Free Essay

Dual Use

In: Science

Submitted By ckw37
Words 521
Pages 3
Research altering the structure of infective viruses poses a threat to man and should be banned. This threat is defined, as “Dual use”. Although, altering the structure of viruses does have beneficial purposes it is ultimately not worth the risk and outweighed by its dangers. Dual Use is beneficial in advancing science or improving public health but is often misused for malevolent ends such as bioterrorism. Bioterrorism is not a new threat, Pathogens and micro organisms have been used as weapons for hundreds of years, dating back to the fourteenth century when Tartars threw the corpses of plague victims over the city walls of Kaffa before its siege and in the eighteenth century when British soldiers distributed blankets used by smallpox victims to Native Americans with the objective of contaminating them (SERB). This history of vile behavior in regards to bioweapons has not seemed to stop as technology advanced, some would say it has even gotten worse. When discussing the issue of bioterrorism one must keep in mind that it doesn’t mean all dual use scientists are bioterrorist, legitimate scientists typically conduct a research that is in the dual use field for positive purposes.
“Just because a research project may have dual use concerns, that doesn’t mean that it will be misused as a bioweapon or that the researchers conducting the research are bioweaponeers” (SERB).
However as research continues and advances on dual use the greater we risk-assisting bioterrorist succeed in their plans. This is because if the new research many responsible science professionals come up ends up getting in the wrong hands, the study could be a guideline on how the substance in question can be turned into an immensely dangerous weapon. Often many scientist with no intentions of creating a dangerous disease create deadlier manipulated versions of the original viruses they were working on hoping to find ways to fight against. This is what happened in the case of two lab made versions of the lethal H5N1 viruses. (Say)
In 1972 the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention was proposed, and over 160 countries have signed it. The BWC banned the use, development, production, stockpiling, acquisition, or retention of any “microbial or other biological agents, or toxins” in “quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, or other peaceful purposes (SERB). “ but that still has not stopped the risk of bioterrorism. Incidents such as the 2001 anthrax attacks and the lethal H5N1 virus still happen and we put our citizens in further risk the more time we spend allowing dual use research.
Research altering the structure of infective viruses poses a threat to man and should be banned and countries should only focus on how to defend themselves and prosecute any individual or group condoning such activity so that we can slow bioterrorism and eventually bring it to a halt.

Works Cited SERB. "The Dual Use Dilemma in Biological Research." SERCEB.org. Http://www.serceb.org/dualuse.htm, n.d. Web. 09 May 2015.

Saey, Tina Hesman. "Designer Flu: How Scientists Made a Killer Virus Airborne-and Who Should Know." Science News 181.11 (2012): 20-25. Web.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Homework

...Guffey-SEEFER, Business English, 11e – 70 points WORKSHEET, CH. 3, NOUN PLURALS FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE CORRECT PLURAL FORMS FOR THE NOUNS SHOWN IN PARENTHESES. |1. |Every day we must send many (copy) of (fax) to our suppliers. | | |2. |A flood of computer (virus) is causing (worry) for businesspeople. | | |3. |The (Murphy) and the (Ross) plan to vacation on Maui. | | |4. |All (entry) must be submitted on official contest (form). | | |5. |Numerous social media (glitch) caused (user) to worry about their accounts. | | |6. |Mr. Mason’s business statistics class included two (Jeffrey) and two (Courtney). | | |7. |All (RN) and (LVN) were asked to work overtime. | | |8. |None of the (attorney) were granted (leave of absence) during the trial. | | |9. |(Customer) could not understand how identity (thief) could have gotten their personal data. | | |10. |Some e-mail (message) contain (smiley) and other emoticons...

