Premium Essay

Drug Use and Social Learning Theory

In: Social Issues

Submitted By Ruberts
Words 486
Pages 2
Theoretical and Conceptual
This study is anchored on Albert Bandura’s Social Learning theory. This theory states that learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction (Bandura, 1963). Social learning theory holds that behavior is molded by rewards and punishment, or reinforcement. Past and present rewards and punishments for certain actions determine the actions that individuals continue to pursue. Reward and punishment structures are built into specific groups (Akers, 1992). By interacting with members of certain groups or social circles, people learn definitions of behaviors as good or bad. It is in the group setting, differentially for different groups, where reward and punishment take place, and where individuals are exposed to behavioral models and normative definitions of certain behaviors as good or bad . Social learning theory proposes that the use and abuse of psychoactive substances is caused by the differential exposure to groups in which use is rewarded. “These groups provide the social environments in which exposure to definitions, imitations of models, and social reinforcements for use of or abstinence from any particular substance takes place. The definitions are learned through imitation and social reinforcement of them by members of the group with whom one is associated” (Akers et al, 1979). Drug use, including abuse, is determined “by the extent to which a given pattern of behavior is sustained by the combination of the reinforcing effects of the substance with social reinforcement, exposure to models, definitions through association with using peers, and by the degree to which it is not deterred through bad effects of the substance and/or the negative sanctions from peers, parents, and the law” (Akers, 1992). Social learning theory, then, proposes that the extent...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Conceptualizing Addiction

..."a behavioral pattern of drug use, characterized by overwhelming involvement with the use of a drug (compulsive use), the securing of its supply and a high tendency to relapse after withdrawal. In addition, it is characterized by craving, withdrawal and tolerance." Schuckit (1992, p. 182) believes addiction involves the “continued, self-administered use of a substance despite substance-related problems, and it results in tolerance for the substance, withdrawal from the substance, and compulsive drug-taking behavior due to cravings.” The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V), combined the DSM-IV categories of Substance Abuse and Substance Dependence into a single category of Substance Use Disorder (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). The DSM-V covers 11 criteria for Substance Use Disorder: 1) taking the substance in larger amounts or for longer than the you meant to; 2) wanting to cut down or stop using the substance but not managing to; 3) spending a lot of time getting, using, or recovering from use of the substance; 4) cravings and urges to use the substance; 5) not managing to do what you should at work, home or school, because of substance use; 6) continuing to use, even when it causes problems in relationships; 7) giving up important social, occupational or recreational activities because of substance use; 8) using substances again and again, even when it puts the you in danger; 9) continuing to use, even when the you......

Words: 1120 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Upbringing Exam Question

...values, which is effected by factors within their family (primarily their parents), environmental and social factors, and the dominant views in their culture. This will determine your behaviour as an adult. We research upbringing so that if an individual is at high risk of developing criminal behaviour due to his upbringing, the risks can be easily reduced by changing the way an individual is brought up. Upbringing suggests that criminal behaviour can be learnt from others, i.e. if a child observes criminal behaviour he is at high risk of committing a crime. There are three ways through which an individual learns from others: classical conditioning, operant conditioning and the social learning theory. Social learning theory is the idea that we learn indirectly, through others – normally role models (such as criminal family members, criminal peers etc.). In Akers et al study on social learning and deviant behaviour, data on adolescent drinking and drug-taking behaviour was collected by a survey. A large sample of teenagers was surveyed, with a small sub-group interviewed to check the validity of the data. Quantitative data was collected by asking about the frequency of their alcohol and drug consumption on a scale of 1 (never) to 6 (nearly everyday) and qualitative data was collected by asking about their alcohol or drug related experience, why they were involved in alcohol and drug consumption, are they following a role model, what reward or punishment they get by this......

Words: 1220 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Addiction - Behavioural

...Behavioural (learning) models of addiction Classical and operant conditioning in addiction Do we develop addictions simply by being rewarded for doing them? Classical conditioning and the initiation of addictive behaviour Stimuli that occur just before, or at the same time, as a learned stimulus (e.g. a drug) may become secondary reinforcers by association. An example of this is learning that the sights and sounds of a pub are associated with alcohol – the sights and sounds then produce the same physiological effects as alcohol. Operant conditioning and the initiation of addictive behaviour If a behaviour is rewarded (positive reinforcement) it is likely to be repeated. Positive reinforcers cause dopamine release in the mesolimbic dopamine system. The system is designed for natural reinforcers such as food, drink, keeping warm, and sex, however addictive drugs can produce the same effect. Drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine and alcohol cause massive over-stimulation of dopamine receptors and are therefore positively rewarded. Gambling leads to a rush of adrenaline when experiencing a win or near-win, is socially rewarding through praise from peers, and financially rewarding after a win (Griffiths, 2009). Operant conditioning and the maintenance/relapse of addictive behaviour Repeated use of drugs leads to withdrawal symptoms when stopping. Withdrawal is physically unpleasant and can be reduced by taking the drug again (negative......

