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E Governace

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Group 4 Vinay Chandran Jijith Balakrishnan Karanveer Kang Jagannath Mohan Anoop

Q 1. E-Government history?
The origin of e-Government dates back to 1993, in the United States, the government of which promoted the ‘National Information Infrastructure Initiative’, in order to promote a fabric of communication networks, computers, databases and consumer electronics that placed an enormous quantity of information at the disposal of users, as well has helping cause an information revolution that changed the way of life, work and interaction of people and constructed a ICT resource platform in which industry, government and universities integrated their information systems. At the end of the same year, Europe also confronted the new challenge and commissioned a report on the global Information Society in Europe to be presented in June 1994; the Bangemann Report ‘Europe and the global information society. Recommendations to the European Council. Ten applications were proposed in the report for the launch of the information society. The ninth of them was the creation of a trans-European public administration network, with the initial aim of providing more efficient and cheaper information exchange (replacing paper with electronic media) to then be employed to unite public administrations and European citizens. In the year 2000, the European Union launched the Action Plan eEurope 2002-An Information Society for All, which laid down a series of objectives for the year 2002 through ten actions; one of the actions was ‘Online Public Administration’. When the eEurope 2002 period concluded, the European Union launched a new plan, eEurope 2005- An Information Society for All with four policy measures. One of these was ‘Modern online public services; online Administration’. When this plan was concluded, the European Union launched yet another replacement, in 2010 A European Information Society for growth and employment, with several objectives; one of these was ‘An inclusive information society providing high quality public services and promoting quality of life’

2. Explain the E-Government general model (Different E-Governance initiatives and how they fit in the National e-Governance plan)
Delivery models and activities of eGovernment: The primary delivery models of eGovernment can be divide into: a) Government to Citizens or Government-toConsumer (G2C):

In this model, the G2C model apply the strategy of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) with business concept. By managing their customer (citizen) relationship, the business (government) can provide the needed products and services fulfill the needs from customer (citizen). b) Government to Businessman(G2B) c) Government to Government(G2G) d) Government to Employees (G2E) In each of these interaction domains, four kinds of activities take place: pushing information over the Internet, e.g.: regulatory services, general holidays, public hearing schedules, issue briefs, notifications, etc. Two-way communications between the agency and the citizen, a business, or another government agency. In this model, users can engage in dialogue with agencies and post problems, comments, or requests to the agency. Conducting transactions, e.g.: lodging tax returns, applying for services and grants. Governance, e.g.: To enable the citizen transition from passive information access to active citizen participation by: 2. Methodology: The study is based on secondary data obtained through scanning of available literature on the subject from various libraries and institutes. Various magazines, newspapers, journals etc. were consulted. Interviews and group discussions with knowledgeable people in this field. The relevant data from various sources has been collected and the updated report has been compiled. 3. Objectives: 1) To know the e-Governance Policies in India. 2) To study the role of e-Governance in the Agriculture Sector. 3) To identify the performance of e-Governance in the Rural development. 4) To reveal the impact of e-Governance on the social welfare aspect. 4. The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP):

The Government approved the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP), comprising of 27 Mission Mode Projects (MMPs) and 8 components, on May 18, 2006. The Government has accorded approval to the vision, approach, strategy, key components, implementation methodology,and management structure for NeGP. However, the approval of NeGP does not constitute financial approval(s) for all the Mission Mode Projects (MMPs) and components under it. The existing or ongoing projects in the MMP category, being implemented by various Central Ministries, States, and State Departments would be suitably augmented and enhanced to align with the objectives of NeGP. The National e-Governance Plan takes a holistic view of eGovernance initiatives across the country, integrating them into a collective vision, a shared cause. Around this idea, a massive countrywide infrastructure reaching down to the remotest of villages is evolving, and large-scale digitization of records is taking place to enable easy, reliable access over the internet. The ultimate objective is to bring public services closer home to citizens, as articulated in the Vision Statement of NeGP.

