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Drug Study

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DRUG STUDY
Prescribed and Recommended Dosage, Frequency, and route of Administration ; tab OD, oral

Generic Name Brand Name Classifications

Mechanism of Action

Indication

Contraindication

Adverse Reaction

Nursing Responsiblities

Sodium Bicarbonate Arm & Hammer Baking Soda, Neut, Soda Mint Acidifiers and alkalinizing

Restores buffering capacity of the body and utilizes excess acid.

>cardiac arrest >metabolic acidosis >systemic or urinary alkalinization >antacid

>Contraindicated to pts w/ metabolic or respiratory alkalosis & in those with hypocalcaemia in w/c alkalosis may produce tetany, hypertension, seizures or heart failure >Also contraindicated in pts losing chlorides bec. of vomiting or continuous GI suction & receiving diuretics that produce hypochloremic alkalosis

CNS: tetany CV: edema GI: gastric distention, flatulence Metabolic: hypokalemia, hyponatremia

>Monitor pt closely for toxicity and affectiveness >Avoid using NaHCO3 and enteric-coated drugs together.

DRUG STUDY
Prescribed and Recommended Dosage, Frequency, and route of Administration 100mg OD, oral

Generic Name Brand Name Classifications

Mechanism of Action

Indication

Contraindication

Adverse Reaction

Nursing Responsiblities

Allopurinol

Aloprim, ApoAllopurinol + Zyloprim Hyperuricemia and gout preparations

Reduces uric acid production by inhibiting xanthine oxidase

>Gout or hyperurocemia >Hyperuricemia caused by malignancies >To prevent acute gout attacks >To prevent uric acid nephropathy during cancer chemotherapy >Recurrent calcium oxalate calculi

>in patients hypersensitive to drugs and in there with idiopathic hemochromatosis

CNS: fever, drowsiness, headache, parenthesis, peripheral neuropathy, neuritis CV: hypersensitivity EENT: epistaxis GI: nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, gastritis, dyspepsia GU: renal failure Hema: anemia Hepa: hepatitis

>Monitor uric acid level to evaluate drugs effectiveness >Monitor fluid intake & output, daily urine output of at least 2L and maintenance of neutral or slightly alkaline urine are desirable. >Periodically monitor CBC & hepatic & renal function >Encourage pt to drink plenty of fluids while taking drug unless otherwise contrainidicated.

DRUG STUDY
Prescribed and Recommended Dosage, Frequency, and route of Administration

Generic Name Brand Name Classifications

Mechanism of Action

Indication

Contraindication

Adverse Reaction

Nursing Responsiblities

Spironolactone Aldactone, Norospiraton, Spiractin Potassium-sparing diuretic; antagonizes aldosterone in the distal tubules, increasing sodium and water excretion

50mg ;tab OD

> edema >hypertension > diuretic-induced hypokalemia > to detect hyperaldosteronis m > to manage primary hyperaldosteronis m > heart failure, as adjunct to ACE inhibitor, or loop diuretic, with or without cardiac glycoside

> Contraindicated to patients hypersensitive to drug >contraindicated in those with anuria, acute or progressive renal insufficiency or hyperkalemia >use cautiously in pts with fluid or electrolyte imbalance, impaired renal fxn or hepatic dse

CNS: headache, drowsiness, lethargy, confusion, ataxia GI: diarrhea, gastric bleeding, ulceration, cramping, vomiting GU: inability to maintain erection, menstrual disturbances Skin: hirsutism

>To enhance absorption, give drug with meals >Monitor electrolyte levels, fluid intake and output, weight and BP >protect drug from light >inform laboratory that pt is taking spironolactone because this may interfere with tests that measure digoxin levels

DRUG STUDY
Prescribed and Recommended Dosage, Frequency, and route of Administration 40 mg IVTT q 12H

Generic Name Brand Name Classifications

Mechanism of Action

Indication

Contraindication

Adverse Reaction

Nursing Responsiblities

Omeprazole Omepron Losec Antisecretory drug

Gastric acid-pump inhibitor: suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the hydrogenpotassium ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cells; blocks final step of acid production

> short term treatment for duodenal ulcer >treatment of heartburn or symptoms of GERD >short term treatment of active benign gastric ulcer >GERD, severe erosive esophagitis, poorly responsive symptomatic GERD