Words: 782 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Social Learnning Theory

...The Social Learning Theory is based on imitating a person’s behavior and adopting similar beliefs and values as part of identification. This theory focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context. The Social Learning theory, the psychology is that people learn from one another including such notions as observational learning imitation, and modeling. Theorist Albert Bandura has lead such studies to back these hypothesis, proposed that behaviors could influence both the environment and the person. Early experiences frame the life of a child and determine in most cases what personality traits they will take on. According to Bandura (1977) learning would be exceedingly laboress not to mention hazardous if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Most behaviors that have been studied resorts back to observation, the behaviors have in turn modeled the basic interepatation of the perceived. Deviation from these behaviors are the choice of the individual but hard for them to change due to only knowing one way of living. The psychological theories prove that early stages of moral and cognitive developments in behaviors down the line. All behaviors we observe are not always learned or carried out, each determines on the rewards of the behaviors. The three core concepts of the Social Learning concept are, the idea that people learn through observation, secondly that the idea that internal mental state are......

Words: 1447 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Learning Experience

...Learning Experience Paper Learning experience Learning experience discussed in this paper will focus on how someone can learn how not become addicted to drugs. The discussion will also identify what could be learned from the time an individual started using drugs to the time they were no longer a drug user. There will be a discussion of the description of how someone’s learning could have occurred through classical conditioning, identify the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, the conditioned stimulus, and the conditioned response. The operant conditioning, a description of the behavior, the consequences, and reinforcements will also explain. The discussion will address how the learning could have occurred cognitive social learning. Identifying the Learning Experience Let’s say a person has been a casual drug user, his lifestyle has been very carefree. Through his carefree lifestyle he is introduced to a new method of using drugs. The instant the drug is introduced becomes addicted. He experiences an overwhelming desire to have more to obtain the same sensation. He experiences a loss of control over his life. This loss of control is heightened when the drug cannot be obtained when his body desires it. The drug and its use becomes a part of his life much the same as taking a breath. Classical conditioning, Unconditioned Stimulus and Response, Conditioned Stimulus and Response Classical conditioning is a form of learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes......

Words: 772 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Summarize a Situation That Required U.S. Diplomatic Efforts During the President’s Time in Office

...Crimes Theory Ontavia Johnson Strayer University Information Technology in Crime 170 Dr. Wesley E. Phillips, Jr. Crime Theory There are many digital crimes that are produced through the life of technology. Differential Association Theory is well known to be the cause of digital crime. This theory originated in the Chicago School of Criminological Theories, which embraces the sociological approach, that criminologist use to analyzing criminality. Differential Association Theory was introduced by Edwin Sutherland in 1947. He was one of the first to take an interest in the classical individualist theories of criminal behavior and concluded the Differential Association Theory. The Differential Association Theory is recognize the most relevant terms of digitals crimes, and well as can be used to clarify non-digital crimes using motivation, rationalization, and attitudes necessary for the crime. Testing several criminological theories, including strain theory, techniques of neutralization, social learning theory, and self-control theory, Morris and Higgins found that differential association was the most pronounced theoretical predictor in self-reported piracy (Morris, R. G., & Higgins, G. E. 2009). Normative conflict at the individual level is translated into individual acts of delinquency through differential association learned through communication usually in intimate groups (Sutherland, 1947). In further arguments peer pressure and peer attitudes are an......

Words: 843 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Contract Theory vs Social Theory

...Conflict Theory vs. Social Theory Introduction Society has come to determine that social behavior is a direct result of an outside source. There are several different theories that could determine why a person acts or reacts in the manor that they do. This paper will address two of those theories; conflict theory and social theory. Conflict theory, would suggest that behavior is a reaction to the social order around them, where social theory would suggest that abstract sources are the cause of behavior. The writer of this paper will also provide examples to support the findings of these theories and evaluations of the effects of these theories. Comparison of Conflict Theory to Social Theory Conflict theory states that there is a social order that society follows. This order determines what social class you are in and what economic class you’re in. The theory was derived by Karl Marx. He believed that the greatest power came from those who had the “greatest political, economic, and social resources” (about education, 2014) “According to conflict theory, inequality exists because those in control of a disproportionate share of society’s resources actively defend their advantages. The masses are not bound to society by their shared values, but by coercion at the hands of those in power” (about education, 2014) Conflict also suggest that it is all about power and control. “Conflict emerges between groups attempting to exercise control over particular......