A) National e-Governance Division The Capacity Building Scheme under the National eGovernance Plan (NeGP) of Government of India envisions establishment of an institutional framework for State-Level decision-making including setting-up of State-e-Mission Teams (SeMTs)having Relevant expertise and experience to provide technical and professional support to States and Union Territories a) For immediate tasks for NeGD include the following projects Programme Management of NeGP, inter-alia including facilitating and supporting DIT in undertaking the following asks and responsibilities assigned to DIT under NeGP: Facilitating implementation of NeGP by various Ministries and State Governments Providing technical assistance to Central Ministries and State Line Departments Serving as a secretariat to the Apex Committee Undertaking technical appraisal of all NeGP projects to examine issues such as overall technology architecture, framework, standards, security policy, service delivery mechanism, sharing of common infrastructure etc. Human Resource Development, Training and Awareness Building Framing core policies, technical assistance, R&D, awareness and assessment and creation of organization structure

A) E-Governance Services with its Infrastructure:

a) State Wide Area Network (SWAN). b) Data Centre. c) National e-Governance Service Delivery Gateway (NSDG). d) Common Services Centers. A .State Wide Area Network (SWAN). Wide Area Network is an advanced telecommunication infrastructure, which is used nowadays extensively, for exchange of data and other types of information between two or more locations, separated by significant geographical distances. The medium of connectivity can be copper, optical fibre cable or wireless, as may be found feasible Department of IT obtained Government approval in March 2005, for the SWAN Scheme for an overall outlay of Rs. 3334 Crores.

b) Data Center State Data Centre (SDC) has been identified as one of the important element of the core infrastructure for supportinge-Governance initiatives of National e-Governance Plan (NeGP). Under NeGP, it is proposed to create State Data Centers for the States to consolidate services, applications and infrastructure to provide efficient electronic delivery of G2G, G2C and G2B services.

c) National e-Governance Service Delivery Gateway (NSDG). a) The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) of the Govt. of India aims to cooperate, collaborate and integrate information across different departmentin the Centre, States and Local Government.Government systems are characterized by islandsof legacy systems using heterogeneous platformand technologies and spread across diverse geographical locations, in varying state of automation, make this task very challenging. b) The National e-Governance Service Delivery Gateway (NSDG), an integrated MMP under the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP), can simplify the above task by acting as a standards-based messaging switch and providing seamless interoperability and exchange of data across the departments.

d) Common Services Centers The CSC is a strategic cornerstone of the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP), as part of its commitment in the National Common Minimum Programme to introduce e-governance on a massive scale. The CSCs would provide high quality and cost-effective video, voice and data content and services, in the areas of e-governance, education, health, telemedicine, entertainment as well as other private services. A highlight of the CSCs is that it will offer webenabled e-governance services in rural areas, including application forms, certificates, and utility payments such as electricity, telephone and water bills. B )India Development Gateway India Development Gateway (InDG) is a nation-wide initiative, supported by DIT and executed by C-DAC, Hyderabad. InDG facilitates rural empowerment through provision of credible information products and services in local languages that respond to the real and strategic needs of the unreached especially women and poor. In the process, it catalyzes the use of ICT for collaboration and knowledge sharing among development stakeholders. 5. E-Governance – Agriculture: The Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, therefore, is in the process of preparing a National eGovernance Plan in Agriculture (NeGP-A) for a more focused implementation of e-governance activities in the agriculture sector. In order to promote e-governance in agriculture at the centre and provide support to states/UTs for the same, the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation is implementing a central sector scheme, "Strengthening/Promoting Agricultural Information Systems' during the Tenth Plan with a budgetary provision. of INR 100 crore. The scheme has the following components: (i) Development of agricultural informatics and communication; (ii) Strengthening of IT apparatus in agriculture and cooperation in states and UTs (AGRISNET); (iii) IT apparatus at Department headquarters and its field offices; (iv) Agricultural Resources Information Systems (AgRIS); and (v) Kisan Call Centers. The Department has developed four portals and 40 websites covering both headquarters and its sub- formations under the component "Development of Agricultural Informatics and Communications". a ) Online Land Records

