Premium Essay

Earth History

In: Science

Submitted By breee
Words 11141
Pages 45
Earthquakes I
Earth’s composition
Earth is a dense, stratified planet with many layers: core (inner and outer), mantle and crust
Inner core: most dense material, solid iron and nickel
Outer core: second most dense, liquid, iron and nickel
Mantle: composed of oxygen, silicon, magnesium, aluminum
Crust: composed of sodium and potassium rich silicate rocks
Upper 100-350 km of upper mantle makes up asthenosphere: fluid layer due to heating from core
Plate tectonics
Earth’s uppermost layer, the lithosphere, broken up into 7 plates due to movement of asthenosphere underneath
Plate tectonics- name for dynamic interactions of these plates
Plate boundaries
3 types: divergent, covergent, and transform
Divergent boundaries: tension from deep earth pulls two plates away from each other, allowing lava to upwell through the cracks and create new seafloor
Covergent boundaries: two plates coming together as stress pushes plates toward each other- one plate forced under another in a subduction zone
Transform boundaries: two plates slide past each other horizontally-frequent cause of destructive forces like earthquakes
The nature of earthquakes
Cause = abrupt movements on faults
Fractures in earths lithosphere
Normal fault- block above the fault has moved downward relative to the black below
Reverse fault- upper block, above the fault plane, moves up and over the lower block (aka thrust fault)
Right lateral strike slip fault- two blocks slide past one another
Earths crustal plates move
Stress produces strain which cause earthquake
Stressed rocks store strain energy
Elastic rebound theory
Harold F Reid
When there is sufficient strain energy in rocks, they may rupture (rubber band)
Stored strain energy is released as vibrations that radiate outward in all directions
Focus= point where rupture starts
Epicenter= point on earths surface above focus

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Mexico History

...Kim Woseley History 201.001 February 05th, 2013 Professor Richard E. Green Exploring and analyzing the theories of Man’s origin from scientific, theological and intellectual points of view. Man’s origin has always been a topic of great discussions and equal controversies. Although, the goal of these theories is to explain and prove where man came from and how he came to be, we have found that the basis of each theory is completely different from the next. The basis of the scientific theory is science and the discovery of fossils, and on the other hand, the basis of theology is creation and existence of God. Shown on the cover of the News week magazine is photo of an African man Adam and woman Eve in what appears to be the Garden of Eden. The cover of this magazine not only conforms to the ideology that the first man was African and thus, all other races came from the black man, but it also suggests that Eden was in fact located somewhere in Africa, man’s original place of birth. As we continue to examine the articles presented several Articles really struck a chord with me. “The Earth from Birth”, “Skulls in Ethiopia Is Linked To Earliest Man”, and “Fossils May Be Earliest Human Link”. In the Article” The Earth from Birth”, it describes the development of the earth into five lengths of time, the Archeozoic era, Ptoterzoic era, the Paleozoic era, the Mesozoic era and the Cenozoic era. Each of these eras played an important role with how the earth became populated......

Words: 956 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Precambrian - the Beginning of Life

...billion years ago. The Earth’s vast history is divided in four major eras: the Precambrian, the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic. The Precambrian era covers most of our planet’s history and lasted from Earth’s inception until 542 million years ago. It was during this era that the Earth became solid, the atmosphere became breathable and life emerged. There is little evidence about the events that led to the creation of our planet billions of years ago. Most of the knowledge we have about Earth’s beginnings comes indirectly from meteorites that smashed into our planet or from rocks gathered from the Moon. The Earth is just a miniscule part of the immense Universe surrounding us but for us it constitutes the center of it and the only planet known to us that bears any form of life. Our planet is part of the Milky Way Galaxy and it constantly revolves around the Sun and around itself which causes the night and day alternation and the season changes. The Precambrian period covers about 90% of Earth’s history and is divided into three periods: the Hadean, the Archean and the Proterozoic. The Earth formed some 4.56 billion years ago during the Hadean period which lasted from Earth’s inception to about 4 billion years ago. Initially, there was nothing but an enormous cloud of gas and dust. Progressively, the cloud began to rotate and contract and about 10 million years later the major planets that make up our Solar System - including the Earth - formed. During the Haden......

