describe their application in connexion with different Sentiments.

Sounds and Figures of Speech according to Seutiments

108. The poetical composition in connexion with the Heroic, the Furious and the Marvellous Sentiments should consist mostly of light syllables and should include similes and metaphors.

109-110. In the Odious and the Pathetic Sentiments it (the composition) should be similar except that it should consist mostly of heavy syllables.

Metres according to Sentiments : in the Heroic and the Furious Sentiments
Whenever any act of boldness is described (lit. occurs) in connexion with the Heroic and the Furious Sentiments, it (the com- position) should be in the Arya metre and should have metaphor and Condensed Expression in it.

In the Erotic Sentiment
In the Erotic Sentiment the composition should be in gentle metres. 1 Cf. Vamana, III. 1. 23; Daudin, I. 76-78. R(XVI. III.) and
C(106) give along with this a definition of the Gima named udara.
In translation it is as follows : When the composition includes witty and graceful words having many special senses which are marvellous, it is [an instance of] Exaltedness (udatta).

106 (C.p.212 f. n. 5; B.XVI.112). ' Cf. Vamana, III. 1. 25; Dandin,
I. 85-88. C (107), gives an additional definition of this Guna, which in translation is as follows ; When a composition gives delight to the ears as well as to the mind on account of its well-put-togeiher words, it is [an instance of] Loveliness (kanti).

107 (C.108; B.XVL113). 108 vC.109; B.XVI.1M).
109-110 (C.110-111; B.XVI.115-116).


In the Heroic Sentiment
111-112. In the Heroic Sentiment the poetical composition should have gradation [of sounds] and it should be in metres of the

Jagati, Atijagatl and Bamkrti types. In the description of battles and tumults Utkrti has been prescribed by the experts.

In the Pathetic Sentiment.
Sakkari and Atidhrti would be the proper metres in the
Pathetic Sentiment..

In the Heroic and the Furious Sentiments

113. The metres prescribed for the Horoic Sentiment may be applied in the Furious Sentiment as well ; and as for metres in the rest of the cases (t. e. those not mentioned) they should be made suitable to the meaning intended.

Vowel-length in different Sentiments and States

114. In connexion with the drama the poets should use 1 short, long and prolated (pluta) vowels for representing different
Sentiments and States.

115. In the intonation [in Eecitation] a vowel consisting of one Matra is short, of two Matras is long and of three Matras is prolated (pluta).

Uses of the prolated vowel

11<>. In remembering anything, in [expressing] indigna- tion 1 , in lamenting or in the reading of Brahmins the prolated
(pluta) vowels occur.

117. [Syllables concerned in these connexions] will be 'a' for remembering, 'u' for indignation, 'ha' for lamentation and 'om' for the reading of Brahmins.

111-112 (0.112-113; B.XVI.117-118).

113 (C.114; B.XVI.119).

114 (C.115; B.XVI.122). l C. kavyam vijUyam for karyam havibhir. 115(C.U6; B XVI 123).

116 (C.117-, B.XVI.124). * C. smile castrayute for smrte casuyiie.

117 (C.ll8j B.XVL125).


118. Besides these, other syllables in a play (lit. poetical composition) should also be made short, long or prolated {pluta) according to the Sentiments and States [they are to'express].

119. The uneven and uneven metres which have been described before should also be used in composition with agreeable and soft sounds according to the meaning [intended] 1 .

, 120. The playwright should make efforts to use in his composition sweet and agreeable words which can be recited by women. For, furnished with these (i.e. such words) a play will appear very much beautiful just as lotus-lake [will appear] adorned with swans.

121. With harsh words such as cehifita 1 , delicate dramatic art does not appear beautiful just as a public woman does not appear well by the side of Brahmins who are clad in Ruru-skin, and are annointed with ghee and who carry the skin of black antelopes and have the Aksa-mala [in their hands].

122. A play abounding in agreeable sounds and senses, containing no obscure and difficult words, intelligible to country- people 1 having a [good] construction, fit to be interpreted with
(lit. fit for) dances, developing Sentiments by many [characters] 2 and having suitable Junctures (sandhi) and their [proper] unions, becomes fit for presentation to the spectators.

Here ends chapter XVII of Bharata's NstyaSSstra

which treats of the Characteristics of a good play in connexion

with the Verbal Representation.

118(C,119 ! B.XVI.126).

119 (C.120; B.XV1120). ' B. reads 120a as yac chandah fiRrvam evoktam visamardhasame samam. B. sabdais tat karyam lu rasanugam for karyas te'rthavaianugah.

120(C.121;BXVI.121). 'The word cekrifayalam occurs in the
AvL (in.18) ascribed to BliSsa. (See A.D. PuBalker, Bhasa, Lahore,
1940, p.131).

121 (0.122; B.XVI.127).

122 (C.123; B.XVL128). ' C. budhajanaiukhayogyam yuktiman.
, ' B. bahttkrtamamrgam for bahurasakrtamargam, C.



The Prakritie Recitation

1. 1 Thus I have spoken in brief 2 of the Sanskritic Recitation.
Now I shall speak of the characteristics of the Prakritie Recitation.

2. The former (lit this) [when] changed and devoid of the quality of polish, is called the Prakritie Recitation, and it has as its chief feature changes due to different conditions. 1

Three kindi of the Pkt, Recitation

3. In connexion with the dramatic representation, it (the
Pkt Recitation) is of three 1 kinds, viz, that with the same words
[as in Sanskrit] (samana-iabda), that with corrupt (vibhrastti) words and that with words of indigenous origin (deii).

4. A sentence contaning words like kamala, amala, renit,, tarahga, Ma, sa&tta and the like are used in the Prakrit composi- tion [in the same manner] as in Sanskrit. 1

5. * Sounds which change their combined form or vowels or sustain loss and that often in the middle of a word* are corrupt (vibhragta).*

1 (C.l, B.XVL1). » For an English translation (with the text and notes) of XVHL 1-24, seeM. Ghosh, "Date of the Bharata Natyasastra",
JDL. Vol. XXV. (1933). For a French translation (together with tho romanised text) of this chapter see L Nitti-Dolci, Les Grammairiens
Prakrits, 1938, pp. 64-V6.

9 samasatah (C. dvi jolt amah).

9 <C.2; B.XVII.8). ' Cf. Nitti-Dolci, p.70.

3 (C.3; B.XVII.3). ' Later Prakrit Grammarian? called the above three classes of words tatsama, tadbhava and deii respectively.

4 (C.4; B.XVH.4b-5a). ' B. reads one additional hemistich (4a) before this. Cf. Nitti-Dolci, p.20.

5 (C.5; B.XVH6b-6a). » Cf. Nitti-Dolci, p.70.

8 C; yanty apadadau prayas, B. for gacchanti padanyasta, C.
' B. reads one additional couplet after 5.


Vowels and simple consonants

6. Sounds following e and o (ie. ai and au) and the Anu- svara [in the alphabet] do not occur in Prakrit And such is the case with sounds between va and sa (i.e. ia and sa) and the final sounds in the ha, ca and ta groups (i.e, m, ha, na). 1

7. Ka, ga, ta, da, ya, and va are dropped [in Prakrit] and the meaning is carried by the [remaining] vowels, and hha, gha, tha, dlia and bha become ha without giving up the meaning of the word.

8. In Prakrit ra does neither precede nor follow [a conso- nantal sound] except in cases of bhadra, vodra, hrada, candra and the like. 1

9. Klia, gha, tha, dha and blia always become ha in words such as muhha, megha, hatha and vadhu prabhuta. 1 And as for lea, ga, ta, da, ya 2 and va, the vowel 8 following them always represents them.

10. Sa it should be known, always become clia in words such as satpada. 1 The final syllable of kila should be ra and the the word hhalu should become him.

6 (C. 6-8; B.XV11.7). " This together with three following couplets are written not in Skt. but in Prakrit. Hence they seem very much to be an interpolation. The first of these occurs as a quotation (with- out the author's name) in a late metrical work edited by M.H.D.
Velankar (Annals of the Bhandarkar Inst. XIV. 1932-33, pp. 1-38, citation, Nitti-Dolei, p.71).

7 (C.6-8; BXVII.8).

8 (C.6-8; B.XVII.9). • Nitti-Dolci and B. reads padra for draha.
See chaya and Ag. and also PSM. for the Pkt. words.Of. Nitti-Dolci, p.71.

9 (C.6-8; B.XVU.10). ' Evidently hard aspirates in case of other words did not change. Ag's. example of sucli words are kheta, parigha, alia. This speaks of the high antiquity of the Pkt. of the NS.

a The non-aspirate consonants mentioned here are to be understood as devoid of the inherent vowel V.

' The word son ( =svaralf) hero means "vowel" and not "sound".
Cf. Nitti-Dolei p.71.

10 (£9; B.XVH.U). ' Ag. is silent about this satpadadi gana.


11. Ta becomes <£a in words such as bhata, tot and tola, and sa and sa always become sa, e.g. visa {visa} and samha {tonka).

12. In words such as itara and the like ta standing not in the beginning of a word becomes an indistinctly pronounced da. x X>a in words such as vad.a,va and tagaga becomes la.

13. Tha in words such as satha, patha, pUhi and the like become dha, and na becomes na everywhere in pronunciation. 1

14. Pa [in it] changing into va, apana becomes avana. And except in case of words like yatha and tatha tha becomes dha.

15. One is to know parmi as pharusa, for pa becomes pha
[in it], and mrga will be changed to mao while mrta will also be ma". 1

10. An employed in words like ausadha etc. will change to o, and ca in words such as pracaya, acira and acala etc. will change into ya. 1

17. Thus [change] the sounds in Prakrit when they are not mutually connected (i.e. they are simple). Now I shall describe the change of conjunct sounds.

Conjunct consonants

18. Sea, psa, tsa and thya change into (r)eha, hhya, hya and dhya into (;j)jha, sta into ttha, sta into tiha, sma into mha, ksna and xna into nha, and hsa into {h)kha.

11 (O.10; B.VH.12).

12(C.ll; B.XVII.13). ' This indistinctly pronounced da is perhaps a spirantiscd da. Ag. thinks that it is somewhat like a la. cvt€t $f ima

13 (C.I 2; B.XVII.14 f.n.). l B. reads the first hemistich as follows : itilft ^ w^ v*m«iTsft sagwfa and C. too differently. Dha in ■vardhana
{i.e. in combination with ra) changes into (iha.

14 (C.12b-13a, B.XVII.15).

15 (C.13b 14a B.XV1I.16). ' Tlie word maa (maya) from mrta as well as mrga had its spirantiscd da reduced to ya-sruti which how- over was not shown in writting during the early days of this phonetic change (Sec IHQ. VIII. 1933, suppl. p. 14-15). o

16 (C.14b-15a; BXVII.17). l This ya-sruti for ca did not probably at once lead to its graphic elimination. .

17 (C.15b-16a; B.XVII.18). . 18 (C.l6b-18a; B.XV1L19.)

326 tHE NATtASASfBA [tVIlt.ld-

19. 2icarya will be accliariya and niicaya niccJiaya, ntsaha ucchtiha and pathya, paccha. 1

20. Tubhyam becomes tujjluim, mahyam majjham, vindhya vimjlia, dasta dattha and hasta hattha.

21. Gh'Uma becomes gimha, Uakma sanlia, usna unha 1 ; jdkm jaJekha, paryanha pallamka.

22. There is metathesis in the group Ima occurring in words such as brahman etc., and in brhaspati [the group spa] becomes pha, yajha becomes janm, bhlma bhimha.

23. Ka and similar other letters (sound) while on the top of another letter (sound) will have to be disjointed in their pronunciation 1 .

2i. Thus are to be learnt the pronunciation of Prakrit and
Sanskrit. I shall discuss hereafter the classification of regional languages (desa-bhasa).

25. The [languages] to be used in drama are of four types in which Recitation should be either of the refined (sanulcrta) or of the vulgar (praJcrta) kind.

Four types of languages
-6. The Super-human Language (atibhasn), the Noble
Language (arya-bhasa) 1 the Common Language (j&ti-bhasa) and the Language of Other Animals (yonyantari blOsa)* are the [four] languages occurring in plays.

19 (0.l8b-19ai B.XVII.20a-21a). ' B. reads one additional hemistich between 19a and 19b.

20 (O.l9b-20a; B.XVlL21b-22a).

31 (C.20b-21a; B.XVII.22b-23a). ' C. reads irsnah kanhah.

22 (C.2lb-22 ai B.XVII.23b-24a).

23 (C.22b-23a; B.XV124b-25a). T This probably relates to svara- bkakti (anaptyxis). Kilesa (klesd), radana (ratna) and duvara (dv'ara) may bo examples of this.

24 (C.23b-24a; B.XVII.25b-26a). > Cf. Nitti-Dolei. p-73.

25 (C.24b-25a; B.XVII.26b-27a).

26 (C.25b-26a; B.XVlI.27b-28a). ' Some commentators think that aryabhasa means a language in which Vedic words preponderate (Ag.).

s -C. reads jatyantari and yonyantari.


The Superhuman and the Noble Languages

27. The Super-human Language is for the gods, and the
Noble language for the kings 1 . These have the quality of refine- ment 1 {mmshara) and are current over the seven great divisions*

(ihfipa) of the world.

The Common Language

28. The Common Language prescribed for use [on the stage] has various forms 1 . It contains [many] words of Barbarian
{mleccha) origin and is spoken in Bharata-varsa [only] 1 .

The Animal Language

29. The Language of Other Animals 1 have their origin in animals domestic or wild and in birds of various species, and it follows the Conventional Parctice {lialya-dharml).

Two kinds of Recitaticn

30. The Recitation in the Common language which relates to the four castes, is of two kinds, viz, vulgar (prakrta) and refined

27 (C26b-27a; B.XVII.28b-29a). ' The alibhasa and aryabhasa arc possibly the dialects of the pure Indo- Aryan speech. It^hould be noted that "samskrta" (Sanskrit) as the naim of a language is absent here.
Bhoja takes ait'-, arya- and fiUi- bhiisas respectively as irauta (Vedic), ansa
(Puranic) and laukika (literary) speeches. See Sr. IV. pp,191ff.

' Read samskaraguna for samshara-pathya (the ms. bha in B.).

. 3 Read saptadvipa-pratiMita for samyahnyaya pratislhita (the ms. bha in B).

28 (C.26b-27a; B.XVII.29b-30a). ' Read vividha-jatibhasa ; vividha
(ca, da in B.) for dvividha.

' The common speech or the speech of the commoners is distinguished hero from that of the priests and the nobility by describing it as con- taining words of Barbarian (mleccha) origin. These words seem to have been none other than vocables of the Dravidian and Austric languages. They entered Indo-Aryan pretty early in its history. See S. K. Chatterji, Origin and Development of the Bengali Language, Calcutta, 1926 pp. 42,178.

29 (C.27b-29a ; B.XVII.30b-81a). l Neither the N& nor "any extant drama gives us any specimen of the conventional language of lower animals, which is to be used in the. stage.

30 (C.2»b-29a; B.XYIL81b-32«.).


Occasion for Skt. Recitation

31. In case of the self-controlled {dlnra) Heroes of the vehement (uddliata), the light-hearted (lalUa), the exalted (udatta), and the calm (pi'«ioitf«) types, the Recitation should be in Sanskrit.

Occasion for Pkt. Recitation

32. Heroes of all these classes are to use Prakrit when the occasion demands that. 1

33. l In case of even a superior preson intoxicated with the kingship (or wealth) or overwhelmed with poverty no Sanaskrit should be used. 2

34. To persons in disguise 1 , Jain monks 8 , ascetics 3 , religious mendicants* and jugglars should be assigned the Prakrit Recitation.

31 (C. 29b-30a; B.XVII.32b-33a).

32 (C80b-31a; B.XVI1.33b-34a). ' As Arjuna disguised as Brhannala.

33 (C.31b-32a; B.XVII.34b-35a). ' Wc follow C. tat.

* No extant drama seems to furnish any illustration of this rule.
B. reads one additional hemistich before this.

34 (C.32b-33a; B.XVII.36). ' vynjalingapravistanam'V^iom in disguise of different kinds of professional and religious mendicanta etc..
See Kautilya's Arthasastra. An example of this is Indra in tho guise of a Brahmin speaking Pkt. in Karna. ascribed to Bhasa. Nitti-Dolci takes this expression as an adjective of kramananam etc.. But it need not be construed like this. This part of the rule seeim to relate to Skt speaking characters assuming disguise. Viradhagupta (Mudra II.) assuming the guise of a snake-charmer, is an example of such characters. And so arc Yaugandhariiyana and Rumauvan in the Pratiji>5, (III) ascribed to

8 Sramana (Pkt. samana). The word is to be taken to mean here a Jain monk. CLJadivattham avanemi samanao homi, Avi. (V.) ascribed to Bhasa j tramana was sometimes used also in connexion with the
Buddhists. See below 36.

* tapasvin— It appears that the author of the MS. meant by this term ascetics in general. Though we find Brahmin ascetics in ancient literature, the institution of asceticism was most probably of non- Aryan origin. This seems to be justification of assigning Prakritic Recitation to all the ascetics irrespective of their sectarian affiliation.

4 bhiksu-— religious mendicant in general. It should not be res- tricted to Buddhists alone. The alternative name of the Brshma-sutra is the Bhiksu-sQtra.


35. Similarly Prakrit should be assigned to children, persons possessed of spirits of lower order, women in feminine character 2 persons of low birth, lunatics and phallus-worshippers 8 .

Exception to the rule for Pkt. Recitation

36. But to itinerant recluses 1 , sages 2 , Buddhists 8 , pure
►Srotriyas* and others who have received instruction [in the Vedas] and wear costumes suitable to their position (liiigastha)* should be assigned Sanskritic Recitation.

35 (C.33b-34a; B.XVII.37 f.n. 9). » R.'s reading in translation is as follows : Similarly Pkt. should be assigned to &iiva teachers, lunatics, children, persons possessed of spirits of lower order, women, persons of low birth and hermaphrodites (B.XVII.37).

a In a queen's role a woman may sometimes speak Skt. See 38-39 below. The parivrajika in the Malavi. speaks Skt.

3 salihga.— This possibly means the member of a sect which like the
Lingayets wears a phallus suspended from their neck.

36 (C.34b-35a; B.XVII.38). ' parivraj—a person of the fourth mrama. A recluse belonging to the Vedic community.

3 muni, — This word, probably of non-Indo-Aryan origin meant in all likelihood <! wise man." See NS. I. 23 note 1. In the ancient world, wisdom was usually associated with religious and spiritual elevation. This might have been the reason why the word was applied to persons like
Vasistha and Narada.

' sakya. — a follower of the Buddha. There is nothing very astonish- ing in Skt. being assigned to Buddhist monks. Buddhist teachers like
Asvaghosa, Nagarjuna, Sryadova, Vasubandhu were almost all great
Sanskritists, and the Mahayiina literature was written in Sanskrit of corrupt as well as of pure variety. This might have been the general linguistic condition before the schism arose among the Buddhists- In
Asvaghosa's Sariputra-parakarana Buddha and -his disciples speak
Sanskrit (Keith, Skt. Drama p.82). Asvaghosa assigns Skt to a sramana, as well (loc. cil). This sramana was possibly a Buddhist ; see 34 f.n".

* coksesu (caifaem, C.) srolriyesu — for the pure srolriya or a learned Brahman. The adjective "pure" icoksa) used with srotriya is possibly to separate him from an apostate who might have entered Jain or any other heterodox fold and was at liberty to use Pkt. ^

5 sisjfih lihgasthali—i<s\\g\o\\% mendicants who have received instruction (in Vedas).