The Computerization of Land Records (CLR) is one of the earliest initiatives of e-

Governance in India, at the grass-roots level. The focus of the entire operation has always been to employ state of the art Information Technology (IT) to galvanize and transform the existing land record system of the country. This web enabled service would aim at: • Ensuring efficient, accurate, transparent delivery mechanism and conflict resolution in ownership • Providing electronic record of rights (ROR) to land owners at nominal rates • Information empowerment of land owners • Low cost and easily reproducible data for reliable and durable preservation • Value addition and modernization in land administration • Integration with other data sets towards comprehensive LIS.

Resources Information Systems (AgRIS); and (v) Kisan Call Centers. The Department has developed four portals and 40 websites covering both headquarters and its sub formations under the component "Development of agricultural Informatics and Communications". Some important portals which has till now been developed are: (a) AGMARKNET Portal (; (b) DACNET Portal (; (c) DAC Portal (; (d) INTRADAC Portal (; (e) SEEDNET Portal (; (f) Agricultural Census Portal ( The Department of Agriculture and Cooperation is supporting e-governance activities at the state agriculture and allied departments through AGRISNET, a state sector mission mode project, which aims at providing improved services to the farming community using Information and communication Technology (ICT).Agricultural Resources Information System (AgRIS) project has been launched for implementation in two pilot districts of Rohtak (Dairy Typology) in Haryana and Banaskantha (Arid Typology) in Gujarat. Kisan Call Centres initiative aims to provide information to the farming community through tollfree telephone lines. Usage of GIS satellite imaging in India had been happening since a long time in India. a ) Online Land Records The Computerisation of Land Records (CLR) is one of the earliest initiatives of e-Governance in India, at the grass-roots level. The focus of the entire operation has always been to employ state of the art Information Technology (IT) to galvanise and transform the existing land record system of the country. This web enabled service would aim at:

     

Ensuring efficient, accurate, transparent delivery mechanism and conflict resolution in ownership Providing electronic record of rights (ROR) toland owners at nominal rates Information empowerment of land owners Low cost and easily reproducible data for reliable and durable preservation Value addition and modernisation in land administration Integration with other data sets towards comprehensive LIS.

5. E-Governance in Rural Development India is a nation of villages. The rural mass in the nation comprises the core of Indian society and also represents the real India. According to the Census Data 2001, there are 638,387 villages in India that represent more than 72 per cent of the total population. So development of these rural mass is one of the key areas of consideration in the government policy formulation, which is concerned with economic growth and social justice, improvement in the living standard of the rural people by providing adequate and quality social services and minimum basic needs becomes essential. The present strategy of rural development mainly focuses on poverty alleviation, better livelihood opportunities, provision of basic amenities and infrastructure facilities through innovative programmes of wage and self-employment etc. The government of India has started many programmes aimed at improving the standard of living in villages or rural areas. To build rural infrastructure, the government launched a time-bound business plan for action called Bharat Nigam in 2005. Under Bharat Nirman, action is proposed in the areas of Water Supply, Housing, Telecommunication and Information Technology, Roads, Electrification and Irrigation. In view of the sheer size and diversity of our country, delivery of governance to the remote corners in a meaningful and locally relevant manner is a huge challenge. The administrative setup has evolved by incorporating our age old institutions with the modern democratic organs to meet this challenge. To make this challenge easy Panchayat Raj came into existence .Panchayats have historically been an integral part of rural life in India, and the Constitution 73rd Amendment Act, 1992 has institutionalised the Panchayati Raj at the Village, Intermediate and the District levels, as the third tier of governance. In May 2004, the Ministry of Panchayati Raj was formed as the Nodal agency looking after the empowerment of Panchayati Raj Institutions in the country. The use of information communication technology has made this challenge more convenient. 6. e-Governance Social Welfare:

