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Earth Day

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Problemele sociale ale României de azi * Istoria României are ca moment fondator anul 1989, cînd puterea mondială existentă se prăbușește pentru a da naștere unei noi lumi, unei noi ordini mondiale, în care bipolaritatea puterii din perioada Războiului Rece este înlocuită cu dominația unei singure puteri SUA. Dizolvarea URSS are o influență decisivă asupra țările est-europene, ca România, care renunță la sistemul comunist și se îndreaptă spre înfăptuirea reformelor democratice. * Multiple probleme sociale nu sunt luate în seamă de cei de la conducerea țării care s-au perindat după 1989, şi nu sunt nici pe departe nici în prezent rezolvate, iar între timp altele la fel de grave apar şi afectează din ce în ce mai mult viaţa poporului român.
Problemele existente sunt de gen politic, economic și social. * Evoluţia demografică a României
Factorii care au contribuit la scăderea natalității României sunt: * modificări în structura forţei de muncă, * manifestarea fenomenul migraţiei forţei de muncă, * modificări în sistemul de protecţie socială a societăţii româneşti, * modificări permanente ale sistemului de învăţământ. * Scăderea natalităţii: Condițiile nefavorabile pentru nașterea copiilor Îmbătrînirea populației * Condițiile nefavorabile pentru nașterea copiilor * - Statisticile oficiale confirmă că numărul noilor născuţi proveneau din mame a căror vârstă era in mediu de 15 ani şi care aveau un nivel deosebit de scăzut al educaţiei. * - Numărul copiilor născuţi în afara unor căsătorii oficiale, s-a dublat în ultima decadă (de la 15% cât a fost în 1990 la peste 30%) . * - Peste 80-85% dintre copiii născuţi după anul 2000 proveneau din familii monoparentale, din care marea majoritate era compusă din mamă şi copii (din familii dezorganizate în urma divorţurilor sau a văduviei). * - Statisticile oficiale confirmă că în aproape jumătate din cele 36.000 de familii dezorganizate în urma divorţurilor, în anul 2007, au existat circa 23 de mii de copii minori. * Îmbătrînirea populației
La mijlocul acestui secol, România se va confrunta cu un procent de peste 30% de persoane în vârstă de peste 65 de ani.
Marea majoritate a acestor persoane în vârstă şi singure sunt de gen femenin şi se găsesc în mediul rural. * Remunerarea muncii şi veniturile familiilor
Date statistice oficiale confirmă că în prezent veniturile medii ale unei familii în România reprezintă mai puţin de un sfert din media veniturilor unei familii dintre ţările membre mai vechi ale UE.
Din acest punct de vedere Administraţiei guvernamentale îi revine obligaţia de a rezolva cât mai rapid şi eficient fenomenul distribuţiei veniturilor populaţiei, direcţionând cu prioritate aceste venituri în funcţie de calificare, gradul de experienţă, eficienţa muncii dar şi în funcţie de numărul copiilor într-o familie. * Pe această cale s-ar putea crea multiple avantaje pe termen lung pentru întreaga societate, printre care:

- asigurarea unor condiţii de stimulare a dorinţei familiilor dea avea copii (creindu-se condiţii civilizate de creştere şi educaţiea noilor generaţii),

- creerea condiţiilor pentru asigurarea forţei de muncă necesară pentru dezvoltarea viitoare a economiei naţionale,

- creerea condiţiilor de participare a forţei de muncă la asigurarea fondurilor sociale, pentru acoperirea necesarului destinat pensilor de toate felurile şi în special pentru cele de bătrâneţe. * Populația tînără din România.
- Declinul demografic al populaţiei tinere.