87. Sanskrit Recitation is to be assigned to queens, cour- tezans 1 , female artistes to suit special times and situations in which they may speak.

38-39. As matters relating to peace and war, the auspicious and inauspicious movements of planets and stars and cries of birds concern the well-being or distress of the king these are to be known by the queen, and for this reason she is to be assigned Sanskritic
Recitation in connexion with these (lit. in that time) 1 .

40. For the pleasure of all kinds of people, and in con- nexion with the practice of arts, the courtezans are to be assigned
Sanskritic Recitation which can be easily managed.

41. For learning the practice of arts and for amusing the king the female artiste has been prescribed to use Sanskrit in dramatic works 1 .

42. The pure speech of the Apsarasas 1 is that which has been sanctioned by the tradition (i.e. Sanskrit), because of their asso- ciation with the gods ; the popular usage conforms to this [rule].

43. One may however at one's pleasure assign Prakritic Reci- tation to Apsarasas [while they move] on the earth. [But to the
Apsarasas in the role of] wife of a mortal also [the same] should be assigned when an occasion (lit. reasons and need) will occur 1 .

44. In the production of a play their [native] language should not be assigned to tribes such as, Barbaras, Kiratas,
Andhras and Dramidas 1 .

37 (C.35-36a; B.XVII.39). ' An example of this is VasantagenS speaking Skt (Mrech. IV.).

38-39 (C.36b-38a; B.XVII.40-41). ' This rule cannot possibly be illustrated by any extant drama. 40 (C.38b-39a; B.XV1I.42).

41 (C.39b-40a ; B.XVH43). l There is possibly no example of this in any extant drama,

42 (C.40b-41aj B.XVII.44). ' No play with an Apsaras speaking
Skt is available. All the Apsarasas in Vikram, speak Pkt

43 (C.41b-42a; B.XVH.45). l Read manusimm (ca in B) for manusanam. JJrvasi is an example of an Apsaras who became the wife of a mortal. (Vikram).

44(C.42b-43a;B.XVn.46). ' Seo N8. XXIII. 99 notes.


4£. To pure tribes of these names, should be assigned dialects current in Saurasena,

46. The producer of plays may however at their option use

local dialects ; for plays may be written in different regions [for

local production].

Seven major dialects

47. The Seven [major] dialacts (bhasa) are as follows :
Magadhi, Avanti [Avantija], Pracya, Sauraseni (Surasenl),
Ardhamagadhi, Biihlika, Dakslnatya 1 .

48. In the dramatic composition there are, besides, many

less important dialects {vibhasa) 1 such as the speeches of the Sakara,

Abhiras, Candalas, Sabaras, Dramidas 2 , Odras* and the lowly

speech of the foresters

Uses of major dialects

49. [Of these] Magadhi is assigned to guards (lit. inmates) of the royal harem 1 , and Ardhamagadhi to menials, princes and leaders' of merchants' guilds 2 .

45 (C.43b-44a; B.XVIL47). 46 (C.44b-45a; B.XVII.48).

47 (C.45b-46a; B.XVI1.49). » Magadhi/ Sauraseni and Ardha- magadhi are well-known. But any old and authentic description of
5vanti, Pracya, Biihlika and Daksinatya Pkt. seems to be non-existent.
According to Prthvidliara a very late authority, Mycch. contains the specimens of Svanti and Pracya only. It is to be noted that the present list does not include Maharastri.. See M. Ghosh. ''Maharastri a late phase of
Sauraseni", JDL.

48 (C.46b-47a; B.XVU.50). ' By the word vibhasa Prthvidliara understands vididha bhasa hinapatra-jrrayojyatvad hinuh. See Pischel,
Grammatik, §§ 3-5. No old and authentic specimen of the vibhasas has reached us. According to Prthvidhara the Mrcch. contains Sakari and
Candali besides Dhakki which last the NS. does not know.

' It is curious that after forbidding the use of languages like
Dramida (Dramila) in 44 above, the author is including it among the dialects that can be allowed in dramatic works. One possible explanation of this anomaly may be that here we meet with a late interpolation, and passages from 48-61 belong to a later stratum of the text.

' Read dravi4<4rajah for dramilandhrajah, B; draviiiodraja^, ^C.
See 55 note 1.

49 (C.47b~48a; B.XVH.51). ' For a list of such persons see DRJI.74.
* According to Pischel this passage assigns AMg. to servants.


50. Pracya is the language of the Jester 1 and the like ; and AvmUi is of the rogues (//Afirfff)"- The Heroines, and their fewde Mends are also to speak Snaweni when not in any difficulty.

51. To soldiers, gamesters, police chief of the city and the like should be assigned Daksinatya 1 , and Bahliki is the native speech of the Khasas who belong to the north,

Uses of minor dialects

52. Siikari should be assigned to the Sakara and the Sakas and other groups of the same nature 1 , and Candali to the Pulkasas and the like. 2

53. To charcoal-makers, hunters and those who earn their

Rajputs (rajaputra) and leaders of merchants' gxa\&(.iresthi). See Gramma- tik § 17. Bat no extant drama seems to illustrate this rule. For
Candanadiisa who is a srrsthl, does not speak AMg. (Mudrii, 1) while
Indra in the disguise of a Brahmin speaks this dialect of l'kt. (Kariia. ascribed to Bhiisa).

50 (C.48b-49; B.XVJI.52). ' According to Prthvidhara Vidusaka in the Mrcch. speaks Pracya the sole characteristic of which is abun- dance of pleonastic ka. See Pischel, Grammatik, Grammatik, § 22.

2 0. yojy'a bharn for dhurtiinfim apij. According to Prthvidhara the the two policemen Viraka and Candanaka in the Mrcch. (VI.) speak
Svanti. But according to the latter's own admission he was a Southerner and a man of Kalnata. No old and authentic description of this dialect is available, see Pischel, Grammatik § 26.

51 (O.49b-50a: B.XVH.53). ' Oandanaka's language in Mrcch. in spite of Prthvidhara's testimony to the contrary may be taken as a specimen of Daksinatya. See 50 note 2 above. No old and authentic description of this dialect is available. Of. Pischel, Grammatik § 24.

52 (C.50b-51a; B.XVII.54). ' iakaranum iakudimm for mkh- mghosakadinam (B.), and iabarariam iakndinam (C). According to
Prthvidhara Sakara in Mrcch. speaks Sakiiri dialect. Of. Pischel,
Grammatik, § 24.

A Prthvidhara thinks that Candalas in Mrcch (V.) speak the
Candali dialect. Cf. Pischel, Grammatik, § 25.

•53 (C.51b-52a; B.XVII.55). ' B. iatura-itasa for iabam-bham.
This dialect seems to have been the parent of the modern Sora language.


livelihood by [collecting] wood and leaves should be assigned
Sabari 1 as well as the speech of forest-dwellers.

54. For those who live in places where elephants, horses, goats, sheep, camels or cows are kept [in large numbers] Sbhiri 1 or Sabari 2 has been prescribed, and for forest-dwellers and the like, Dravidl 8 [is the language].

55. Odri is to be assigned to diggers of subterranean passages, prison-warders, grooms for horses 1 ; and Heroes and others like them while in difficulty are also to use Magadhi for self-protection. Distinguishing features of various local dialects

56. *To the regions [of India] that lie between the Ganges and the sea, should be applied a dialect abounding in e 2

57. To the regions that lie between the Vindhyas and the sea should be assigned a language abounding in na 1 ( or ta).

58. Eegions like Surastra and Avanti lying on the north of the Vetravati one should assign a language abounding ca 1 .

4 See 54 note 3.

54 (C.52b-54a; B.XVII.56). ' Xbhiri dialect is not available in any extant drama. 2 See 53 note 1.

3 Dravidl dialect is not available in any extant drama. It is possible that it was not a pure Dravidian speech (See 44 above). Possibly a
Middle Lido-Aryan dialect in which Dravidian phonetic and lexical iniluence predominated was meant by this. Its habitat was in all likeli- hood some region of North India. Of. Nitti-Dolici, p. 120-122.

55 (C-54b-55a; B.XVII.57). ' Emend oijArt'kiirasaraksasam (tlAa in B) into o<\r\ kara&varaksatam (C. odrikanaali ca rafoatam and B. sandhikarasvarakmtam); for Odri Pkt. see 48 note 3. and Nitti-Dolci,
PP. 120 f.n. 4 and i22.

56 (C.55b-56a; B.XVII.59). ' B. again roads 44 after 55.

8 This "a" is perhaps termination of the nominative singular the o-bases in AMg.

57 (C.53; B.XVI1.60). ' This relates to a dialect of Pkt. which changes na always into -na. Though according to some grammarians
Pkt is always to change na into i}a, it seems that such was not strictly the case with all its dialects. For example in the so-called Jain Pkt.
(AMg. of Hemacandra) has initial « and intervocal ««.

58 (C.56b-57a; B XVII.61). ; It seems that at the time of the


59. To people who live in the Himalayas, Sindhu and
Sauvlra a language abounding in u should he assigned. 1

60. To those who live on the bank of the Carmanvati river and around the Arvuda mountain a language abounding in o 1 (or ta) should be assigned.

61. These are the rules regarding the assignment of dialects in plays. Whatever has been omitted [here] should be gathered by the wise from the popular usage.

Here ends Chapter XVIII of Bharata's Natyasastra which treats of the Rules regarding the Use of Languages.

author of the passage iutervocal ca in this particular region was yet maintained or dental t sounds were mostly changed into c sound (as in ciHka for tisthd).

59 (C.57b-58a; B.XVU.62). x This u perhaps relates to a close pronounciation of the o vowel.

60 (C. omits this ; B.XVII.63). x This o perhaps relates to a open pronounciation of the u vowel.

61 (C.53b-59; B.XVII.64).



Different modes of address

1-2. These are, O the best of Brahmins, the rules on the use of languages [in a drama]. Now listen about the rules of popular modes of address 1 or the manner in which persons of equal, superior or inferior status in a play are to be addressed by those of the superior, the medium or the inferior class. 2
Modes of addressing males : addressing great sages

3. As the great sages are adorable (lit. god) even to the gods they are to be addressed as "holy one" (lhagamn) 1 and their wives are also to be similarly addressed. 2

Addressing gods, sectarian teachers and learned men

4. Gods, 1 persons wearing sectarian teacher's dress 2 and persons observing varied vows 8 are to be addressed as "holy one" {bhagavan)* by men as well as women.

1-2 (C.l-2, B.XVTI.65-66). 1 This manner of addressing different persons includes referring to them before their ownselves or before others e.g.. In Sak. (I), Dnsyanta is referred to by his charioteer as uyusman and then he is addressed in the same term ( Yathajnapayati aynsman. ayuman pasya paiyd).

s Rules given hereafter do not cover all the numerous and different cases occurring in the cxant dramatic literature in Skt. and Pkt

3 (C.3; B.XVII.67). » Ex. Kiisyapa (Kanva) addressed by his dis- ciple (Sak. IV.) Marica by Du§yanta (ibid. VII.) and Ravana in ascetic's disguise by Rama (Pratima. V).

2 No ex. of this seems to be available in any extant drama.

4 (C.4; BXVH.68). l Ex. : Agni (Abhi. VI). & Varuna {ibid. IV).

2. Ex. (Ravana disguised as an ascetic addressed by Rama (Pratima.
V.). The Jester in Pratijfia (III) addressing the Jain monk (sratnanaka)
:<s bhaavam {bhagavan) to create laughter ; bhadanta would have been the proper term in this case. See below 15.

8 Read here nanamratadhara (bha in B) for nanatruiadhara (B) and narmrutidhara (C). Ascetics belonging to minor heterodox sects


Addressing the Brahmin

5. The Brahmin is to be addressed as "noble one" (arya), 1

Addressing the king
And the king [is to be addressed as "great king" (maharaja).'*

Addressing the teacher
The teacher [is to be addressed] as "professor" (acari/a). 3

Addressing an old man
And an old man [is to be addressed] as "father" (t&ta).*

Brahmins addressing the king

6. Brahmins may address the kings at their pleasure, by their names. This should be tolerated, for the Brahmins are to be adored by the kings.

Brahmins addressing ministers

7. A minister is to be addressed by Brahmins as "Coun- cillor" (amatya) or "minister" (sariva), 1 and by other persons, inferior to them {i.e. Brahmins) he [is] always [to be addressed] as "sir" (arya)*

Addressing the equals
8- One is to accost one's equals by the name with which they are styled 1 .

seem to have been included in this term. Ag. reads naruisruladharalt and explains this as bahmrutah.

5 (C.5; B.XVII.69). ' Brahmin (Kesavadisa) in Madhyama. addressed by Bhima.

2 Ex. Sumantra addressing PaSaratha ( Pratima, II), and Vibhlsana addressing Ravana (Abhisefca II ).

' Ex. Canakya addressed by his disciple (Mudra, I).

4 Ex, Bharata addressing Sumantra the old charioteer (Pratima, VI).

6 (C6; B.XVII70). ' Ex. Indra disguised as a Brahmin addressing
Karna (Karna.), Cf. Canakya addressing Candragupta mostly as Vrsala

7 (C.7; B.XVH.71). » No example of this rule seems to be available in any extent drama. See note 2 below.

3 Ex. The door-keeper (.pratikari) addressing Yaugandharayann
( Pratijna, I.). But curiously enough Riiksasa has been addressed not as 'Arya' but as 'Amatya' (connciller) by the door-keeper, and by his friend Viradhagupta too he is addressed likewise (Mudra, EQ.

. 8 (0.8; B.XVII.72). l Ex. Canakya addressing Raksasa and we versa (Mudra, VII.).


Privileged inferiors addressing superiors
A superior person may however be addressed (or referred to) 2 by name by inferior persons when the latter are privileged to do so 3 .

Addressing employees, artisans and artists

9. Men and women in one's employment 1 , and artisans and artists 2 are to be addressed as such ((. e. according to their status) 8 .

Addressing persons of respect

10. A respected person is to bo addressed as 'honoured sir'
(bham), and a person of slightly less so as "comrade (marxdka or wiarsd). 1

Addressing persons of equal status
A person of equal status should be addressed as 'brother"
(ro.ijafiya) 2 and a low person as 'hey man' (ham-ho) 3

The charioteer addressing the chariot-rider

11. The chariot-rider should always be addressed by the charioteer as "long-lived one" (aijusman) 1 .

2 B. saparivhram, so also Ag.

3 Ex. Hamsaka referring to Yaugandharayana before the latter.
(Pratijna. I. 13.14). See above note 1.

9 (C.9; B.XVII.73). ' Yaugandhariiyana addressing Salaka by name
(Pratijiiil. I. 2. 4) and the hero Carndatta addressing the maid-servant
UadanikS (Cam. I. 21.15).

2 Ag. explains karuka and *ilpi as follows : <*nnsi: «p*fiWi: faf"itfin*Wi:, artisans are those that build stiipas and the like objects, artists arc painters and the like.

3 Ex. The king addressing Haradatta one of the teachers of dramatic art (MSlavi. II. 12.4).

10 (CIO; B.XV1I.74). ' Ex. pliriparivika addressing sTttradkara as bhava, and suira° addressing paripufivika as mitrsa (Abhi. 1. 1.6,8). Sakara once addressing vita as bhava and next time as malisa (marisa) in Cam.
1.17.3; 26-3). The word marsaka does not seem to occur any extant drama while marisa occurs very often. See Uttara. (I. 4.7) and Malavi (1. 1. 3).

2 Ex. Siddharthaka and Samiddhiirthaka addressing each other
(Mudra. VI. 2. 14, 16). ^

3 Ex. Canakya's spy addressing his disciple as ham-ho bamhana,
(Mudra. I. 18.4).

11 (C.11; B.XVII.75). l Ex. Dusyanta's priest addressing the two



Addressing an ascetic or a person with beatitude
An ascetic or a person who has attained beatitude (praSawta) is to be addressed as "blessed one" (iSilho)'.
Addressing princes
12. The crown-prince is to be addressed as "sire" (soamin), 1 and othar princes as "young master" (bhartr-daraka) 3 .
Addressing inferior persons
Inferior persons are to addressed as "pleasing one"
(sanrmja)", "auspicious-looking one" (bhrulra-muhha)* and such terms should be preceded by '0' (/i«) 6 .

disciples of Kasyapa (Kanva) and Gautami tapasvinah (Sak.V. 11. 6).

3 The word sadhu as a form of address does not seem to occur in any extant drama.

12 (C.12; B.XVII.76). ' No example of this rule seems to be available in any extant drama. On the other hand svamin is very often used in addressing a king. Ex. Yaugandhariiyana addressing the king
Udayana (Svapna. VI. 17.1). Kauiijayana and Bhntika addressing the. king
Kuntibhoja (Avi. 1. 5.3; 8.5). On the use of the word svamin in inscriptions see Sylvain Levi, Journal Asiatiqne, Ser. 9, XIX.95ff. I. Ant. Vol.
XXXIII. p. 163. Sita's maid addresses Rama as bhalla (Pratima. 1. 9.2),
The door-keeper (pratihari) refers to the crown-prince Rama as bhailida- raassa ramassa (Pratima. 1. 2.9). aud not as samiassa mrnassa,

8 The word has been used with reference to the crown prince in
Pratima. (loc. cit. I). In referring to other princes play-wi'iglits use the word kumiira. In Pratima. (III. 14.12) Bharata lias been addressed with this term. In Mudrii. (JV. 12.5) Malayaketu has been addressed similarly.
Avimaraka, the lover of Kurangi is addressed as bhallidaraa by her maid
(Avi. HI. 17 2).

a This use of the term sautnya does not seem to occur in extant drama, and bhadra appears to have taken its place, e.g. Bharata addressing tho messenger (bhata) in Pratimii (1II.4.2I Dusyanta addresses his chief of the army (senapati) similarly (Salt. II. 5.4).

4 Ex. Raksasa's spy {purmd) addressing his door-keeper (Mudra.
IV. 8.2). In Abhi, (VI. 31.1) Agni (god of fire) addresses Rama as bhadra- mukka though earlier, (VI. 36.7) lie says : m me namaskuram kartum arhati deveiah. The Jester addresses tho carfilnlas as bho bhaddamuha
(Mrceh. X. 23.3).

* It does not seem to occur before these terms in any extant drama.


Addressing persons by their occupation or birth

13. In a play a person is to be addressed by a term appro- priate to his birth or to the vocation, art or learning practised by him. 1

Addressing a son or a disciple

14. A disciple or a son is to be addressed by the guru or the father as "child" (vatsa) L "son" (jmtraka)', ''father" (lata) 3 or by his own name or clan-narae (yotra)*.

Addressing Buddhist and Jain Monks

15. Buddhist and Jain (ninjrantha) monk- are to be addressed as "blessed sir" (hhadanta) 1 .

Addressing persons of other sects
Persons of other sects' are to addressed by terms enjoined by their own rules 3 .

People addressing the king
10. The king is to be addressed by his servants as well as

13 (C.13; B.XV1I.77). ' Not many examples of this rule seem to be available in any extant drama. In Mrcch. (X. 20.1) Carudatta's son addressing the Candalas as are canijulu'vaay be an example of this.

14 (C.14; B.XVH.78). ' Ex. Sauvlra king addressing Avimaraka
(Avi. VI. 17.4). Cf. Drona addressing Duryodhaua (Paiica. 1.22.3).

2 Ex.Thcform^«^ra£« does not seem to occur in any extant play.
The from usually available form is putra. Drona addressing Duryodhana as putra (Paiica I. 23.3). Duryodhana addressing his son similarly
(Dru. I. 42.3).