a) Women empowerment: Under the National e-Governance Plan Common Services Centers can be an effective vehicle to help women acquire digital literacy skills that enable them to further their education, gain employment, help start and build their own business, secure their livelihood and become socially. and politically active. The scheme for empowering women in Rural India through Digital Literacy envisages training of 2500 women on the cource of Computer Concepts designed and admistered. b) National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) The National Social Assistance Porgramme which came into effect from 15th August, 1995 represents a significant step towards the fulfillment of the Directive Principles in Article 41 of the Constitution. The programme introduced a National Policy for Social Assistance for the poor and aims at ensuring minimum national standard for social assistance in addition to the benefits that states are currently providing or might provide in future. e-Governance in NSAP includes the following schemes:     Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS) (External website that opens in a new window) Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme (IGNWPS) (External website that opens in a new window) Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme (IGNDPS) (External website that opens in a new window) Other online information like beneficiary abstract, monthly progress reports: data gap report, report on PDAs created, report on linking of beneficiary to PDA, annual progress reports, area-wise disbursement report, monthwise disbursement report, released pension amount report, acquittance abstract, pass book for pensioner, beneficiary search, category-wise disbursement report, funds receipts and expenditure, fund utilization and disbursement are also available.

So yes the initiatives do fit in the overall general plan and on the initiatives look very comprehensive on paper but how much effective are they on ground is to be seen.

THE UNITED KINGDOM The United Kingdom has a combined and specific policy for each of the department or the government to follow.

The UK e-government strategy was set in ‘e-Government: a strategic framework for public services in the Information Age’, published in April 2000. This strategic framework aims to create a favourable environment for the transformation of government activities by the application of e-business methods throughout the public sector. The strategy also aims to support the target set by the Prime Minister that all public services should be available online by 2005. To this end, it challenges all public sector organisations to innovate, commits all central government departments to develop e-business strategies and challenges the centre of government to provide the necessary common infrastructure and leadership. The UK e-government strategy has four guiding principles: 1. Building services around citizens' choices. 2. Making government and its services more accessible. 3. Fostering social inclusion. 4. Using information better. Citizen-focused government The e-government strategy aims to deliver high quality services that are accessible, convenient and secure, enabling people to interact with government on their own terms. Electronic public services must therefore be joined up across organisational boundaries and layers of government, and public sector organisations must co-operate in new partnerships that will deliver their services in ways that make sense to the customers. Partnerships also need to be formed with innovators in the private sector who can find new ways of meeting changing patterns of demand. Accessible public services All services which can be electronically delivered should be accessible over the Internet and through mobile phones, digital TV, and call centres as well as through personal computers. The mix for any service will be determined in relation to demand. Electronic service delivery must also enhance personal contact when required. Services should be tailored to individuals' needs, and accessible through a series of customisable portals. The Government also aims to