Words: 1518 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Media Analysis

...Behavioral and Social/Cognitive Approaches to Forming Habits Paper Jeston Walker PSY/250 December 8, 2014 Ronald Goodnight Introduction In this paper I will analyze one of your habits, how did I develop this habit, were there role models for this habit, and which people influenced the adoption of this habit. I will explain why do I continue the habit and has there been a time when I have attempted to break this habit. I will use the behavioral personality theory to explain why I have this habit. I will describe components of social/cognitive theory that explain why the habit formed. I will develop a plan that applies operant conditioning to change this habit. Between the behavioral and social/cognitive theories, I will also describe which one do I find best explains my personality. Analyze one of your habits. How did you develop this habit? Were there role models for this habit? Which people influenced the adoption of this habit? My smoking habit began before I even turned 18. I tried my first cigarette around the age of 16, and I was addicted by the time I turned 18.  It was several reasons why I developed the habit of smoking. A lot of my family members that was closed too were smokers. Their friends encourage them to try cigarettes, and to keep smoking. They saw smoking as a way of rebelling and showing independence. They think that everyone else is smoking, and that they should, too. Also I used to see tobacco advertising all the time, which targeted a lot of teenagers......

Words: 1408 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Industrial Organzation Paper

...Explain how learning theories influence perception of interpersonal relationships. The belief that environmental forces determine how new behave is best seen in the work of B. F. Skinner. He argued that nearly all behavior is directly governed by environmental contingencies of reinforcement. In his view, to explain behavior we need only analyze the functional relations between observable action and observable consequences (Hjelle & Ziegler, 1992). Skinner believed that psychology must not explain behavior on the basis of physiological or constitutional components of the organism but rather on the basis of environmental stimuli (Feist & Feist, 2010). Skinner also assumed that all behavior is lawfully determined, predictable, and able to e brought under environmental control (Hjelle & Ziegler, 1992). Bandura believed that psychological functioning is best understood in terms of a continuous reciprocal interplay among behavioral, cognitive, and environmental influences. In terms of behavior, personal factors, and social forces all operate as interlocking determinants of one another-that behavior is influenced by the environment but that people also play an active role in creating the social milieu and other circumstances that arise in their daily transactions. The most distinctive feature of Bandrsa’s social cognitive theory is the belief that most human behavior is learned through observation or by example. Social cognitive theory proposes hat modeling influences generate......

Words: 695 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Abnormal Psychology

...that envelops an individual’s substance addiction (Osher, 1989). Though the reasons for compulsive drug self-administration varies widely, most, if not all users of drugs do so to avoid negative feelings including anxiety, depression, angst and fear (Goldsmith, Holzer & Manderscheid, 1998). Positive reinforcement is a concept first described by psychologist B. F. Skinner in his theory of operant conditioning. Skinner introduced reinforcement to the law of effect (Thorndike, 1905) in psychology, stating that behaviour that is reinforced is likely to be repeated and strengthened, while behaviour that is not reinforced will likely be extinguished (McLeod, 2007). Positive reinforcement refers to the rewarding and confident emotions that drug users experience when self-administering drugs or other substances. This theory highlights that the common denominator of a wide range of addictive substances is their ability to cause psychomotor activation (Wise & Bozarth, 1987). This view is related to the belief that all positive reinforcers activate a common biological mechanism, with one of the most common components being dopamine fibres that project up the medial forebrain bundle from the midbrain to limbic and cortical regions (Wise & Bozarth, 1987), altering the user’s approach behaviour. In 1938, Skinner defined operant conditioning as the change in behaviour by the use of reinforcement, which is given after the desired response. Skinner (1948) illustrated......

Words: 1339 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Behavioral and Social/Cognitive Approaches

...individuals. Behaviorists assume that one can understand other people’s behaviors through observing. It can be observed in terms of responses to particular stimuli. The behavioral approach contrasts with the cognitive or social approach. The cognitive approach focuses on the way one can explain the disorders and behaviors through the cognitive processes. It explores the internal mental processes and the way people perceive, memorize, believe and solve problems. Cognitive is psychology that is relative to human behaviors that focuses on the way people think and such thought process that affect their way of behaviors. Discussion One of my habits is smoking, and I developed this habit due to influence from my peer group at the college. The role models for the smoking habit were some of my friends who used to smoke cigarettes. When I joined the college, I used not to smoke. However, when I joined a group of friends who used to drink and smoke, I found myself smoking too, and it became a daily habit. Some of the people who influenced me to adopt this habit are my roommates. This is because they used to smoke daily when we have left the lecture room going to sleep. They encourage me and I started smoking slowly, but it became a habit. From the National Institute on Drug Abuse (2006), a habit is acquired behavior pattern being developed through constant repetition. Therefore, I kept smoking every day, and the smoking behavior became automatic. I now continue smoking because I am......