8 No example of this seems to be available in any extant drama.

4 Ex. Vali addressing Angada by name (Abhi. I • 25.2). Kasyapa
(Kanva) addressing Sarngarava by name (Sak. IV. 16.1). Instances of a son or a disciple addressed by clan-name (gotra) do not seem to occur ia any oxtant drama.

15 (C.15jB.XVH.79). » Ex. Ksapanaka addressed by Raksasa and
Siddharthaka as bhadanta (Mudra IV. 18.2; V. 2.1). A Buddhist monk is very rarely met with in extant dramas. Asvaghosa's drama included such , a character, but' one cannot say from the fragments how he was addressed. (See Keith, Skt. Dr. p. 82)

a According to Ag. one is to understand by 'other sects' Pasupatag and the like.

3 An example of such a rule is a term like bhapusan or bha- sarvajfoa used in addressing Pasupata; teachers (Ag.).

16 (C.16; B.XVH.80),


his subjects as "lord" (deea), 1 , but when he is an overlord [of other kings] he is always [to be addressed] by his servants as "sire"

Sagos addressing the king
17-18. The king is to be addressed by sages (m) as "king"
{rajan) 1 or by the patronymic term 2 .

The Jester addressing the king
And he should be addressed as "friend" {nujiwjn) 3 or "king'
(rajan)*- by the Jester (wtesa&a).

Jester addressing the queen and her maids
The queen and her maids are to be addressed by him as
"lady" (bhivati) 5 .

The king addressing the Jester

The Jester is to be addressed by the king by his name or as
"friend" (vaijasya) 6 .

1 Ex. The Kailcukin addressing the king (Mudiii- III. 10.3).
Ganadasa addressing the king (Miilavi. I. 12. 8). Viblusana refers to
Rama as deva (Abhi. VI. 20.3) when he is not yet a king ; besides this the same Viblusana addresses Havana as mahimja (Abhi. III. 15.1).
See also 12 note 1.

3 Ex. Yamnika addressing the king Dusyanta (Sak. VI. 24.10). But in Bala. (III. 3.1) the cowherds address Saiikarasana as ihatta, and Nauda- gopa too addresses Vasudeva likewise (Bala. 1. 19. 30).

17-18 (0. 17-18; B. XVII. 81-82). ' Ex. Bhagavan (Yudhisthira) addressing the king Virata (l'aiica. II. 14.2).

8 No ex. of this seems to occur in extant dramas. Narada addresses the two kings simply as Kuntibhoja and Sauviraraja in Avi (VI. 20. 8, 12).

8 Ex Tho Jester in Sak. (II. 2.1) and Malavi. (V. 3.18).

4 No example of this seems to occur in any extant drama. In
Ratna (I. 16.35) the Jester ouce addresses the king as bhaUa.

6 Bhavati in the Jester's speech would be bhodi. Ex. Tho Jester addressing the queen's maid in Svapna. (IV. 0.28) also addressing the queen (Malavi, IV. 4.23.) and addressing the queen's maid Snsamgatii
(Ratnii. IV. 0.30).

6 Examples are easily available. See Svapna, Sak. Vikram. etc
The Jester is addressed also as sakhe. See Malavi. (IV. 1. 1 and Vikram
II. 18.11. etc.) and as bhadra (Vikram. II. 18.15).


Women addressing their husband

19. By all wumen in their youth the husband should be addressed as a "noble one's son" (arya-pntra) 1 , but in other cases, the husband is to be addressed simply as "noble one" (arya)*, and in case of his being a king he may be addressed as "great king"
(mahar&ja) 3 also.

Addressing the elder and the younger brothers

20. The elder brother should be addressed as "noble one"
(arya) 1 and the younger brother like one's son 2 .

These are the modes of adi'ress to be used to male characters in a play.

Modes of addressing women

21. I shall now speak of the modes of address to be used to female characters in a play.

Addressing female ascetics and goddesses

Female ascetics and goddesses arc to be addressed as "holy lady" (bhagavati) 1 .

Addrcsiing wives of senior persons, and elderly ladies

2-2. Wives of respectable seniors, and other elderly ladies
(»thanlya) are to be addressed as 'lady'' (blmcati) 1 .

19 (C.19; B.XV1I83)- ' Examples are easily procurable; sec Sak,
Malavi, Svapna etc.

2 Ex. Nati in the prologue {prastavana) addressing the sutradhara her husband (Cam. and Mudra).

8 Ex. Giindharl addressing Dlutara§tra (Uru. I. 38.2). Urvasi refers to the king likewise (Vikram. IV. 39.2).

20 (C.20; B.XV1I. 84a 85a). ' Ex. Laksmana addressing Rama
(Pratima. I. 21.2). Sahadeva addressiug Blrima (Veni. 1.19.12).

? Usual from in such a case is vatsa; but the younger brother is also sometimes differently addressed, e.g. by name of the mother as
Saumitre, (Pratima. I. 81.1), Kaikeylmatah, {ibid. IV. 2.21). Sec above
14 and 4.

21(0.21; B.XVIL85a-86a). 'The king addressing the privfajika
(Malavi. 1. 14.2 ) ; the Kaficukiu addressiug the female ascetic (tapast) in
Vikrani. (V. 9.2). ^

22. (C. 22; B. XVII 86b-87a). ' Ex. Sumantra addressing the widowed wives of Dasaratha as bhauatyaii (Pratima. III. 12.2 ). The
Kaiicukiu addressing the Pratihari in Svapna. (VI. 0.6).


Addressing an accessible women and an old lady
An accessible woman (gami/a)* is to be addressed as "gentle- woman" (bhadre)* and an old lady as "mother" (amba)*.
Addressing king's wives

23. In a play king's wives are to be addressed by their servants and attendants as "mistress" (bhaUin)i, "madam''
(iwamini) 1 and "lady" (dcvi)*.

24. [Of these], the term "lady" {dm) 1 should be applied to the chief queen (roaftwl) by her servants as well as by the king.
Tho remaining [wives of the king] are to bo addressed [simply] as
."mistress" (bhallini) and "madam" (nvamini) 3 .

Addressing unmarried princesses

25. Unmarried princesses are to be addressed by their handmaids as "young mistress" (hhartr-daril-aj 1 :

" gamya— not within the prohibited degree of soma! relationship.

8 Ex. Avimaraka addressing Kuratigika (Avi. III. 19.0)- Busyanta addressing Priyamvada (Mak. I. 22.6). But tho king addresses Citralekha as bhadramuhki (Vikram. II. 15.9) as well as bhadre (ibid. III. 15.0).

4 Ex. The king, tftvaS and their son addressing the female ascetic.
(Vikram. V. 12.3,5,18).

23 (C. 23; B. XVII. 87b-88a). > Ex. (i) bhat{ini. Nipunika address- ing the queen (Vikram II. 1919); Kiiiicanamala addressing the queen
(Ratna I. 18.11). But in Pratimii (I. 5,4) the maid {cetjD addresses Sita who is not yet a queen, as bhallini. (ii) Soamini as a term of address to the queen docs not seem to occur in any extant drama.

* Bx. The maid (ceti) addressing the queen Bhanumati (Veni.
II. 2.14).

24 (C.24j"B. XVII. 88b-89a). l See above 23 note 2. For an example of king addressing the queen as devisee Pratijna. II. 10.12.

4 The term bhogini meant those who were merely an object of enjoy- ment i.e. those who were not dharmarpatnis (wives elligible to take part in religeous rites .

8 No. oxample of svamini being used in addressing such a wife seems to occur in any extant drama. In Malavi. IV. 17.8 Nipunika addressing Iravati the second wife of Agnimitra uses the term bhaitini the very term to be used rightly for the chief queen Dharini.

25 (C.25; B. XVn. 89b-90a). ' Ex. The maid- (celi) addressing
Padmavati (Svapna. 1. 15.11) and Kurangi (Avi. HI. 0.45).


Addressing a sister
An elder sister is to be addressed as "sister" (bhagini) 2 and an younger sister as 'child" (vatse) 9 .

Addressing a Brahmin lady, a nun or a female ascetic

26. A Brahmin lady, a nun (lihgastha) or a female ascetic
(vratim) is to be addressed as "noble lady" {arye) 1 .

Addressing one's wife
A wife is to be addressed as "noble lady" (arye)* or by referring to her father's 8 or son's 4 name.

Women addressing their equals

27. Women friends among their equals are to be accosted by one another with the word "hallo" (hcda) 1 .

Addressing a handmaid
By a superior woman a handmaid {i>rexya) is to be accosted with the word "hey child" (ham-je) 2 .

Addressing a courtezan

28. 1 A courtezan is to be addressed by her attcndents as
Ajjuka 8 , and when she is an old woman she is to be addressed by other charactors in a play as Atta 3 .

3 This mode of address does not seem to occur in any extant drama. cf. Karp. I. p. 18.

3 Ex. Yaugandharayaaa in the role of au elder brother addresses the queen who is playing the rolo of his younger sister as vatse
(Pratij a. I. 9.11). C. om. 25a.

26 (C. 25b-26a; B. XVII. 90b-91a). ' No ex. of this rule seems to be available in any extant drama. Parivrajika in Malavi (1) and the female ascetic in Vikram. (V) could have been addresses as arye instead of as bhagmiaii. In Madhyama. Ghatokaca addresses the wife of the Brahmin as bhavati.

" Ex. Suiradk'tra addressing his wife ( Mrcch. I Malati. I)

3 e.g. Matharaputri (Mathara's daughter). No example seems to

occur in any extant drama.

1 e.g. Somasarma-janani (Somasarman's mother). No example seems

to occur in any extant drama.

27 (C. 26b-27a; B. XVII. 91b-92a). l For ex. see Sak. Vikram. etc.

* Ex. Sita addressing her maid'(Pratimii. I. 4.21), IravatI addressing
Nipunika (Malavi. III. 14.1).

28 (C. 27b-28a; P. XVII. 92b-93a). " ' Read the hemistich 28a as


Addressing wife in love-making

29. In love-making the wife may be accosted as "my dear"
(/Jtti/w) 1 by all except the king. But priests' and merchants' wives are always to be addressed as "noble lady" (ary)*.

Giving names to different characters in a play

30. The playwrights should always assign significant names
[to characters] which are not well-known and which have been created [by them] 1 .

Name of Brahmins and K$atriyas

31. Of these, Brahmins and Kaatriyas in a play should, be given, according to their clan or profession, names ending in sarman or varrnan 1 .

Naming marehants

32. The names of merchants 1 should and in <htla?.

Naming warriors
To warriors should be given names indicating much valour. 8

2 Ex. the heterao (ganika) addressed by her maid (Caru- II. 0.6).
The word ajjuka ("aryakii, OlA) "madam" afterwards came to mean
'heterae' as in the title of the Prahasana Bhagavadajjukiyam by
Baudhiiyana Kavi

* No example of this soems to be available in any extant drama.
But the word occurs in tho form of aitih in Micch. (IV..10).

29 (C.28b-59a, B. XVII. 93b 94a). ' Sakuntala is addressed as j>riyc by Dusyanta (Sak. VII. 20.6), but the occasion is strictly not one of love- making (irhgara) ; Udayana while lamenting for Viisavadatta says Htt j>riye, ha priya-iisyc etc. (Svapna. 1. 12.53).

' No example seems to be available in any extant drama.

30. (C.29b-30a: B.XVII. 94b-95a). l No example of such names seems to occur in any extant drama.

31 (C.30b-31a; B.XVII. 25b-96a). ' No example of such names seems to occur in any extant drama.

32 (C.31b-32a; B.XVII. 96b, 97b). '. Ex. Carudatta the hero 'of
Bhasa's play of the same name.

2 B. reads after this one additional hemistich which in translation is as follows: The name of Kapalikas should end in ghatfta. The inter- polator had evidently Bhavabhnti's Aghoraghanta (Malati) in mind.

8 Ex. Virasena in Malavi. (1.8.1).


Naming king's wives

33. The king's wives should be given names [which are connected] with the idea of victory (yijaya) 1 .

Naming courtezans
Names of courtezans should end in datta?, mitm* and

SSMO 4 .

Naming hand-maids

34. In a play hand-maids should be given the names of various flowers 1 .

Naming menials

Names of menials should hear the meaning of auspiciousness*.
Naming superior persons

35. To superior persons should be given names of deep significance so that their deeds may be in harmony with such names 1 .

Naming other persons
3G. The rest of persons 1 should be given names suitable to to their birth and profession.

Names [that are to be given] to men and women [in a play] have been properly described [by me].

37a. Names in a play should always be made in this manner by the playwright.

33 (0. 32b-33; B.XVII. 98). ' No example of this seems to occur in any extant drama.

- No example seems to occur in any old drama. And the name
Vasavadattii for the queen in several dramas seems to he a clear violation of the rulo (See Svapna. Ratna. etc.).

3 No example seems to occur in any old drama.

4 Ex. Vasantasena in Bhasa's Cam. and Sudraka's Mrcch.

34 (C.33b-34a; B.XVII. 99). ' Nalinika in Avi. (II) and Padmiuika in Svapna (V) seems to be rare examples of this.

3 Ex. Jayasena the servant (bhata) of the king (Avi. I).

35 (C34b-35a; B.XVII 100). ' No example seems to occur in any extant play. *»

36 (C.35h-36a; B.XVJI. 101). ' E.g. Brahmacari (Svapna. I), Vila
(Cam.) Devakulika, and Sudhakura (Pratima. IV.) etc.

37a (C. 36b; B. XVII 102a).


37-38. After knowing exhaustively everything about the rules of language 1 in a drama, one shonld practise Recitation which is to have six Alamkaras.

Qualities of Recitation

2 I shall now describe the qualities of Recitation. In it there are seven notes (svara), three voice registers (sthana), four
Varnas (lit, manner of uttering notes), two ways of intonation
(kaku), six Alamkaras and six limbs (anya). I shall now explain their characteristics.

The seven notes (swra) are : Sadja, Rsabha, Gandhara,
Madhyama, Paficama, Dhaivata and Nisiida. These are to be made suitable to different Sentiments.

Seven notes to suit differment Sentiments

38-40. In the Comic and the Erotic Sentiments the notes should be made Madhyama and Paficama. Similarly in the Heroic, the Furious and the Marvellous Sentiments they should be made
Sadja, and Rsabha. In the Pathetic Sentiment the notes should be Gandhara and Nisada, and in the Odious and the Terrible
Sentiments they should be Dhaivata.

Uses of the three voice registers

There are three voice registers (sth&iut) ; the breast (nnix) the throat (kantha) and the head (i'u-asi).

4041. Tn the human body as well as in the Vina notes and their pitches proceed from the three registers : the breast' the throat and the head.

41-42. In calling one who is at a distance, notes proceeding from the head register should be used, but for calling one who is not at a great distance, notes from the throat register is to be used, while for a person who is by one's side, notes from the breast [will be proper].

37-38 (C. and prose 37a ; B.XVH. 102b. 103a). ' It will be apparent from the notes given above that the rules regarding forms of address have very often been overlooked in extant dramas.

2 The text from here till the beginning of 38-40 is in prose.

38-40 (0.38-39; B.XVII. 103b, 104-105a).

40-41 (C.40. 41a ; B.XVII. 105b-106).
■ 41-42 (C.41b-42a ; B.XV1I.107).


42-43. At the time of Recitation, a sentence begun with notes from the breast should be raised to notes of the head register and at its close it should be brought down to notes of the throat.

Uses of the four accents

43. In Recitation the four accents will be : acute (iiddtta) grave (auudatta), circumflex (svarlt,i) and quivering (kampita).

1 Recitation in circumflex and acute accents is suitable to the
Comic and the Erotic Sentiments, acute and quivering accent is suitable to the Heroic, the Furious and the Marvellous Sentiments, while grave, circumflex and quivering accents are appropriate to the Pathetic, the Odious and the Terrible Sentiments.

Two ways of intonation
There are two ways of intonation, e.g. one entailing expacta- tion (*al<cl,hk&a) and another entailing no expectation (nirakahktu).
These relate to the sentence uttered.

44. A sentence which has not completely expressed its [in- tended] meaning, is said to be entailing an expectation (mkahlcsa) and a sentence which has completely expressed such a sense, is said to be entailing no expectation (uirakankta).

x Now, entailing an expectation relates to [the utterance of a sentence] of which the meaning has not been completely expressed and which has notes from the throat and the breast, and begins with a high pitch (tara) and ends in a low pitch (maiuira) and has not completed its Varna or Alamkara.

And, entailing no expectation relates to [the utterance of a sentence] the meaning of which has not been completely expressed and which has notes from the head and begins with a low pitch
(mandra) and ends with a high pitch (t&ra) and has completed its
Varna and Alamkara.

42-43 (C42b-43a; B.XVH.408).

43 (C. 43b, 43c ; B. XVII. 109-110). » The text from here till the beginning of 44 is in prose.

44 (C. 44; B. XVII. HI). J The text from here till the beginning of 45 is in prose.


The six Alamkaras
45. The six Alamkaras of the [note in] Recitation are that it may be high (ucca), excited (<Upta), grave (mandra), low (nica), fast
(dnda), and slow (mlambita). Now listen about their characteristics.
Uses of the six Alamkaras
1 The high (ucca) note proceeds from the head register and is of high pitch (tcira) ; it is to be used in speaking to anyone at a distance, in rejoinder, confusion, in calling anyone from a distance, in terrifying anyone, in affliction and the like.

The excited (dlyta) note proceeds from the head register and is of extra high pitch (tamtam) ; it is to be used in reproach, quarrel, discussion, indignation, abusive speech, defiance, anger, valour, pride, sharp and harsh words, rebuke, lamentation 2 and the like.

The grave (mandra) note proceed from the breast register and is to be used in despondency, weekness, anxiety, impatience, low-spiritedness, sickness, deep wound from weapons, fainting, intoxication, communicating secret words 4 and the like.

The low (»jm.) note proceeds from the breast register but has a very low pitch (numdra-tara) sound ; it is to be used in natural speaking, sickness 5 , weariness due to austerities and walking a distance, panic, falling down, fainting and the like.

The fast (dnda) note proceeds from the throat register and is swift ; it is to be used in women's soothing children (lalhua) refusal of lover's overture (manmana)', fear, cold, fever, panic 7 , agitation, secret emergent (atijaijika), act. pain and the like.

45 (C.45; B.XVII. 112-114). ' the text from hove till the begiiung of 46 is in prose.

i. Com. "krandita", "nirbhartsana?

3 B. inserts kritja after vyadhi.

4 C. om. guhyuranthavacana.

G After vyadhi read tapa-pathesranta-trasla.

6 0. skhalita- vellana-madana for lallana-manmana. On the meau- iug of lalla (lallana) and manmana there is no unanimity. Wo follow
Ag's upidhyaya, who says wn<ft iift^wai iraM?si-spi|in& gw mwtfiriftT'iiFtwwrel * (Ag)

' After trus (trasta.C.) ieaAyasimtyayika(giulha)karyavedanadi)iu-


The slow (vilambita) note preeeetls from the throat register and is of slightly low pitch (mandra) 8 ; it is to boused in love , deliberation, discrimination, jealous anger, envy, saying something which cannot be expressed adequately, bashfulness, anxiety, threatening, surprise, censuring, prolonged sickness Xo , squeezing and the like. [On this subject] there are the following traditional couplets :

46-48. To suit various Sentiments the intonation (bakii) should always be made high (aeca), excited (dljda), and fast (drata) in a rejoinder, confusion, harsh reproach, representing sharp- ness and roughness, agitation, weeping, challenging one who is not present (lit. away from the view) threatening and terrifying
[anyone], calling one who is at a distance, and rebuking [anyone].