Words: 639 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Uigig

...Assignment 1–Advanced Operations Research - MATH 3010 Posted 23 August 2014 Due date: 19 September 2014, by 5pm In all the statements below, the notation, as well as references to page numbers, equations, etc, are as in the textbook Primal-dual interior-point methods, by Wright, Stephen, which is available online for UniSA staff and students. All relevant chapters of the textbook are also available in the webpage of the course. For solving this assignment, you need to read the handwritten Lecture Notes posted in the web and the material in the book up to Chapter 4, page 70. Question 1 (2+2+3+3+3+3=16 points) Fix A ∈ Rm×n , b ∈ Rm , and c ∈ Rn . (a) Write down the KKT conditions for the following problem, on the variable x ∈ Rn : min cT x Ax = b ; x ≥ 0. (1) (b) Write down the KKT conditions for the following problem, on the variable (λ, s) ∈ Rm+n AT λ max λT b + s = c; s ≥ 0, (2) Show that both the KKT conditions associated with both problems are identical. (c) Given x, s ∈ Rn , define the matrices X = diag(x1 , . . . , xn ), S = diag(s1 , . . . , sn ), and the vector e = (1, . . . , 1)T ∈ Rn . Let F : R2n+m → R2n+m be defined as  T  A λ+s−c . Ax − b F (x, λ, s) =  XS e Show that a solution of F (x, λ, s) = 0 does not necessarily satisfy the KKT conditions of part (a) (or part (b)). Prove that, on the other hand, every vector (x, λ, s) that satisfies the KKT conditions must satisty F (x, λ, s) = 0. (d) Recall that the search direction (∆x, ∆λ, ∆s) generated by a......

Words: 1247 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Tax Senior

...Lesson 14 progressive and eco safe driving Introduction Progressive driving is about making maximum progress for the road, traffic and weather conditions without risking safety. This requires more driving skill along with better planning and awareness, particularly when you are overtaking or negotiating bends in the road. Eco safe driving is very similar but with more emphasis on saving fuel. Lesson aims and objectives During this lesson you will learn how to overtake fast moving vehicles on a single carriageway, how to negotiate bends at speed and how to recognise when speed can result in a waste of time, energy and fuel. By the end of this lesson you should be able to: ? explain the difference between progressive driving and speeding; ? explain the conditions that are likely to result in a skid and losing control of the vehicle; ? consistently drive at such a speed that you can stop within the distance you can see to be clear; ? explain what factors need to be considered when assessing how fast a bend can be negotiated safely and the risks involved; ? identify the sharpness of a bend on approach and the most suitable speed and gear to negotiate the bend; ? demonstrate a reasonable level of skill in negotiating bends of differing shapes and complexity; ? explain the likely places it would be unsafe to overtake and why; ? demonstrate a reasonable level of skill in overtaking moving vehicles at speed on a single two......

Words: 2143 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Nothing

...myphone T23 Duo free downloads and reviews myphone T23 Duo free downloads Click links below to get downloads free for your myphone T23 Duo phone myphone T23 Duo games:  Java 240x320 games touchscreen  Java 240x320 games   myphone T23 Duo apps:  Java J2ME apps   myphone T23 Duo themes:  myphone T23 Duo ringtones:  mid   mp3   wav   myphone T23 Duo wallpapers screensavers:  240 x 320 myphone T23 Duo ebooks:  jar   pdf   txt   myphone T23 Duo videos:  3gp   mp4   myphone T23 Duo web apps:  more myphone T23 Duo features: 3.5mm audio jack |If you like myphone T23 Duo, you should look at: | |[pic] | |myphone T23 Duo | | | | | | | |[pic] | |myphone A818 Duo | | | | | | | |[pic] | |myphone TW1 Duo | | ...

Words: 496 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Cases

...MATH 4450 - HOME WORK 6 (1) Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over the field K and B be a basis for V . Let Bil(V × V, K) be the set of all bilinear maps on V × V to K. (a) Prove that there is an isomorphism Bil(V × V, K) → Matn×n (K). We proved this in class when V = Rn and B is the standard basis. As I mentioned then, the same proof goes through (almost) verbatim. So this exercise is intended to make sure that you understand the various concepts involved. So first define the map and then show it is injective and surjective. (b) Let V ∗ be the dual vector space and B be the dual basis with respect to B. Show that with respect to the bases B and B , there is an isomorphism Lin(V, V∗ ) → Matm×n (K). (c) Conclude now that there is an isomorphism Bil(V × V, K) → Lin(V, V∗ ). (2) Let f : R2 × R2 → R defined by f (x, y) = x1 y1 + x1 y2 + x2 y1 + x2 y2 where x = (x1 , x2 ) and y = (y1 , y2 ). Find the matrix A such that f (x, y) = xt Ay. Finally check that the matrix that you have obtained is indeed the correct one. (3) Let V be a vector space of dimension n with basis B and < , > be a scalar product on V . Recall that any such scalar product is a bilinear form. Show that the matrix associated to this scalar product is a symmetric matrix. (4) Let V be an n-dimensional vector space. Prove that there to every non-zero linear functional φ : V → K, we there is an (n − 1)-dimensional subspace Wφ ⊂ V such that ker φ = Wφ . Show that if ψ : V → K is another linear functional such that...