Words: 1133 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sports Drug Abuse

...Sports and Substance Abuse By Amanpreet Sekhon Under the Direction of Natasha Sessoms, MA At Unitek College Introduction Sports are becoming more relevant as a major influence in the life of a human. The relationship between drug abuse in sports and society adds a different perspective on how sports effects individuals, and perhaps even society as a whole. Unfortunately, society seems to view ‘winning’ as something which is more important than the game itself. Success in sports brings fame, popularity, and may even impact scholarships and university entrance for many individuals. The societies’ demands and expectations from sports are rising over time. Society seems to view ‘winning’ as something which is more important than the game itself; consequently, the influence of drugs in competitive sports is becoming more relevant. Overview The urge to win or watch your favorite team win is becoming a societal expectation and norm. Athletes feel that they need to take drugs to help them to perform and win in the respective sport they are competing in. Whether you are watching, playing it, or talking about it, sports are becoming a major entertainment and a major part of the life of a human. Data from Lloyd D. Johnston (May 2007), reveals that 2.7% of twelfth graders utilized steroids, while 1.8% and 1.6% for the tenth and eighth graders respectively. Youths can easily be influenced into using steroids from peer pressure or the......

Words: 1653 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Substance Abuse and Its Effects on Society

...Substance Abuse and Effects on Society Tracy Moore SOC203: Social Problems Brianne Larsen November 24, 2014 Social Problem Substance abuse leads to an inability for the user to be responsible. The behaviors can lead to dangerous situations, legal problems, and social or interpersonal problems. After time substance abuse can have a physiological symptoms including tolerance that leads to addiction. The cost of this personal decision causes the government millions in the criminal system, destroys families and children involved, and causes more deaths a year than car accidents. Qualifying Social Problem Goldstein talks about the tripartite model to describe the characteristics, behaviors, and events associated with social institutions and/or influences. The model represents the psychopharmacologic, economic compulsive, and systemic dimensions that link substance abuse to crime. There is the psychological and biological effects that cause anger, violence, and lack of self-control. There are crimes committed to obtain money to buy drugs. Followed with the violent crimes related to trafficking and distribution of drugs usually involving violence, guns, and death (2012). Core values are also violated because of the behavior of addicts. There is a lack of; self-control, responsibility, consideration for others, proper parenting that would ensure the safety of their children and family. Those who abuse substances also disrupt institutions associated with the health...

Words: 1348 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Ethics and Moral Furthermore it was documented that if any household had children that were being abused then the child or children would be taken from the home immediately. When stating abuse this means anything from child abuse, domestic violence, and drug or alcohol abuse. If this occurs then the child will be taken from the resident and then the state will take the child into custody until a foster home can be provided. The state cam hold the child for a period up to six months. Depending on the crime some parents will have to undergo certain steps to prove to the state that they are trying to clean up their act, The list of things that the parents/guardians may be required to take are drug treatment, family counseling, and anger management. Some other things that may be required are life skill classes and even having to take parenting classes. This is where the Social learning theory come into play, The Department of Job and Family Services made reference to the social learning theory as providing support for this approach, as evidenced by research indicating that “aggressive children have parents who use similar tactics when dealing with others. For example, the children of wife batterers are more likely to use aggressive tactics themselves than children in the general population, especially if the...

Words: 1211 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Social Cognitive Theory of Learning

...Social Cognitive Theory of Learning Social cognitive theory of learning is a theoretical perspective that focuses on learning by observing others and eventually assuming control over one’s own behavior (Ormrod, 2011, p.323). Social cognitive theory is a perspective that helps us understand about learning by observing other people doing the same thing. This theory is a blend of behaviorism and cognitive psychology (Ormrod, 2011). Behaviorism theory relates to learning as a stimulus- response relationship and suggests that learning involves a behavior change whereas according to social cognitive theory learning is an internal process that may or may not lead to a behavior change. According to social cognitive theory, people and their environments mutually influence each other (Ormrod, 2011). People learn from the environment they are in, people they interact with, and behaviors they watch. People can learn by observing others and as they become older they can set their goals based on the accomplishments and the results of that learning. People learn by observation is the basic assumption of the social cognitive theory. The person who demonstrates a behavior for someone else is the model for the learner (Ormrod, 2011). According to instrumental conditioning, learning is a process of trial and error (Ormrod, 2011, p.324). Learners observe different behaviors and try to adopt those behaviors, if any of the learned behaviors bring desirable results; those behaviors stay......

Words: 766 - Pages: 4