49-50. Intonation should be made grave (mandra) and low
(it'tai) in sickness, fever, grief, hunger, thirst, observation of a lessor vow (nli/ama), deliberation, deep wound from a weapon, communi- cating confidential words, anxiety and state of austerities.

51. Intonation should be made grave (mandril) and fast
(drula) in women's soothing children (I alia)}, refusal to love's overture (maiimiana) 3 , panic and attack of cold.

52-55. The intonation should be made slow (rihvmhila), excited (dqda) and of low pitch (mandra) in following an object lost after being seen, hearing anything untoward about a, desired object or person, communicating something desired, mental deli- beration, lunacy, envy, censure, saying something which cannot be adequately expressed [by words], telling stories, rejoinder, confusion, an action involving excess, wounded 1 and diseased limb, misery, grief, surprise jealous anger, joy and lamentation.

8 C. mandra for tanumandra. B B. reads karuna after srhgara.

1 ° C. reads rosa for roga.

46-48 (C.46-48; B.XVII. 115-117).

49-50 (0 om. B.XVIL 118-119). ^

51 (C.49j B. XVII. 12D). ' 0. malic ca mardane for lalle ca manmane.- '' See note 1-

51-55(0. 50; 51a-53a, 51b, 53b, B.XVIL 121-124). ' Read viksate vyudhite tvahge.


56. Grave (mandra) and slow (vikmbtta) intonations have been prescribed for words containing pleasant sense and bringing in happiness 1 .

57. Exited (dipta) and high (iicca) intonations have been prescribed for words which express sharpness and roughness.
Thus the Recitation should be made to have to different intonations
(lit. shelter) by the producers 1 .

Intonation in different Sentiments

58-50. Slow intonation is desired in the Comic, the Erotic, and the Pathetic Sentiments. In the Heroic, the Furious and the
Marvellous Sentiments the excited intonation is praised. Fast and low intonations have been prescribed in the Terrible and the Odious
Sentiments. Thus the intonation should he made to follow the
States (bhava) and the Sentiments.

Six limbs of enunciation

'Now there are six limbs [of enunciation] such as Separation
(viccheda), Presentation {arpana), Closure (visarga), Continuity
(iituibaiullw), Brilliance (dipana) and Calming (pra'samana).

Of these, Separation {ebxhtda) is due to pause [viramn).
Presentation (".i'/mm) means reciting something by filling up the auditorium with graceful modulation of voice 2 . Closure
(oisarya) means the finishing of a sentence. Continuity (anubandha) means the absence of separation between words 8 [in a sense group] or not taking breath while uttering them. Brilliance (dipana) means the gradually augmented notes which proceed from the three voice registers (stham), and Calming (pnmmana) means lowering the notes of high pitch {tara) without making them discordant.

Now about their uses in connexion with different Sentiments.

56 (C.54; B.XV1I.126). ' B. reads one additional couplet before this.

57 (C.55; B.XVn.127). l C. reads three additional hemistiehcB after this.

58-59. (C.57b, 58; B.XVII. 128-131). ' The text from here till the beginning of 60 is in prose.

2 B. lilayamanamadkuravalguna for lilavarna.
' B. padantaresu viuhedah for "afesvavicehedah.


In the Comic and the Erotic Sentiments 4 the enunciation" should include Presentation, Separation Brilliancce and Calming.

In the Pathetic Sentiment it should include Brilliance and

In the Heroic the Furious and the Marvellous Sentiments it should abound in Separation, Calming, Brilliance and Continuity.

In the Odious and the Terrible Sentiments it should include
Closure and Seperation.

All these are to be applied through notes of high (tara), low
(mandra,) and medium (madhya) pitch proceeding [from the three voice registers]. In addressing one at distance the notes should be made of high pitch (tara) from the head ; the person addressed being not at a great distance the notes should be made of medium pitch (madhya) from the throat, and to speak to one at one's side notes should be made of low pitch (mandni) from the breast. But one should not proceed to the high pitch (tara) from the low (mandra) one, and from the low pitch to the high one. The three kinds of tempo (laya) of these' notos are to be utilised in diflerent Sentiments. In the Comic and Erotic
Sentiments the tempo should be medium, in the Pathetic it should be slow and in the Heroic, the Furious, the Marvellous, the
Odious and Terrible Sentiments quick.
Pause defined

6 Now, Pause (drama) in connexion with enunciation is due to the completion of sense and is to depend on the situation
(lit. practical), and not on metre. Why ? Because it is found in practice that there occurs pause even after one, two three or four syllables, e.g.

60. kim gaccha ma visa sudurjana varito'si I

karyam tvaya nama ma sarva-jan6pabhukta l II
What [is the matter] ? Be off. Don't enter. You are prohibited

* B. adds akahhayam after hasya-grhgarayor.
6 C. vakyam for pathyam.

* The text here is in prose.

60 (C. 59; B.XVII. 132). ' B. ihuktam C. ihukta/t.


[to enter], very wicked man, the enjoyed-by-all, I have nothing to do with you*.

Use of Pause
Thus in a play (lit. poetical composition) occur words con- taining small number of syllables in cases of Siica* and Ankara*
[which are connected with Pause].

Hence, care should be taken about Pause. Why ? Because
[an observation of] Pause clears the meaning. There is a couplet
[on this subject] :

61. In the [Verbal] Representation {ahhinaya) the pro- ducers should always take care about Pause ; for, on it depends the meaning [of words uttered].

Hands in connexion with Alamkaras and Pause

02. Keeping the eyes fixed in the direction in which the two hands move one should make the Verbal Representation by observing proper Pauses for indicating the [intended] meaning.

63-64. In the Heroic and the Furious [Sentiments] the hands are mostly occupied with the weapons, in the Odious they are bent due to contempt, in the Comic they are to point to
[something], in the Pathetic they are to hang down and in the
Marvellous they are to remain motionless due to surprise.

65. On similar other occasions 'too, the meaning should be made clear by means of Alamkaras and Pauses.

66-67. Pauses which are prescribed in a verse require
Alamkaras. Pause should bo observed after a word, when the meaning or the breath (pram) requires it. And when words and syllables are combined into a [big] compound or [the utterance is] quick, or confusion about different meanings is liable to arise, Pause should be observed at the end of a foot or as required by the breath. In the remaining cases Pause should [depend on the meaning. 2 These are the words of a vipralibdhh Heroine.. s See Nil XXIV. 48. « See N& XXIV. 44.

61 (C.60; B.XVII. 133). 62 (C 61; B.XVII. 134).

63-64 (C.62-63; B.XVII. 135-136). «5 (0.64; B.XVII.137)

'66-67 (C.65-67; B.XVTI. 138-14Qa).


2 Here one should know about Drawn-out Syllables (hrsya- hsara) 2 in connexion with the States and the Sentiments. e.g.

The Drawn-out Syllables and their use

G8-G9. The consonant ending in a long vowel like a, e, ai, or au is known as a Drawn-out Syllable. In sadness, argumenta- tion, questioning or indignation such a syllable should take (lit be pronounced in) one Kala time.

70. As for the rest of the syllables they may be pronounced with Pause required by their meaning, and such a Pause may be one, two, three, four, five or six Kalas' duration.

71. The Pause being of great duration (vilamhita) the syllable pronounced will always 1 be [rendered] long. But its duration should not be more than six Kalas 2 .

72. Or, taking account of the practice as required by some cause, or of the act on one should observe Pause in a verse to suit the State or the Sentiment [involved].

73 In verse, Pauses arising from the foot-division [only] are recognized ; but the position of these may bo varied [on the stage] by the experts to suit the meaning [of a passage].

74. But [while observing Pause as directed above] one should not creat (lit. pronounce) ungrammatical words (ajmiubtht) or spoil the metre, and one should not pause too long except in places of caesura, and in [uttering words expressing] sorrow one should not make the intonation excited (dlpta) 1 .

75. One should recite a dramatic composition (kavya) which is free from literary defects (kavya-dom), possesses best characteristics and has [literary] qualities, and in such a Recitation

1 The text hetc is in prose. We follow B's text.

2 C. nikrdaksara for hsyahara."

68-69 (C. 68-69; B.XVIL 140-141 ). 70 (C.70; B.XVII1. 142).

71 (C.71; B.XVIL 143). ' C. yadu for sada.
2 C. padamm for kalanam. '

72 (C. 71c-72a; B.XVlI. 144) . 73 (72b-?3a; B.XVIL 145).

74 (C.73b, 74a; B.XVIL 146). ' C. repeats 77a before this.

75 (C. 75; B.XVII. 147).


one should observe proper rules relating to the utterance of notes and their Alamkaras.

76. Alamkaras and Pauses that have been prescribed in case of Sanskritic Recitation should all be observed in un-Sanskritic
(Prakritic) Recitation of women as well.

77. Thus in the representation of the ten kinds of dramatic works (nqm) producers should prepare Recitation subject to an observance of proper notes, Kala, time (tola) and tempo (latja).

78. Rules of intonation have been described [by me] in proper sequence. I shall describe hereafter the ten kinds of dra- matic work.

Here ends Chapter XIX of Bharata's Natyasastra

which treats of the Display of Intonation in Connexion

Avith the Verbal Representation.

76 (C. 76; B.XVII. 148).

77 (C. 77; B.XVII.149).

78 (C. 78 ; .B.-XVI1 150)



1. I shall now describe the tenfold 1 division of plays together with their names, functions and modes of production.

2-3. For their definition (laham) plays are known to be of ten kinds such as Nataka, 1 Prakarana, Anka (Utsrstikaftka)*,
Vyayoga, Bharia, Samavakara, Vlthi, Prahasana, Dima 3 , and
Ihiimrga. I shall describe their characteristics in detail (lit. from the beginning).

4. Styles {rrftl)] are known as the constituent elements of all dramatic works (lit. poems). Considering their production the ten kinds of play are considered to have proceeded from these.

5. Just as the Jsitis 1 and the Srutis 2 of notes constitute a scale (ijrama) 3 , so varieties of Styles make up the dramatic com- position {jcavija-landha).

6. Just as the Sadja 1 and the Madhyama 2 scales include all the notes, so these two [kinds of] dramatic compositions (Nataka and Prakarana) are made up of all the Styles.

7. The Nataka and the Prakarana are to be known as made up of all the Styles and they utilise all the different methods of constructions 1 .

1 (C.l; B.XVIII. 1). ' Old writers on the subject like Kohala men- tion additional types of play such as Sattaka, Totaka and Rasaka (Ag.).
Bhoja ignores the Totaka and recognises only twelve kinds of play includ- iug"the Nittika mentioned in the NS. (Sco, V. Raghavan, Sr. Pr. p. 27).

2-3 (6. 2-3; B.XVIII. 2-8). - 1 This word is sometimes loosely used as a synonym of rupa or rupaka.

8 To distinguish it from ahka meaning "an Act", it it also called

a It is evidently a non-Aryan word.

4 (C,4; B.XVIII. 4). ' See NS. XXII. *

5 (C. 5; B.XVIII. 5). > See NS. (C.) XXVIII. 36ff. 3 ibid. * ibid.

6 <C. 6; B.XVI1I. 6) » See NS. XXVIII. 22(T. 9 ibid.

7 (C. 7; B.XVIII.7). ' It seems- that 6 and" 7 .have taken each other's place.


8-9. Plays of the Vitlii, the Saraavakara, the Ihainrga, the

Utsrstikanka (Aiika), the Vyayoga, the Bhgna, the Prahasana and

the Dima classes should be made devoid of the Graceful Style. I

shall hereafter describe the different methods of constructing plays.

The Nataka

10-11. [A play] which has for its subject-matter a well- known story 1 , for its Hero a celebrated person of exalted nature
(udaita)* or which describes the character of a person descending from a royal seer 3 , divine protection [for him], his many super- human powers* and exploits such as, success [in different under- takings] and amorous pastimes, and which has appropriate number of (lit, richly furnished which) Acts (a!ika) s and Introductary
Scenes (jiraveiaka), is called a Nataka."

12- Character of kings, their acts and movements represent- ing many States and Sentiments and arising from (lit. made by) their joys and sorrows [when described in a play] is styled a

The Act

10. After considering the denounment {banjo) suitable to the particular stage [of the plot] an Act should be constructed by expanding the Turning point (b'uuln) [of the play] It should be furnished with a group (<jun«) [of characters]. *

8-9 (C. 8-9; B.XVIII. 8-9).

10-11 (C. 10-11; B.XV1II. 10-11). ' It must occur in some form in a PurSna, Itihasa (Rim. and Mbh) or any other celebrated work (e.R-

3 Rama, Kv?na and Udayana arc examples of such persons. This and the other conditions mentioned in the note above exclude living persons as Heroes of the Natakap. Cf. ND, p. 27.

3 Janaka and Visvamitra arc examples of such persons.

* Divine personages may bo introduced in a Nataka only as Heroes of an Episode (flaluka) ox Episodical Incident (prakari). See Ag. and
ND. {loc cit).

* For the description of Act [ahka) see below 13-15,23.

Kor a description of the Introductory Scene (prave&aka) see below
19-21; 27-35.

12 (0.12; B.XVU1. 12).

13 (C.13, BiXVUI. 13). ' C. reads this couplet differently.

-XX. 18 ] TEN KINDS. OP PLAY 357

14. The Anka (Act) is a rvtfhi 1 (traditional) word. As, by means of the States and the Sentiments it causes the meanings [of plays] to niha (to grow) through [an adherence to] some [technical] rules, it is called an Anka (Act) 2 .

15. An Act should bo brought to a close by (lit. in) a division of the play, and no final disposal of the Germ (blja) should be made in it. 1 And the Turning Point (biiidu)' of (lit. arising from) a play should again and again (lit. always) be made to occur (lit. pervade) in the plot (vastu).

16. That [part of the play] where a [particular] meaning is fully expressed, but where the Germ (Oijo) is not 1 finally dis- posed of, is always to be known as an Act which slightly attaches itself to the Turning Point (biiidu).

17. An Act which relates to the direct exploits of the persons (lit. Heroes) mentioned [before] and their various States, should not bo made too long 1 .

18. It should also be known that the Act is to contain the various Sentiments arising from [words and deeds ofj the queen 1 of the Hero, his superiors," priest, minister and leader of the army
(xarlhacaha) 3 .

14 (C.14; B.XV11I. 14). ' the root ruA—to grow.

3 Tliis is an instance folk-etymology and does not hell) us at all to understand the real miauing of the word.

15(C.15;B.XVIII. 15). 'Prom the Turning Points, the plot attains rapid a movement, and due to these tho dramatic situations arise.

2 0. oni. kiirya after ahka-sanuiptih and reads karyacchedo na for kavyaccedc na, C. kuvyacchedana, 13. S.igaranandin's explanation of this is far-fetched (See NL, p 11).

16(C.16;B.XY1II. 16). 'Emend ca into na. Such an emendation seems to be necessary from the special meaning of the word bija. Cf. sarvesam aiiklmam yo'rlho Ujalakaxanah (Ag).

17 (C17 ; B.XVIII. 17). ' Siigaranaudin roads this differently. See

18 (C.18; B.XV11I.18). ' Quoens include his concubines and the mahlidevl (chief queen) (Ag.).

* Superiors include his parents and teachers (Ag). s SurthavaAo'lra seriapatih _ (Ag)." In extant dramas setiapali seldom appears.


Incidents not directly presentable in an Act
\\). 'Feats of anger, favour, grief, pronouncing a curse, running away, marriage, commencement of some miracle and its actual appearance, should not be made directly visible in an Act 8 .

20. A battle, loss of a kingdom, death, and siege of a city being not directly visible in an Act 1 , should be presented by
Introductory Scenes (pravmhi).

21. In an" Act or in an Introductory Scene of the Nataka or the Prakarana there should be no killing of a person who is known as the Hero 1 .

22. His flight, treaty or capture should always 1 be indicated by means of special descriptions (lit. poetical passages) and the
Introductory Scenes will refer to such incidents (lit. acts).

23. An Act should cover incidents that can take place in course of a single day ; it should relate to the Germ of the play and should proceed without a hindrance of the routine duties. 1

19 (C.20; B.XVIII.20). ' B. mid G. read before this one additional couplet which in trans, is "The number of Acts in the Nataka and the
Prakarana should not be less than five and more than ten (read pancapam dasii para in the text)". But in view of the couplets 25 and 57 bclow> this seems to be superfluous.

'' alike 'pratyakajuiii=aiiie+apralyaksajuni {ahka-pratyakm, G).
See An. R. commentary (p.53) where wc have is<W!tfl# sift n«W5ii t w see also 20 below.

20 (C.21; B.XVIII.38). 1 This clearly shows Ijhat death scenes were not prohibited on the ancient Indian stage. Sec; Nti> VII.85. note 1.

2 B. 'pratyakmni lu nalakc for apratyakmkrthni. Cf. Sagara- nandin's view on this point (NL. p.13).

21 (C.22-, B.XVIIL39). l A misunderstanding of this rule as adopted in SD. (274) has given rise to the belief of modern scholars that the ancient Indian drama did not permit death-scenes on the stage.
Sco Keith, Skt. Dr. p.293, 354; Haas, DR. p.93.

22 (C.23; BXVIII.40). ' B. reads yojyah for nilyam, and kavya- slesair bahubhit yathafasam nutya-iativajmik as 22b.

23 (C.24; B.XVI1I.21). ' B. apramitam for ■apramltak. Sagara- nandin reads it wjth a slight difference. He quotes also'othcr views about the duration of incidents presented in an Act, Sec NL. (p,13).


24. A wise playwright should not put in [too] many inci- dents in a single Act 1 . And incidents in it should be depicted without a hindrance of the routine duties 2 .

25. Persons who will enter the stage in an Act (lit. there) will go out after performing things connected with the Germ and the meaning of the play, and [they are to create] the proper

26. Knowing the length of a day which is divided into
Ksanas 1 , Yfunas 2 and Muhurtas 3 one should distribute all the different incidents in a play to different acts.

The Introductory Scene

27. When incidents that are to be finished in course of a
[single] day, cannot be accommodated in an Act they should be presented in Introductory Scenes after closing the [same] Act.

28. [Incidents] that may take place in course of a month or a year, are also to be presented [similarly] after closing the
Act 1 ; but [incidents covering] more than a year should never be treated [in such a manner]. 2

29. When in an Act any person goes out on business to a distant land, it should be brought to a close [at that point] as perscribed before.

■00. With an Act of the Niitaka and the Prakarana the Hero should bo closely associated. And an Introductory Scene 1 should be made up 2 of a conversation of attendants.

24 (C.25; B.XV1II.22). l Read ekahke na instead of ekaiikcna
(B.C.). The controversy over the reading is anterior to the time of Ag. (See Ag.).

* Routine duties include prayers as well as taking meals, (sandhya- vandatiadi). 25 (C.26; B.XVIII.23). 26 (C.27; B.XVIII 25).

27 t.C.28; B.XVIII.26). ' Ex. Avi, II, Vikram, V.

28 (C.29, B.XV1II.31). ' C. reads a'ukaechedam kuryat for "cctic- dam krtva. The meaning of this rule is that an Act will include events covering a month - or a year. But this coutradict 23 above. •

29 (C.30; B.XVIII.32).

30 (C.31; B.XVIII.28). ' ' B. vijneyah for kartavyhh;. Q^pravemke for pravesako.