create the conditions for voluntary and private sector organisations to create innovative service offerings. Access to information will be firmly established under the Freedom of Information legislation, and Government will make sure that people can trust the systems in use, by ensuring that their personal data is protected and that systems are secure. Inclusiveness New services must be developed so that they are available to all and easy to use. The Government is committed to making it easier for all people to get access, whether individually or through community facilities, and through multiple channels (Computer, Digital TV, telephone, mobile devices, etc.). Call centres must be improved by giving their staff access to information networks that will enable them to provide better service. Better information systems will support the work of those who have face-to-face contact with the public. Online public services will also be provided for minority language groups and those with disability or limited mobility. Infrastructure in UK Portals
'Directgov' 'Directgov' is the government's citizen portal. It provides the people in England and Wales with easy and effective digital access to all public services and related information. '' is not organised on a life-cycle episodes model, but rather on the basis of major public services areas (e.g. health, education, employment) and of target customer groups (e.g. parents, disabled people, youth). The breadth of information presented is vast, reducing the need for users to navigate to further sites. Besides the Internet, services are also available through digital TV and mobile telephony. Within the framework of an ongoing large-scale websites rationalisation process aimed at reducing the main public facing sites for service deliveryto just three ('Directgov','Business Link' and 'NHSChoices'), the portal has already received the contents of several websites. 'Directgov' usage has continued to grow as the portal had over 26 million visitors in April 2011. The ownership of 'Directgov' has moved to the Cabinet Office. The portal services are currently under review with the aim to increase citizens' engagement. Public Services Network (PSN) The PSN intends to create a 'network of networks' for the public sector from the existing commercial networks and to develop a marketplace providing opportunities for industry and savings for the public sector. The PSN aims for an open, collaborative environment for all UK public sector employees. A complete set of PSN standards has been published and the targets are that all GSi and MTS UK customers have migrated to PSN services by the end of 2011 and that 80 % of the public sector (approx. 4 million users) will have utilised the PSN Marketplace by 2014. A roadmap for the delivery of the PSN can be found in the ' Strategic Implementation Plan' document accompanying the 'Government ICT Strategy'.

Government Connect Secure Extranet (GCSx) The GCSx is a government funded programme to provide a secure private Wide-Area Network (WAN) for secure interactions between connected local authorities and organisations. Even though it does not use the Internet or any other public network, it is connected to the Government Secure Intranet (GSi), the Government Secure Extranet (GSX), the National Health Service (NHS), the Criminal Justice Extranet (CJX) and the Police National Network (PNN).

Global system for checking the fingerprints of visa applicants Completed in January 2008, the system currently covers visa applications from 133 countries, approximately 75 % of the world's population. Biometric cross-checks with UK databases have helped the Home Office identify several cases of identity fraud.

'Employee Authentication Service' (EAS) project EAS is a cross-government project which enables authorised public employees to access sensitive information safely and securely. It is an example of how the re-use of existing technology can contribute to significant cost savings to central and local government.

'Excellence Gateway' portal The 'Excellence Gateway' is a complete national online service for practitioners at all levels in the learning and skills sector in England. It provides practical help for improving daily work and aims at promoting innovations in teaching and learning. Furthermore, this portal enables practitioners to share both professional knowledge, as well as examples of effective practice with other users. Pan London eAdmissions System 'eAdmissions' has been created by the London local authorities to provide a website where parents can easily find details about the schools maintained by the 33 London local authorities and Surrey County Council, and complete an application online. 'Go On' service The 'Go On' service converts increasing numbers of people into confident Internet users, including the disadvantaged and the digitally excluded. More importantly, its guidance modules have enabled people to explore the benefits of the Web, whether to save money, find a job or use public services.

Criminal Justice eSystems
Justice is served by a modern IT infrastructure and case management system. Information on the administration and regulation of the justice system in England and Wales can be found on the website, which is aimed at those working within and reliant on information produced by a number of different bodies belonging to the judicial system. The Criminal Justice Secure eMail, serves over 40 000 users and 1 600 organisations and departments, processing more than 800 000 secure

messages each month. A dedicated ' Guidance' section of for members of the judiciary, legal practitioners and other interested professionals covers a wide range of policy areas, including freedom of information, elections and human rights. The National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA) supports the police to enhance and deliver better services to the public. The following major programmes are operational: The 'Mobile Information' Programme promotes the roll-out of hand-held computers to front-line officers. The Custody and Case Preparation applications are compatible and allow a detainee's custody information to be transferred to create a case file without the need to re-key the information. Custody is live in 24 police forces and Case Preparation is live in 28 police forces in England and Wales. Mobile identification (MobileID) allows remote searching against the national policing fingerprint IDENT1 database. 24 forces across England and Wales are currently (end of 2011) using MobileID devices. Airwave radio has replaced outdated, individually-run force analogue radio systems with a national digital radio service. The HM Revenue & Customs The HM Revenue & Customs is the tax authority in the UK. Services cover all aspects of taxation, including individuals and employees, employers, businesses and corporations. Citizens and businesses are provided with a comprehensive set of online services. The following services are rendered by the government for its citizens. The 12 services for citizens are as follows: 1. Income taxes: declaration, notification of assessment 2. Job search services by labour offices 3. Social security benefits 4. Personal documents: passport and driver’s licence 5. Car registration (new, used, imported cars) 6. Application for building permission 7. Declaration to the police (e.g. in case of theft) 8. Public libraries (availability of catalogues, search tools) 9. Certificates (birth and marriage): request and delivery 10. Enrolment in higher education/university 11. Announcement of moving (change of address) 12. Health related services (interactive advice on the availability of services in different hospitals; appointments for hospitals)