Words: 1415 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Rocks of Connecticut

...The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.] | I’ve lived in Connecticut my whole life and until now I was unaware of its geological history. Admiring the landscape of the state has always been one of my great pleasures. When I traveled around the country I would compare the natural wonders of each state to my own. Besides the rocky mountains in Colorado and the white mountains of New Hampshire few places match Connecticut’s regal terrain. Growing up in Bristol I would hike up to Pinnacle Mountain in Plainville, my friends and I would stand in awe of the magnificent rock structures. In the summer I would go on vacation to Old Lyme, it was there I fell in love with the earth’s most beautiful contrasts, the ocean meeting the rock and vice a versa. But until now I never educated myself on how all this magnificence came about. In this paper I will chronologically describe the eras and events that formed Connecticut’s geologic history. The oldest rocks provide a window through time telling a story of continental collisions so powerful that they raised mountains thousands of feet high. Others reveal evidence of a slow but constant attack from the elements that wore down those same majestic peaks (Mchone 2004). Giant monoliths stand testament to a time when the earths crust was cracked and lava flowed over the state. Beaches and enormous boulders are the remains of when Connecticut was frozen beneath a sheet of ice......

Words: 1273 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Assignment to the Left

...ASSIGNMENT #10 – Print this sheet off and turn it in with your lab next week. This sheet of paper goes on top (then the lab). 1) The cretaceous extinction happened when? A) 25 million years ago B) 65 million years ago C) 100 million years ago D) 225 million years ago E) 300 million years ago 2) A fossil is found that is 400 million years old; which era did it come from? A) Paleozoic B) Mesozoic C) Cenozoic D) Precambrian 3) A fossil is found that has 25% of the original amount of carbon-14. How old is the fossil? A) 2,800 years old B) 5,600 years old C) 11, 200 years old D) 15, 780 years old 4) Which of the following is the best example of a population? A) 3 beer cans, a fish, and a piece of dental floss B) All the birds in Costa Rica C) All the insects in the Wildlife Sanctuary D) All the fleas on my two dogs E) All the rocks in my backyard 5) Which of the following is the best example of a geographical barrier to reproduction? A) A small stream between two groups of frogs B) A mountain between two kinds of plants C) Two groups of squirrels, one comes out at night and other during the day. D) Two kinds of lizards that reproduce, but their offspring are not fertile E) Two kinds of turtles whose reproductive parts do not fit properly. 6) Which Era was the longest in time? 7) What is the Cambrian explosion (internet)? 8) What species is “Lucy” and when did she live (internet or book)? 9) What are some theories as......

Words: 306 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

My Membership

...Nathan Birecki GLG103 Peters April 19. 2015 Hometown Geology: Geologic History Papago Park Papago Park Pediment if an interesting part of Arizona from a geologic standpoint. Metarhyolite is the oldest rock that is exposed on the surface at Papago Park and it is from the Precambrian era. The Metarhyolite was produced from a low-grade metamorphism implying that Papago Park once had some volcanic activity. The Metarhyolite is composed of Rhyolite, Pumice, and Greenstone. Two different forms of granite intrude upon the Metarhyolite they are Tovrea and Camelback Granite. Basalt and Aplite dikes intrude upon both the granite units and the Metarhyolite. There is also an unconformity that exists between the Precambrian and Tertiary rock units however there are no rocks from either the Paleozoic or Mesozoic era. Uplifting of the Precambrian era rock units occurred during the Tertiary era resulting in the deposition of rock beds that contain both sand and siltstones. Some volcanic activity produced ash that has been transported via weathering to various locations throughout Papago Park. The deposition of Alluvium from the Quaternary era indicates there was once a flowing river that is currently a dry riverbed. Landslides deposited the Stadium and Zoo Breccia members as the formation known as the Camel Head. There are both normal and reverse throughout Papago Park but there are no strike-slip faults. The majority of the faults are moderately dipping around 45 degrees that explains...

