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Earth History

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Submitted By breee
Words 11141
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Earthquakes I
Earth’s composition
Earth is a dense, stratified planet with many layers: core (inner and outer), mantle and crust
Inner core: most dense material, solid iron and nickel
Outer core: second most dense, liquid, iron and nickel
Mantle: composed of oxygen, silicon, magnesium, aluminum
Crust: composed of sodium and potassium rich silicate rocks
Upper 100-350 km of upper mantle makes up asthenosphere: fluid layer due to heating from core
Plate tectonics
Earth’s uppermost layer, the lithosphere, broken up into 7 plates due to movement of asthenosphere underneath
Plate tectonics- name for dynamic interactions of these plates
Plate boundaries
3 types: divergent, covergent, and transform
Divergent boundaries: tension from deep earth pulls two plates away from each other, allowing lava to upwell through the cracks and create new seafloor
Covergent boundaries: two plates coming together as stress pushes plates toward each other- one plate forced under another in a subduction zone
Transform boundaries: two plates slide past each other horizontally-frequent cause of destructive forces like earthquakes
The nature of earthquakes
Cause = abrupt movements on faults
Fractures in earths lithosphere
Normal fault- block above the fault has moved downward relative to the black below
Reverse fault- upper block, above the fault plane, moves up and over the lower block (aka thrust fault)
Right lateral strike slip fault- two blocks slide past one another
Earths crustal plates move
Stress produces strain which cause earthquake
Stressed rocks store strain energy
Elastic rebound theory
Harold F Reid
When there is sufficient strain energy in rocks, they may rupture (rubber band)
Stored strain energy is released as vibrations that radiate outward in all directions
Focus= point where rupture starts
Epicenter= point on earths surface above focus

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