3. What are the factors affecting the success of E-governance initiatives in the country (choose a model and evaluate any initiative based on it)

Central to e-government success and failure is the amount of change between 'where we are now' and 'where the e-government project wants to get us'. 'Where we are now' means the current realities of the situation. 'Where the e-government project wants to get us' means the model or conceptions and assumptions built into the project's design. eGovernment success and failure therefore depends on the size of gap that exists between 'current realities' and 'design of the e-government project'. The larger this design-reality gap, the greater the risk of e-government failure. Equally, the smaller the gap, the greater the chance of success. Analysis of e-government projects indicates that seven dimensions - summarised by the ITPOSMO acronym - are necessary and sufficient to provide an understanding of design-reality gaps:
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I nformation T echnology P rocesses O bjectives and values S taffing and skills M anagement systems and structures O ther resources: time and money.

Putting these dimensions together with the notion of gaps produces the model for understanding success and failure government that is shown in Figure 1


Figure 1. The ITPOSMO dimensions of e-government project design-reality gaps

India E-Governance e-Governance is an important tool to enhance the quality of government services to citizens, to bring in more transparency, to reduce corruption and subjectivity, to reduce costs for citizens and to make government more accessible. A large number of initiatives have been taken in this category by the Union and the State Governments.

Some of the key initiatives have been listed below.

UID Aadhaar Initiative The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) was constituted as an attached office under the Planning Commission of India, to develop and implement the necessary legal, technical and institutional infrastructure to issue unique identity to residents of India. One of the key challenges that people in India face is the difficulty of establishing identity. People have multiple identity documents, each serving a different purpose. There are often separate sets of requirements to be fulfilled to get these documents. The singular problem that the UIDAI will seek to solve is that of “identity”. Once a person has a Aadhaar, their basic identity linked to their biometrics is established and can be used to uniquely identify the individual. An individual who is a resident in India and satisfies the verification process laid down by the UIDAI can get an Aadhaar. It will not be compulsory to get Aadhaar, it is voluntary. However in time, certain service providers may require a person to have Aadhaar to deliver services. Process followed to issue Aadhaar: » A resident will have to go to an enrolling agency, fill up an application form and provide the supporting documentation including photo and finger print including photo, all ten finger prints and both irs scan. » The enrolling agency will collect this information and send the data, either in single or in batches, to the registrar who will pass this on to the Aadhaar database. » The system will engage in a de-duplication exercise. » If the individual is not already in the database, a Aadhaar will be issued and sent to the person at his/has residence. The Aadhaar will also be sent to the Registrar for use in their service database» If the individual is already in the database the registration will be rejected and the person will be informed of the same. » The Registrar will scan the supporting documents and send it to the UIDAI and keep the physical copies with it. Aadhaar and Financial Inclusion: As per the Finance Minister’s budget speech this year, all villages in excess of 2000 people must have access to banking facilities. Ministry of Finance and RBI have allocated these villages amongst banks. Banks have been given targets to cover their allocated villages by March 2012. Aadhaar-based financial inclusion can help banks and local officials meet their financial inclusion targets. Gram Tarang Inclusive Development Services having proven track record in handling Project Strategy Design, Development & Project Implementation is working with United Bank of India to implement the prestigious UID Aadhaar Project in West Bengal. It already recruited 800 customer service providers, imparted 7 days full proof training on soft skills, computers enabling them to clear the UID Aadhaar exams being administered by SIFY. Post examination, the certified CSPs will have a mandate enroll more than 2 Crore people in the state of West Bengal.