31. An Introductory Scene in the Nataka and the Prakarana should be made to relate 1 to the essentials of the Turning Points
(bindu) and follow the preceding (lit. another) Act

32. It (the Introductory Scene) should not consist of exploits of the superior and the middling characters, and there should be no exalted speech in it. And in practice it should adopt speeches and manners of the common people.

33. An Introductory Scene may have many purposes.
[For example], it may indicate the advent or passage of time, change of the Sentiments or the beginning [of an Act] or the denounraent (k&rya).

34. Incidents which depend on many [persons] are to be compressed by means of Introductory Scones or in Junctures
(saiidhi). For a play containing [too] many prose passages 1 will be tiresome [to the actors] at [the time of] the production [of the


35. When a particular item connot be completely presented in an Act lest it should be too large for [successful] production, its account should be compressed in a few words and put in an Intro- ductory Scene.

The Explanatory Scene

30. In the Nataka the Explanatory Scone {mdmubhaka) should always be made up with the middling characters 1 and it

31 (C.32; BXVJII.33). ' 0. tiavati kftpyram for samvidhutavyfdi.

32 (C.33; B:XV1II.34).

33 (C.34; B.XVIU.35). " Read 33a as sratawifBWqnwriwiini-

8 B. reads the first hemistich with the change accepted by
Ag. The passage in B. in trans, will be as follows : An Introductory Scene may have many purposes. For example, it may indicato the advent or passage of time, or present some explanation or other aspects of planning the denoument (karya).

34(0.35; B.XVIII.36). i For hahucurnafiadair yuktam. C. reads bahu-purna-padyavrtlam. 35 (C.36-, B.XV11I.37).

,36 (C.37j B.XVIII.54). > This is meant that superior characters do not appear in an Explanatory Scene. See below 37 note.

-XX. 41 ] TEN KINDS OF PfiAY 861

should bo concise and follow the polished style of speaking
{Mmxhia-vacann). 3

37. It should be of two kinds : pure (iiuhlha) and mixed
(mmforna). Of these, the pure is made up with the middling charac- ters, and the mixed with the inferior and the middling characters.

38. In the Niitaka and the Prakarana an Explanatory
Scene between two Acts or at the beginning of an Act, should always include the middling and the inferior characters 1 .

Number of dramatis fiersonae

3ft. The Niitaka and the Prakarana should not be made to contain a great number of attendants [to the Hero]. The Hero's attendants (lit. men of work) in such plays (lit. there) should [at most] be four or five 1 .

40. Plays of the Vyayoga, the Ihamrga, the Sainavakara, and the Dima classes should be made to have ten or twelve characters ***.

Introducing chariots and palaces on the stage

41. A chariot, an elephant, a horse and a palace should not be presented on the stage. These should be provided [in a play] by means of appearance and costumes 1 [of men concerned] and [their]
Gaits 2 and movements (ijati-vkara)* ,

37 (C.38; B.XVUI.S5). ' Ex. Pr.itijfiii II. Sale. III.
3 Ex. Pratimii. II, Vikram. III.

38 (C.39). l The exact significance of this rule is not clear. It possibly mean* to say that plays other than of the Niitaka and the
Prakarana types, will not allow an Explanatory Scene of the mixed kind. An example, of such a scene probably occurs in the Paiica. of Bhiisa, which docs not fall into any of the known types of drama. See Pusalker,
Bhasa, pp. 209ff.

39 (C.40; B.XVIII.41). \ This rule is possibly meant for avoiding the practical difficulty of producing a drama with too many characters.

40 (C.41). ' C. gives it in a mutilated form. Its second hemistich should be read as daiabhih dvadaxabfiir va kuryani.

41 (C.42). l This couplet should be read ns i aw* *w *ir wrat-

a See NiJ. XXIII. 6-9. 3 See. NS. XII.



42. But an elephant, a horse, a palace, a hill or any con- veyance as well as imitation weapons may be presented (lit. made) by means of model-work by these who know the rules [for their construction] 1 .

Introducing an army on tiro stage

4;5. If due to any reason 1 a detatchment of an army is to be introduced on the stage (lit. here), only five (lit. four) or six persons are to make their appearance (lit. going).

44. {In a play an army] should be made to appear as con- sisting of a small number of men, representing mounts and travelling requisites, and it should more slowly. For in the military role (hatra) 1 of the actors, [actual] rules of polity do not apply.

45. In the composition of a play Denoument should be made
[like] the tip of the cow's tail 1 , and all the exalted situations (lit. states) should be put at the end.

46-47. At the conclusion of all the plays which contain various States and Sentiments, experts should always introduce the
Marvellous Sentiment 1 . Thus I have briefly but properly spoken about the characteristics of the Nataka. I shall hereafter describe the Prakarana by mentioning its characteristics.
The Prakarana

48. The play (lit. where) in which the writer prakimUo
(devises) 1 by his own genius an original plot with its Hero, and works up its elaboration (mrlra), is called the Prakarana.

42 (C.42). T Sec above 41 note 2.

43 (C-44). ' Emend karuvopapannh into k<tranopa°.
* Emend kartavyamaiitra into karlavyam atra,

44 (C.45). ' Emend halena into kxatrc na.

45 (C.46; B.XVIII.42). ' The exact significance of this expression as well as the implication of the entire rule is not clear. Ag. however quotes two different views on the subject but none of them seems to be convincing, 46-47 (C.47-48; B.XVIII.43-44). ' This is mostly to be done by causing unexpected things to happen. The sudden revelation of Svantika as Vasavadatta in Bhasa's Svapna. (VI) and the dramatic re-union of
Sakuntalii with Dusjanta in Sak. (VII) are examples of this rule.

48 (C.49} B.XVIII.45). ' From this it may bo assumed that once there were Prakaranas in which the plot was not wholly original, i.e. the


49. When a playwright constructs a play with an original
(lit. invented) Germ and a plot which is not connected with Rsis' works 1 and which that play has gathered from some other works and has some marvellous qualities in it, the same is also called the Prakarana-

50. The plot and its elaboration as the basis of the Senti- ments, 1 which bave been prescribed in case of the Nataka are also to be applied with [the the detail of] their characteristics to the
Prakarana in all its Junctures (mndhi) 2 .

51. The varied exploits 1 of Brahmins, merchants, ministers, priests, officers [of the king] and leaders of the army [when pre- sented in a play] are to be known as the Prakarana 2 .

52. The Prakarana should bo known as not made up with an exalted Hero. And it does not contain the character of any god, has no story of king's enjoyment, and it is connected with the men outside [the royal palace].

53. The play of the Prakarana type should include [in some eases] servants, parasites (rita) and heads of the merchants' guild,
[as characters and should contain incidents arising from] the conduct of courtezans as well as exploits of depraved women of good family.

5 1. [In an Act of the Prakarana] where a minister) head of the merchants' guild, Brahmin, priest, minister and leader of the

playwright worked up materials from the source of the plot, such as
Mbh. Ram. and Brhatkatha. See above 10-11 note 1.

49(0.50; B.XVI1I.46). ' Ram and Mbh. are'cxamples of such works. 50 (C.51; B.XVIII.47). ' C. rasairayopetain for ca vrttibhedas ca.

a C. kevalam utpadyavastu syat for salaksanam sarva-sandhisu tu.

51 (C.51; B.XVin.48). ' From this "varied exploits" one is to understand that Prakarana was not concerned exclusively with love-themes. * The types of characters mentioned in the ride are mostly absent in the scanty number of extant plays of this type. The Pratijaa. is an example of a Prak. having ministers as its Hero.

52 (0.53; B.XV1II.49). 53 (C.51; B.XVIII.50).
54 (C.55; B.XVI1I.51).


caravan stay in their family circle, no courtezan should be brought in there 1 .

55. [In the Prakarana] when a person is in the company of a courtezan there should not be [at the same time] his meeting with any respectable woman (lit. woman of good family), and while he is with a person of high family no courtezan should meet him then.

56. If out of necessity (lit reason) there occurs a meeting 1 of courtezans and respectable ladies in [any scene of] a Prakarana their language and manners should be kept undistorted.

57. In the Nataka and the Prakarana the playwrights should have the number of Acts as not less than five and not more than ten 1 ; and this should be furnished with the various Senti- ments and the States 2 .

58. After considering the need and action of the plot one should place between two Acts the Introductory Scenes which are to compress the events in the Junctures (sawlhi) 1 .

The Natika

59. In a play of the Natika (Niiti) class producers are to recognise a more or less well-known variety of these two (the
Nataka and the Prakarana)'.

1 See 56 below.

55 (C.56; B.XVIII.52).

56(0.57; 13.XV1II.53). ' Tim nature of the necessity, sind the language which the author oE the NS. had in view in formulating this rule, lias probably jbceu indicated in the following couplet, fiwfasrofiw nWwwii'W: i wwi w»ri fwi diftf swnfaH Bh- P.p. 242

57 (0.58; B.XVIII.29). ' Read dam para for dasafiora.

2 B. reads the second hemistich as iswflfa'i 1 sfconwj mw:,

59 (C.59; B.XVUI.58). ' Bead this couplet as follows : wwra- faf?a: w*%«fti!ii wfiratei i 4^iq <Bf*«rtnt nfrcnm:. Cf. DR. 1.118 (ed.
Haas, pp. 34-35) and SD. 302. The Introductory Scene cannot bo placed in the beginning of a play and it must be in 1'kt.

59 (C.60a-61bj B.XVIIJ.57). ' Read nutisanjasrite kavye for nuiflkayoge prakarane. Sec Avaloka on DR. (ed. Nirnayasagar) 111.43.
Description of the Natika given here (59-63) has been rightly suspected as an interpolation, though Keith is for rejecting this suspicion. See
Skt. Dr. p. 349.


60. Different in origin from the [two types of plays] the Nataka and the Prakarana, its plot should be invented, the
Hero should be a king and it should be based on [an incident relating to music or affairs of the harem 1 .

61. And it contains an abundance of female characters, has four Acts, graceful gestures as its soul ; well-arranged constituents, many dances, songs and recitations, and love's enjoyment are its chief features 1 .

62. The Natika should be known also to contain [a dis- play of] royal manners 1 , [fit of] anger 2 , its pacification, and [acts of] deceit (dumbho), and to have the Hero 3 , his queen, the female
Messenger and the attendants [as its dramatis personac].

63. ir Phe characteristics of the Nataka and the Prakarana 2 have been briefly described by me. I shall now speak about the characteristics of the Samavakara.

The Samavakara
61-65. It 1 should have the [exploits of] gods as its subject matter [bljit) and an Asura as a well-known and exalted character

60 (C.60b-61a; 1J.XVIII.58). ' Keith seems to bo in error about the nature oE the subject matter (plot) of the Prak. Sec Skt. Dr. p. 349. Justi- fication tor calling the Pratijfia. a Natika may be found in the fact that its plot is based on musical lessons given by Udayana to Vasavadatta and it has four Acts. But according to its Prologue it is a Prakarana. See
I'usalkor. Bluisa, pp. 271-272.

61 (C.62; B.XVI1I.59). ' But for this feature of having four Acts only, the Milavi. may be considered a Natika. See Keith. Skt. Dr. p. 350. llatua- is a well-known example of the four Act Natika.

62 (0.63; B.XVIU.60). ' C. kumopacara for rajopacara.
3 B. krodhadamihisamyukta for krodhasamyula capt.

3 C, reads 62b as 1I95|i?<ft "wfa fqtwfl llfiran" OTt.

63 (C.65; B.XVI1I.62). ' B.C. read one additional couplet (0.64;
B.XVJII.61) ou the basis of two mss. It does not give any new information. 2 C. Prakarananalaka-nuli-lakxanam uktam for 'nataka-laksaya- nam uktam vipra. Evidently the interpolator who is responsible for the description of the Niiti (Natika) inserted ««(» in the reading of C.
See above 59 note.

64-65 (C.66-67; B.XVIII.63-64). ' No old specimen of this type


as its Hero, and it is to consist of three Acts [presenting] the three kinds of deception, the three kinds of excitements or the three kinds of love 2 . [Besides this] it should have as many as twelve dramatis personae and a duration (lit. length) of eighteen Nadikas 3 .
I shall now speak about the rule regarding the number of Nadikas to be alloted to the different Acts.

60. A Nadika 1 should be known as the half of the Muhurta 2 which is a [well-known] measure of time. The Acts in a Samava- kiira should be measured according to the directions given in terms of this Nadika.

The first act of the Samavakiira

07. The first Act [of the Saroavakara] should have a dura- tion of twelve Nadikas 1 and it is to contain laughter, excitement, deception or a Vithi.

The second and the third acts of the Samavakara

08. The second Act also should be similar [except that] it is to have a duration of four Nadikas 7 -. And the third Act. which will bring the plot to a close will have a duration of two
Nadikas 2 only.

of drama is available. Samudramanthana by Vatsaraja (12th century) is a very late work. Seo Keith, Skt. Dr. p. 267. Bhiisa's Paiiea. is not a Samav-
Cf. Mankad, Typos of Skt. Dr. p. 58; Pusalker, Bhasa, pp. 202-210.

* It does not seem likely that any ons play of this type will include all three objects (deception, excitement and love) in their three varieties. 8 As the topics (and hence the Acts) in the Samavakiira arc to bo loosely related (seo 69 below) ; this limitation has been placed on the time lest it should bo made too long.

66 (C.72a, 68b, BXV11I.67). ' tm]tM-2i minutes. Sec below
67 note.

s muhurta=:\ period of 48 minutes. See below 66 note 1. Curiously enough Saradatauaya thinks that nutjika is one fourth of a mnhurta.
See BhP. p. 249.

67 (C.70; B.XVHI.65). ' 12 wfirjWfo (««#)=4 hows and 48 minutes. 68 (C.71; B.XVUI.66). x 4 nu(]iias^ 1 hour 36 minutes.
8 2 nadikas =48 minutes.


09. 1 In composing the Samvakara different Acts should bo made to have different topics. And topics in the Saniavakiira are to be loosely related to one another 58 .

The three kinds of Excitement

70. Excitement (rvhava) is known to be of three kinds such as being due to battle and flood (lit. water), storm (lit. wind) and fire, or big elephant 1 at large, and siege to a city.

Three kinds of Deception

71. Deception (kapaU) is kt;own to be of three kinds such as being due to a devised plan, 1 accident or [the stratagem ofj the enemy, It creates joy or sorrow [to persons].

Three kinds of Love

72. In this connexion (lit here) three kinds of love to bo presented through different actions are : that in relation to duty
(dharma), that actuated by material gain (artha) and that actuated by passion (I'Snw) 1 .

Love together with duty

73. When in [discharging] the duty one attains one's
[much] desired well-being 1 accomplished in many ways and in this connexion means like observing vows 2 , austerities and penance are adopted, it is to be known as love in relation to duty

69 (C.72b, 73; B.XVJJI.69). ' Before this B. reads one additional couplet (B.69) which does not give any important information and has the support of two mss. only. In C. this occurs after C. 68.

8 From this it appears that Samav. was not a play of the regular type and belonged to a very early stage of evolution of Indian drama.

70 (C74; B.XVIII.70). ' G. Jalendm-sambhavo for gajemlra- sambhrama, 71 (C.75; B.XVI1I.71). ' C. yaslu gatikrama, for vaslngatakrama.

72 (C.76; B.XVIII.72). ' C. reads 72b as fafMtffoinmt ««1 vrare- wraw:. *>

73 (0.77; B.XVHI.73). ' B. reads 73a as *U.\ ^(tmirafa wtfa


8 C. prati for vrata.


Love together with material gain

74. Love in which attainment of material gain occurs in various ways 1 is called Love in relation to material gain (tivtha- smgard) or it may be that love in which the enjoyment of pleasure with women is for the purpose of some material gain.

Lovo due to passion

75. Love actuated by passion (kama-hwjara) includes the seduction of a maiden and it causes, and also secret or excited intercourse 1 of a man with a woman.

Metres not allowed in the Samavakiira
70. *In the Samavakara the playwright should make proper use metres other than Usnik and Gayatii etc. which are of complex construction 2 .

77. In this manner an expert should compose a Samavakara which will be the source of various Sentiments 1 . I shall hereafter speak about the characteristics of the Ihamrga.

The Ihamrga

78. It (Ihamrga) has as its dramatis pennme divine males who are implicated in fights about divine females. It should bo constructed with a well-arranged plot and should be convincing 1 .

74 (C.78; B.XVIII.74). l Read 74a as wnft Sftrevn «nfo tfss-
5ITC : (ms. cha B.).

75 (C.79; B.XVIII.75). » Read 76a as wfw'M 5 mm iHmwI* ot' it
'mi wffl v fwa: **w nw.. (mss. ya, na. pha, bhi in B.).

76 (C.80; B.XVIII.76). ' Road this couplet as follows :— ^i^niTO-
Vtfii i Tnift wjfcsiTft am vwrft ifitw saw nCtanfi. The reading accepted by Ag. seems to be corrupt. For Usnnik and Gayatri type of metres cannot by any means be considered as being of complex con- struction (battdhakutila). Our emendation has the support of mss. cha. in B. Udbhata (the noted commentator of the NB.) too thinks that the rule prescribes complex metres such as Sragdhara for the Samav.
See Ag.

8 Lengthy, sami-even and uneven types of metres.

77(C.81;B.XVlII.77). ' C. sukhadulikhasammrayah imnunarasa- sammrayah. 78(C.82jB.XVIII.78). ' C. Vipralyaya for vifiratyaya. No old specimen of .this type of drama is available. Rukminiharana by
Vatsaraja is an artificial production of a very late period (12th century)-


79. It is to abound in vehement (uddhata) Heroes and to have its construction dependent on feminine anger which is to give rise to commotion (samhobha), excitement (nidrava) and angiy conflict {samyheta),

80. The Ihamrga should bo a play with well-ordered cons- truction in whicli the plot of love is to be based on causing discord among females, carrying them off and oppressing [the enemies].

81. All that are to be niado [available] in the Vyayoga — its male characters, Styles and Sentiments — should be brought in the
Ihamrga also, except that the latter is to include (lit. have connexion with) the goddesses (lit divine females) only 1 as its female characters.

82. [In the Ihamrga] when persons intent on killing 1 is on the point of killing, [the impending] battle should be avoided by some artifice.

83. Brahmins, the characteristics of the Ihamrga have been briefly mentioned by me. I shall speak hereafter on the characteristics of the Dima.

The Dima

81. The Dima should bo constructed with a well-known plot, and its Hero should be wellknown and of the exalted (udciita) type. It is to contain the fix Sentiments and to consist of four
Acts only 1 .

85-80. It should contain all the Sentiments except the
Erotic and the Comic, a plot (kuvymjoui) with exciting Sentiments and various States, and it is [also] to include incidents such as an

(Sec Keith, Skt Dr. p. 266). Two other late specimens of this kind are Kysnamisra's Vira-vijaya and Krsna Avadhtita's Sarva-viuoda-nataka.
(See Sten know, ID. p. 114).

79 (C.83; B.XVIII.79). 80 (C.84a, 85a; B.XVI1I.80).

81 (C.85b-86a; B.XVIII.81) - l See below 90-93.

82 (0.84b, 86b; B.XV1II.82). " C. vad/to'fiyudasrayo for vadho'- pyiidagro. 83 (C.87; B.XVII1.83).

84 (C.88; B.XVIII.84). ' No old example of this typo of drama is available. 85-86 (C.89-90; B.XVIII.85-86).


earthquake 1 , fall of meteors, an eclipse of the sun or the moon, battle 8 , personal combat, challange, and angry conflict.

