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Earth Science Week 1 Individual

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Week One - University of Phoenix Material

Earth and Earth Materials Worksheet

Part 1: Layers of the Earth

• Complete the following diagram by identifying and naming Earth’s layers.

Layers of the Earth
• Write a 150-word summary or list that describes the basic attributes of the layers you listed in the diagram.

The inner core is made of solid metal, mostly iron-nickel alloy. The outer core is made of the same substance, just molten. The outer core is about the same temperature as the surface of the sun, while the inner core is cooler, thus making it solid. Scientists have confirmed this by examining waves and how they pass through the layers. The next layer is the Mesosphere, made of hard dense rock. It lies just beneath the Asthenosphere with is liquid magma. It is a tar like substance that spews out of volcanoes. Above that is the Lithosphere which is weak brittle rock that makes up the crust of the earth. This basically floats on the lithosphere like a marshmallow on hot chocolate. This is how the plates on the earth move around by seismic activity, and how volcanic eruptions happen. The rock on the crust is brittle and easily formed into mountains or broken apart.

Part 2: Rocks and Minerals Summary

• Complete the following WileyPLUS® GeoDiscoveries®:

Chapter 2- Ungraded

• Minerals Drag-Drop • Density of Minerals • Silicate Links • Igneous Rocks and Silicates • Virtual Rock Lab


• Choose two types of rocks and two types of minerals from the above WileyPLUS® GeoDiscoveries® or from your text readings.

• Write a 150- to -350-word summary that explains the differences among your chosen types of rocks and minerals.

The two minerals I have chosen are quartz and diamond. They are both extremely similar, yet both are distinctly different. Both are found on jewelry and commonly mistaken for each other. The main difference between the two is that diamonds are extremely harder than quartz. As a matter of fact, diamonds are rated highest on the Mohs scale of hardness, a 10, while quartz measures only 7. Quarts is much softer than diamonds. They are also made up of different compositions. Diamonds are made of pure carbon, while quartz is made up of silicon dioxide. They also come from different areas of the world, mostly, and refract light differently. Diamonds refract light at 2.4 on the refractive index, while quartz only refracts at 1.5, thus making diamonds look much more prettier than quarts in jewelry.

Part 3: Fossil Record Table

In the following table, give a brief summary of what scientists have learned from the fossil record. Include in your summary description the type of fossil evidence scientists based their information on. Add one more type of evidence with a summary to the table.

Note. You may need to do outside research to complete the table in addition to your weekly readings.

Fossil Record Table
|Area of information |Summary |
|Climate change |We can find fossil evidence of fish where there are no lakes now, and plants that grew in |
| |tropical areas where it is no longer tropical. This is proof that there was climate change |
| |and that it was over the entire earth. |
|Continental drift |There are several fossil evidence that prove the theory of continental drift. For example, |
| |fossils of mesosaurus have been found in both south America and Africa, proving that they |
| |were once joined, along with a specific fern called Glassopteris which has been found in all |
| |of the southern continents, again proving that they were once joined together. |
|Extinct species – dinosaurs, early mammals, |This is the only reason that we know that dinosaurs even existed were because of their |
|etc. |fossils. We have complete skeletal fossils and fossil prints of actual dinosaurs. We can tell|
| |by fossil prints that some dinosaurs had feathers, and others had lizard like scales. We can |
| |also tell that certain dinosaurs such as the mammoth roamed areas like Idaho. |
|Evolution |Because of carbon dating, we can put estimate date ranges on fossils. Because of this, we can|
| |see exactly how evolution has changed animals. For example, in early horse fossils, they were|
| |four toed. Later they reduced to three, then just one single hoof. Other evidence of |
| |evolution can be found in modern animals. Did you know that snakes and whales have both |
| |pelvis and femur bones? How could that be if it weren’t from evolution? |
|Meteor Strikes |Meteor strikes are commonly seen up in the air with craters, or be waved under the sea. We |
| |can also see evidence of them in rocks by the minerals that are deposited when the impact. |
|Mass Extinctions |Archeologists have discovered fossils that contain hundreds of bodies of different dinosaurs |
| |that were killed off at the same time. Sometimes scientists don’t know why, others they do, |
| |however they can see mass extinctions took place. |
|Wandering Poles |Wandering poles are very interesting. Rock keeps record of its magnetism, and through deep |
| |sea drilling, we can see that the poles have shifted several times throughout history. |
|Dinosaur eggs |Through fossils, we can see if a particular dinosaur laid eggs or gave live birth. Fossilized|
| |eggs have been found with fossilized babies inside. There are also fossils of pregnant mother|
| |dinosaurs with babies in their stomachs. |
| | |




Outer Core

Inner Core

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