Words: 322 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Theories of Knowlege

...network model appeared, the publications introduced the first models of as computing machines, the basic model of a self-organizing network (Arbib, 1995). Martindlae (1991) states that "The brain does not have anything we could really call a central processing unit, and the brain does not work in a serial fashion. The brain is therefore more like a large number of very slow computers all operating at the same time and each dedicated to a fairly specific task" (p. 10). The more modern is the dual coding approach, which believes that knowledge is a series of complex associative networks. Within these networks there are imagined (visual) and verbal representations. These two representations are what facilitate the recovery and storage of knowledge (Paivio, 1986). Allan Paivio is the researcher in the area of verbal and nonverbal representations during the 1960's. In 1971 Allan Paivio presented his innovative paper:” Imagery and Verbal Processes”. Because of this paper the concept of a dual coding process was born. This method gives an explanation on how...

Words: 1191 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Bios Chips

...One interesting thing you will see with the use of two BIOS chips. The M-BIOS chip is the Main BIOS chip and the B-BIOS chip is the Backup BIOS chip, which is used to rewrite the M-BIOS chip if it becomes corrupted. LGA Stands for Land grid array It works a a few processors such as the Intel Core i7,i3,i5 Xeon, Pentium, Celeron. The purpose of the LGA 1156 Is to connect a processor to the motherboard. The Intel H55 Chipset utilizes the 1st gen. Intel i core series CPUs integrated graphics capability. The Giga byte GA-H55M-UD2H is great for charging Apple devices with by turning it on and off, having 3x’s the power for USB for great USB usage. It also has an easy BIOS setting as well as 2 PCI-E 2.0x 16 graphics interface with ATI Cross Fire X support for graphics performance. The AMD 770 Northbridge chipset is used with the Phenom Series made by ATI. This is used for performance for the graphics. The AMD SB710 Southbridge chipset is a high-performance embedded platform solution that packs HyperTransport™ 3.0 Technology, 1 PCI Express® Generation 2, DirectX® 10 and high definition hardware video decode into a solution targeted at high end embedded client applications. It is for use with Embedded AMD Athlon single and dual-core processors from 8W to 35W. Also it is designed to also be compatible with quad-core AMD Phenom processors. It has up to 128MB DDR3 dedicated frame buffer (sideport memory) for optimizations in power savings and video decoding. Used for operating......

Words: 313 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Kid of the Bay

...Argumentative Writing Rubric 9-10 | Advanced | Proficient | Basic | Not Yet | Claim: The text introduces a clear, arguable claim that can be supported by reasons and evidence. | The text introduces a compelling claim that is clearly arguable and takes a purposeful position on an issue. The text has a structure and organization that is carefully crafted to support the claim. | The text introduces a precise claim that is clearly arguable and takes an identifiable position on an issue. The text has an effective structure and organization that is aligned with the claim. | The text introduces a claim that is arguable and takes a position. The text has a structure and organization that is aligned with the claim. | The text contains an unclear or emerging claim that suggests a vague position. The text attempts a structure and organization to support the position. | Development: The text provides sufficient data and evidence to back up the claim as well as a conclusion that supports the argument. | The text provides convincing and relevant data and evidence to back up the claim and effectively addresses counterclaims. The conclusion strengthens the claim and evidence. | The text provides sufficient and relevant data and evidence to back up the claim and addresses counterclaims fairly. The conclusion effectively reinforces the claim and evidence. | The text provides sufficient data and evidence to back up the claim and addresses counterclaims. The conclusion ties to the claim......