87-88. The Dima should abound in deceit and jugglary and should have the energetic activity of many persons, and dissention
(bheda) 1 among themselves, and it is to include sixteen characters which may be gods, Nagas, Kiiksasas, Yaksas and Pisacas, and
[besides this] the play is to be carefully made in the Grand and the Energetic Styles and is to have many States to support it 2 .

89. The Dima has been described by me in all its charac- teristics. I shall speak now about the characteristics of the

The Vyayoga

90. The Vyayoga should be constructed by experts with one well-known Hero as its basis, and it should include a small number of female characters and [the events related in itj will be of one day's duration only 1 .

91. Many males are to take part in it as in the Samavakiira, but it is not to have the latter's length, for it is to have only
One Act (anka).

92-93. It should have a royal sago as its Hero and not a divine personage, and it should include battle, personal combat, challange and angry conflict. Thus the Vyayoga should be made with exciting Sentiments as its basis. [ shall now speak of the characteristics of the Utsrstikttuka (Anka).

-' 0. reads 86a as MtW5<ijnVi>f tft^r'iRWflgiii:.
2 C. 'yuddhp-praharana for yuddh-ud/ianana.
87-88 (.91-92); B. XV1II..87-88). ' Kbalm-pustotthamyoga for bahupuruapllKma-bheda. 8 C. iajjitair-ntiniisraya-tiisesefia for nhmiraya-bJmvasampanna.

90 (C.94; B.XV1II.90). l Bhasa'sMadhyama. is its solitary old speci- men. Prahliidaiiadcva'a Partha-pariikrama (12th cent.), Vatsariija's Kira- tarjunlya (12th cent) and ViSvaniitha's Saugandhika-harana etc. are very lato specimens of this typo. See Keith Skt. Dr. p. 265. Pnsalker, Bhasa.
p. 203. Datava. Dtitagha. Pafica. and Urn. cannot be called Vyiiyogas.
Cf. Pusalker, Bhasa, pp. 186, 187, 190, 209. Mankad, Types of Skt.
Dr. p. 59-61.

91 (C.95; B.XVI1I.91). 92-93 (C.96-97 ; B.XVII1.92-93).


Tho Ufsrstikanka
94. Tho Plot in it is [usually to be] well-known, but it may sometimes be otherwise, and it is to be furnished with male characters other than those who are divine 1 .

95-96. The Utsystikanka should abound in the Pathetic
Sentiment ; it will treat women's lamentations and despondent utter- ances at a time when battle and violent fighting has ceased ; it should include bewildered movements [of mourners] and it must be devoid of the Grand, the Energetic and the Graceful Styles and its
Plot should relate to one's fall (lit. end of the rise) x .
Scenes with celestial Heroes

97. [Scenes of] all tho plays which have celestial Heroes, and which [treat] a battle, capture and killing [of enemies], should be laid in Bhiirata-varsa 1 .

98. Of all the Varsas (sub-continents) proscribed for the gods why 1 is Bharata-varsa chosen [in this connexion] ? Because the entire land here is charming, sweet-smelling and of golden colour. 99-100. [But scenes of their] garden party (lit. going to a garden), sport, pastime and enjoying the company of females, are always to be laid in the other Varsas ; for there is neither any sorrow nor any grief there. Their enjoyments should take place in the mountains which are connected with those Varsas in the Pufiinic accounts, but their [other] deeds should begin here
(i. e. in Bharata-varsa).

94 (C.91: B. XVIII.94). ' Bhasa's Uru. is a solitary example "this type of drama. See Pusalkcr, Bhasa, pp. 199, 200. Keith seems to be in error when he says that a play within'a play is often called an Anka. See
Skt. Dr. p. 268.

95-96 (C.99-100 ; B. XV1II.95-96). - 1 C. karirvyo abhyudayantas tajhaili for karyah kavyavidkijhaih

97 (C.101; B.XVI1I.97). l This and three following couplets (97-
100) seem to be more relevant after NS. XIV. 26 which treats similar topics. 98 (C.102; B.XVin.98). \ C. tasMt for iasmat.
99-100 (C.103-I04;B.XVHI,90-100).


101. The characteristics of an Utsvstikanka (Anka) have b«en exaustively explained by me. I shall now speak of the
Prahasana with its characteristics.

Tho Prahasana

302 The Prahasana should be known to be of two kinds : pure and mixed. I shall separately treat their characteristics 1 .
The pare Prahasana

103-104, The Prahasana is known as pure (iMha) 1 when it contains comic disputations by Baiva gurus (bhagimit'f and
Brahmins, abounds in jocular remarks by persons of ill repute, and gives uniformly to the Plot a realistic picture of the language and the conduct of all these in passages describing their special States. 8
The mixed Prahasana

105. That Prahasana is called mixed 1 in which courtezans, servants, eunuchs, parasites (rite) rogues and unchaste women appear with their immodest appearance, dress and movements.

101 (C.105; B.XVI1I.101).

102 (C.106; B XVIH.102). > Hankhadkara's Lataka-mola (12th century), Jyotirisvara's Dhlirta-samagami (15th century) and Jagadl- svara's Hasyarnava (date uncertaiti), etc. are very late works (See Keith
Skt. Dr. pp. 261-262). The Matta-vilasa of Mahendra-vikrama-varman
(620 A.C.) and the Bhagavad-ajjnkiya ascribed to Baudhayana Kavi, are fairly old specimens of the Prahasana, See Keith Skt. Dr. pp. 182.
Bhagavad-ajjukiya ed. P. Anujan Achan, Cochin, 1925.

103-104 (C.107-108; B.XV1II.103-104). 'The word ihagamt relates primarily to a Saiva saint. It is in this sense that the word has boon* used in the Prahasana named Bhagavad-ajjukiya and this speaks for the antiquity of this work (See above 102 note). A Baiva saint appears in the Matta-vilasa, the Dhurta-nartaka and the Ha9ya-cudamani.
Both these Prahasanas one are however late. See Keith, Skt. Dr. pp. 182,
262, 265. For some aspects of tho Saiva tenets see Karpuramanjari, ed
M. Ghosh, pp. LXIII-LX1V. ■

* C. reads 103a as« »rowrafirffifaqft«!fowe*'3Wi.

8 Prahasanas named in note 1 above may be taken as specimens of the pure variety.

105 (C.109; B.XVI1I.105). ' Prahasanas like the Dlmrta-samagama and <h e Hasyarnava may be taken as specimens of the mixed variety.
8ee Keith, Skt. Dr. pp. 260-266.

-XX. 112 ] TEN KINDS OP PLAY 378

106-107. Some popular topic [of scandal] or incident of hypocrisy should be introduced in the Prahasana through the dis- putations of pretenders. The Prahasana should include [any of] the types of the Vithi it may properly require 1 .
The Bhana

107-108. I shall now speak of the characteristics of the
Bhana. The Bhana is to be acted by a single character, and it is of two 1 kinds : that [with one's] recounting of one's own experience and that [with one's] describing someone else's acts 2 .

109. [The Bhana which is to include] somebody else's words addressed to oneself, should be acted by means of replies in course of Conversations with Imaginary Persons (akasa-hhasila) in accompaniment of [suitable] movement of the limbs.

110. The Bhana should include characters of rogues and parasites (oitu) and treat their different conditions, and it is always to consist of one Act and should include many movements which are to be acted by a rogue (dhurta) or a parasite.

111. All the characteristics of the Bhana have been des- cribed by me according to the tradition (agama). I shall [now] speak of the characteristics of the Vithi in due order.

The Vithi
112-113. The Vithi is to be acted by two persons or one.
And it is to include characters of the superior, the middling or the

106-107 (CUlO-llla; B.XVI1L106-I07a). ' C. reads 107a as
^lamfsfafc; affair ftfim «lfinm. 2 See below 112-129.

107-108 (C.lllb-112; B.XVIII. 107b-108). > Emend vividlia into dvividha (ms. cha in B.).

s The four Bhaiias (Ubhayubhisarika, Padma-prabhrtaka, Dhiirta- vita-samvada and Piida-taditaka) published under the title Caturbhani placed by F. W. Thomas between the 6 th and the 7th century arc the oldest available specimens of this type (F..W. Thomas, J R A S. 1922, pp. 262ff. F.W. Thomas, Centenary Supplement J R A S. 1924 pp._129-136;
S.K.Dc, in J R A S. 1926, pp. 63-90, Hist of Skf. Lit. pp. 241ff. For later
Bhanas see Koith, SkU Dr. pp. 263-264. 109 (C.113; B.XVIH.109).

110(C.114;B.XV1II.110). • 111 (C.115; B.XVIII.111). .

112-113 (C.116-117; B.XVHI.112b-H3a, 112a and its f. n. 2). '


inferior type, and it may contain [any of] the Sentiments, and it may include [any of J the thirteen types. I shall now speak of the characteristics of all these.

Thirteen types of the Vithi

114-115. The thirteen types * of the Vithi are : Accidental
Interpretation {xuhjhahjahi), Transference (avalayita), Ominous
Significance (araxpandila), Incoherent Chatter {asatprdapa), Com- pliment {pntjiunra), Enigma {nail = ual'd'a) Repartee (rakkeli),
Outvying (lulhicda), Deception {chain), Declaration {nyahara),
Crushing (mrihra), Three Men's Talk {trijala}, and Undue Combi- nation of Words {yanfa)

11G. [Any of these | thirteen types is always to be attached to the Vithi. I shall now speak of their characteristics in due order.
Accidental Interpretation

117. If, in order to'explain them men connect words of obscure meaning with vords other than [those intended by the speaker] it becomes Accidental Interpretation {mhjhatijalca) 1 .


118. When [anything] occurring in [relation to] something, will be made to accomplish something else, it becomes [an instance ot] Transference {andutjito) 1 .

Ominous significance

1 19. That one attaches (lit. creates) out of misunderstanding an auspicious or inauspicious meaning (lit. auspicious or inauspici- ous rise) to the words (lit. meaning) mentioned, is [an instance of]
Ominous Significance {aeaspandita) 1 .

114-115(0.118-119, Of. B.XVHI.ll3bll4). ' Ahga in this con- nexion has been translated as 'division' (Haas, DR. p. 84). But 'types' seems to be a more suitable word. 116 (C.120; B.XVIILllSa).

117(C121, BXVlII115b-ll6a). 'Haas translates the word as
'Abrupt Dialogue' (DK. p.8l). For an example see SD. 228; cf. Ag.
DR. (III. 13-14) seems to define it differently.

118 (C.132; BXVIII.U6b-117a). ' Haas translates it as 'Conti- nuance' (See p. 85). For an ex. See 8D. 292 ; Ag. Of. DR.I1I. 14b-15a.
• . ,119(0.123; B.XVIII.817b-118a). 'The spelling avasyandita though accepted by SD. and DR. seems to be wrong (See Ag.). Haas


Incoherent Chatter

120. When an irrelevant question (lit. sentence) is followed by [an equally] irrelevant answer, it is [an instance of] Incoherent
Chatter (asat-pralapa) 1 .

121. When to a foolish person a learned man speaks the right words, but his words are not listened to, it is [an instance of]
Incoherent Chatter 1 .


122. When comic and untrue words purporting to bo mu- tual praise of two persons, are uttered in the interest of one [of them] it is [an instance of] Compliment {yrapahca) 1 .

Enigma and Repartee

123. An enigmatical remark that gives rise to laughter (lit. followed by laughter) is called an Enigma (naltia 1 ). Reparteo ral;keli=* vakl clilca) arises from a single or twofold reply. 2


124. When somebody else's words and those of one's own- self, in course of a dialogue, lead to their mutual modification, it is
[an instance of] Outvying (adhimh)' 1 .


125. When after alluring one by replies, something oppo- site is done (lit. takes place) through those very replies being con- sidered meaningless, it is [an instance of] Deception (rhala) 1 .

translates the word as 'Re-interpretation' (pp. 84, 87) probably under the influence of the SD. (528). DR. (III. 19a) has a different definition.
For an example see Ag.

120 (C.124). ' We accept the reading of mss. <Ja and da in B.
(nnder 119) •which has the support of DR. III. 20 and SD. 530. Ag. differs and accepts tho reading of 121 below. See Haas. p. 87.

121 (C.125; B.XVIII.119). ' See 120 note and Ag.

122 (C.126; B.XVHI.123b-121a). ' See Haas, p. 85; SD. 5ii.
DR HI. 15b.

123 (C.127; B.XVIII.ll8a, 120a). ' See Haas, pp. 87 ; SD. 529.
8 See Haas, p.86, SD. 525.

124 (C.128; B,XVHI.122b-123a). l See Haas, p. 86; SD. 526.

125 (C.129; B.XVII. 123b) ' See DR. 17a ; Haas, p. 96 ; SD. gives two def . of this including the present one; sec 524-525,



126. If anything [liable to occur] is described vividly in the presence of the Hero and is similarly made to happen [there] with- out any fear, it is [an instance of] Declaration (vytiliara) 1 .


127. That due to an altercation one represents [another's] merits as demerits by [showing] cause [for it] and rice vena, is called Crushing (mrdava) 1 .

Throe Men's Talk

128. When exalted words with the Comic Sentiment are shared by three [characters] it should be known as Three Men's
Talk (tritjata) x .

Undue Combination of Words

129. Undue combination of words (,'/i'n#«) according to the wise, occurs due to excitement, confusion, quarrel, reviling and many people's abusive words 1 .

130-131 If in a play any of these thirteen types 1 with clear meanings, occur and they possess all the characters Sentiments and States prescribed for them by the Saslra it is called the Vithi.
It may bo acted by one or two persons 2 .

126 (C.130; B.XVIII. foot notes to 125a). l B.s reading seems to agree with the def. given in DR. III. 20b and SD. 531. Haas translates the tirm as 'Humourous Speech'. See p. 88.

127 (0.131; B.XVII.12lb-122a). ' DE. III. 2la; SD. 532. Haas translates the term as 'Mildness' ; see p. 88.

128 (C.132; B.XVIII. foot note to 124). > DR III. 16 and SD. 523 define this differently and they agree with the reading of B. Our reading is supported by the pa ms. in B. Haas translates the term as
'Triple Explanation'. Sec p. 84.

129 (C.133; B.XVIII.l25b-126a). * C. larambha for samrambha
4 C. bandhavivadam for vivadayuklam.

8 DR. HI. 18b and SD. 527 seem to def. it differently. Haas translates the term as 'Abrupt Remark' see p. 87.

130-131 (C.134-135). l Ag. reads Lusyahgas in the next chapter (his
XIX). It is possible that these were introduced later in the NS. For the ms. bha of B. and some commentators using it ignoro them altogether.
Saradatanaya and others reads liisyakgat differently. Seo Kavi's Intr. to
B. pp. XI-XII. foot note.

•XX. 136 ] TEN KINDS OF PLAY 377

The Lasya

132. [Similar] other limbs are attached to the Nntaka in connexion with the performance of the Lasya, and they owe their origin to this (i. e. Nataka), and are to be acted like the Bhana by a single person.

133. The Lasya has a form similar that of the Bhana and

it is to be acted by one person 1 . Its theme is to be inferred like

that of the Prakarana and should relate to [loving] intimacy [with

any one],

Tho twelve typc3 of the Lasya

131-135. The [twelve] types of the Lasya are: Geyapada
Sthitapathya, Asina, Puspagandikg, Praechedaka, Trimudha, Sain- dhavn, Dvimudhiika, Uttamottamaka, Vicitrapada, Ukta-pratyukta and Bhiivita (Bhava) 1 .


130. When [the Heroine] is seated 1 on her seat surroun- ded with stringed instruments and drums near her, and singers are singing [before her] without any accompaniment of these, it is called the Geyapada (simple song). "

132 (C.136 K.XVIII. 169). l lasyahga is an oni act play which requires lasya or a gentle form of dance for its representation; for this term may be interpreted as lasyam ahgam yasyah salt (that which has lasya as its principal element). The ten lasyahgas seem to be ouly so many varieties of tho Lasya. Tlie-ie are not its 'elements' as some scholars are apt to consider. 2 The word vilhyahga also may be similarly interpreted. Vilhi seems to be nothing but a particular kind of one act play (defiued in 113 boavc) and vtthya'nga may therefore bo translated as 'a play of the Vitlii type'.

133 (C.137 ; K. XVII. 182). ' See above 132 note ; lasya used in this passage means merely liisyaiiga.

131-135 (C.138-139; K. XVIII. 17)171). l 81). (501) gives only ten and BhP. (p. 245-246) eleven lasyahgas, but DR. (III. 52-53) gives their number as ten but does not define them.

136 (0.141 ; K. XVIII. 172). ' Sco SD. 505. The seating posture included in this and some of the other varieties of thi lasya need nq| appear to be puzzling. For tho Gentle Dance in this connexion did not imply tho movement of the entire body. See Gilbert Murray, Euripides and His Ago, London, 1946, p. 150.


137. If a woman aings in a standing 1 posture a song dealing with the praise of hor heloved and delineates the same with the gestures of her different limbs, it is called the Geyapada.


138. If a separated woman burning with the fire of love, recites anything in Prakrit while seated on her seat 1 , it is [an instance of J the Sthita-pHthya.

139. When one sits 1 without making any toilet 2 and is overcome with anxiety and sorrow, and looks with oblique glances it is [an instance of] the Asina.


140. When a woman in the guise of a man recites some- thing sweetly in Sanskrit for the pleasure of her female friends, it is [an instance of] the Puspagandika. 1


141. When a [separated] woman pained by the moon-light prepares to go to her beloved even if he has done her wrong, it is [an instance of] the Praccbedaka 1 .

•142. A play adorned with even metres and abounding in manly States and composed of words which are neither harsh nor large, is called the Trimudhaka.

143. When [one represents] a lover who has failed to keep his tryst and is using Prakrit [to express bis grief] through well- performed Karanas, it is [an instance of] the Saindhavaka.

137 (CHI). ' See above 136 note 1.

138 (C.U2 ; K. XVIIL 173 f.n.). ' Sc« 81). 506 ; also note 1 above of 136. Of. K. XVIII. 173. BhP. p. 245, 1. 17-18.

139 (C.143 •, K. XVIII. 174). ' SD. 507 ; see abovo 136 note 1. Tlio
Gentle Dance (lasya) in this connexion will consist of slowly moving glances only. Cf. BhP. p. 245, 1.19-20. 3 Road aprasadhita gatra.

140(0.144). iCf.SD. 507 ; see above 136 note l.Cf.K. XVIII.
175, BhP. p. 245,1.21-22.

141 (C.145 ; K. XVII. 176). x The def. given in SD. (507) is different.
SD. reads the term as Trigadhaka. Cf. BhP. p. 246 1. 1-2.

142 (C. 146 ; K. XVIII. 177). > See BhP. p. 246, 1. 3-4.

■ 143 (C.147). 1 Cf.SD.508. Cf.K. XVIII. 178, BhP. p. 246. 1 5-6.

-XX. 160 ] TEN KINDS OF PLAY 379


144. Delineating h song of the Caturasra type which has an auspicious meaning and which treats (lit, lias) clear States and
Sentiments, with the pretension of efforts, is called the Dvimiidhaka.


145. The Uttamottamaka is composed in various kinds of Slokas ; it includes various Sentiments and is adorned with the condition of Passion {hela).


146. If any woman burning with the fire of love soothes her mind by seeing the portrait [of her lover] it is [an instance of] the "Vicitrapada.


147. The Ukta-prntyukta is a combination of speeches and counter-speeches due to anger or pleasure, and it [sometimes] contains words of censure. It is to be set to music.

1 I'H. If a woman who is burning with the lire of love after seeing her beloved in a dream, expresses [her] different States, it is
[an instance of] the Bhavita.