Words: 271 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...________ Year & Section: ________________________ Date: _________ I. Direction: Identify the following. Choose your answer from the box. Write only the letter on the blank. T- adaptation Y- meteorites N- saurus R- amphibians O- fossils O- Dinisaurs U- core H- Precambrian Era E- Charles Darwin S- geologist ___ 1. Rocks from outer space. ___ 2. Giant reptiles ___ 3. The hottest layer of Earth. ___4. The first prehistoric animals with backbone. ___ 5. The oldest and longest era. ___ 6. Evidences of plants and animals of the past ___ 7. Means lizard. ___ 8. The father of Theory of Evolution ___ 9. Study about rocks and beginning of Earth. ___ 10. The ability of plants and animals to protect themselves. II. Direction: Write True if the statement is true and false if it is not true. _____ 1. Black – widow spiders have poisonous bites. _____ 2. The first living organisms on Earth were bacteria and algae. _____ 3. The first plants and animals lived in the sea. _____ 4. The unit of time based on changes on Earth is scale. _____ 5. Human being appeared during Mesozoic era. _____ 6. the first vertebrates is found below the crust. _____ 7. The mantle is found below the crust. _____ 8. Plants and animals adapt to their environment to be able to protect themselves. _____ 9. The carapace of the turtle protects its body from harm. _____ 10. Cenezoic is known as the age of dinosaurs. III. Direction: Identify the era when......

Words: 470 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Earth Vocab

...Chp 1 aphelion 遠日點 perihelion 近日點 asteroid 小行星 comet 彗星 gravity 引力 orbit 軌跡 inertia 慣性 elliptical;ellipsoid 橢圓 spin 旋轉 exaggerate 誇大 cast 投射 geoid 地球形體 pillar 柱 revolve around 環繞 longitude 經度 meridian 子午線 prime meridian 本初子午線 time zone 時區 revolution 公轉 solstice 至 equinox 分 temperate 穩定 ripen 成熟 deciduous 落葉性的 vernal 春季的 latitude 緯度 Solar system: (Dwarf planet) 矮行星 Pluto 冥王星 (Outer planets) Neptune 海王星 Uranus 天王星 Saturn 土星 Jupiter 木星 (Inner planets) Mars 火星 Earth 地球 Venus 金星 Mercury 水星 gas giant 氣體巨行星 terrestrial 類地行星的 chromosphere 色球層 photosphere 光球 corona 日冕 nuclear fusion 原子核融合 hydrogen 氫 helium 氦 radiative zone 輻射層 radiate 傳導 churning 攪動的 agitated 激烈的 prominences 日珥 atoms 原子 molecules 分子 solar flare 閃焰 nuclei 原子核 fusion reaction 融合反應 proton 質子 neutron 中子 positron 正電子 neutrino 微中子 ultraviolet 紫外線 infrared 紅外線 radio waves 無線電波 fuse 融合 electromagnetic 電磁波譜 comprise 包含 resemble 相似 radiant heat 輻射熱 radiant energy 輻射能 barycenter 重心 center of mass 質心 cogwheel 齒輪 lunar seas(lunar mare) 月海: Mare Frigoris(sea of cold) 冷海 Mare Imbrium(sea of showers) 雨海 Mare Serenitatis(sea of serenity) 澄海 Mare Vaporum(sea of vapors) 汽海 Mare Tranquillitatis(sea of tranquility) 靜海 Mare Crisium(sea of crises) 危海 Mare Fecunditatis(sea of Fertility) 豐海 Mare Nectaris(sea of nectar) 酒海 Mare Nubium(sea of clouds) 雲海 Mare Humorum(sea of moisture) 濕海 Oceanus Procellarum(ocean of storms) 風暴洋 lunar craters......

Words: 1361 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Evolving Planets

...The “Evolving Planet Exhibit” took me on a journey through 4 billion years of life on earth, from the Precambrian singled cell organisms to the Mesozoic towering dinosaurs and extended hominid human family. The unique fossils, concrete interactive displays and recreated sea and terrestrial landscapes help the compelling story of evolution- the single process that connects everything that has ever lived on earth. Evolution of life on Earth occurred 4.5 billion years ago, the Precambrian Eon. This Eon makes up ninety percent of Earth’s history. Organic compounds were the building blocks on Earth; two theories exist of how these forms came to be; they may have formed on Earth, through underwater thermal vents, or carried to Earth through meteorites. What followed, were prokaryotes, single celled organisms, and eukaryotes, multi-cellular organisms. The development of prokaryotes caused transformations to Earth, through the process of photosynthesis, which allowed for the development of oxygen in our atmosphere. Through Eukaryotes, natural selection was possible, due to genetic variation. During the Paleozoic era, which occurred 543 million years ago, there was an explosion of life, which led to the wide variation of life that we see today. Throughout this period there was a significant outburst in marine life. As time evolved, skeletons had evolved structurally, which allowed for larger bodied organisms to grow. Their chemical composition includes the minerals calcium and...