> hypersensitivity >use cautiously with pregnancy and lactation

CNS: headache, asthenia, vertigo, insomnia, anxiety, apathy Dermatologic: rash, inflammation, pruritus , dry skin GI: diarrhea, abdominal pain, Respiratory: URI symptoms, sough, epistaxis CV: Chest pain

>Administer before meals. Caution pt to swallow whole not to open, chew, or crush them > administer antacids if needed >advise pt to avoid alcohol, products containing aspirin or NSAIDs, and foods that may cause an increase in GI irritation

DRUG STUDY
Prescribed and Recommended Dosage, Frequency, and route of Administration 40 mg IVTT q 12H

Generic Name Brand Name Classifications

Mechanism of Action

Indication

Contraindication

Adverse Reaction

Nursing Responsiblities

Omeprazole Omepron Losec Antisecretory drug

Gastric acid-pump inhibitor: suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the hydrogenpotassium ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cells; blocks final step of acid production

> short term treatment for duodenal ulcer >treatment of heartburn or symptoms of GERD >short term treatment of active benign gastric ulcer >GERD, severe erosive esophagitis, poorly responsive symptomatic GERD

> hypersensitivity >use cautiously with pregnancy and lactation

CNS: headache, asthenia, vertigo, insomnia, anxiety, apathy Dermatologic: rash, inflammation, pruritus , dry skin GI: diarrhea, abdominal pain, Respiratory: URI symptoms, sough, epistaxis CV: Chest pain

>Administer before meals. Caution pt to swallow whole not to open, chew, or crush them > administer antacids if needed >advise pt to avoid alcohol, products containing aspirin or NSAIDs, and foods that may cause an increase in GI irritation

DRUG STUDY
Prescribed and Recommended Dosage, Frequency, and route of Administration

Generic Name Brand Name Classifications

Mechanism of Action

Indication

Contraindication

Adverse Reaction

Nursing Responsiblities

Ursodeoxycholic acid Ursofalk, URSO, URSO 250, Urso Forte Gallstonesolubilizing drug

750 mg, 1 tab BID

A naturally occurring bile acid that suppresses hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and inhibits intestinal absorption of cholesterol, leading to a decrease cholesterol concentration in the bile and a bile that is cholesterol solubilizing and not cholesterol precipitating.

>Tx of selected pts with radiosolvent, noncalcified gallstones in gallbladder for whom elective surgery is contraindicated >prevention of gallstone formation in obese pts experiencing rapid wt loss >Tx of primary biliary cirrhosis (tablets only)

>contraindicated with allergy to bile salt, hepatic impairment, calcified stones, radiopaque stones or radiosolvent bile pigment, unremitting acute cholecystitis, biliary obstruction, gallstone pancreatitis

CNS: headache, fatigue, anxiety, depression, sleep disorder Dermatologic: pruritus, rash, urticaria, dry skin, sweating, hair thinning GI: diarrhea, cramps, heartburn, constipation, n/v, anorexia, epigastric distress

>Assses pt carefully for suitability of ursodiol therapy >Give drug in two to three divided doses >Donot administer drug with aluminum-based antacids. If such drugs are needed, >admin 2-3 hr after ursodiol

Respiratory: rhinitis, cough >report gallstone attacks (abdominal pain, n/v), yellowing of the skin or eyes

DRUG STUDY
Prescribed and Recommended Dosage, Frequency, and route of Administration

Generic Name Brand Name Classifications

Mechanism of Action

Indication

Contraindication

Adverse Reaction

Nursing Responsiblities

Itopride HCL Ganaton Antiflatulence & anti-infammation, GIT regulators 50 mg film, DO

GI symptoms of functional, nonulcer dyspepsia (chronic gastritis) i.e. feeling of abdominal bloatedness, upper abdominal pain, heartburn, nausea and vomiting

>increase in GI motility >use precautiosly in pregnancy and lactation, children do not administer with meals >take before meals

DRUG STUDY
Prescribed and Recommended Dosage, Frequency, and route of Administration

Generic Name Brand Name Classifications

Mechanism of Action

Indication

Contraindication

Adverse Reaction

Nursing Responsiblities

Ketosinel 1 tab TID Fresenius Kabi (CromaMedic) Ketoanaloznes & essential amino acids

Prevention & therapy of damages d/t faulty/deficient protein metabolism in chronic renal insufficiency

>hypercalcemia >hypercalcemia >disturbed amino acid metabolism >use precautiously in hypophosphatemia > monitor serum Ca level

>swallow whole, do not chew/crush >administer w/ meals

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