1 19. These are the characteristics of the [different] types of
Lasya growing out of anger or pleasure, that I had to tell you in detail. Tf anything more has not been said, it has been due to
■the fact that nothing more is required in this context.

1 50. The rules regarding the ten kinds of play with their characteristics, have been stated by me. I shall now speak about their bodies and the Junctures with their characteristics.

Here ends chapter XX of Bharata's Natyasatra, which treats of the Ten Kinds of Play.

144(0.148). Cf. SD. (509) which reads the term as Dvigadha. Cf.
K. XVIH. 179, BhP. p. 246, 1. 7-8.

145 (C.149 ; K. XVIII. 180). x Cf . SD. (509). Cf. BhP. p. 246, 1. 9-10-.

146 (C.150 ; K. p. 207. r. u. 12). ' SD. ami BhP. omit this.

147 (C.I51 j K. XVHI. 181). x See BhP. p. 246. 1. 11-12. Cf. SD. 509.

148 (C.152 ; K. p. 207. f. a. 12.). ' SD. omits this. See Bhl'. p. 246.
1. 13-14 149 (C.153 ; K. 183). . 150 (C.154 ; K. 184).


The five Junctures of the Plot

1. The Plot (itkrtla) has heen called the body of the drama
(lit. poem). It is known to be divided into five Junctures (smulhi).

The two kinds of Plot

2. The Plot is of two kinds : Principal (wlhilwika) and
Subsidiary {pravaiujilca).

Their definition

3. The [assemblage of] acts which are fabricated with a view to (lit, by reason of) the attainment of [some particular] result, is to be known as the Principal Plot. [Acts] other than those consti- tute the Subsidiary Plot.

4-5. The attainment of the result and its exaltation which the ingenuity of the playwright (lit. poet) plans by lnolms of the associated characters (lit. Heroes) acting in a regular manner (lit, resorting to rules), constitute the Principal Plot on account of an attainment of the result And any incident (lit. anything) men- tioned for helping any other [incident] in it, is called the Subsi- diary Plot.

The five stages of the Action

6. The exertion of the Hero (lit. one who strives) towards the result to be attained, is known to have five stages occurring in due order.

1 (C.l ; K. XIX. 1). * Also called vastu. Cf. DE. 1. 11, SD. 294-295.
'See DR. I. 22-23, SD. 330 and NL. 458 read vibhagah sampra-

kalpitah for vibkagah etc. See NL. 216-217.

2 (C.2 ; %. XIX. 2). - 1 See DR. 1. 11, SD. 295 and NL. 218 219.

3 (C.3 ; K. XIX. 3). x Cf. DR.1. 12-13, SD. 296-297; NL. 223-224.
* See above note 1.

4-5 (C.4-5 ; K. XIX 4-5). - 1 See above 3 note 1 and NL. 228-229.
' Sco above note I-

6 (C.7). 1 C. reads one additional couplet (C. 6) before this. Cf.
NL. 55-56.


7. These five stages of the Action are known to arise in the
Nataka and the Prakarana. [Their] Fruition (phala-yoga) relates to duty (dhirma), enjoyment of pleasure (k&mti) and wealth (artha). 1

8. They are : Beginning Qjrarambha), Effort (prayatna),
Possibility of Attainment (prajjti-mmbhava), Certainty of Attain- ment (niynta phala-prapli) and Attainment of the Result


9. That part of the play (lit composition) which merely records eagerness about the final attainment of the result with reference to the Germ {blja), is called the Beginning (arambha).


10. [Heroc's] striving towards an attainment of the Result when the same is not in view, and showing further eagerness [about it], is called the Efforts (pray/Una).

Possibility of Attainment

1 1 . When the attainment of the object is slightly suggested by an idea, it is to be known as the Possibility of Attainment
(ludpU-aambku ra).

Certainty of Attainment

12. When one visualises in idea a sure attainment of the result, it is called Certainty of Attainment (mtyata phala-prapti).

Attainment of the Result

13. When the intended result appears in full at the end of events [of a play] and corresponds to them, it is called Attainment of the Result (phala-ijoya).

14. These are the five successive stages of every action begun by persons looking for results.

7 (0.8) ' K. omits this.

8 (C.10 ; K. XIX.7). * Cf. DR. I. 19; SD. 324; NL. 57-58.

9 (C.ll ; K. XIX. 8). l Cf. DR. 20; SD. 325; NL. 59-60.

10 (C.12 ; K. XIX. 9). - 1 Cf. DR. I. 20; SD. 326; NL. 66.

11 (C.13 ; K. XIX. 10). x Cf. DR. I. 21; SD. 327; NL. 69-70.

12 (C.14 ; K. XIX. 11). A Cf. DR I. 21; SD. 328; NL. 77.

13 (C.H ; K. XIX. 12). A Cf. DR. 1. 22; SD. 329; NL. 89.

14 (C.15 ; K. XIX. 13).


15. Putting together all these naturally different stages which come together [in a play] for the production of the result conduces towards the fruition.

Play to begin with the Principal Plot

16. The Principal Plot which has been described before should be taken up at the Beginning [of a play], for it is to attain fruition. 17. The Plot should either have all the Junctures (sanilhi) or lack some of thorn. The [general] rule requires that all the
Junctures should occur in it, but due to a [special] reason some of them may be left out (lit absent).

Rules about the omission of Junctures

18. If one Juncture is to be omitted then the fourth one goes ; in case of an omission of the two Junctures, the third and the fourth are to be left out, and in case of the three to be omitted, the second, the third and the fourth should be given up.

19. In case of the Subsidiary Plot this rule will not apply ; for it is to serve the purpose of another [Plot]. Any eveirt can be introduced in this [Subsidiary Plot] without violating the rule.

The five Elements of the Plot

20. The five stages of the plot such as the Beginning
(ammhha) 1 etc.. have live corresponding Elements of the Plot
(artha-pralyti)* .

21. The Germ (liija), the Prominent Point (hiwlu), the
Episode (i>ataka), the Episodical Incident (prakarl) and the
Denouement (k&ry») are the five Elements of the Plot (artlia- pralcrti), which should be reckoned and applied in proper manner.

15 (C. 16 ; K. XIX. 14)
16(C.17 ; K.XIX.15).

17 (C18 ; K. XIX. 16). x Emend yat-karyam into tat karyam. See
NL. 442ff. 18 (C.19 ; K. XIX. 17).

19 (C.20 ; K. XIX. 18).

20 (C.21 ; K. XIX. 19) > Sec DR. 1. 19 ; SD. 324 NL. 57-58.
'See DR. 1. 18 •, SD. 317; NL. 134-135.

2i (C.22 ; K. XIX. 20). ' See above 20 note 2.


The Germ

22. That which scattered in a small measure, expands itself in various ways and ends in fruition, is called the Germ (blja) of the Plot.

The Prominent Point

23. That which sustains the continuity (lit. non-separation) till the end of the play even when the chief object [of the play] is [for the time being] suspended, is called the Prominent Point (hhidn).

The Episode

24. The event which is introduced in the interest of the
Principal [Plot] and is treated like it, is called an Episode {[Mtaka).

The Episodical Incident
2"). When merely the result of such an event is presented for the purpose of another (/. >■. the Principal Plot) and it has no
Secondary Juncture (iinnlhiii'lhiiy it is called the Episodical incident (iiiahn't) 2 .

The Denouement

26. The efforts made for the purpose of the Principal Plot introduced [in play] by the experts, is called the Denouement (kanja).

27. Among these [Elements] that which has others 'for its support (lit. purpose) and to which the rest are taken as subordinate, should be made prominent (lit. chief) and not the remaining ones.

22 (C.23 ; K. XIX. 21). ' Cf. DR. I. 17 f SD. 318; NL. 136-137.

23 (C.24 ; N.XIX. 22). x cf. DR. I. 17; SD. 319; NL. giving a second view about the meaning of the bindu says:— 1^ g, qfs *ti3* iwi HiiftlipfflWT^f-
«rwt nan 1 ' qf*.*^ a T**$: i m\ tts^iw?^ t*atr: namg^flin i t<gf ^ *#t4% sfastSnts'Siii i Strait % *wk rftifnrfiw atf# «ftnifafa i « n ^inw wifii'
1\W[ nfofow: (159ff. 173ff.). There is a third view also ; see. NL. I83ff.

24(0.25 ; K. XIX. 23). x Cf. DR. I. 13; SD. 320; NL. gives also a second view about the meaning of the palaka as follows : TO wi.tawmrafctft* taarfyu^ffti (195ff.)

25 (C.26 ; K. XIX. 24). x As opposed to this, the palaka possesses continuity- Anubandho nairantaryena pravartanam (NL. 204).

8 Cf. DR. 1. 13 ; SD. 321 NL. 199ff.

26 (C.27 ; K. XIX. 25). x Cf. DR. I. 16; SD. 323; NL- 209ff. Read yastu (vrtla, JC) as vastu, C. NL. reads karyatn for vastu.

37 (C.28 ; K. XIX. 26). ' Cf. NL. 234ff.


Socondary Juncture ia the Episode

28. One or more Junctures should ho applied in an Episode
(patcJca)' "As these serve the purpose oE the Principal [Plot] they called Secondary Junctures (aimbundka).

Limit of the Episode

29. The Episode should come to an end either at the
Develoment (ijavbha) or at the Pause (vimaria). Why ? Because its treatment is for the purpose of something else (i e. the Prin- cipal Plot).

The Episode Indication

30. When some matter being taken in hand (lit. already thought about), another matter of similar nature (lit. characteris- tics) is suggested through an accidental idea (wjniihih^bharn), it is called Episode Indication (pntalm-sthaiui).

The First Episode Indication

31. The sudden development of a novel meaning (<irthtimni- pntti) due to an indirect suggestion, is called the First Episode

Tbe Second Episode Indication

32. Words completely carrying double meaning and ex- pressed in a poetic language, are called the Second Episode Indi- cation. The Third Episode Indication

33. That which suggests with courtesy the object [of a play] in a subtle manner and in the form of a dialogue, is called the
Third Episode Indication.

28 (C.29 ; ly XIX. 27). ' Some read anubandha as anusandhi ; cf.
DR. III. 26-27.

29 (C.30 ; K. XIX. 28). x Emend tasmul into kasnM.

30 (C.31 ; K. XIX- 29). * DR.(I. 14) merely defines the term and ignores its varieties. But SD. (298-299) follows NS. and defines them. See
NL. 1000-1001. Sagaranandin says that these should not be applied to the last Juncture (nirvahaqa).

31 (C.32 ; K. XIX. 30). * Emend gunamtyupa" into guna-wtlyupa"
3 SecSD. 300; NL. 1007-

32 (C.33 ; K. XIX. 31). l Emend vacasuliZaya" into vacah .tfitisaya".
See SD. 301 and NL. 101S.

' 33 (C34 j K. XIX, 32). x See SD. 302; NL. 1021-1022.


The Fourth Episode Indication

34. Words with a double meaning expressed in a well-knit poetic language and having a reference to something [other than what appears at first sight] is called the Fourth Episode Indication.

35. The poetical composition meant to be acted should have thft five Junctures (xandhi) and four Episode Indications (pataJea- dhannhi) 1 . I shall next speak of the Junctures.

The five Junctures
30. The five Junctures in a drama are the Opening (mnl-ha), the Progression (pratimnkha), the Development (jarbhi), the
Pause (vimaria) and the Conclusion (nirvahana) 1 ■

37. The Principal [Plot] is known to be consisting of the five Junctures (nandhi). The remaining Junctures are to be supported by the Junctures of the Principal [Plot] 1 .

The Opening

38. That part of a play, in which the creation of the Germ
(I'i jo) as the source of many objects and Sentiments takes place, is called in consideration of its body the Opening (mnkhn, lit. face) 1

The Progression

39. Uncovering of the Germ placed at the Opening after it has sometimes been perceptible and sometimes been lost, is called the Progression (pratimukha).

The Development

40. The sprouting of the Germ, its attainment or non- attainment and search for it, is called the Development (i/arbha) 1 .

The Pause

41. One's pause (vimaria, lit. deliberation) over the Germ
(Inja) that has sprouted in the Development (garbha) on account

34 (C.35; K.XIX.33). x See SD. 303; NL. 1033.

35 (C.36; K.XIX.84).

36 (C.37; K.XIX.35), x See DR. I. 23-24; SD. 331-332; NL. 458.

37 (C.38; K.XIX.36). x These relate to the Subsidiary Plot.

38 (C.39; K.XIX.37). ' See DR. 1 24-25; SD.333; NL. 536f. quotesNS.

39 (('.40; K.X1X.38). l Cf. DR. I. 30 r SD. 334; NL. 684f.

40 (C.41; K.XIX.39). l Cf. DR. I. 36; SD. 335; NL. 7l0f.

41 (C.42; K.XIX.40).


of some temptation, anger or distress, is called the Juncture of that name (i.e, Pause) 1 .

The Conclusion

42. Bringing together the objects [of the Junctures] such as the Opening (mukha) etc. along with the Germ [b\ja), when they have attained fruition, is called the Conclusion {uirva liana) 1 .

43. These are Junctures of the Nataka to be known by the producers of a drama. They may occur in the Prakarana and the other types of plays as well.

Junctures vary in different types of drama

44. The Dima 1 and the Samavakara 2 are to have four
Junctures, and the playwright should never make the Pause
(vimaria) in them.

45. The Vyayoga 1 and the Ihamrga 2 are to have three
Junctures. There should be no Development and Pause
{avamaria = vimaria) in these two, and the Graceful (kaffilfi) Style also has no place in them.

46. The Prahasnna 1 , the Vithi 2 , the Anka s and the
Bhana 4 are to have only two Junctures which should be the
Opening (mulcha) and the Conclusion {nirvahatui), and their Style should be the Verbal one (bhavaii).

47* These are the Junctures to bo adopted by the pro- ducers in the ten types of play, Listen now about different kinds of Junctures which also will as it were mark their limits.

' DR. I. 53 calls this avamaria. SI). 336; NL. 770ff, gives two more definations of this Juncture. Read the second hemistich as ffftsre^ *ifq

42 (C.43; K-XIX.41). l Emend the first hemistich as follows :—
WIWH wM <j«irant «Mim. Cf. DR. I. 4849; SD. 337; NL. 554 f.

43 (C.44; K.XIX. 42).

44 (C.45; K.XIX-44a, 43b). ' See NS. XX. 90ff. 2 Sec ibid 78iT.

45 (C.46; K.XIX.43a, 44b). > See N& XX. 84if. * See ibid. 64ff.

46 (04748; K.XIX. 45). i See NS. XX. 102IK - See ibid 112ir.
8 Sec ibid 94ff. * Sec ibid 107ff.




48-50. The twentyone Sub-junctures are as follows 1 : Con- ciliation (soma), Dissention (hheda), Making Gifts (pradana),
Chastisement (dantfa), Killing (vadha), Presence of Mind {pratynt- panmmatitoa), Blunder in Addressing (gotra-skhalita), Rashness
(sahasa). Terror (bhaya), Intelligence (dlu), Deceit (maya), Anger
(krodha), Strength (o/ns), Concealment (mmvarawi), Error (hhanti),
Ascertainment (avadharawi) 2 , Messenger {duta), Letter (lelcha),
Dream (svapna), Portrait (citra) and Intoxication (mada).
Alternative Junctures

51 The events of the Junctures in their respective parts
(pradesv) 1 will in duo order support those Limbs [of the Junctures] by means of their own qualities.

The sixfold needs of the Limbs of the Junctures

52-53. Expressing 1 the desired object, non-omission of any essential item in the Plot, accession to feeling in production, concealment of the objects to be concealed, telling tales of surprise 2 and disclosing things to be disclosed are the sixfold needs of the
Limbs described in the Sastra 3 .

Uses of the Limbs of the Junctures

54. Just as a man without all his limbs are unable to fight a battle, so a play without the Limbs will be unfit for [successful] production 1 .

55. A play (lit, a poem) though it may be poor as regards its theme (lit. meaning) will, when furnished with requisite Limbs, attain beauty because of the brilliance of its production.

48-50 (C.49-51: KXIX.Mb, 103b). l NL. 925ff. seems to give this passage more correctly with slight variation. The Sub-junctures (sandhi- mm sandhi) are to be distinguished from the Secondary Junctures
(anubandha—anusandhi. DR. 111.26 mentioned in 28 before.

8 Bead bhavah for vadhah.

51 (C.52; K.XIX.47). ' Pradeia seems to signify Sub-juncture
{sandhinam sandhi) discussed in 50 above. See NL. 923.

52-53 (C.53-54; K.XIX.48-49). ' Read vacanam for racana.

3 Emend akaryavad abhikhyatam into mcaryavad abhikhyamm.

, Cf.DR.I.55;SD.407ff.

54 (C.55; K.XIX.49a, 60a). » Cf. SD. 407ff.

55 (C.66; K.XIX.50a, 61a).


56. And a play having lofty theme, but devoid of [requisite]
Limbs, will never capture the mind of the good [critics] because of its [possible] poor production.

57. Hence in applying the Junctures [in a drama] the playwright should give them their Limbs properly. Now listen about about them [in detail].

The sixtyfour Limbs of the Junctures
58-59. The Limbs of the Opening (mnlcha) are ; Sugges- tion (apulcsepa), Enlargement {pariham), Establishment (parinyasa),
Allurement (vilobhana), Decision (ytikti), Accession (p'apti), Settl- ing {mnadhana), Conflict of Feeling (vidhaiia), Surprise (pariblia,' mm), Disclosure (mlbheda), Activity {luuana), and Incitement
(hheda). Now listen about the Limbs in the Progression 1 .

60-61. The Limbs of the Progression (pro. timukha) are:
Amorousness (vilwsa), Pursuit (parixarpa), Refusal (eidhuta), Pessi- mism (tqpana), Joke (narnui), Flash of Joke (narmndyuti), Moving
Forward (pragamana), Pacification (parijupaxana), Sweet Words
(puspn), Thunderbolt (mjra) 1 .

62-64. The Limbs of the Development (ijnrlha) arc : Mis- statement (alihutahamnn), Indication (marga), Supposition (mpn),
Exaggeration (ndaharam), Progress (knimn), Propitiation (nam- graha), Deduction (mam), Supplication (prdrtham), Revelation
(alcsipta), Quarrel (Malcn), Outwitting (adhibala), Dismay (iiiheyu) and Consternation (n'ulrara) 1 .

64-66. The Limbs of the Pause (cimarsa = avcmria) are :
Censure (apacada), Angry Words (sampkHa), Insolence {aMddram)
Placation (iilcti), Assertion (uyaoasaya), Reverence (pramnga),
Rebuke (dyuti), Lassitude (Uiedix), Opposition (n'uedhaua),

16 (C.57; K.XIX,5lb, 52n). 57 (C.58;K.XIX.52b, 53a).

5S-5P (C.59-60; K.XlX.53b, 25a). T Sec DR. I. 25-26; SD. 338; NL.

69 61 (C.61-62; K.XIX.55b, 57). » DR. I. 31-32 reads samana for tupana; SD. 351. NL. 645ff.

62-64 (C.63-65; K.XIX.58-59). > DR. I. 37-38, omits prarthana and vidrava, adds sambhrama, and gives aksipla as uksepa ; SD. 365. See NL.
724ff. 64-66 (C.65-67; K.XIX.60-6]).


