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Drought Recovery

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Recovery of a genotype from drought is related to its ability to retain green leaves during that period and lines with good leaf retention can supply more assimilate to the developing panicle during subsequent recovery. This in turn results in production of a large number of spikelets (Lilley and Fukai, 1994; Fukai and Cooper, 1995). Drought recovery is an important mechanism in early period of crop development. Some genotypes are able to produce more tillers upon relief of drought and these tillers are productive if the remaining growing season is long enough to complete grain filling. Rice population subjected to drying soil condition shows difference response to stress and genotypes differ in their recovery upon dehydration (Malabuyoc and …show more content…
Plants respond and adapt these abiotic stresses through various biochemical and physiological processes, thereby acquiring stress tolerance (Shinozaki et al., 2003). Plant morphological features and biochemical parameters have been useful tool routinely used in understanding the mechanism of drought tolerance and its relation to growth and development of crops. During drought there is depletion in leaf water which leads to loss of turgor pressure in guard cells. Further induction of abscisic acid in stress condition also leads to loss of stomatal turgor. This stomatal closure results into decrease in availability of CO2 to the leaves. Drought stress affects the photosynthetic machinery of the plant leading to the production of highly toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) like superoxides, peroxide. Another adaptive mechanism for protection against drought is the maintenance of turgor during periods of drought by adjusting the osmotic pressure of cells. There are two main routes whereby this can be achieved. Firstly, the cell can sequester ions into cellular compartments. Secondly, specialized osmolytes such as proline, glycine betaine, mannitol, trehalose, ononitol and ectoine can be synthesized to readjust cellular osmotic potential. These osmolytes are also active in scavenging ROS, especially if they are targeted to the chloroplast (Shen et al., 1997). Other specialized organic molecules can be used to protect cellular membranes against physical damage, and proteins against unfolding. Dehydration induces the partitioning of amphiphilic molecules such as glycosylated flavonols and hydroquinones into membranes; these compounds increase membrane fluidity and depress phase transition temperatures (Hoekstra et al., 2001). During extreme stress, tolerant plants synthesize large amounts of nonreducing disaccharides,

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