Words: 756 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Renting a Single Tenant Home vs Purchasing a Duplex

...Individual Case Study Continuing to Rent a Single Tenant Row Home in Baltimore City versus Selling the Home and Purchasing a Duplex for Dual Tenants For Professor Joseph H. Myers J. Wendy Player University of Maryland University College TMAN 625 2012 Fall Semester Table of Contents Introduction 3 Analysis Method 3 Current Row Home Amortization- One Tenant Home 4 Future Duplex Home Amortization- Two Tenant Home 5 Introduction I have attached several Microsoft Excel Spreadsheets that goes over a cost analysis on continuing to rent a row home in Baltimore City to one tenant versus selling the home and purchasing a duplex to rent to two tenants in another part of Baltimore City both in Maryland. This analysis looks at the cost of continuing to rent the current home over the course of five years vs. selling the home in the current market and purchasing a duplex. The following assumptions are made: interest rate is between 6.125% old mortgage and 4% new mortgage and is 90% financed, all closing costs and fees paid up-front during closing, and PMI was not needed for the old mortgage but will be needed for the new mortgage because this is a rental property and not a primary residence. Analysis Method For this analysis, I looked into three locations throughout Baltimore city that I wanted to focus my efforts. From there, I found the average cost of homes in each location from and compiled lists of duplex homes that were move in ready......

Words: 973 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Article Review

...PHSC 210 2014 Review of article “The Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century” by Dr. Terry Mortenson The following is a journal review over the article “The Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century” by Dr. Terry Mortenson. Overview In Dr. Terry Mortenson’s article, “The Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century”, the subject of Earth’s creation and age is briefly discussed. Several contributors to the theories behind the history of earth are introduced, along with their respective backgrounds. Dr. Mortenson explains the geological findings and resulting theories of each contributor regarding: the age of the earth, evolution, catastrophic events and their relationship of science to Christianity. (Mortenson, 2003) Strengths The importance of the history of science, especially relating to Christianity, is expressed early in the reading. Readers are also cautioned regarding views on evolution and creation and the consequences of those views (social, moral, spiritual) (Mortenson, 2003). Dr. Mortenson expresses the Christian mindset towards the creation of earth and mankind in a series of six 24 hour days, along with a detrimental flood accompanying Noah around 1600 years later. The author further presents that in the late 1700’s the non-Biblical history of earth began to theorized and become popular. The developing field of geology in early 19th......

Words: 530 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Old Earth Geology

...The Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century The theories and beliefs about how the world began can be a tense and hot button issue. Usually, it is the Christians vs. the scientists. However, in Mortenson’s article, he presents us with a third group of believers, the Christian scientists. Mortenson explores these beliefs and theories of all three groups, and explains to us the importance of the debate then and now. Brief Overview and Main Points Christians in Eastern and Western Europe and the United States believed overwhelmingly that the world was created by God in 6 days, and each day was 24 hours long. Belief in this was steadfast until the late 18th century, when different types of theories were developed. These new theories did not include God’s works (or flat-out denied them), but just focused on the origin and history of the earth (Mortenson 2003). . Three French scientists, proposed that the earth was anywhere from 78,000 years old to that the earth was formed an indefinite amount of time, but very, very long ago. These new theories were just focused on biological and geological ideas. At this same period of time, geology was becoming more a legitimate field of study. Abraham Warner, a German mineralogist, was really the first to state that geologically, the earth was at least a million years old. This continued to build and popularize the idea of old-earth theory (Mortenson 2003). James Hutton, a farmer......