Altercation (virodhana), Sumning up (adana), Concealment (cha- dana), and Foresight (prarocana)' 1 -

66-69. The Limbs of the Conclusion are : Junction (san~ dhi), Awakening (vibodha), Assembling {gralhana), Ascertainment
(nirryiyd)t Conversation (paribli&sana), Confirmation {dhrti), Grati- fication {pras&da), Joy (aiianda), Deliverance (samaya), Surprise
(apaguhana), Clever Speech (bhatana), Retrospect (purvavakya),
Termination of the Play (kavya-samhara) and Benediction.(pras(tsh').
These are the sixtyfour Limbs of the Junctures [in a play] 1 .
Limbs of the Opening
C'J. I shall now give their definitions in due order 1 .

Suggestion (upalwpa) is the origin of the object of the play. 2

70. Enlargement (ijarikdra) is the amplification of the object originated 1 .

Describing it (i. e. the object) thoroughly is called Establish- ment (panni/asa) 2 .


71. The mentioning of good qualities is known as Allure- ment (vilobhana) 1 .

1 Emend vidrava into abhidrava. DR. 1. 44-45. omits abhidrava, kheda, nixedhana and sadana and adds vidrava, drava chalana and vicalana; SD. 378IF. follows NS. except that abhidrava. appears there as drava; chadana should bo emended into sadana; see NL. 798ff.

66-68 (0.67-69; K.XIX.62-63). ' Emend dyuti. See SD. 391 reads krti as dhrti. DR. I. 49-50 gives dhrti as krti, pfirvavakya as piirvabkava, upasatnhara as kavyasamhara. NL. 850ff. omits sandhi and vibodha, gives dhrti as dyuti, and instead of the first two gives artha and anuyoga.

a Or. DR. I. 40; SD. 374; NL. 755.

69 (C.71;K.XIX.64b-95a). ' C. reads before this another couplet which in trans, is as follows : For the development of the Germ, all these
(i.e. 64 limbs) should make up the Junctures properly and Lave clear meanings. This does not occur in K.

" See NL. 556; SD. 338 Cf. DR. I. 27.

TO (C.73; K.XiX.65b-66a). ' See NL. 569; SD. 340 DR. I. 27.

" Soe NL. 575; SD. 341; DR. I. 27.

71 (C73; K.XIX.69b-67a). ' See DR. I. 27; SD. 342; NL. 586.


Settling the issues is called Decision (yuMi)*.

72. Accession (prapti) is summing up the purpose of the
Opening (mukha) 1 .


Settling (sam&'lhana) is summing up the purpose of the
Germ (blja)*.

Conflict of Feelings

73. Joys and sorrows occurring in a situation, is called onftict of Feelings (v'ulltana) 1 .

Surprise (paribhauana) is an excitement giving rise to curiosity 2 .

7-1. The sprouting of the purpose of the Germ (blja), is called Disclosure (lulbheda) 1 .


Taking up the matter in question is called Activity (luirana) 2

75. That which is meant for disrupting an union is called
Incitement (bheda) 1 .

These are the limbs of the Opening (nmlcha).

Limbs of the Progression
I shall now speak of those of the Progression (pratimulcha).

2 See SD. 343; DR. 1. 28; Haas translates it differently, SD. 343 and
NL. 593 seem to misunderstand this definition.

72 (C.74; K.X[X.67b-68a). ' Emend sukkartka" to mukkartha'.
Sec NL. 598-599. DR. I. 28; and SD. 344 follows what scans to bo a wrong reading of the NS. J Sec NL. 605 f. Cf. DR, 1. 28; SD. 345.

73 (C.75; K.XIX.68b-69a). » See DR. I. 28; SD. 346; NL. 609-610.
2 See NL. 617; Cf. DR. I. 29; SD. 347.

74 (C.76; K.XIX.69b-70). » See SD. 348; NL. 620. Cf. DR. I. 29.
1 See SD. 349; NL. 623. Cf. BR 1. 29.

75 (C.77; K.XDX.70W. l See NL, 626; SD. 350. Cf. DR. I. 29.



76. Amorousness (vilasa) is the desire for the pleasure of love {rati) 1 .

Pursuit (parisarpa) 2 is the pursuing of an object once seen and then lost.


77. Refusal (vidhuta) 1 is not complying with the request made [by any one].

Thinking about (lit. seeing) some danger [in future] is called
Pessimism (tapctna) 2 .


78. The laughter which is meant for sports is called Joke
(narma) 1 .

Plash of Joke
The laughter which is meant for concealing one's fault is called Flash of Joke (ntmna-dynli) 2 .

Moving Forward

79. Speaking words which bring in other words after them is called Moving Forward (jirotjamana) 1 .

Appearance of some calamity is called Hindrance (nirodha) 2 .


80. Conciliating an angry person is called Pacification
{parijnpasana) 1 .

76(C.78;K.XIX.7L). l See SD. 352; NL. 650ff. Of. DR. I. 32.
2 Sec SD. 353; DR. I. 32-33. Cf. NL. 657.

77 (C.79; K.XIX.7 I). ' Cf.-NL 663; DR. I. 33; SD. 354 has vidhrta for vidhuta.

2 See NL. 669 Cf. SD. 355 defines it as upayadarsana. DR. defines sama instead of thpana (1.33).

78 (C.80: K.XIX.73). ' Cf. DR. I. 33; DR. 356; NL. 1310CT. s Cf. DR. I. 33; SD. 357; NL. 672.

79 (C.80; K.X1X.74). 'Read utlaroltaram vakyam tu bhaveipra- gamanam. Cf. NL. 676; DR I. 34; SD- 358.

s See NL. 683; DR. 1.34; SD. 359 reads virodha for nirodha.

80 (C.82; K.XIX75). > Sec NL. 687. Cf. DR 1. 34; SD. 360. '


Sweet Words
Mentioning some favourable peculiarity is called Sweet
Words (puspa, lit. flower) 3 .

81. Harsh words uttered on one's face is' called Thunderbolt
(vajra) 1 .

Reference (npanyasa) is a remark based on reason.

Meeting of Castes
• 82. Coming together of the four castes is called Meeting of Castes (varna-samhara) 1 .

These are the Limbs of the Progression Qyrntimnl-hi).

Limbs of the Development
Now listen about those in the Development (gnrhha).

83. [A speech] founded on deceit is called Mis-statement
(hipalaxrayn) 1 .

Speaking out [one's] real intention (lit. reality) is called
Indication (maiyo) 2 .


84. A hypotliesis with which novel meanings are combined, is called Supposition (rupa) 1 .

A speech with an overstatement is called Exaggeration
(wlaharana) 2 .

2 Cf . DR. 1. 34; SD. 361 ; NL. 691.

81 (C.83; K.XIX.76). ' Emend pratyaksa-nifiam into praiyakm- ruhsam, Cf. NL. 697; I. 35 8D. 362.

s SccNL. 700; cf. DR. I. 35; SD. 363ff. defines it differently and refers to the view of the N$ as kecit tu etc.

82 (C.84; KN.XIX.77). l NL. 704ff. dofiucs it as varnitasyarthasya tiraskaro (concealing the matter expressed), and refers to the view of the
N8. as caturmm varnanam sammelanam apike'pimrnayanti. Sec SD.
364; DR. I. 36.

83 (C.85; K.XIX.78). » Cf. DR. I. 38; SD. 365; NL. 727.
! Cf.SD.366;NL730;DR.1.38.

84 (C.86; K.XIX.79). l Cf. DR. I. 39; SD. 367; NL. 735.

3 Cf. NL. 738; DR. I. 39; SD. 36K


85. Foreseeing of what is coming afterwards, is called
Progress (krama) 1 .

Use of sweet words and gift, is called Propitiation (samgraha)*,

80. Perceiving something by the name of a thing similar to it in form, is called Deduction (anumd/na) 1 .
Request for love's enjoyment (rati), rejoicing, festivity and the like, is called Supplication {pr or than a)*.

87. The unfolding [of the Germ] in the Development
(ijni-hha), is called Revelation (aMpta) 1 .

An angry speech is called Quarrel (toiah) 2 .

88. Cheating of a deceitful person is called Outwitting

(inlhibal<i) x .

Fear arising from the king, an enemy or a robber is called

Dismay (udvega) 2 .

Panicky Commotion

89. Flurry caused by fear from the king or fire is called
Panicky Commotion (wlrava) 1 .

These are the Limbs in the Development (garbha).

Limbs of the Pause
Now listen about those in the Pause {aramaria =■ rimark).

85 (C.87; K.XIX.80). ' Emend bhavaktvo into bhavilatvo. Cf. SD.
;69; NL. 740;DR. I. 39. a Cf. SD. 370; NL. 744; DR. 1. 40.

'86 (C.88; K.XIX.81). » Cf. NL. 746; DR. I. 40; SD. 371.

2 Cf. SD. 372; DR. I. 40. NL. 749. jr.

87(C.89;K.X1X.82). ' Cf. DR. I. 42 has aksepa; SD|$73 has iipti=aksipli; NL. 751 has ulksipta. Jf

88 (6.90s K.XIX. 83). ' Cf. SD. 375; DR. 1. 40; NL. 7Jf
' Cf. SD. 376; NL. 761; DR. I. 42.

89 (C.91; K.XIX. 84a). l Cf. DR. I. 42; SD. 377. JT766.




90. Proclaiming anyone's fault is called Censure (apavada). 1

Angry Words
Words spoken in anger are called Angry Words (mmpheia) 2 .


91. Trangression of the superiors is called Insolence
{abhi-drava) 1 .

Allaying of disagreement [with anyone] is called Placation
(«i) a .


92. A promise made on account of some reason is called
Assertion {vyavasaya) 1 .


Mentioning one's superiors is called Reverence {prasahga) 2 .


93. Words spoken in contempt are called Rebuke (dyuti) 1 .

Fatigue arising from a mental effort is called Lassitude (kheda).

94. Obstruction to one's desired object is called Opposition
(nisedha) 1 .

Speaking and counter-speaking in excitement is called
Altercation (virodham)".

90 (C.92; K.XIX.84b-85a). l See NL. 801; Cf. DR. I. 45; SD. 378.
* See NL. 8\)7, Cf. DR. I. 45; SD. 379.

91 (C.93; KXIX.86b-86a). ' Emend vidrava into abhidrava. Sec gNL.813. SD.381 and DC. I. 45, has drava in place of abhidrava.

1^ ' Emend virodhopagamo into virodhopaiamo ; cf. NL, 819; DR. I

3-94; K.XIX.87a-86b). * Emend pratimjdosa into pratijiMetu
■ SD. 380 DR. 1. 47.

Bj SD. 384. NL. 826 defines differenely.

>.). ' Cf. NL. 829; DR. I. 46, SD.382; SD. 385.
. 385.

g3 8, and SD. 386 has pratisedha in place of this. s CfTIH ^840; SD. -387.


Summing up

95. Bringing together (lit. attaining) [all aspects] of the
Germ (blja) and the action is called Summing up (adana) 1 .

Putting in insulting words for some purpose is called
Humiliation (sadana) 2 .


96. That which represents the Conclusion (samhara) [in advance] is called Foresight (prarocaiia) 1 .

These are the limbs in Pause (avairma - vimaria).

The Limbs in Conclusion
Now listen about those in the Conclusion (nmhara - nirvahana). Junction
07. The coming up of the Opening (mulchu) and the Germ is called Junction {miulhi} 1 .

Looking duly for the Denouement {karya) is called
Awakening (vibodha) 3 .


98. Intimation of [the various aspects] of the Denouement is called Assembling (gralliana) 1 .

Declaration of facts personally known is called Ascertainment
(iiirnaya) 1 .


99. That which is said to blame some one, is called
Accusation (parilhasajiaY .

95 (C.97; K.XIX. 99). 1 See NL. 844, DR. I. 48; SD. 389.

a Emend chadana into sadana. See NL. 848. DR. I. 46 has wrongl> chalana for sadina SD. 390 also lias chadana wrongly,

96 (C.98; K.XIX.88a, 91a). ' See SD. 388; NL. 850. DR. I 47.

97 (C.99; K.XIX. 91b-92a). ' Emend sukhabijo into mukhaiijo ; cf.
DR. I. 51jSD. 392.

a Cf. DR. I. 51; SD. 393.

98 (C100; E.XXI.92b-93a). ' Cf. DR. I. 51, SD. 394; NL. 864.
3 Cf. S. 895; DR. I. 51 ; NL. 870.

99 (C.101; K.XIX.93b-94a). ' Cf. NL. 873; SD. -396, DR. I. 52 defines the Limb differently.


Turning to use (lit. conquering) the object gained is called


100. Treating one with waiting upon or the like, is called
Gratification [prasada) 1 .


Attaining objects [of one's desire] is called Joy (ananda) 2 .

101. Passing away of all misery, is called Deliverance
(isamayaj 1 .


Appearence of something wonderful is called Surprise
(npaguhana) 3 .

Clever Speech

102. Words mentioning conciliation, gift and the like arc called Clever Speech (bhasana) 1 .

Retrospect dmrva-rakya) 2 is to be understood as a reference to something spoken before.


10:5. Giving and receiving of a boon is called Termination
(batya-samhara) 1 .


[A prayer seeking perfect] peace to the king and the country is called Benediction (praiasti)'.

101. With a view to introducing Sentiments (n*.«i) and

I Emend dyuli into dhtfi Cf. DR I. 53; SD, 307.

100 (C.102; K.XIX.94b-95a), 1 Cf. NL. 879; SD. 398; DR; I. 52.
' Cf. NL. 881; SD. 399; DR I. 52.

101 (Cl03;K.XIX.95b-96a). * Cf. DR. I. 52; SD. 400; NL 883.
» Cf. NL. 889; SD. 401 ; DR. I. 53.

102 (C.104; KXIX.96b-97a). ' Cf. SD. 402; DR. I. 53. NL. 891.
* Cf. NL. 891; SD. 403.

103 (C.105; KXIX.97a-98a). ' Sec SD. 404; cf. NL. 893, DR. I. 54.
" Read nrpa-deia. Cf. SD. 405, NL. 895, DR. I. 54.

1.04 (C.106; K.XIX.88b-99a). > Cf. SD. 406; NL. 906.


States {bhava) an expert playwright should insert all these
Limbs into appropriate Junctures of his work T .

105. Considering [the scope] of the Action or its condition he may sometimes insert all the Limbs or a combination of two or three [of them] into the Junctures 1 .

Five Explanatory Devices
IOC. The Supporting Scene (mlcambhalca), the Intimating
Speech (culika), the Introductory Scene (pravesaka), the Transi- tional Scene (ahkavatara), and the Anticipatory Scene (nhkaumkho) are five Explanatory Devices (arthopaksepaka) 1 .
The Supporting Scene

107. The Supporting Scene (viskambhaka) 1 should employ the middling 3 male characters, relate to the opening Juncture
(nuikhasandhi) 3 only of the Nataka, and it is [to be] graced (lit. refined) by a priest, minister or Kaucukin (armour-bearer).

108. The Supporting Scene is of two kinds ; pure and mixed. Of these the pure is made up of the middling characters and the mixed of the inferior and the middling ones.

The Intimating Speech

109. When some points are explained by a superior, mid- dling or inferior character from behind the curtain, it is called the
Intimating Speech (citlika) 1 .

105 (O.107; K.XIX.99b-100a). ' See above 104 note 1.

106 (C.108; K.X1X,1U4). » Cf. DB. I 58; SD. 308. NL. 393. Haas translates arthopahepaka as "Intermediate Scenes", sec p. 33. But the
'Explanatory Devices' are all not complete scenes but parts of scenes, vide infra.

107 (C.109; K XIX.105). ' Cf. SD. 308; DR. 338; DR. I. 59 Emend vkkamllmkas lu samskrta into viskiimbhakah samskrtah NL. 362 f . quotes the view of Carayana as follows: W iRflifti^ ftwff iffl. {Viskambhaka relates to the Prakaraiia and the Nataka 'only). It seems that such was the case at a later stage of the development of Indian drama. First it related to the Niitakas only. (

a For a definition of the middling character see NS. XXXIV. 4
3 According to this direction the viskambhaka at the beginning of
Pauca. would be an ideal one. 108 (O.110; K-XlX.106).

109 (C.lll; K.X1X.107). ' Cf. NL. 414 f., 438f.; DR. 1. 61; SD. 310.


The Introductory Scene

110. The Introductory Scene (praveiaka) in relation to (he
Nataka and the Prakarana, is to occupy a place between two
Acts and to treat the summary of the Prominent Point {bindu)*.

111. The Introductory Scene should be known as not con- sisting of the exploits of the superior and the middling characters and there should be no exalted speech in it, and its language should be Prakrit 1 .

The Transitional Scene

112. As in practice it falls between two Acts or within an
Act, and relates to the purpose of the Germ (h'tjn), it is called the
Transitional Scene (ahkavatara).

The Anticipatory Scene

113. When the detatched beginning of an Act is summa- rised beforehand by a male or a female character, it is called the
Anticipatory Scene [ahhmiukha) 1 .

An ideal Nataka
114-117. The playwright should write a Nataka having

110 (C.112; K.XIX.108). ' Cf. DR. I. 60-61; SD 309; NL. 307ff.

111 (C.113; K.XIX.109). ' See NS. XX. 32- Cf. DR. I. 60-61. SD.
309. C. gives one additional couplet after this. But this (not occuring in
K.) seems to give no new information.

112 (C.115; K.XIX.110). ' Cf. DR. I. 62.63; SD. 311; NL. 398-399.
The def • is not very clear. The ahkavatara seems to furnish an indication of the subject-matter of the next Act. An example of this seems to bo the dialogue of the Ccti and Vasavadattii at the end of the Act II. of
Svapna. This relates to the making of a garland by Vasavadattii.
Another example may be Avimaraka speaking <W «W. I sW H^ $1*1-
»uJl«i **W<S«U 1331'5'refa «rcnrai:, II. 5-6. This gives a clue to the subject-matter of the next Act which treats AvimSraka's entry into tho royal harem.

118(C.116;K.X1X111). ' The ankamukha seems to relate mostly to plays other than of tho Nataka and the Prakarana types. Examples of this arc perhaps the speeches of the Bhata in the beginning of the Karna, and of the Datagha., The reason for the abovo assumption is that the rules prescribe viskantbhaka for Natakas only (seo 107), and pmveiakax for both Natakas and Prakaranas (see 110). Cf. DR. I
62; SD. 312, 313;'NL. 408.

' 114-117 (0117-180! K.XIX.112-J15).


[different] Styles and minor Limbs {^ratijahga) 1 , Episode Indication
(pataJca) 2 , Explanatory Devices (athapratileriya)* arising from the five stages (avastha)*, having five Junctures (sandlii) 6 , twentyone
Alternative Junctures , sixtyfour Limbs (aitga) 1 , thirtysix lakmwis*, Gunas (excellence) 9 and figures of speech (alamkara) 10 , many Sentiments 11 , topics of many enjoyments, exalted speeches, characters of great people, description of good conduct, and it should be popular, wellknit in its Junctures, easy for production [on the stage], composed with soft words and capable of giving pleasure.

118. The condition of the world arising from the happiness and misery and connected with the activity of various people should find a place in the Nataka 1 .

119. There is no wise maxim, no learning, no art or craft, no device, no action that are not found in the drama (natya) 1 .

120. And the human nature with its joys and sorrows depicted through the means of representation such as Gestures,
[Words, Costume and Temperament] is also called a drama (naiya) 1 ,

121. A mimicry of the past exploits of gods, sages, and human beings should be also called a drama 1 .

122. As [this] is represented (nhhinvjate) and interpreted
{gamyate} by the actors who after suppressing their own nature make [for this purpose] various movements of their different limbs, it is called the Nataka 1 .

1 Praiijahga has not boon defined anywhere. It is possib