Populaţia României scade într-un ritm alarmant şi va continua să scadă ca urmare a procesului de îmbătrânire fără ca ritmul natalităţii să fie satisfăcător. Populaţia activă totală va scădea ca efect al reducerii populaţiei de peste 65 ani, dar populaţia activă de 15-64 ani va creşte, rata de participare ajungând la circa 65% în anul 2013. * „Munca nu este privită de către tinerii români ca o cale importantă de reuşită în viaţă în România. Doar 11% consideră munca drept primă condiţie pentru reuşita în viaţă, în România. Pentru ca un tînăr să reuşească în viaţă, în România, cea mai importantă condiţie este ca acesta să provină dintr-o familie înstărită. Această lipsă de încredere în capacitatea muncii de a asigura bunăstare în România reprezintă o premisă a micșorării motivaţiei de a munci”. * După integrarea în UE, un pericol pe piaţa muncii îl constituie migrarea forţei de muncă bine pregătite. Astfel, una din patru persoane (respectiv, 27%) ia în considerare căutarea unui loc de muncă în străinătate în următorii trei ani. Mai mult decât atât, doar 21% dintre tineri cred că se pot realiza mai uşor în România, decât în străinătate. * Locuintele
Sunt și astăzi locuinţele care nu sunt conecatate la reţeaua de canalizare, iar peste 1/3 sunt încălzite prin intermediul centalelor termice, şi mai sunt circa 5% din locuinţe care încă nu sunt conecatate la reţeaua de energie electrică.

În mediul urban 9 din 10 locuinţe sunt aprovizionate cu apă în interiorul locuinţei, în timp ce în mediul rural doar 2 din 10 locuinţe au apă în casă.

Pentru majoritatea tineretului obţinerea unei locuinţe în vederea întemeierii unei familii este în continuare deosebit de dificilă.

Fără a face apel la credite din partea băncilor, tinerii care intenţionează să se căsătorească, ar trebui să economisească într-un mod deosebit de substanţial din salarii, timp de peste 30 de ani. * O asemenea situaţie are efecte negative în decalajul care se crează între diferitele regiuni ale ţării precum şi între mediul urban şi cel rural.
În zonele urbane sunt amplasate:
88% dintre toate spitalele,
92% dintre cabinetele de medicină generală,
92% dintre centrele de diagnostic şi tratamente,
98% dintre cabinetele de specialitate,
80% din toate farmaciile existente. * Sistemuș de invatamint
În ultimii 20 de ani s-au manifestat tot felul de probleme legate de modul de organizare şi desfăşurare a învăţământului începând cu cel preşcolar şi terminând cu cel universitar.
În general acestea se referă la: - lipsa unor amenajări speciale la şcoli şi universităţi, a unor rampe speciale pentru cei care sunt obligaţi să folosescă anumite scaune mobile şi a unor grupuri sanitare special amenajate pentru cei handicapaţi,

- lipsa unor mijloace de transport, în special pentru copiii care locuiesc în anumite zone mai izolate, şi departe de şcoli,

- scăderea calităţii învăţământului şi manifestarea unor elemente de corupţie la diverse teste naţionale, bacalaureat sau diverse examene. * Fenomenul migraţiei şi atracţia muncii în occident
Odată cu perioada de tranziţie la economia de piaţă şi asigurarea unei libertăţi de mişcare peste graniţă a forţei de muncă din România, s-a manifestat ca un adevărat val fenomenul migraţiei.
Mass-media occidentală prezenta aproape zilnic cazuri ale unor persoane, menţionând că sunt imigranţi din România şi care fuseseră arestate şi trimise spre judecată sau expatriate, pentru actele antisociale pe care le comiseseră. * O asemenea problemă şi-ar putea găsi unele soluţii prin:
- creerea unor condiţii de muncă corespunzătoare calificării specialiştilor,
- în măsura posibilităţilor trebuie să se acorde remuneraţii care să fie mai atractive, decât ajutoarele de şomaj.
- asigurarea unor servicii sociale competitive cu cele pe care le-au avut în diverse ţări străine din cadrul UE. Acest lucru ar determina rămânerea în ţară pentru desfăşurarea în continuare a profesiunii. * Multitudinea diverselor probleme sociale cu care încă se confruntă România, depăşeşte cu mult cele prezentate aici.

Cu cît mai urgent se va aplica o concepţie pozitivă, cu atît multe dintre actualele probleme sociale de care suferă întreaga naţiune română, s-ar putea să-şi găsească unele rezolvări şi pe această cale şansele creşterii prestigiului României, pe plan mondial vor fi mai mari.

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