FRIENDS (Kerala) Objective - To provide one-stop, front-end, IT enabled payment counter facility for citizens for making payments for bills originating from government entities. Reason for this initiative - Citizens were required to go to various offices for making different kinds of payments. Reach - 14 districts/seven days a week/12 hours a day. Citizens had to access a number of centres. Scaling - Extended to 14 districts; can also be used for making payments to BSNL – a GOI enterprise. Business Model Completely Government funded. Cost of Counter Personnel borne by participating entities. However, in case of payments related to non-State Government entities transaction charge of roughly 12% is charged. Benefits - Transaction time and traveling time reduced. Demonstrates the advantages of ICT. Funding - Dependent on Union Government funding. Lessons Learnt - Even front-end com-puterization without back-end computerization and governmental process re-engineering could succeed if tangible benefits arise to the citizens.

Gyandoot (Madhya Pradesh) Objective - To provide useful information and services to people in rural areas and act as an interface between the district administration and rural people.

Reason for this initiative - Rural population was not having access to information on government projects and agriculture; specifically, they were ignorant about market rates for agricultural produce. In the case of BPL families, the problem was more acute.

Reach - Initially computers installed and networked through intranet in 20 gram panchayats in 5 blocks of Dhar district. Later, 15 more centres were opened through private enterprise. Presently functioning in 34 centres.

Business Model - Project financed by the panchayats, the village community or private entrepreneurs. In the case of panchayat centres, local youth selected to operate centres without any salary or stipend. User charges are levied for specific services.

Benefits - Agriculture related information to rural people. Funding - Panchayat/community funding. Limitations - Very low connectivity; irregular supply of electricity; user charges; limited use to illiterates; e-payments could not be made in rural areas. User charges act as a deterrent in rural areas. The interface with the citizens should be simple and user-friendly. The technological solution should be tailored to the environment.

Bhoomi (Karnataka) Objective - Computerisation of land records; allowing access to land records, updation of land records etc. Reason for this initiative - Although land records are the single most important record in rural areas, citizens in rural areas were not able to access their own records. Reach - Rolled out in all 177 talukas (Sub-district centres) of the State. Scaling - First piloted in four sub-districts; later implemented on pilot basis in one sub-district centre in each of the 27 districts; finally rolled out to all 177 sub-districts in the State. Business Model - Centres/kiosks have been established in Sub-district offices. User fees are charged. Benefits - Records computerized, transparent dealing with requests for records, scope for use in planning. Funding - Sponsored by Union Ministry of Rural Development and implemented by the State Government.

Lessons Learnt - Exemplary approach in piloting the project, rolling out and sustenance of the project. • Business process reengineering is a pre-requisite in case of complex projects. • Large-scale projects require political support at the highest level. • Continuity in project management team helps in better implementation. • A holistic approach is necessary.

eSeva (Andhra Pradesh) Objective - To provide G2C and B2C services to citizens including online payments, issue of certificates, permits etc. Reason for this initiative - Citizens were required to go to various offices for making different kinds of payments and for issue of certificates etc. Reach - 46 eSeva centres (400 counters) in twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad and Ranga Reddy district.56 centres in 20 other districts also opened. Scaling - The project was launched on a pilot basis in 1999 itself (TWINS project), eSeva centres have been opened in only 21 districts so far. Business Model - Public- Private partnership. Benefits - One point integration of services. Transaction time and travel time substantially reduced.