Words: 668 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Nt1110Lab5Motherboard

...ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE COMPUTER STRUCTURE AND LOGIC NT1110 LAB 5: Identify Motherboard Components and Form Factors Gus Perez 19593003 Salem, Oregon. Task 1: Results and Deliverables. The LGA 1156 connector LGA 1156, also known as Socket H or H1, is an Intel desktop CPU socket. LGA stands for land grid array. Its incompatible successor is LGA 1155. The 1156 is the number of pins in the socket, its designed to take the 1156 pin processor. What processors is it used with? Intel Celeron, Pentium, Core i3, i5, i7, and Xeon What is its purpose on the motherboard? LGA 1156 socket allows the following connections to be made from the processor to the rest of the system. * PCI-Express 2.0 ×16 for communication with a graphics card * DMI for communication with the Platform Controller Hub (PCH). This consists of a PCI-Express 2.0 ×4 connection * FDI for communication with the PCH, this consists of two display connections * Two memory channels for communication with DDR3 SDRAM Basically the LGA 1156 socket connects the processor with the motherboard. Intel H55 chipset The Chipset shows what the motherboard can possible do or not. Every computer have a Northbridge chipset. It’s main purpose is to make the link between the processor and the rest of the computer (graphic card, USB ports, hard drive, etc.) but the utility of a Northbridge vary from chipset to chipset, some will act also as a graphic card and on others chipsets, they may also manage the...

Words: 1476 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Dual Listing Company

...Lynch The Dual Listings July 2002 EVENT DRIVEN & EQUITY ARBITRAGE SALES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Trades Examined: UK - Netherlands Reed Elsevier NV (REN NA) vs Reed Elsevier Plc (REL LN) Royal Dutch Petroleum (RDA NA) vs Shell Transport & Trading Co Plc (SHEL LN) Unilever NV (UNA NA) vs Unilever Plc (ULVR LN) UK - Australia BHP Billiton Ltd (BHP AU) vs BHP Billiton Plc (BLT LN) Brambles Industries Ltd (BIL AU) vs Brambles Industries Plc (BI/ LN) Rio Tinto Ltd (RIO AU) vs Rio Tinto Plc (RIO LN) Introduction: The purpose of this report is to provide a basic overview of the dual-listing environment, highlighting the nature of company structures involved, why the structures were adopted and how they work. Contents: Page 1. Frequently Asked Questions 2 2. Why do Dual Listed Companies Exist? 4 3. Dual Listing Structures 5 4. Currency Risk 6 5. Terminology 7 6. Factors Affecting Performance 8 Appendix 1: Stock Specific Data A.1 Reed Elsevier NV vs Reed Elsevier Plc 10 A.2 Royal Dutch NV vs Shell T&T Plc 12 A.3 Unilever NV vs Unilever Plc 14 A.4 BHP Billiton Ltd vs BHP Billiton Plc 16 A.5 Brambles Ind. Ltd vs Brambles Ind. Plc 18 A.6 Rio Tinto Ltd vs Rio Tinto Plc 20 Glossary of Terms 22 1. Frequently Asked Questions Q. What is a dual listed structure? Where a company is listed on two exchanges it is referred to as a Dual......

Words: 4065 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Impop

...GUIDE TO THE ASSESSMENTS TASKS Assessment Task 1: Risk review Outcomes     Submit a completed written report? Submit notes of meeting (including feedback) with manager/supervisor (assessor)? Submit a draft communication to be used with stakeholders? Submit report and accompanying documents in agreed timeframe? Performance indicators  Scope – covering at least the following. a. Project – MacVille to expand their operations in Queensland and purchase and re-brand an existing cafe in Toowoomba. b. Business unit – MacVille Cafes Queensland. c. Risk in relation to functions – human resources management, financial operations, OHS, supply chain, local governance and compliance issues.  Goals – should include some of the following. a. To appropriately manage the risks involved with the operation of the Toowoomba store. b. To give the new manager significant insights into the store’s operations. c. To ensure there is a smooth transition to the MacVille systems. d. To encourage the new manager to give ongoing support for risk management.   See stakeholder feedback table in Appendix. Analysis. a. PEST analysis should include at least the following. i. Political – federal legislation concerning efficient water usage, by-law allowing cafes to expand their footpath dinning. ii. Economic – gross regional product growth of 8.9%, number of visitors down 18%. iii. Social – place for retirees, population growing. iv. Technology - WIFI in cafe, an innovative frozen par-bake......