Words: 836 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...Joseph N. Frederick III PSC 1121C Spring 2011 Geophysics Geophysics can be broken down into several groups that deal with physical science and the earth. It is a field and profession that combines geology, mathematics, and physics all in an effort for people across the world to understand the ways of the world and exactly what it takes for certain seemingly unnatural events to happen. Geophysics covers a range of ideas from gravity, heat flow, seismic waves that cause vibrations through the Earth’s layers, radioactivity both geothermal and geochronological, electricity, electromagnetic waves and magnetism, fluid dynamics, and even condensed matter physics. So as we see, geophysics is indeed a very broad subject, yet when looked at under specific lights, we see that geophysics is no more than a name, a container, for all matters Earthly related. Most of these topics will most definitely be covered in this essay and if not talked about in depth, definitely mentioned seeing as how all of these ideas are valuable to everyone worldwide in getting to know and understand the way our home planet works in relation to ourselves and the space we occupy in the universe. (Beroza, Nelson, and Ilich, "The Department of Geophysics"). History The first traces of anything geophysically related first appear in regions inside of China during the Qin dynasty somewhere between two hundred twenty-one and two hundred six B.C. when Chinese fortunetellers used lodestones to create their......

Words: 3126 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Global Warming

...for causing global warming. Global warming, however, can be caused by natural effects. One reason is that the earth is constantly going through periods of warming and cooling. Second the two most abundant greenhouse gases water vapor, and carbon dioxide both occur naturally. Third the earth is not the only planet that has had a change in temperature over the past few years, other planets have also had changing temperatures. I belief that global warming is caused by natural things and not humans. The first reason why I belief humans are not the cause of global warming is that the earth is constantly going through periods of warming and cooling. The earth has a yearly cycle it goes through. People that think that global warming is manmade say that we are in the hottest period in history . This is not the hottest period in history the Medieval Warm period, which occurred from around A.D. 900 to 1300, was a period of substantial climate warmth . After the Medieval Warm period there was a period of climate cooling known as the Little Ice Age. The Little Ice Age occurred around A.D. 1300 to 1850. Today the earth is in the warming period. The second reason is that the two most abundant greenhouse gases both occur in......

Words: 447 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

My Life

...The Cosmic Perspective, 7e (Bennett et al.) Chapter 1 A Modern View of the Universe 1.1 Multiple-Choice Questions 1) What is the meaning of the word cosmos? A) the origin of Earth and life upon it B) the light from a distant astronomical object C) the Milky Way D) the sum total of all matter and energy, that is, everything within and between all galaxies E) the dark sky Answer: D 2) Which of the following has your "address" in the correct order? A) you, Earth, solar system, Local Group, Local Supercluster, Milky Way B) you, Earth, solar system, Milky Way, Local Supercluster, Local Group C) you, Earth, solar system, Local Group, Milky Way, Local Supercluster D) you, Earth, Local Group, Local Supercluster, solar system, Milky Way E) you, Earth, solar system, Milky Way, Local Group, Local Supercluster Answer: E 3) About where is our solar system located within the Milky Way Galaxy? A) at the center of the galaxy B) about 10 percent of the way from the center of the galaxy to the outskirts of the galactic disk C) about two-thirds of the way from the center of the galaxy to the outskirts of the galactic disk D) near the far outskirts of the galactic disk E) in the halo of the galaxy above the galactic disk Answer: C 4) Roughly how many stars are in the Milky Way Galaxy? A) 1 billion B) 100 billion C) 10 billion D) 100 million E) 100 trillion Answer: B 5) Modern telescopes are capable of seeing bright galaxies up to about A) 1......

Words: 6866 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Compare and Contrast the Biblical Creation Myths with Other Creation Myths from Greece and the Ancient Near Eas

...discovered throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries , (that date back as far as the third millenium B.C.) Sumerologists, such as Samuel Noah Kramer, have deciphered the oldest cosmogonic concepts ever found . Kramer explains that because the Sumerians lacked "scientific methods of definition and generalization " to make sense of the origins and the working of the universe they attempted to provide explanation through the use of poetry, epic tales and hymns . The only scientific information they had access to was what could be seen around them, that being Earth, Air, Heaven and Water , and according to the Ancient Sumerians it was through these essential elements that the universe came to be and it begins with Nammu, the primeval sea. From the primeval sea was born An (Heaven) and Ki (Earth), a singular mass in the form of a mountain. From the union of An And Ki came Enlil (Air) which in turn separated Heaven from Earth, An carried off heaven and Enlil carried away his mother Ki. Through the union of Ki and Enlil and subsequent couplings of gods begotten by them, came the luminaries and the organisation of the universe . The Book of Genesis was...

Words: 2126 - Pages: 9