Lessons Learnt - Offers potential for integration of Union, State and Local Government services at one point. However, also shows that model based on payment of utility bills could not be rolled in the rural hinterland. • Support at the highest political level is a sine qua non. • Front-end e-services are possible without back-end computerization. E-Governance projects can be broken into components and implemented in a phased manner.

These initiatives look great on paper but how much they have succeeded is difficult to examine.

Heeks model defines the problems that happens due to implementing E-Governance projects without thinking about future factors such as 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Information Technology Process Objectives Staffing Management Other information

The projects that failed due to factors that were told in Heeks model are: Risks involved in these projects that lead to failure: Gyandoot (Madhya Pradesh), Bhoomi (Karnataka)

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Accustoming to variable political system. Coordination failures among the departments as lot of departments are involved. The transparent transactions and lack of training and usage of the initiatives Funding resources for long tenure projects stopped when the political system changed Making Government departments work with private players made it very difficulties they were not ready to accept these initiatives. User involvement holds a greater risk. Estimation and reality of costing and budget would never be as expected. Unachievable objectives. Not checking the process feasibility.. Objectives were too high and couldn’t be met realistically. Local bureaucracy is a big problem in India.

4. Refer to the Heek’s model (or any other model) and evaluate the risk involved in the initiatives.

Gyandoot (Madhya Pradesh)

Limitations - Very low connectivity; irregular supply of electricity; user charges; limited use to illiterates; e-payments could not be made in rural areas. Lessons Learnt - In rural areas, there has to be a congruence of various technologies and communication media to achieve desired results and to make such innovations accessible to all sections of rural population. Poor infrastructure increases the cost of operations, especially where private participation is involved. User charges act as a deterrent in rural areas. The interface with the citizens should be simple and user-friendly. The technological solution should be tailored to the environment. Other Reasons Most of the initiatives are not known by the general public. There is a huge problem with awareness programs that the government initiates. Most of the websites today in india apart from irctc and the passport websites, most of them are not updated. Because the government websites attract a huge number of people lot of times they lag and crash. Most parts of india still is no connected with broadband so there is no availability for people to access. Even if there is broadband connection the number is too huge or the rates are sky high which is unaffordable for the people lying in BPL section. Lack of technical knowhow is again a big issue. Our grandparents (well most of them) do not know how to operate a pc. This case with many people who are illiterate and lack basic aptitude to operate a pc. A lot people even today want things to be reliable. So even today rather than booking tickets online they go and stand in long queues and get their tickets booked. And finally corruption is a huge concern in country like India.

5. Compare the initiatives of both the chosen countries and bring out the learning from the study (What can India use or learn from them?)

I f we compare both the countries , the one thing that stands out is that Uk has been investing in developing its basic e- infrastructure. UK is already developed the internet penetration is around 85% so its much easier for them to launch a particular service. Whereas India lacks the basic IT infrastructure very slowly we are moving forward . Till now we have been able to give only passport and railway ticketing online among the services. Whereas Uk has a host of services ranging from Procurement to School admissions.

Encourage the use of IP/products developed by Indian companies in e-governance projects. Encourage the central and state governments to procure e-governance services rather than procuring hardware, software, services, and networks separately. This will bring about a more outcome basedprocurement model as compared to the current outlay oriented model. Encourage reusability in e-governance projects at both the infrastructure and application level. Encourage banks and financial institutions to fund e-governance projects above a certain size as a priority sector funding. Faster replication of already successful e-governance programs. Define interoperability standards/criteria and ensure that e-governance applications adopt these standards irrespective of the vendor supplying the technology. Incentivize citizens for using online services. Prepare a detailed e-governance plan for each central ministry and state which details a timebound schedule for implementing e-governance. The budgetary support from the central government for the egovernance initiatives can be linked to achievement of specific milestones. Ensure that e-Governance applications are IPv6 ready. Maximize Government transactions online through development of content in local languages. Sensitizing citizens for using online services Delivering e-services to the villages by using, existing infrastructure, to the extent possible, such as postoffices, village STD booths and telephone exchanges etc.

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