Words: 1705 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Manage Risk

... Management meetings to finish 3:00pm. Install teleconferencing. Management training shift to morning half day sessions. By-law Compliance risk – reputation loss and fines by council – initially rated as high. Apply for time to ‘make good’. Policy and procedures to change work practices. Install water saving devices such as native plants, tank, dual flush toilet systems, and 5 stars (WELS) dishwasher. Banking risk – theft of cash left on premises – initially rated as medium. Insurance on ‘cash on premises’. Open an account with closest bank. Policy and procedure requirement to bank daily.   2. Implementation Manager’s travel risk – physical injury – initially rated as extreme. The weekly management meetings are finishing close to 3:00pm. The assistant management training has been shifted to the mornings allowing the manager to leave before 1:00PM. By-law Compliance risk – reputation/brand loss and fines – initially rated as high. An external audit was completed and presented to the board 6 months after settlement. The board and CEO included a new policy regarding compliance with the Toowoomba by-law on water conservation. The dual flush toilets are ordered and in stock. The 5 star rated (WELS) dishwasher was installed. The application to make-good by Goldsmith Partners on behalf of MacVille, was accepted by the Toowoomba City Council. A water tank had been built in to the courtyard. There is a weekly water usage monitor in the staff room Banking risk – theft of cash left......

Words: 334 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Jordan

...of process and documentation. 3. State TWO (2) types of requirements and give ONE (1) example for each type. (4 marks) Answer: Requirement | Example | Functional | manage user info | Non-Funtional | reliability- record will be processed in 5 seconds. | 4. Construct an activity diagram for booking a room in a hotel based on the following description. When customer requests a room, the hotel employee looks for room availability, then he inserts customer’s data and verifies if the provided credit card number has enough credit to pay the room: in this case the booking is confirmed and we wait customer arrival. The Hotel information system allows customer to modify or cancel his/her reservation. If customer arrives he uses the room and then he pays, in case of no-show a penalty is accounted on his credit card and the booking is canceled. (9 marks)...

Words: 2092 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

After Campbell: Parody

...words NOTE: Copyright: Same Song, Different Verse: Parody as Fair Use After Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc. * * This note won the first place prize in the 1995 ASCAP Nathan Burken Memorial Competition. NAME: L. David McBride LEXISNEXIS SUMMARY: ... First, this note discusses the Copyright Act of 1976 and the fair use doctrine. ... Further, this note evaluates how the defendant used the fair use doctrine as an exception to copyright in Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc. ... The district court recognized that courts have included parody under the fair use doctrine. ... The district court found that the second factor, the nature of the copyrighted work, weighed against fair use and in favor of Acuff-Rose. ... Judge Joiner, writing for the majority, considered each of the factors in section 107 in determining that the derivative work was not fair use. ... The Supreme Court's Application of the Fair Use Doctrine in Acuff-Rose Music, Inc. v. Campbell ... He observed that the application of the fair use doctrine requires a case-by-case analysis, as opposed to "bright-line rules." Such an approach is necessary because section 107 does not define every type of creative work that a court may exempt under the fair use doctrine. ... However, the Court of Appeals read Sony as presuming unfair use when a derivative work is used for commercial purposes and found that the fourth factor weighed against fair use. ... HIGHLIGHT: Satire is the sort of glass, wherein......

Words: 11940 - Pages: 48

Free Essay

Kudler Use Cse

...Use Case: Store Product Information Id: UC- 100 Description User accesses system to store product knowledge file Primary Actor User Pre-Conditions User must be logged in Product must be loaded Post Conditions Success end condition File is stored and associated to product Failure end condition: File is not stored Minimal Guarantee No updates to data occur Trigger User accesses system Main Success Scenario 1. System provide option to locate a specific Product record by Item_Id 2. User enters Item_Id 3. System provides option to add a file 4. User selects option to add a file 5. System provides option to enter file path 6. User enters file path 7. System provides option to save file 8. User selects option to save file 9. File is stored and associated to product Use Case: Store Product Information Id: UC- 200 Description User accesses system to store product knowledge file Primary Actor User Pre-Conditions User must be logged in Product must be loaded Post Conditions Success end condition File is stored and associated to product Failure end condition: File is not stored Minimal Guarantee No updates to data occur Trigger User accesses system Main Success Scenario 1. System provide option to locate a specific Product record by Item_Id 2. User enters Item_Id 3. System provides option to add a file 4. User selects option to add a file 5. System provides option to enter file path 6. User......

Words: 262 - Pages: 2